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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001907
Title: Relevance of gonial angle as a determinant for freeway space in edentulous patients in South Indian population
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The amount of freeway space (FWS) in any individual is mainly an expression of muscle function, its equilibrium and gravity. Studies done on the relationship with the form of the lower face found a negative correlation of FWS with the anterior lower facial height and positive with the posterior lower facial height. Hence, correlation of the FWS and corresponding soft tissue gonial angle formed on the lateral profile of dentulous individuals in lateral cephalograms was carried out. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the correlation of FWS and corresponding gonial angle on the lateral profile of dentulous individuals in lateral cephalograms. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 individuals were involved in this study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The FWS was determined using swallowing and phonetics to determine the rest position of the mandible. The mean value was calculated and considered as the FWS for that individual. Gonial angle was determined using a lateral cephalogram taken from a centralized cephalostat at Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. The lateral cephalograms were calibrated and traced using FACAD (FACAD is a software program used for orthodontic tracing, cephalometric analysis, and visual diagnostic imaging, as well as for treatment planning with soft tissue profile prediction) software. Results: Gonial angle ranged from 103° to 140° with an average of 128.90°. FWS had an average of 4.7 mm. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson correlation showed that there is a strong positive correlation. Conclusion: This study indicated that there is a strong correlation between gonial angle and FWS. To extend the benefits to patients and dental practitioners, further studies should be undertaken to assess existing complete denture patients radiographically.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001895
Title: Differences between men and women dental phenotypes with functional disorders of dental-maxillary apparatus on the background of connective tissue dysplasia
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: According to the International Dental Federation data, 90% of the world inhabitants suffer from various dental diseases, most of the causes of which are outside an oral cavity. Materials and Method: They studied 362 men and women, aged 16–56 years with various functional disorders, including the syndrome of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction (TMJ dysfunction syndrome) with a history of complaints of not more than 1.5 months: 275 patients of the main group with connective tissue dysplasia (CTD), 87 patients in the control group without DCT, 258 women (193 women and 65 main and control groups), and 104 men (82 men and 22 main control groups). Result and Discussion: Inclusion criteria: Easy, moderate severity, remission CTD. Exclusion criteria: Severe hypertonicity, hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, bruxism, connective tissue (autoimmune) and inherited disorders of the structure and function of connective tissue (collagenosis or autoimmune and inherited disorders of connective tissue), severe somatic diseases in the acute stage of decompensation, diabetes mellitus, smoking, intake of toxic, and narcotic drugs. Conclusion: Age group and clinical phenotypes of patients with the syndrome of TMJ dysfunction and dental diseases exhibit differences between men and women in conjunction with the CTD.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001866
Title: New polymorph of armodafinil and its stability studies
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The study of polymorphism in drugs is very important and is an integral part of drug development in present days.In fact, a detailed drug study helps to resolve problems such as drug solubility and drug formulation techniques in drugmanufacturing processes. The individual of drug polymorphism has received extensive academic and industrial attention.The regulatory requirements for filing new drug application (NDA) and abbreviated NDA of a particular dosage form are so stringent that pharmaceutical companies are bound to study polymorphs along with their bioavailability and stability. The aim of the research is to identify new polymorph of armodafinil. Materials and Methods: A new polymorph of armodafinil oneof the sleep awakening drugs in the market is synthesized and characterized using pXRD, DSC, TGA and its stability studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001833
Title: Examinations of some haematological indices of diclofenaculcerated rats given the methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of the chloroform–ethanol leaf extract of Dacryodes edulis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Gastrointestinal bleeding may be associated with gastric ulceration and when severe could result in haematologic anomalies such as anaemia among others. The use of herbal medicines for the treatment of gastric ulcer and its related problems is encouraged due to their accessibility and affordability inter alia. This study was aimed at evaluating the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol leaf extract of D. edulis for their antioxidant vitamin contents and acute toxicities. Based on the outcomes of the preliminary investigations, the most promising of the three (ethanol layer) was further fractionated, and the effects of the most desirable fraction (methanol fraction) on some haematological indices of diclofenac-ulcerated rats were examined. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant vitamin contents and acute toxicities of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers as well as the effects of the methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of the chloroform–ethanol leaf extract of D. edulis on red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb), and total white blood cell (tWBC) count were determined using standard methods. Results: The antioxidant vitamin contents of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers were: vitamins A (1.34 ± 0.06, 1.83 ± 0.08 and 1.79 ± 0.08 µg/100 g), C (0.76 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.05 and 0.79 ± 0.03 mg/100 g), and E (0.86 ± 0.05, 1.17 ± 0.07 and 1.04 ± 0.05 mg/100 g), respectively. Each of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers caused no mortality up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. Administration of the methanol fraction significantly (P < 0.05) and dose-dependently increased the RBC count, PCV, Hb concentration, and tWBC count of the ulcerated rats. Conclusion: The methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of the chloroform–ethanol leaf extract of D. edulis remarkably increased the haematological indices of the ulcerated rats. These support the use of D. edulis leaves in the treatment of gastric ulcer traditionally, especially when anaemia shows up from such ulcer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001832
Title: Anti-ulcer properties of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform–ethanol extract of the leaves of Dacryodes edulis
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The leaves of D. edulis are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric ulcer. The aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract of the leaves of D. edulis were therefore, investigated for their qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents as well as effects on ulcer index and curative ratio of diclofenac-ulcerated Wistar rats. Methods: The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents as well as effects of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract on ulcer index and curative ratio were determined using standard methods. Results: The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract showed the presence and amounts of the following: alkaloids (1.77 ± 0.26, 3.19 ± 0.14 and 3.52 ± 0.49 mg/100 g), flavonoids (2.21 ± 0.41, 5.25 ± 0.34 and 4.46 ± 0.53 mg/100 g), tannins (1.73 ± 0.33, 3.18 ± 0.38 and 3.98 ± 0.25%), saponins (2.03 ± 0.25, 3.26 ± 0.45 and 4.02 ± 0.30 mg/100 g) and steroids (2.49 ± 0.12, 3.95 ± 0.21 and 3.02 ± 0.10 mg/100 g) respectively. Each of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract was found to be safe at a dose as high as 5000 mg/kg body weight (b.w). At the two doses (150 and 300 mg/kg b.w), the chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract caused significant (p < 0.05) and dose-dependent decreases and increases in the ulcer indices and curative ratios respectively of the rats in the test groups compared with those of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group. Only the 300 mg/kg b.w of the aqueous extract produced a similar trend of results. Results of the chloroform and ethanol layers as well as the 300 mg/kg b.w of the aqueous extract were comparable with those of the standard anti-ulcer drug, ranitidine at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: Experimental findings indicate that the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract of the leaves of D. edulis possess remarkable anti-ulcer effects and might serve as sources of anti-ulcer drugs in future.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001853
Title: Participation of neuropeptide Y1 receptors in heart development regulation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), containing 36 amino acid residues, belongs to the number of peptides widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system. NPY is released at high‑frequency stimulation. The level of this peptide increases with circular shock, chronic stress, and heavy physical exercises. NPY and its receptors play a diverse role in the body. Material and Methods: The contractile activity of the myocardium in the experiment was studied on isolated strips of white  7‑,  21‑,  and  100‑day‑old  rat myocardium. All  experiments were  carried  out  according  to  the  requirements  of  the World Society for the Protection of Animals and the European Convention for the Protection of Experimental Animals. The determination of myocardial contractile function reaction by Leu(31)Pro(34)NPY was carried out in three consecutively increasing concentrations on the “PowerLab” (“ADInstruments”) unit with “MLT 050/D” force sensor (“ADInstruments”). Result and Discussion: Currently, six types of receptors for NPY (NPY1‑6) have been found. Rat hearts have metabotropic NPY1, NPY2, NPY3, NPY4, and NPY5 receptors. The effect of NPY on the organs of a body is realized through post‑synaptic receptors Y1, Y3, Y4, and Y5, and pre‑synaptic receptors of Y2 type. They studied the effect of NPY receptor agonist on the myocardial contractility 7–100‑day‑old  rats. During  the analysis of myocardium strips  isometric contraction among adult rats, it was established that an agonist at the concentration of 10−7 M causes a positive inotropic effect. Among 21‑day‑old rats,  the  increase  in myocardial contractility  is observed at  the concentration of 10−6 M. Conclusion: Among 7‑day‑old animals, the addition of Leu(31) Pro(34)‑NPY does not cause significant changes in isometric contraction rates. The obtained results indicate the functional activity of NPY1 receptors in the heart of 21‑ and 100‑day‑old rats.
