Journal: Drug Invention Today

Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00005047
Title: A review on shigellosis: Pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Review Article
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    Background: Shigellosis is an enteric disease caused by Shigella spp. and it is archetypically related to wander to high-risk districts. It is an invasive disease of the colon caused mainly by Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri. The mode of transmission is principally fecal-oral with low infectious dose as minimum as ten bacterial cells. Not surprisingly, Musca domestica can act as a vector of transmission at the dirty region of inadequate human feces disposal. Invasion of the epithelial cells covering rectum, the terminal ileum, and colon mainly depending on Shigella type three secretion system (T3SS), leading to hemorrhagic diarrhea. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses may occur a few hours after the invasion. Methodology: Clinical manifestation includes fever and stomach cramps and rectal spasms (tenesmus) after exposing to the bacteria after at least 12 h of exposure. Bloody diarrhea (as maximum as 50% of cases) usually contains mucus. Stool culture on selective media such as Salmonella-Shigella agar (SS agar), xylose lysine dextrose (XLD) agar, Hekteon enteric agar, and deoxycholate agar may help in the diagnosis of Shigella spp. Pale colony without blackness can reveal Shigella spp. on XLD and SS agar. Serotyping is very important to confirm the diagnosis. Results: The prominent clinical symptoms are bloody diarrhea accompanied in sometimes with mucus which may be resolved within 1 week of exposure. The post- shigellosis consequence may include peritonitis, kidney damage, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The main virulence factors responsible for clinical symptoms include enterotoxins: set1A, set1B, ShET1, and ShET2 carried on pathogenicity islands. In addition to invasins, T3SS and immune modulation effectors proteins such as OspC3, OspF, OspG, OpsI OpsZ, IpaH9.8, and IpaH0722 were implicated as virulence factors associated with clinical symptoms. Multidrug resistance isolates were reported among Shigella spp., especially for third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and most recently azithromycin. The present study concludes that Shigella spp. are amazing enteric pathogen with dual mode of pathogenesis (both invasiveness and toxigenesis) and have very low infectious dose. They have arrays of virulence factors that enable them from escaping and downregulation of the immune system. In addition, they possess effectors protein acting as invasins and enterotoxins. The resistance to the empiric therapeutic options may push an alarm to seek about new choices.

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    Author(s) Name:

    Hussein O. M. Al-Dahmoshi*, Noor S. K. Al-Khafaji, Mohammed H. Al-Allak, Wissam K. Salman, Ahmed H. Alabbasi

    Affiliation(s) Name:

    Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Iraq

    *Corresponding author: Dr. Hussein O. M. Al-Dahmoshi, Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Iraq.

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    Author:

    Hussein O. M. Al-Dahmoshi*, Noor S. K. Al-Khafaji, Mohammed H. Al-Allak, Wissam K. Salman, Ahmed H. Alabbasi

    Title:A review on shigellosis: Pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance
    Journal:Drug Invention Today
    Vol(issue):14 (May)
    Year:2020
    Page No: (793-798)
  • Experimental Methods Keywords

    Methodology:shigellosis
    Research Materials:Shigella spp

Keywords

IpaH0722 OspC3 ShET1 setA1 Shigella spp. Shigellosis

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