Journal: Drug Invention Today

Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003071
Title: Complications of diabetes mellitus: A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
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    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and complications that include microvascular disease of the eye and kidney and a variety of clinical neuropathies. DM, also known as simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. These high blood sugar levels produce the symptoms of repeated urination, increased hunger, and increased thirst. Untreated diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma. Serious long- term complications include heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes. Metabolic abnormalities in carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins result from the important role of insulin as an anabolic hormone. Low levels of insulin to achieve adequate response and/or insulin resistance of target tissues, mainly skeletal muscles, adipose tissue, and to a lesser extent, liver, at the level of insulin receptors, signal transduction system, and/or effector enzymes or genes are responsible for these metabolic abnormalities. The severity of symptoms is due to the type and duration of diabetes. Some of the diabetes patients are asymptomatic, especially those with type 2 diabetes during the early years of the disease. Others with marked hyperglycemia, especially in children with absolute insulin deficiency, may suffer from polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, and blurred vision. Uncontrolled diabetes may lead to stupor, coma, and if not treated death, due to ketoacidosis or rarely from non-ketotic hyperosmolar syndrome. Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These range from autoimmune destruction of the beta-cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency to the abnormalities that end in resistance to insulin action. The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue responses to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of the hormone action. Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality is the primary cause of hyperglycemia.

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    Author(s) Name:

    R. Balaji 1 , Revathi Duraisamy1 , M. P. Santhosh Kumar2 *

    Affiliation(s) Name:

    1 Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,

    2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    *Corresponding author: Dr. M. P. Santhosh Kumar, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamalle High road, Velappanchavadi, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.

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    Author:

    R. Balaji 1 , Revathi Duraisamy1 , M. P. Santhosh Kumar2 *

    Title:Complications of diabetes mellitus: A review
    Journal:Drug Invention Today
    Vol(issue):12 (January)
    Year:2019
    Page No: (98-103)
  • Experimental Methods Keywords

    Methodology:Hyperglycemia, Hypoglycemia, Insulin,Complications
    Research Materials:Diabetes mellitus,

Keywords

Complications Dentistry Diabetes mellitus Hyperglycemia Hypoglycemia Insulin

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