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001794
Title: Mutational studies of novel screened molecules against wild and mutated HIV-1 integrase using molecular docking studies
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The screened molecules which proposed novel HIV-1 integrase inhibitors were collected from the literature. Mutational studies were performed to check whether these molecules are having good binding affinity against mutated HIV-1 integrase or not using molecular docking technique. Methods: First homology models of the mutated HIV-1 integrase were prepared and subsequently all the models were refined and optimized in Modeller program. Next, molecular docking studies were performed into the active site of mutated HIV-1 integrase models using the proposed inhibitors in AutoDock 4.1 program. The results of these studies were compared with the wild type docking studies. Results: The docking studies were found that some of the screened molecules (ZINC1245110, 131614, 92749, ZINC05181828 and ZINC13147504) followed the same binding patterns (in term of locations, interactions and binding score) as found with wild type HIV-1 integrase. Conclusions: Computationally, the same binding patterns were exhibited by these molecules (ZINC1245110, 131614, 92749, ZINC05181828 and ZINC13147504) against mutated models as wild type. This elucidated that these molecules having susceptibility against the drug resistant HIV-1 integrase. So, these molecules may be used as a starting point to design novel inhibitors against mutated HIV-1 integrase, which need to be confirmed experimentally.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001823
Title: Ethanol extract of the leaves of Carica papaya affords protection against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The dependence on plants and plant-originated products for the treatment of a good number of ailments has been persistent through much of human history and such treatment, however, traditional is still widely in use today such as the application of the leaves of C. papaya in the cure of gastric ulcer. The aim of this work was thus, to find out whether the ethanol extract of the leaves of C. papaya affords protection against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats or not. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity, and lethality and effects of the extract on ulcer index, gastric juice volume, and gastric juice pH were assessed using standard methods. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that the extract contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, steroids, terpenoids, and fats and oil but resins, reducing sugars and acidic compounds were not detected in the extract. The extract at a dose up to 5000 mg/kg body weight (b.w) was safe for administration. At the tested doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w), the extract caused significant (P < 0.05) and dose-related decreases in ulcer indices (gastric lesions) and gastric juice volumes of the rats in the test groups compared to the values obtained for the rats in the positive control group (Group 2). Significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent increases in gastric juice pH of the rats in the test groups compared to that of the rats in the positive control group was also brought about by the extract. The effects of the 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract were similar to those of the standard antiulcer drug, ranitidine at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: These observations show that the ethanol extract of the leaves of C. papaya possesses notable antiulcer effect and contains some pharmacologically active constituents that might herald the future synthesis of standard antiulcer drug(s) from the plant
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001810
Title: In vitro antioxidant activity and gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis of solvent extracts of Kigelia africana stem bark
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Kigelia africanais widely used, traditionally, in Africa in the treatment of many conditions and complaints like kidney and stomach disorders, malaria, wounds, venereal diseases etc. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigatethe antioxidant activity of  extracted fractions of the stem bark and analyze the non-polar fractions for thepresence of various components that may be responsible for theirantioxidant properties. Methods: The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation (ABTS•+) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging models.Analysis of the chemical components of the solvent extracts was carried out by GC-MS. Results: Strong activity (71-89 % inhibition) was found for the ethyl acetate fraction, while the non-polar chloroform fraction exhibited a relatively weak activity (24-48 %) inhibition, at 25 μg/mL concentration.GC–MS analysis of the non-polar extracted fractions identified 21 and 12 compounds for the hexane and chloroform fractions, respectively, of which α-terpineol (2) (39.21%) was the main component identified for the hexane extract and α-amyrin (9) (32.54 %)was the main component identified for the chloroform extract. Conclusion: This study shows thatthe non-polar extracted fractions of K. africana stem bark may be a potential source of natural antioxidants or bioactive agents

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001736
Title: RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Metformin Hcl, Ramipril and Glimepiride in bulk and their combination tablet dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, accurate, precise assay and rapid stability-indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed with an effective resolution and subsequently validated for the simultaneous estimation of Metformin HCl, Ramipril and Glimiperide from their combination drug product. The method was developed using Inertsil ODS C18, 150 x 4.6 mm, L1 packing, maintained at an ambient temperature. The optimum mobile phase used in this method was a mixture of Methanol and pH 3.0 KH2PO4 buffer in the ratio of proportional v/v, flow rate of mobile phase was set 1.0 mL min-1. At 228 nm compounds were eluted and monitored. Metformin HCl, Ramipril and Glimepiride are subjected to stress conditions of acid, base, oxidative, thermal and photolytic degradation. The degradation products were well separated from the main peak proving the stability-indicating ability of the method. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.[ICHQ2 (R 1)]

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001761
Title: Development and evaluation of matrix diffusion controlled Transdermal patches of Donepezil
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background study: Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are a class of novel drug delivery systems, which are gaining worldwide accolade, as evidenced by researchers. Objective: The present work was aimed at developing a matrix dispersion type transdermal drug delivery of donepezil, an alzheimer drug to ensure satisfactory drug release with the use of optimum polymers and thereby to avoid first pass metabolism and prolong duration of action. Methods: Donepezil transdermal patches were prepared by solvent casting method using aluminium foil as the backing membrane with different concentrations of hydrophobic polymeric system (eudragit L 100 & pvp) and 30% w/w of dibutyl phthalate (DBT) as plasticizer. Different concentrations of propylene glycol were used to increase the transdermal permeation of donepezil. The drug and polymers physicochemical compatibility were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Formulated transdermal patches were evaluated for thickness, tensile strength, hardness, weight variation, swellability, flatness, folding endurance & water vapour transmission rate. Results: The physicochemical evaluation study reveals that all formulations measured weight and thickness with low standard deviation values. The results of flatness study showed that none of the formulations had the difference in the strip lengths before and after longitudinal cut, indicating 100% flatness, and thus they could maintain a smooth surface when applied onto the skin. The cumulative percentage drug permeation was higher in case of eudragit containing polymer matrix. Conclusion: From the evaluation studies of the transdermal patches, it may be concluded that transdermal drug delivery system of donepezil can be formulated, which provides better compliance than conventional drug delivery system.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001755
Title: GC-MS profile of Punica granatum, Mentha piperita and Curcuma longa leaves
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Selected medicinal plants contain many important metabolites. These are grouped into phenolics, steroids, flavonoids, terpenes and volatile oils. Plant leaves of Punica granatum, Mentha piperita and Curcuma longa by GC-MS analysis and recorded for present features. Materials and Methods: Dried leaves were allowed to treat with methanolic extract and 48 hours treated sample was tested by GCMS analysis. Results: twenty bioactive compounds were identified for three plants with their relative peak area, retention time and CAS number identity. Conclusion: As per GC MS profile many bioacitve compounds remain represent in the mostly antibacterial in nature.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-QA-00001759
Title: Analytical method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of Metformin and Teneligliptin by RP-HPLC in bulk and tablet dosage forms
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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An accurate, precise and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative estimation of Metformin and teneligliptin simultaneously in tablet dosage forms. Younglin (S.K.) gradient System UV Detector and C8 (Agilent) column  with  250mm x4.6  mm  i.d. and 5ìm particle size. Methanol : water 0.05 % OPA (50:50) was used as the mobile phase for the method. The detection wavelength was 235 nm and flow rate was 0.7 ml/min. In the developed method, the retention time of Metformin and teneligliptin were found to be 2.1 min and 7.6 min. The developed method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. The linearity, precision, range, robustness was within the limits as specified by the ICH guidelines. Hence the method was found to be simple, accurate, precise, economic and reproducible. So the proposed methods can be used for the routine quality control analysis of Metformin and teneligliptin simultaneously in tablet dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001743
Title: Essential Oil Extraction, Characterization and Anti microbial study of Cythocline purpurea from Konkan Region
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present study of was designed to evaluate the methods of essential oil, phytochemical composition and Anti Microbial Study of essential oil from Cythocline purpurea DC collected from Bhramhanwadi, Taluka Dapoli District Ratnagiri in Konkan Region. Methods: The Essential Oil was extracted by Hydro distillation using Clevenger’s type Apparatus and characterization of essential oil was done by IR, GC-MS, GC-FID and Anti Microbial Activity. Results: Total 32 compounds were identified using Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy. The main components of essential oil are 4- hexen-1-ol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl) (70.2%), 1,6 octadiene 3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl (39.9), Phenol, 2-methyl-5- (1-methylethenyl) (42.2%), etc. GC-FID shows number of components of present essential oil. IR confirms the identification of components. Chemical Investigation were done to determine its molecular formula and structure.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001717
Title: Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of furo[3,2-H]quinoline-2-carbimidates
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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An operationally simple and efficient protocol for the construction of quinoline fused dihydrofuran derivatives 3(a-h) has been achieved via a sequential addition of N-chloro succinimide and base to pyrano[3,2-h]carbonitrile derivatives in alcohol medium. Tandem oxidative difunctionalization was accomplished with N-chloro succinimide reagent by the addition of both chlorine and alkoxy groups across the chromene double bond. Further addition of piperidine base results in the formation of dihydrofuran derivatives by ring contraction. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis.The synthesized compounds were evaluated for in vitro antibacterial and cytotoxic activity studies. Further these compounds were screened for computational molecular docking studies against vascular epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. Anti bacterial activity results showed that compounds 2g, 2h, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f and 3h were active against all the four strains of bacteria and their MIC ranged between 1.56 and 12.55 µg/mL. Cytotoxic activity studies revealed that compounds, 2f, and 3b exhibited significant percentage inhibition in cell proliferation at an IC50 value of 4.54 µg/ml and 7.75 µg/ml as well as in silico docking studies also reveal that compounds 2f, 2h, 3b & 3e have good dock score, binding affinity and binding energies towards epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001739
Title: Influences of the methanol extract of the leaves of Anacardium occidentale on selected oxidative stress indices of indomethacin-ulcerated rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Researches into medicinal plants with potent anti-oxidant activity will continue to receive the attention of researchers due to the role of oxidative stress in many disease conditions and hence, this study was aimed at investigating the influences of the methanol extract of the leaves of A. occidentale on selected oxidative stress indices of indomethacin-ulcerated rats. Methods: The effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of A. occidentale on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated using standard methods. Results: The extract at the administered doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w), caused significant (p < 0.05) and dose-related increases in the activities and amounts of SOD and GSH respectively in the rats of the test groups compared to those of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group. The extract treatment also led to significant (p < 0.05) reductions in the concentrations of MDA in the rats of the test groups compared to that of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group. The 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract exerted the greatest effects which were analogous to those of the standard anti-ulcer drug, famotidine at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: The methanol extract of the leaves of A. occidentale remarkably ameliorated the gastric ulcer-associated indices in the ulcerated rats and these findings thus support the local application of the leaves of the plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-NDDS-00001738
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Nano Copper Gel For Treatment of Clinical Mastitis
Category: Novel Drug Delivery Systems
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Clinical mastitis is considered to be a sizeable clinical problem in dairy industry. Apart from cows it is also reported in sheep and even in breast feeding mothers. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria accounts for infections to a great extent and its control is a vital part in curing programs. Metal nano copper has gathered much attention in antifungal/antimicrobial applications. In the present work Carbapol-934 gel, infused with nano copper was formulated and evaluated, which can be a remarkable breakthrough in the field. The antimicrobial test on nano copper against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli proved the antimicrobial property of the former. The prepared gel was evaluated for PH, homogeneity, spreadability, drug content, in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo permeation. The accelerated stability studies and rheological studies were also conducted. The results of above tests were encouraging for the evolution of the above gel to cure clinical mastitis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001737
Title: A Review on traditional plants and herbs are used to evaluation for their anticancer potential
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is appropriately call the “Botanical garden of the World”. The medicinal plants, besides having natural therapeutic values against various diseases, also provide high quality of food and raw materials for livelihood. Considerable works have been done on medicinal plants to treatment of cancer, and some plant products have been marketed as anticancer drugs, based on the traditional uses and scientific reports. These plants may promote host resistance against infection by re-stabilizing body equilibrium and conditioning the body tissues. Several reports illustrate that the anticancer activity of medicinal plants is due to the existence of antioxidants in them. Thus, the various combinations of the active components of these plants after isolation and identification can be made and have to be further assessed for their synergistic effects. In fact, the medicinal plants are easily obtainable, cheaper and possess no toxicity as compared to the modern (allopathic) drugs. Preparation of standardized dose and dosage regimen may play a critical role in the remedy of cancer. The rate with which cancer is continuing, it seems to have an urgent and effective exertion for making good health of humans as well as animals. There is a broad scope to derive potent anticancer agents from medicinal plants, which need thorough research.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001735
Title: Mentha piperita Silver Nanoparticles Controlling the Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria and Fungi – A Study
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Plant based nanoparticle was considered to be potential agent to control the drug resistant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Mentha piperita leaf extract was used to prepare silver nanoparticles to control three Gram negative pathogens and two phytopathogenic Fungi. Materials and Methods: Mentha piperita leaf extract has been treated with 1mM AgNO3 to prepare silver nanoparticles which has been confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy, TEM, Zeta potential, XRD analysis and FTIR. Potential of AgNPs has been tested versus Escherichia coli (ATCC8739), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC700603) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6338) and Fungi P. exigua (MTCC-2315) and Fusarium tricinctum (MTCC-2080) by disc diffusion method along with fuconazole (10µg) and streptomycin (10µg). Results: AgNPs controlled the existing drug resistance in both bacteria and fungi when used either alone or in combination with drug, which has indicated the success of Mentha piperita leaf extract in preparing AgNPs with this potential. Conclusion: Mentha piperita leaf extract proves its feature to prepare AgNPs having antibacterial and antifungal activity and can even be useful in controlling drug resistance of pathogens.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001734
Title: Novel RP-HPLC method development and validation for the estimation of Ceftriaxone sodium sterile in bulk and its formulations
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the estimation of Ceftriaxone Sodium Sterile in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was done on Phenomenex Luna reversed phase C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 ìm) column in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing HPLC grade Acetonitrile: Phosphate buffer at pH 6.8 (10:90, v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1 ml / min and effluents were monitored at 254 nm. Chromatogram showed a main peak of Ceftriaxone Sodium Sterile at retention time was 3.093 min. The concentration range was 3-18 μg/ml with correlation coefficient 0.999. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and limit of detection, limit of Quantitation, robustness and ruggedness. The limit of detection and limit of Quantitation for estimation of Ceftriaxone Sodium Sterile was found to be 0.192585 and 0.583592 μg/ml respectively. Recovery of Ceftriaxone Sodium Sterile was found in the range of 98.0-102.0%. Proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of Ceftriaxone Sodium Sterile in its pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001733
Title: Oral dissolving films of Celecoxib inclusion complexes using Musa paradisiaca as super disintegrant in treatment of Psoriatic arthritis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Celecoxib is a poorly water soluble drug which is a selective COX-2 inhibitor used in treating Psoriatic arthritis. It shows poor dissolution and flow properties. So physical mixures of the drug using solubilizers like β CD were prepared in order to enhance its solubility and dissolution rate. Super disintegrant plays a vital role in increasing drug release. Musa paradisiaca, a natural excepient is used in this study as a super disintegrant. The aim of present study was to formulate oral dissolving films of Celecoxib using solubilizer and evaluate them for in vitro disintegration and dissolution rates. It was found that β CD had shown good impact on increasing solubility and dissolution rate. Drug excepient compatibility was studied by FTIR studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001723
Title: Isocratic HPLC method for simultaneous determination of Tramadol hydrochloride and Pantoprazole sodium synthetic mixture in pure forms and injection formulations
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this work is to perform a validated High Performance Liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for simple estimation of tramadol hydrochloride (TH) and pantoprazole sodium (PNT)  synthetic mixture simultaneously in bulk form and in I.V. pharmaceutical dosage form.The chemical stability of the mixture was studied after dilution with different I.V. infusion solutions as 5% Dextrose, 0.9% Sodium chloride and Ringer -Lactate  solutions  at  4°C, 25°C and 35°C at several time intervals  with physical examination. Chromatographic separation was carried on reversed-phase agilent ZORBAX ODS ® C18 column (250x4.6 mm I.D., 5 μm) at ambient temperature. Isocratic mobile phase wascomposed of methanol, acetonitrile and 0.03 M phosphate buffer with 0.1% triethylamine, pH=3.5, (15:45:45, v/v) at 1.2 ml/min and detected at 210 nm. The assay showed good  linearity over the concentration range of  10-200, 2.5-60 μg/ml for TH and PNT respectively. The analytical performance of the proposed method including linearity ranges, precision, accuracy,   detection, and quantification limits were statistically validated according to ICH guidelines.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001732
Title: Pharmacological actions of Anethum graveolens (Dill)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Anethum graveolens contains various chemical constituents like essential oils, proteins, fatty oils, carbohydrates, furanocoumarin, polyphenols, minerals & many other biologically active compounds. Traditionally it is very useful. Studies have shown that Anethum graveolens possess some of the pharmacological actions as antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agent, analgesics, gastric mucosal protective & antisecretory effects, smooth muscles relaxant effect, hyperlipideamic agent, increased progesterone concentration & many other effects. This review article will be focusing on some of the major pharmacological actions of Anethum graveolens.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001730
Title: A Review on Pharmacological approaches for the Treatment of Learning and Memory Impairment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive memory and cognitive impairment.However, it can be managed using certain pharmacological and, non-pharmacological treatments. Investigating how altered pharmacological compounds may enhance learning, memory, and higher-order cognitive functions in laboratory animals is the first critical step toward the development of cognitive enhancers that may be used to ameliorate impairments in these functions in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Rather than focus on one aspect of cognition, or class of drug, in this review we deliver a broad overview of how distinct classes of pharmacological compounds may enhance different types of memory and executive functioning. These include recognition memory, attention, working memory, and different components of behavioural flexibility. The main classes of agents used to treat learning and memory impairment are antidiabetic, antiepileptic’s, antipsychotic, antidepressants, Orexin-1 and other various medications. A key emphasis is positioned on comparing and contrasting the effects of certain drugs on different cognitive and mnemonic functions, highlighting methodological issues associated with this type of research, tasks used to investigate these functions, and avenues for upcoming research. Viewed collectively, studies of the neuropharmacological basis of cognition in rodents and human primates have identified targets that will hopefully open new avenues for the treatment of cognitive disabilities in persons affected by mental disorders.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001729
Title: Analytical method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of Nebivolol and Valsartan by RP-HPLC in bulk and tablet dosage forms
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objective of this work is to develop a rapid, precise, accurate and sensitive reverse phase liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous estimation of Nebivolol and Valsartan in tablet dosage form. The separation was carried out on Youngline (S.K.) Gradient System UV Detector. Equipped with Reverse Phase (Agilent) C18 column (4.6mm x 150mm; 5µm), a SP930Dpump, a 20µl injection loop and UV730D Absorbance detector and running autochro-3000 software. The retention time of Nebivolol and Valsartan were found to be retention time at 3.383min and 6.100min. respectively. The linear dynamic range was 5-25μg/ml for nebivolol and 80-400μg/ml for valsartan. Percentage recoveries for Nebivolol and Valsartan were 100.53- 100.27% and 101.40-102.57%, respectively. All the analytical validation parameters were determined and found in the limit as per ICH guidelines, which indicates the validity of the method. The method was statistically validated and %RSD was found to be less than 2 indicating high degree of accuracy and precision. Hence proposed method can be successfully applied for the simultaneous estimation of Nebivolol and Valsartan in marketed formulation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001726
Title: Neuroprotective effect of potassium channel openers against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced neuronal stress: IN-VITRO study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study was design to assess and establish in-vitro neuroprotective role of potassium channel openers (KCOs) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced neuronal stress. Material and methods: Cell viability assay was done using MTT (3-(4, 5 dimethyl thiazole-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) method to determine IC50 value of H2O2. Based on 50 % Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) results of H2O2, neuroprotective effect of KCOs cromakalim, nicorandil , cinnarizine, and standard vitamin E was determined using U87 cells (human primary glioblastoma cell line). Results: Cromakalim, nicorandil and vitamin E significantly produce neuroprotective effects against H2O2 induced neuronal damage while cinnarizine did not produce significant activity. Conclusion: Results of our study demonstrated the neuroprotective role of potassium channel openers against H2O2 induced oxidative damage to neuronal cells.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001725
Title: Formulation design and development of gastro retentive floating tablets of Atenolol
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Atenolol is a selective â1 receptor antagonist. Atenolol is employed in the therapy of angina pectoris and hypertension. Hence the current study is employed to design a floating delivery system of atenolol by swelling polymer through direct compression method. Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the absence of any drug/excipients interactions. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability and drug content and were subjected to a 12 h In vitro drug release studies (USP dissolution rate test apparatus II, 50 r/m, 370C ± 0.50C) using 0.1N hydrochloric acid. In this study, gastro retentive dosage form using HPMC-K100M, Guar gum was prepared to build up a prolonged release tablets, that could retain in the stomach for longer periods of time delivering drug to the site of action that is in the stomach. In-vitro dissolution studies of the formulation, concluded that the formulation F6 containing 87.5 mg of HPMC-K100M, 40mg of Sodium bicarbonate, 4mg of Mg. Stearate, 4mg of Talc and 39.5mg of micro crystalline cellulose is the superlative composition. Obtained results of the study concluded that floating tablets accomplishing HPMC-K100M, a hydrophilic polymer increases the GRT of the dissolution fluid in the stomach to deliver the drug in a prolonged manner. The concept of formulating floating tablets of model drug renders a suitable and practical approach in serving the needed objectives of gastro retentive floating tablets.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001724
Title: In-vivo Antianxiety and Antidepressant Activity of Extracts and Isolates of Argyreia speciosa Linn. Roots
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Present study investigates the use of Argyreia speciosa roots in anxiety and depression disorders. The plant is reported to contain alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and triterpenoids. Various ethanopharmacological reports revealed that the plant roots are extensively used in mental disorders. Different extracts of A. speciosa (pet ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) were initially screened for antianxiety and antidepressant activity using Elevated plus maze model and Porsolt’s despair swim test respectively. The active ethanol extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed significant antianxiety and antidepressant activities. Bioactivity guided fractionation using column chromatography showed that isolate F4.3 possessed significant antianxiety (3 mg/kg) and antidepressant activity (6 mg/kg). Further, phytochemical screening of ethanol extract and fractions showed that these contain alkaloids and flavonoids. Alkaloid fraction was isolated (0.20 % w/w) and was quantified using TLC densitometry. Total flavonoid content was determined as 0.016% w/w. Present investigations suggest that flavonoids and alkaloids are responsible for antianxiety and antidepressant activity of A. speciosa roots.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001722
Title: QbD Approach for Analytical Method Development and Validation of Melatonin by spectroscopic Method
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Spectroscopic method was developed according to Quality by Design(QbD) approach as per ICH Q8 (R2) guidelines for Melatonin. QbD approach was carried out by varying various parameters and these variable parameters were designed into Ishikwa diagram. The critical parameters were determined by using principle component analysis as well as by observation. The estimated critical parameters in zero order spectroscopic method were Methanol, sample preparation tablet, wavelength 222 nm, slit width: 1.0, scan speed medium, and sampling interval: 0.2, The above methods were validated according to ICH Q2(R1) guidelines. Proposed methods can be used for routine analysis of Melatonin in tablet dosage form as they were found to be robust and specific.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001720
Title: Biosynthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles from Bacteria and Evaluation of Their Biological Activity
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Nickel nanoparticles were biosynthesized by using P. penneri bacteria and the production was confirmed by observing the change in the color of the reaction. Further, Nickel nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, SEM and FT-IR spectral studies. The surface morphology of the synthesized nickel nanoparticles coated with secondary metabolites of the bacteria was studied by SEM and confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The possible role of proteins and secondary metabolites as a reducing and capping agents was thus inferred. Biosynthesized nickel nanoparticles showed antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001713
Title: A Review on Antidepressant Plants
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Depression is a heterogeneous group of brain disorders characterized by a wide range of symptoms that result in psychomotor and cognitive impairments. Depression is accompanied with loss of pleasure or interest, feeling of guilt, decreased energy and low self worth. Depression is also a major cause of morbidity worldwide, estimated to affect 350 million people. It is highly prevalent, accounting for more disability than any other disorder and its prognosis and management are also poor due to the little understanding of the disorder. Many categories of synthetic and natural compounds have been reported to possess neuropsychiatric activity. Various adverse effects are associated with synthetic drugs which are used in the treatment of depression. Loss of libido, tolerance, physical dependence and insomnia is associated with selective serotonin (5 HT) reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants; several drug-drug interactions may occur. The aim of this review is to enlist those plants which have antidepressant activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001719
Title: Assessment of phytochemical & pharmacological activities of the ethanol leaves extracts of Myrica esculenta BUCH. HAM.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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OBJECTIVE: To elucidate potential antioxidant, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic and antibacterial activity of ethanol leaves extract of Myrica esculenta Buch. Hum. in different experimental models established in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. In vivo antidiarrheal studies was carried out in mice, and the activity was evaluated in castor oil induced diarrhea, anthelmintic activity on Paramphistomum cervi and Haemonchus contortus, and Disk diffusion assay was utilized to determine antibacterial activity against a number of pathogenic bacterial strains. RESULTS: In DPPH radical-scavenging assay, the extract exhibited strong radical-scavenging activity with the 50% inhibitory concentration value of 48.28 ìg/ml. The extract significantly (p<0.001) enhanced the latent period and decreased the defecation in castor-oil induced diarrhea. The extract exhibited dose-dependent decrease in paralysis and death time of the helminthes. Potential antibacterial activity was exhibited by the extract against all the tested bacterial strains in disk diffusion assay. CONCLUSION: The result demonstrated that the ethanol leaves extract of M. esculenta has potential antioxidant, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic and antibacterial activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001718
Title: Isolation and assessment of natural mucoadhesive agent isolated from Abelmoschus esculents
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim of present investigation was to isolate mucoadhesive agent from Abelmoschus esculents and characterize through in-vitro and ex-vivo mucoadhesion methods. Okra gum (OG) was extracted from fresh pods Abelmoschus esculents. Mucoadhesion force of isolated okra gum was determined by wilhelmy‘s method, falling sphere method and modified physical balance method etc and compared with carbopol and sodium alginate. The formation of hydrogen bond by okra gum with mucosa was confirmed by FTIR spectra showing carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. The result shows that mucoadhesive properties of okra gum were comparable to carbopol but lesser than sodium alginate under the experimental conditions used in this study. The adhesive impact of the majority these polymers relies upon non covalent chemical bonds such as hydrogen bonds, ionic interactions and vanderwaal‘s forces and so forth. These interactions are moderately feeble in contrast to covalent bonds, accordingly cant assure localization of dosage forms. OG bears good mucoadhesion property, but there is a need enhance mucadhesion potential by suitable approaches such as thiolation etc., to employ in mucoadhesion drug delivery systems.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001712
Title: Pharmacological Agents Involved In The Treatment Of Diabetic Neuropathy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Diabetic neuropathy is the presence of signs &symptoms of peripheral nerve dysfunction in persons with diabetes after the exclusion of other causes. Till date there is no effective treatment available for diabetic neuropathy. However, it can be managed using certain pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments.Diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain affects the functionality, sleepandmood patterns of nearly 10 to 20 percent of patients with diabetes mellitus. Treatment goals include improving pain control and restoring function. Patients can realistically expect reduction in discomfort a 30 to 50 percent with improved functionality. The tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, opiates and opiate-like substances and topical medications are the main classes of agents used to treat diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Physicians should ask patients whether they have tried alternative and complementary medicine remedies for their pain. For the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain only two medications are approved specifically: Duloxetine and Pregabalin. However, evidence supports the routine of other therapies and unless contraindications are there, the first-line treatment is tricyclic antidepressants. Physicians must consider potential drug interactions and possible adverse effects before prescribing a medication.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001716
Title: Method development and validation of stability indicating RP-HPLC method for the estimation of Dasatinib in tablet dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, rapid and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Dasatinib in pure and tablet dosage form by RP-HPLC method using Cosmisil C18 BDS (150 x 4.6 mm) 5µm in isocratic mode. The mobile phase consisted of Tri ethyl amine Buffer, Solvent mixture (Methanol and Acetonitrile)[50:25:25%v/v] was used and maintain the pH 6.5±0.5. The flow rate was maintained at 1 mL/min and the injection volume was 10 μL. Detection wavelength with UV detector at 315 nm and run time was kept 12 min. The retention time of Dasatinib was 6.882 min. The method was linear over the concentration range 5.2-31.2 μg/ml. The % assay for formulation was found to be 98.71. The validation of method was carried out utilizing ICH-guidelines. The described HPLC method was successfully employed for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001731
Title: Cessation of Smoking By Nicotine Replacement Therapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The nicotine in cigarettes and tobacco leads to actual physical dependence which can cause unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when a person tries to quit. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a medically-approved way to take nicotine by means other than tobacco. It is the most commonly used family of quit smoking medications. It is helpful for quitting smoking or stopping chewing tobacco. NRT can help relieve some of the physical withdrawal symptoms so that one can focus on the psychological (emotional) aspects of quitting. It uses products that supply low doses of nicotine. These products do not contain many of the toxins found in cigarette. The goal of therapy is to cut down cravings for nicotine and ease the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. People may notice that nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cravings are not so strong when using NRT, therefore reduces the risk of smoking. Clinical trials show that NRT can increase the chance of quitting smoking by 50-70% when compared to quitting without help – making it a good option to include in their quit smoking plan. All forms of nicotine replacement products appear to be about equally effective when used properly.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001715
Title: Chemical composition of essential oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) POIT and its invitro anticancer activity
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of essential oil of the leaves of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) and its invitro anticancer activity. The hydrodistilled essential oil of H.suaveolens contains total of 24 components by GC-MS analysis. The major compounds of H. suaveolens were Sabinene (29.42%), Trans caryophyllene (13.66), E-spathulenol (7.10%), Rimuene (5.73%), the minor compounds were 1,8-Cineole (4.61%), β-Elemene (4.25%), Eucaliptol (3.00%), Bergamotol ,Z-α-trans (2.47%), α-Selinene (2.32%), Caryophyllene oxide (2.08%), γ-Elemene (1.97%), α-Humulene (1.37%). The obtained essential oil was tested against Human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) for its anticancer activity by MTT assay with different concentrations of essential oil (18.5-300 µg/ml). The result revealed that the essential oil showed concentration dependant activity against cell line. The IC50 value of MCF-7 cell line was 90.6 µg/ml. This may be due to the presence of important terpenoid. This is the first kind of report against invitro anticancer activity of H. suaveolens essential oil.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001714
Title: Molecular Mechanism of Resveratrol: A Systematic Review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound of therapeutically importance due to its diverse pharmacological action. Resveratrol (RV) posses significant role viral infections, cancer and diabetes. In case of viral infection, it shows synergistic actions with antiviral drugs. Its anticancer action is due to antioxidant action, inhibition of hexsosamine pathway, and proappoptotic action. Anti-diabetic action is due to increase glucose uptake and beta cells protective action. It is also useful in CNS disorders. Resveratrol also shows anti-aging action. Extensive preclinical studies have been completed more clinical research should be carried out to establish as a lead compound.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001704
Title: Optimization of physiochemical parameters for the production of withaferin A employing cell suspension culture of Withania somnifera : A review
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Withania  somnifera  (Ashwagandha )  is  a  plant  used  in  medicine  from  the  time  of presence by ayurveda, the  ancient  system  of  Indian  medicine  and  in  plant  biotechnology. The  dried  roots  and  leaves   of  the  plant  are  used  in  the  treatment  of  various  nervous  and  sexual  disorders. Medicinal  properties  of  plant  have  been  attributed  to  the  presence of  a  group  of  steroidal  lactones  which  are  known  as   withanolides  which  are  present  in  roots  and leaves. Withaferin  A  is  a  steroidal  lactone  being   derived  from  Withania  somnifera. It  is  used  in  ayurvedic  medicine. It  has  a  wide  range  of  activities  which  comes  under  pharmacy ,cardio protection, the  anti-inflammatory  agent ,  an  immuno  modulatory,  an   anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis  and anti-carcinogenic  property.  This  review  article  is     focusing  on   the  methodology  to  achieve  the  maximum  production  of  withaferin  A  employing cell  suspension  culture  of  Withania  somnifera.  As  withaferin  A  low  concentration  was  found  to  be  a  limiting  factor  in  previous  reports   on  Withania  somnifera . This  article  will  encompass  the  parameters  which  are  responsible  for  optimum  production  of  withaferin  A   employing  cell  suspension  culture  of  Withania  somnifera.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001708
Title: Aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) protects against high fat diet-induced injury to rat liver through antioxidant mechanisms: a dose- and time-dependent study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Consumption of high fat induces oxidative stress by disturbing the activity of a number of antioxidant enzymes in rat liver. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of the aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) to provide protection against the High Fat Diet (HFD) induced oxidative injury in rat liver. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine whether administration of aqueous extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) do possess a protective effect against HFD-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Materials and method: The dose and time dependent changes were studied in the liver of male Wistar rats following the oral feeding of the rats with HFD for a period of 5 days, 10 days and 15 days to determine the maximum oxidative damage in the hepatic tissue of rats without any mortality. Pre-treatment of rats with aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi (TLE) was also studied by oral administration of TLE with the increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW) against HFD induced oxidative stress in rat liver to determine the minimum effective dose of Tulsi, which can provide protection to the liver damage and minimize the alterations in a concentration dependent manner. The alterations in the activity of some of the important different bio-markers of hepatic damage, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and activities of the antioxidant enzymes were studied. Histo-pathological and histo-chemical alterations were also studied through H-E staining and Picrosirius red staining. Scanning electron microscopy was done to see the structural integrity of hepatic tissue surface. Result: The studies revealed that the extract protected the biomarkers of organ damage, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, pro-oxidant enzymes and oxidative stress index from being altered in the rat hepatic tissue following treatment with HFD. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the current work that this aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi possess antioxidant properties and may be used as a potential antioxidant supplement to combat oxidative stress-induced tissue damages due to high fat diet consumption.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BGSA-00001705
Title: Molecular modeling and docking studies on OXA-10 enzyme of Acinetobacter baumannii
Category: Bioinformatics (Genome & Sequence Analysis )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The strains of Acinetobacter spp. producing Oxacillinase enzyme pose a crucial threat to clinicians worldwide due to limited treatment options against these strains. A 3D model of OXA-10 enzyme from A. baumannii was successfully predicted and its interaction with six different protease inhibitor compounds of cyanobacterial origin was studied. Among the six compounds tested, kempopeptin showed the good atomic contact energy and effective binding with OXA-10 enzyme, which indicate its ability to hydrolyze oxacillinase enzymes. Thus, this compound may be helpful in reducing the burden of infections caused by oxacillinase producing members of Acinetobacter spp, if used in combination with standard antibiotics.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001676
Title: Formulation Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Drug Delivery Systems- A Review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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In recent years many advancement has been made in research and development of Oral Drug Delivery System. Concept of Novel Drug Delivery System arose to overcome the certain aspect related to physicochemical properties of drug molecule and the related formulations. Purpose of this review is to compile the recent literature with special focus on Gastro Retentive Drug Delivery Systems to give an update on pharmaceutical approaches used in enhancing the Gastric Residence Time (GRT). Various approaches are currently used including Gastro Retentive Floating Drug Delivery Systems(GRFDDS),swelling and expanding system, polymeric bioadhesive systems, modified-shape systems, high density system and other delayed gastric emptying devices. These systems are very helpful to different problem solve during the formulation of different dosage form. The present work also focuses on the polymers used in floating drug delivery systems mostly from natural origin. Floating drug delivery systems are less dense than gastric fluids; hence remain buoyant in the upper GIT for a prolonged period, releasing the drug at the desired/ predeterminedrate. This review article focuses on the recent technological development in floating drug delivery systems with special emphasis on the principal mechanism of floatation and advantages of achieving gastric retention, brief collection on various polymers employed for floating drug delivery systems etc. In addition this review also summarizes the In –Vitro and In -Vivo studies to evaluate their performance and also their future potential.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001682
Title: Coexpression of Adrenomedullin and Its receptors in Uteroimplantation regions of wistar rats in early gestation period
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Concentrations of adrenomedullin (ADM) in circulation increases during pregnancy. The pattern of ADM level and gene expression of ADM, its receptor components from early pregnancy has been studied in our present work. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its related peptide, adrenomedullin (ADM), have vasorelaxant activity in a variety of tissues. The CGRP   plays an important role in maintaining uterine relaxation during pregnancy. Calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), a seven-domain transmembrane protein functions as CGRP-á & â receptor in association with receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP1), whereas CRLR and RAMP2 or RAMP3 constitute a receptor for ADM. In our present study we examined the mRNA expression of ADM, CRLR, RAMP1, RAMP2 & RAMP3 by real-time PCR. The changes in mRNA are relative to the GAPDH marker. Administration of peptide receptor antagonist s.c on day 2 of gestation with the help of osmotic mini pump results in decrease in mRNA expression levels mainly in ADM & RAMP2 rather than CRLR and RAMP1&3.The dose response effect of ADM evinced well marked decrease in uterus and implantation weights when administered with 250µg/rat/day rather than control and low doses. Our results demonstrated that both CGRP and ADM along with receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP1) are essential to maintain implantation to full term baby.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001675
Title: Starch Based Mucoadhesive Oral Thin Film with Antimigraine Drug Zolmitriptan
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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With the current focus on sustainability, starch is a material for interest and has been getting attention all over the world. Though lot of research work had been done in developing starch based biodegradable films as edible food   packaging material its exploration for drug delivery is still limited. In the present work we are exploring the possibility of using Indian sago starch obtained from sago pearls for its potential to form mucoadhesive thin films for the delivery of antimigraine drug, zolmitriptan. Total nine batches of the films with different concentration of sago starch and beta cyclodextrin as bioenhancer using glycerin as plasticizer were prepared successfully and had good mechanical properties like folding endurance, elongation and tensile strength along with mucoadhesion.In-vitro studies through Franz diffusion cell  in simulated salivary fluid showed  the 96.45% to 99.43%  of drug release in six hours by non-fickian or anomalous diffusion mechanism. Thus it was concluded that sago starch based mucoadhesive oral films can be formulated successfully.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001703
Title: A Review on Diabetic Retinopathy Prevention and Management in Community care
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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It consist of  group of  metabolic diseases that affects the diabetic community. The high glucose levels damages to the smooth blood vessels in the retina and causes the several changes with vision and causes the leakage of fluid causes the vision loss. People affected with diabetes and long periods of high blood sugar, abnormal lipid levels may contribute for progressing other health complications, leads to vision loss. The diabetic retinopathy diagnosis depends on tonometry, visual acuity testing, optical coherence tomography are commonly monitored. Diabetic eye disease impacts quality of life for patients with diabetes by decreasing visual activity and increasing the risk of vision loss. Deposition of fluid in the retina secondary to capillary leakage and with edema which contributes to loss of vision in diabetic retinopathy. Prescribing the combination of pharmacological agents like steroidal drugs and eye screening examinations, identification and treating at earlier eye stages will betterment for patient community. The Prevention and management of retinopathy depends on Pharmacological and life style modifications interventions to the patient community. It is essential that healthcare providers should interacts with patients to identify that every stage of eye risk and  individuals are screened and treated early and to promote better preserve vision leads to arrest the retinopathic complications in community.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001702
Title: Clinical Pharmacist Interventions on Life Style Modification in Management of Hypertension in the Community Practice- A Brief Review
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Hypertension is a chronic cardiovascular disease affecting the adult population. Clinical pharmacy is a health science discipline in which pharmacists provide patient care and optimizes medication therapy management and promotes health and disease prevention. Clinical pharmacist meets multiple health care practioners during the practice and promotes beneficial services to them. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries. Hypertension causes many health complications that results in increased morbidity and mortality. Blood pressure is the combination of  cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance.The regulation of blood pressure depends on baro receptor and chemo receptor mechanisms may plays vital role in regulating the blood pressure changes with in the body. The higher elevated blood pressure may impact the functions of vital organs leads to damage the organs. The clinical pharmacist should Provide awareness and implementation of effective life style interventions in the practice it includes both pharmacological and non pharmacological methods will maintain the blood pressure in controlled levels. The life style modifications includes increasing physical activity, reduced salt intake, increase potassium intake, decrease the use of alcohol,proper use of antihypertensive medications and promoting effective suggestions towards public health strategies can ultimately support to reduce the blood pressure in the community.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001701
Title: Aqueous Curry leaves extract protects against lead induced oxidative stress in rat spleen: a new insight
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Lead is a toxic heavy metal and a persistent environment pollutant. Exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and causes oxidative stress mediated damages in various organs including spleen in a living system. Murraya koenigii is a popular Indian spice herb with established antioxidant properties. We have earlier checked the potential of the Murraya koenigii leaves extract against lead induced oxidative stress in organs like heart, liver and kidneys. Aims and objectives: Aim of the study is to find therapeutic potentials of aqueous Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii) Extract (MUR) against lead induced oxidative damage in spleen tissue using rat as an animal model. The objectives are to study the alterations of various stress parameters in lead induced toxicity in spleen and amelioration of the same with MUR. Methods: Rats were intra-peritoneally injected with lead acetate (15mg/kg body weight [bw]). Another group was pre-treated with MUR (50 mg / kg, fed orally).The positive control group was fed MUR (50 mg / kg bw), and the control animals received treatment with vehicle i.p. for 7 consecutive days. The alterations in the activity of the different bio-markers of organ damage, biomarkers of oxidative stress, activities of the antioxidant and some of the mitochondrial enzymes were studied. Histo-morphology was studied through routine H-E staining and concentration of lead in spleen tissue was estimated using atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry (AAS). Detailed changes in splenic cyto-architecture were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Lead caused alterations in all the parameters studied. All these changes were mitigated when the rats were pre-treated with MUR. Also, the concentration of lead in tissues was found to be significantly lower in animals treated with MUR along with lead. Histo-morphological changes induced by lead exposure in spleen were significantly ameliorated with pre-treatment of the animals with MUR.  Conclusions: The results indicate that the MUR ameliorates lead-induced oxidative stress mediated damage in spleen in experimental rats. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging mechanisms may be responsible for such protective effects. MUR may have future therapeutic relevance in the prevention of lead-induced toxicity and damage in spleen in humans exposed occupationally or environmentally to lead and may be used for development of new drug formulation of herbal origin with less cytotoxic effects.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001700
Title: RP-HPLC-PDA method for the simultaneous determination of Phenylepherine, Chlorpheneramine, Paracetamol and Dextromethorphan in bulk and marketed formulation
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: a new method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of phenylephrine, chlorpheneramine, paracetamol and dextromethorphan in bulk and marketed formulations. Method: Chromatography was performed using C8 column of dimension 250*4.6mm and particle size 5µ. the best results were obtained by phosphate buffer (20 Mm) pH 6.6 adjusted with diluted orthophosphoric acid and Acetonitrile(70:30) taken in Gradient Programme at flow rate of 1ml/m with detection at 225 nm. Retention time was less than 6mins for all the four drugs. According to ICH guidelines the method was proven to be linear, precise and accurate. Results: The linearity ranges from 0.5-487.5 µg/ml. LOQ was found to be 0.02,0.01,3.92 and 0.06. The sample solution injected after 24 hr did not show any appreciable change. Recovery  was found to be 100.38-100.53. Conclusion: The developed method was simple, specific and sensitive as the excipients have no interference in the determination of main components. The proposed method can be used for routine analysis of phenylephrine, chlorpheneramine, paracetamol and dextromethorphan in combined dosage form which are present in variable concentrations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001699
Title: Phytoremediation potential of three leguminous plants towards Chromium
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Phytoextraction of Chromium was done by using three leguminous plants Cicer arientum,V. radiata and V. mungo in hydroponic culture. The main objective was to explore the phytoremediation potential of the selected plants. The plants were exposed to a range of concentrations of chromium dichromate from 50 to 750 ppm. The uptake ability of Vigna radiata for chromium increased with the increase of Cr (VI) concentration. Remediation percentage of 51.58% at 750 ppm in Vigna mungo, was observed hence it can be a potential candidate for the removal of Cr. The accumulation of chromium was found to be more in shoot as compared to root and was quite potent in resisting stress caused by Chromium.  

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001698
Title: Conserved Domain Analysis of Photorhabdus luminescens Strain TTO1 Hypothetical Proteins Encoding Enzyme Activity
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Photorhabdus luminescens genome encoding number of hypothetical proteins, among them probability of coding enzyme function has been reported by conserved domain analysis by sequence and structural homology search. Materials and Methods: All hypothetical proteins were retrieved from the KEGG database with organism code PLU and further checked for their homology with enzyme conserved domain/s using CDDBLAST, INTERPROSCAN, PFAM and CATH program. High scored enzyme coding proteins further analyzed for the homology modeling by PS2 protein structure prediction server. Observation and Results: P. luminescens genome encoding total 353 hypothetical proteins and when they have been searched for enzyme functions, 144 hypothetical proteins engaged with enzyme domains however, only 17 of them posses more than 75% confidence level and further only 15 proteins were able to find the structural homolog. Conclusion: 15 hypothetical proteins of  P. luminescens harbors enzyme conserved domains and even show defined sequence and structural homology with known enzymatic protein family and hence reported 15 hypothetical proteins of P. luminescens needs further investigation in wet lab analysis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001697
Title: Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Terbinafine hydrochloride and Mometasone Furoate in Combined Dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To develop a validated analytical RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of containing terbinafine hydrochloride and mometasone furoate for pharmaceutical formulation. Method: The sample was estimated using acetonitrile and 0.1% ortho phosphoric acid PH 3 in the ratio 67:33 as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection at 242 nm. The retention time for terbinafine hydrochloride and mometasone furoate was found to be 2.2 min and 3.5 min respectively. Results and Discussion: The linearity of the developed method was tested in the range of 0.5µg/mL for terbinafine hydrochloride and 1-32µg/mL for mometasone furoate. The limit of detection was 0.0189µg/mL for terbinafine hydrochloride and 0.327µg/mL for mometasone furoate, the % recoveries Was found in the range of 99.98-100.07%. Conclusion: A simple, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method has been developed for the determination of terbinafine hydrochloride and mometasone furoate in pharmaceutical formulations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001696
Title: Anti-Diabatic Activity of Herbal Extract Mixture
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Indian system of medicine, Siddha has mentioned numerous plants for the treatment of diabetes.  In folk medicine they are effective either single (or) combinational therapy.  Based on ethnopharmacological sources, the potent hypoglycemic herbs of Indian origin Solanum xanthocarpum and Terminalia belerica were selected for the present work. The plants were extracted with solvents of increasing polarity.  Further all the extracts were screened for antioxidant property by in vitro nitric oxide assay to determine its potential to scavenging  the free radical. From that aqueous extract of the both plants was selected and prepared in different combination ratio from 10:90, 20:80 30:70, 40:60, 50:50,60:40,70:30,80:20,90:10 (Terminalia belerica: Solanum xanthocarpum). The safety profile of the herbal extract mixture was studied by acute toxicity. The selected bio active herbal extract was subjected into antidiabetic activity by STZ induced medthod. Antidiabetic activity of herbal extract mixture showed that blood glucose level was significantly decreased in diabetic rats at both the tested dose levels. Herbal extract mixture significantly lower the biochemical parameter SGOT, SGPT, Total cholesterol and Serum triglyceride as compared to diabetic rat. Extract mixture has shown significant reduction of SOD and GPX in diabetic rats. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001695
Title: A review on quality by design approach for analytical method development
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Quality by Design (QbD) is a concept first outlined by well known quality expert Joseph M. Juran and it is a systematic approach to development that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product, process understanding and process control based on Echo knowledge and quality risk management. A conventional method may fail to meet the intended purpose during method development and validation.In a QbD approach, the impact and interactions between critical method variables are understood using a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach, which incorporates statistical multi-variate analysis and modeling leading to consistent quality of drug product. QbD tools like  risk assessment and design of experiments, enable better quality to be incorporated into the analytical method, facilitate prior understanding and identification of variables affecting method performance.  The main objective of the present review article to describe different steps involved in method development by QbD approach for an analytical method development. The QbD Approach for method development comprises of the following steps which include defining method intent, performing  experimental design,  evaluating  experimental results and selecting final method conditions and performing  risk assessment with robustness and ruggedness evaluation. The purpose of analytical QbD is to attain quality in measurement. The objective of this review article is therefore to provide a comprehensive understanding on various aspects of QbD, along with addressing the concerns related to its implementation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001694
Title: Evaluation of Probiotic Characteristics of Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Foods
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Probiotics have beneficial effects on the host’s health and can be isolated from many food sources. Fermented foods are rich source of lactic acid bacteria that are beneficial microorganisms which help to decrease the levels of potentially pathogenic microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. These lactic acid bacteria should possess certain characteristics to be used as a probiotic. The objectives of the study were to isolate, screen and evaluate the probiotic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria from fermented foods (Idli, Dosa, Dhokla, Jalebi, Kanji, and Shrikhand). Twenty one isolates were obtained out of which fourteen of them were gram positive and Catalase negative that are the characteristics of lactic acid bacteria which were selected for further probiotic evaluation. Five isolates showed tolerance to acidic conditions at pH 2, 3 and 4, such as prevailing in the stomach. Bile tolerance test disclosed that eleven isolates were able to tolerate 0.3% mean intestinal bile concentration. NaCl tolerance test revealed that four isolates tolerated NaCl concentrations (ranging from 4%,6%,8%,10%,12%). Five isolates were able to adhere to mucosal surface indicated by the hydrophobicity test.  All isolates were able to produce lactic acid which was confirmed by the lactic acid estimation test.  Three isolates were sensitive to tetracycline and kanamycin but resistant to ampicillin and rest others were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and kanamycin. DO4 which is a bacterial isolate obtained from batter of dosa was able to qualify all the above tests and can be used as a suitable probiotic candidate in future applications related to health.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001693
Title: New RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Rosuvastatin Calcium in Bulk Drugs and Formulations
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the estimation of Rosuvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was done on   Agilent zorbax reversed phase C18 (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing HPLC grade methanol:orthophaspaharic acid at pH 3.1 (35:65, v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1 ml / min and effluents were monitored at 282 nm. Chromatogram showed a main peak of Rosuvastatin calcium at retention time was 1.323 min. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 0.5-16 ìg/ml with correlation coefficient 0.9997. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, robustness and ruggedness. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for estimation of Rosuvastatin calcium was found to be 0.056 µg / ml and 0.133 µg / ml, respectively. Recovery of Rosuvastatin calcium was founds in the range of 98.6-101.2%. Proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of Rosuvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical dosage forms. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-HM-00001692
Title: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review on Echinacea
Category: Herbal medicine
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The Echinacea species, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, Echinacea purpurea  have a long history of medicinal uses particularly on infectious diseases. Today Echinacea preparations are used in several countries like America, Germany, Australia, Thailand and some other European countries. Mainly Echinacea is focused on its immunomodulatory effects, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and urinary tract infections. The chemistry and its pharmacological actions are well documented and several groups of  bioactive constituents which includes polysaccharides( arabinogalactan, xyloglycan, echinacin), glycosides: caffeic acid and its derivatives (cichoric acid, echinacoside), alkaloids, alkylamides, polyacetylenes and other fatty acids, essential oils and phytosterols are important for the desired pharmacological action. From the available data it is reported that Echinacea  is well tolerated and can be used as a herbal medicine. In this article we have reviewed the role of phytoconstituents and their pharmacological actions of Echinacea species.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-HM-00001691
Title: Methanol leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale exerts anti-ulcer effect on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats
Category: Herbal medicine
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The reliance on plants and plant-derived products for the treatment of a good number of ailments has been persistent through much of human history and such treatment however, traditional, is still widely in use today such as the application of the leaves of A. occidentale in the cure of gastric ulcer. The aim of this work was therefore, to ascertain whether or not the methanol leaf extract of A. occidentale exerts anti-ulcer effect on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Methods: The phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity and lethality and effects of the extract on ulcer index, gastric juice volume and gastric juice pH were determined using standard methods. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that the extract contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, proteins, steroids, terpenoids and fats and oil but resins, glycosides and acidic compounds were not detected in the extract. The extract at a dose up to 5000 mg/kg body weight (b.w) was safe for administration. At the tested doses [100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w] the extract caused significant (p < 0.05) and dose-dependent decreases in ulcer indices (gastric lesions) and gastric juice volumes of the rats in the test groups compared to the values obtained for the rats in the positive control group (group 2). Significant (p < 0.05) and dose-related increases in gastric juice pH of the rats in the test groups compared to that of the rats in the positive control group was also brought about by the extract. The effects of the 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract were similar to those of the standard anti-ulcer drug, famotidine at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: These observations show that the methanol leaf extract of A. occidentale possesses notable anti-ulcer effect and contains some pharmacologically active principles which might be heraldic to the future development of standard anti-ulcer drug(s) from the plant. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001690
Title: Elevating potential of total protein concentration, catalase specific and prostaglandin synthase activities by the methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of Dacryodes edulis chloroform-ethanol leaf ex
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Increased requirements for proteins and anti-oxidants are needed to promote wound healing. Also, blockage of the synthesis of prostaglandins has been critical to the precipitation of gastric mucosal injuries and hence, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of the methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of the chloroform-ethanol extract of the leaves of Dacryodes edulis on total protein concentration, catalase specific and prostaglandin synthase activities. Methods: The effects of the fraction on total protein concentration, catalase specific and prostaglandin synthase activities were investigated using standard methods. Results: The fraction at the tested doses [100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w)] caused significant (p < 0.05) and dose-dependent increases in total protein concentrations and catalase specific activities in the rats of the test groups compared to those of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group. The effects of the fraction at the dose of 400 mg/kg b.w were similar to those of the standard anti-ulcer drug, ranitidine at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. Similar trend of result was obtained with regard to the fraction effect on prostaglandin synthase activity. Conclusion: The findings of this research show that the methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of the chloroform-ethanol extract of the leaves of D. edulis is involved in the protection against gastric ulcer through increases in total protein concentration, catalase specific and prostaglandin synthase activities.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001688
Title: In vitro Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Syzygium jambos L. (Alston)
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Syzygium jambos commonly called as rose apple is an Asian medicinal plant. Four extracts acetone, aqueous, chloroform and methanol were evaluated for their free radical scavenging properties and cytotoxic activity on Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK 293) cell line. The results showed methanol (IC50 – 115.9μg/mL) and acetone (IC50 – 154.9μg/mL) extracts contain high free radical scavenging properties than chloroform(IC50 – 196.4μg/mL) and aqueous (IC50 – 235.4μg/mL) extracts, as well as acetone , aqueous and methanol extracts showed nontoxic effects against HEK 293 cell line. Although traditionally aqueous extracts are not toxic, we determined that acetone extract also not toxic and achieved better activity in the assays.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001686
Title: Effect of Morinda umbellata Linn. (Rubiaceae) Leaf Extracts on Antigen Induced Mast Cell Degranulation and Active Paw Anaphylaxis in Wistar rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Morinda umbellata Linn. is a climbing shrub distributed in Khasi Hills, Deccan Peninsula, Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats regions of India up to an altitude of 1500 m. It is an important traditional medicinal plant having curative properties against stomach disorders. The aim of the present study is to scientifically evaluate the mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic effects of M. umbellata leaves.  Methods: The different solvent extracts of M. umbellata leaves were used to evaluate antigen induced mast cell degranulation and active paw anaphylaxis in Wistar albino rats. Results and Discussion: The leaf ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg), n-hexane extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and chloroform extract at 400 mg/kg doses exhibited significant protection against egg albumin induced peritoneal and mesenteric mast cell degranulation. In mesenteric mast cell study in vitro, the ethanolic and n-hexane leaf extracts (2 mg/mL) showed significant activity against egg albumin induced mast cell degranulation. In active paw anaphylaxis, the animals treated with the ethanolic and n-hexane extracts (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited significant reduction in ovalbumin induced paw edema. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, steroids, tannins and carbohydrates in the leaf extracts. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that the phenolic compounds and flavonoids present in M. umbellata leaves may contribute to the inhibitory effect on antigen induced mast cell degranulation and active paw anaphylaxis in Wistar rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001685
Title: A Review on Various Pharmacological Interventions Against Gentamicin Renal Toxicity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used broad spectrum antibiotic which comes under the class aminoglycosides. Despite its uses, it is also having several adverse effects in which nephrotoxicity are the most common. GM causes tubular necrosis, cytotoxicity in the epithelial cells of the cortex, proximal and distal tubule along with collecting ducts in the kidney. It produces the various renal dysfunctions by increasing the level of creatinine(Cr) in serum and decreasing their excretion through urine. The main reason of the nephrotoxicity by this antibiotic is the generation free radicals and reduction in antioxidant defense mechanisms, which may lead necrosis in the renal cell. Now, a day we have various ameliorating herbal and synthetic agents to prevent this toxicity. Herbal agents due to their anti-oxidant property and free radical scavenging action can be used in preventing renal damage and necrosis. Various synthetic drugs like oral hypoglycaemics, calcium channel blockers; statins and anti asthmatic drugs also have potent free radical scavenging and anti oxidant activity can also reduce the risk of accumulation of GM in renal tissues. Thus, it can be conclude from this review that there is a emerging scope of herbal medications which can be used alone or in combination with synthetic drugs in overcoming the unfavourable effects caused by the GM in renal tissues.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001684
Title: Gastroprotective effect of selected antioxidants, vitamins and minerals in ethanol induced ulcer model in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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 Aim:The investigation was aimed to explore the critical role of few selected antioxidants, vitamins and minerals on gastroprotection by using ethanol induced ulcer model in rats. Further they help to find out its safety in GI disorders when compared with other reference standard drug, and to recommend a safe therapy in managing gastric disorders based on preclinical studies. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats weighing between 200-250 g. were divided into 9 groups of 6 animals each (n=6). The groups were treated respectively as follows Group I normal control, and Group II disease control, received normal saline, Group III was treated with standard  drug omeprazole, Group IV to IX received test substances respectively, antioxidants (Vitamin E, Cystine) vitamins (Thiamin, Niacinamide) minerals (Iron, Zinc) administered for 7 days. Various parameters like, the volume and pH of gastric juice, total acidity, ulcer index, percentage protection, biochemical parameters like mucin content, pepsin activity and antioxidant enzymes like, super oxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde were estimated. Histopathology of stomach epithelium was observed. Results: Significant reduction (p<0.05) in ulcer index, total acidity, and increase in pH were observed in ulcer induced rats pretreated with test substances. Mucin content in all rats pretreated with test substances was increased, and pepsin activity was decreased significantly (p<0.05) when compared with disease control treated rats. Test substances treated rats showed significant restoration i.e., increased the level of super oxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and significantly reduced (p<0.05) the lipid peroxidation and decreased the levels of MPO and MDA. Histopathological observations on gastric mucosa also confirmed the gastroprotective activity of test substances. Conclusions:  it is concluded that, the all test groups Vitamin E, L- Cystine, Thiamin, Niacinamide, Iron, Zinc acts as an antiulcer drugs which may be attributed to its antisecretory, cytoprotective and antioxidant activities.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001681
Title: Review on Benefits of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Discussion of Current Scenario in Indian Healthcare System
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Clinical Pharmacy is a health science discipline in which Pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes medication therapy and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention. To achieve desired therapeutic goals, the clinical pharmacist applies evidence based therapeutic guidelines, evolving sciences, emerging technologies, and relevant legal, ethical, social, cultural, economic, and professional Principles. The clinical pharmacist is trained in clinical pharmacy practice and comprehensive medication management and educating the Patient about the importance of strict adherence to the medication schedule and thus enhance patient compliance.Pharmacy Practice integrates the Pharmaceutical sciences with the professional roles of Pharmacists.It includes areas such as clinical pharmacy, pharmaceutical care, health promotion and education, social Pharmacy,health informatics,Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacy education.Clinical Pharmacist must have a Doctor of Pharmacy degree and M.Pharm in PharmacyPractice degree responsible for Practice in clinical level.Using of current updated therapeutic guidelines about the disease and drug is acceptable to promote and solve the health care issues in community.The clinical Pharmacy development is currently infant in Indian health care settings and proper awareness is needed to uplift the services in practice. In abroad countries it was well stabilized and well promoted by the health care communities.Promoting Proper awareness about the clinical Pharmacy services is needed.In future we hope that these services will promote the better patient care in India.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001680
Title: Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of N-(substituted phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-ylamino)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) quinazolin-4(3H)-ones derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Epilepsy is a neurological disorder marked by abnormal electric discharge in the brain remitting in seziures. The clinically existing antiepileptic drugs suffers from various side effects. Therefore, a search for novel antiepileptic drugs with higher efficiency & less toxicity still continues to be an area of investigation. A series of N-(substituted phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-ylamino)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) quinazolin-4(3H)-ones was synthesized & evaluated for the anticonvulsant activity using maximal electroshock seizure (MES) & subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) models. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral data and elemental analysis. The compounds were also assessed for the minimal motor impairment using rotarod apparatus. All the compounds showed significant anticonvulsant & neurotoxic activities. 3-(5-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-ylamino)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one, 6 (x) was found to be the most active compound at a dose of 25 mg/kg with percentage protection of 84.32% and 82.85% respectively in MES &scPTZ models without any neurotoxicity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001679
Title: Stress response of Escherichia coli on exposure to First transition series elements in well diffusion assay
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Escherichia coli ability to remain sensitized to the first series elements by well diffusion assay has been carried out. Observation and results: E. coli remain increasingly inhibited to the increasing concentration of vandanium peroxide, chromium nitrate, magnous acetate, ferric oxide, cobalt chloride, nickel nitrate, cupric sulphate and zinc sulphate in variable percentage as per well diffusion assay. Conclusion: These first series elements could be the future drugs which may control the antibiotic resistant E. coli.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001678
Title: Iatrogenic mistake lead to loss of movement
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: to discuss a medical error lead to loss of movement. Method: A prospective case report and analysis from the hospital. Results:The patient underwent a Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery and he had a history of osteoporosis, which in turn lead to osteopenic texture of the lumbar vertebra, vertebras erosion and severeosteolysis. Conclusion: Risk analysis and the pharmacist directed role in the management of osteoporosis should be implemented in such cases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001677
Title: Efficacy of Artesunate Against Parasitic Nematode
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Artesunate is one of the semi-synthetic derivatives of artemisinin, isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua. It is a prescription drug for falciparum malaria, and applicable in human schistosomiasis. We have previously shown that it is also effective against tapeworm (cestode). This study investigates its probable anthelmintic activity on the roundworm (nematode) in vitro. Method: Intestinal nematodes were collected from the entrails of local fowls, and were cultured in phosphate-buffed saline (PBS) at 37 ± 1°C. An untreated control was maintained and the rest were exposed to multiple doses of artesunate (Falcigo) to assess the  relative survival under different treatment regimes. Result and discussion: Of the varying doses tested, only the highest doses,  namely 10, and 20 mg/ml, indicated significant nematocidal of the worms. However, the lower doses did not have any significant effect. Conclusion: Although artesunate is a potent anthelmintic agent against cestodes and trematodes, its activity is delayed against nematodes, and requires higher doses. To my knowledge, this is the first report of the efficacy of artesunate on parasitic nematodes.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001659
Title: Studies of the role of the methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of the chloroform-ethanol leaf extract of Dacryodes edulis on diclofenac-induced gastric ulcer in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The leaves of Dacryodes edulis are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric ulcer among other ailments in Nigeria. The aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol leaf extract of D. edulis were investigated for their qualitative and quantitative phytochemical compositions. Based on the outcomes of the preliminary investigations, the most promising of the three (ethanol layer) was further fractionated and the effects of the most desirable fraction (methanol fraction) on ulcer index, gastric juice volume, gastric juice pH and histopathology of diclofenac-ulcerated Wistar rats were determined. Methods: The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical compositions and acute toxicities of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers as well as the effects of the methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of the chloroform-ethanol leaf extract of D. edulis on ulcer index, gastric juice volume, gastric juice pH and histopathology of diclofenac-ulcerated Wistar rats were determined using standard methods. Results:The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers showed the presence and amounts of the following:  alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and steroids. Each of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers was found to be safe at 5000 mg/kg body weight (b.w). At the tested doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w), the methanol fraction caused significant (p < 0.05) and dose-dependent decreases in the ulcer indices and gastric juice volumes as well as increases in the gastric juice pH of the rats in the test groups compared with those of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group. Results of the histopathological evaluation supported the gastroprotective effects of the fraction. Results of the fraction were comparable with those of the standard anti-ulcer drug, ranitidine at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: Experimental findings indicate that the leaves of D. edulis possess remarkable anti-ulcer effect probably due to their phytochemical constituents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001673
Title: Diverse mechanisms of the anti-ulcer feature of the methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of the chloroform-ethanol extract of the leaves of Dacryodes edulis: Are anti-oxidant approaches and anti-lip
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Investigations into medicinal plants with potent anti-oxidant activity will continue to garner the attention of researchers due to the contributory role of oxidative stress in a number of disease conditions and thus, the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract of the leaves of Dacryodes edulis were evaluated for their anti-oxidant vitamin contents. Based on the outcomes of the preliminary investigations, the most promising of the three (ethanol layer) was further fractionated and the effects of the most desirable fraction (methanol fraction) on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondealdehyde (MDA) of diclofenac-ulcerated Wistar rats were determined. Methods: The anti-oxidant vitamin contents of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers as well as the effects of the methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of the chloroform-ethanol extract of the leaves of D. edulis on the activity of SOD and concentrations of GSH and MDA of diclofenac-ulcerated Wistar rats were examined using standard methods. Results: The ethanol layer contained the highest concentration of vitamin C (0.79 ± 0.03 mg/100 g) while the chloroform layer contained the highest concentrations of vitamins A (1.83 ± 0.08 μg/g) and E (1.17 ± 0.07 mg/100 g). The aqueous extract contained the least concentrations of vitamins A (1.34 ± 0.06 μg/g) and E (0.86 ± 0.05 mg/100 g). At the administered doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w), the methanol fraction caused significant (p < 0.05) and dose-related increases in SOD activity and GSH concentration as well as decrease in MDA concentration of the rats in the test groups compared with those of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group. Conclusion: This study reveals that the leaves of D. edulis possess remarkable anti-oxidant feature and anti-lipid peroxidation effect which may be crucial in the amelioration of gastric ulceration.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001674
Title: In-vitro Antibacterial Activity of Sri Lankan Traditional Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Extracts against Bacteria Causing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antibacterial activity of the extracts of selected parboiled and un-parboiled Sri Lankan traditional rice against bacteria causing skin and soft tissue infections. Methanolic extracts of five Sri Lankan traditional rice including Kalu Heenati, Pokkali, Rathdal, Kahawanu and Sudu Murunga were used for in vitro antibacterial analysis. Antibacterial activity was evaluated in both the parboiled and un-parboiled rice samples. Concentrations of rice extracts used for the assays were 1000 µg/mL and 2000 µg/mL from the each extract. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against common bacteria causing skin and soft tissue infections (Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and three clinical isolates of Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) by well diffusion method and viable colony count technique. According to the results, methanolic extracts of all the selected Sri Lankan traditional rice varieties exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of 200 µg/mL (minimum incubation time (MIT); 30 min) for Rathdal, 200 µg/mL (MIT; 60 min) for  Kalu Heenati, Pokkali and Kahawanu, and 2000 µg/mL (MIT; 60 min) forSudu Murunga. The largest inhibition zones were observed in the extracts of Kalu Heenati and Rathdal. Kalu Heenati, Pokkali and Rathdal showed an efficacious inhibitory effect against MRSA (MBC; 200 µg/mL, MIT; 60 min), whereas the highest inhibitory activity was observed for Rathdal. Only the extract of Kalu Heenati was slightly active against Pseudomonas aeroginosa. None of the rice extracts studied showed an antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli.Reduction and loss of antibacterial activity was detected in rice after subjected to parboiling. In conclusion, Sri Lankan traditional rice varieties with red pericarp are good sources of antibacterial compounds mainly against Gram positive bacteria. Methanolic extract of Rathdal and Kalu Heenati showed a high efficacious inhibitory effect against skin and wound pathogens of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001672
Title: Process Validation of Extended Release Bi-Layered Tablet Containing Metformin, Pioglitazone and Glimipiride
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background of the study: The prime objective of any work in pharmaceutical plant, whether in production or quality control is to manufacture product of requisite quality at the lowest possible cost. Validation is attaining and documentation of sufficient evidence to give reasonable assurance that the process under consideration does and what it purports to do. Methods: In the present study, process validation studies were carried out for a bilayer tablet containing extended release Metformin, Pioglitazone and Glimepiride as per the protocol. The parameters used during the studies were dispensing, sifting, mixing, preparation of granulating solution, granulation, drying and sizing, lubrication (flow property & assay lubricated granules), compression (weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, content uniformity), labeling and packing. Results and Discussion: The samples collected at different stages were analyzed using UV and HPLC method as per protocol. The results were found to be within the acceptance criteria. Conclusion: From the validation studies carried out, it was observed that no modification was required in present manufacturing process. The method requires further validation only when there is change in raw materials or equipment or process.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001671
Title: Role of Cactus grandiflorus in reversal of histological disruption and extent of infarction on isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage in wistar rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Isoproterenol (ISO) is a known drug that is used experimentally to induce myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Beside various disturbances, histopathological disturbances are a prominent marker of myocardial toxicity. Several molecules are continuously being explored for their efficacy in reversing these changes. Cactus grandiflorus is frequently used in homeopath as a cardioprotective drug but its scientific validation is still not established. This study is therefore a move in this direction. Methods:Wistar rats were randomly divided into (1) Normal (normal saline) (2) Toxic (ISO, 85 mg/kg, s.c). (3) C. grandiflorus (0.5 ml/kg, p.o.) and ISO (85 mg/kg, s.c). (4) C. grandiflorus (1.0 ml/kg, p.o.) and ISO (85 mg/kg, s.c). (5) Vitamin-E (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and (6) C. grandiflorus per se (1.0 ml/kg, p.o.). Study was done for a period of 15 days.  C. grandiflorus was administered twice daily and ISO on 14th and 15th day. After 15 days treatment rats were sacrificed and hearts were isolated. Infarct size measurement and histopathological evaluation of the heart tissues were then performed. Results and discussion: Pre-treatment with C. grandiflorus (0.5 ml/kg and 1.0 ml/kg) showed reversal of cellular damage and myocardial infarction on dose-dependent manner. This could be due to antioxidant effect of C. grandiflorus that normalized the oxidative stress created by isoproterenol.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001670
Title: Spectroscopic Quantitation and analytical validation of Indomethacin in bulk drug and capsule formulation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: In this manuscript spectroscopic quantitation and analytical validation of indomethacin in bulk drug and capsule formulation by UV spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: In present investigation 0.1 N NaOH was employed as  the solubilizing agent to solubilize the poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, from the capsule dosage form for spectrophotometric determination in ultraviolet region. Results: The adequate drug solubility and maximum assay sensitivity (235nm) in the wavelength range of (200-400 nm), the linear calibration curve was obeyed in the concentration range of (5-25 µg/ml) show regression equation (Y =0.029X+0.057), and correlation Coefficient (R2= 0.999). Discussions: This method was validated and applied to the determination of IND in capsules form, no interference was found from capsule excipients at the selected wavelength and analysis conditions. Conclusion: It was concluded that the developed method is accurate, sensitive, precise, and reproducible and indirectly for the estimation of IND content in pharmaceutical formulation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-QA-00001669
Title: Temperature Mapping of Hot Air Oven (Dry Heat Sterilizer)
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background of the study: Dry heat is sometimes used as a substitute for moist heat for the purpose of sterilization, even though the latter being more efficient than the former since certain materials are heat sensitive in nature. It ensures complete removal of pyrogen during sterilization of glass and other laboratory equipment’s. The process of sterilization within a chamber or hot air tunnel is a critical process, and there is a regulatory requirement for validation of the process in most countries.  Objective of the study: The primary objective of this work was to ensure the operational and performance qualification of dry heat sterilizer.  Methods: Dry heat sterilizer validation comprises of accurately measuring the temperature at critical points within the sterilization chamber throughout the process. The process of sterilization employed during the study was carried out at a temperature ranging between 250±15°C. The sterilizer was done to ensure complete heating of all parts of its load up to the afore-mentioned temperature for a specified period long enough to achieve the desired sterility. Results and Discussion: All the results were found to be within the acceptance criteria and the study was successful. Conclusion: The dry heat sterilizer qualifies for its operation and performance.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001668
Title: The impacts and biodegradation studies of Bacillus subtilis (MTCC1427) on tannery effluents
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Setting up of new industries or expansion of existing industrial establishments resulted in the disposal of industrial effluents which discharge untreated effluents causing air, water, soil and soil solid waste pollution. In recent years, industrial effluents have been regarded as common source of pollution due to inappropriate disposal methods by industries. Water pollution is the major pollution that effects the environment much and one of the sources of this pollution is tannery industrial effluents. Effluents are so toxic that fishes cannot survive in it even for two hours and also effects the drinking water and hence it should be treated effectively before release. Bioremediation is the only way to tackle these xenobiotics and reduce the pollutants which is ecofriendly. The present work is an attempt which has been made to analyze the effectiveness of bacillus subtilis against tannery effluents. Results of the above project giving a brief note on level of turbidity (O.D), pH and physio chemical parameters found to decreases from high to optimum level and resulted water can be used for agricultural purpose.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001666
Title: Analytical method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of Phenylephrine and Ebastine by using RP-HPLC method in pure and tablet dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, rapid, accurate and precise method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Phenylephrine and Ebastine from pharmaceutical formulation by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The separation was carried out on Akzonobel chiral kromasil C18 (150×4.6mm,5m) column using mobile phase consisting of a mixture of  buffer : acentonitrile: methanol in the ratio (30:45:25 v/v). The flow rate was maintained at 0.8 ml/min. The UV detection was carried out at a wavelength of 211 nm. The retention time for Phenylephrine and Ebastine was found to be 2.286 min and 4.304 min respectively. Linear response obtained for Phenylephrine was in the concentration range 25- 150 ìg/ml (r2 = 0.999) and Ebastine in the range 25-150 ìg/ml (r2 = 0.999). The relative standard deviation in the tablets was found less than 2% for six replicates. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. The formulation was subjected to oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis and dry heat as stress conditions. Thus proposed method can be successfully applicable to the pharmaceutical preparation containing the above mentioned drugs without any interference of excipients.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001665
Title: Medicinal Importance and Pharmacological Significance of Eugenia jambolana Lam.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Eugenia  jambolana (Myrtaceae) is a large evergreen tree up to 30 m high. Bark pale brown, slightly rough on old stems. It is a widely used medicinal plant throughout India and popular in various Indigenous System of Medicine like Ayurveda and Siddha. In the Traditional System of Medicine, the various plant parts such as bark, fruit, seed and leaf are used as astringent, sweet, sour, acrid, refrigerant, carminative, diuretic, digestive, in diabetes, leucorrhoea, gastric disorder, The present review and research is therefore an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001664
Title: Formulation and evaluation of biodegaredable nanoparticle of Glimepiride by ionic gelation method
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim:To explore the water solubility of drug and increase oral bioavailability of Glimepiride. Nanoparticles of Glimepiride for oral drug delivery were prepared by ionic gelation method using polyelectrolyte charge interaction. Glimepiride is an effective antidiabetic agent; however, it suffers from short biological half-life. Therefore, it was selected as amodel drug. Method:The prepared Nanoparticles were evaluated for Physico-chemical studies like drug polymer interaction through FT-IR analysis, Melting Point by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Percent drug entrapment, production yield, in-vitro drug release characteristics and release kinetics. The result of FT-IR studies showed that there was no drug polymer interaction found. Results and Discussion:The SEM studies confirmed that with increase of polymer concentration the nanoparticles become smooth, and in-vitro release studies showed that the drug release followed diffusion for formulation F5, F6, and F7 and for the formulation F8, F9 and F10 followed non-fickian mechanism, moreover all the formulations exhibited high percentage yield as well as high percent drug entrapment. Conclusion:The method proves to be beneficial in designing control release formulations of Glimepiride Chitosan-Gelatin-B ionic gelation method, using polyelectrolyte charge interaction.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001662
Title: Evaluating effect of Cap PMA on platelet count in endemic fevers -A case series study in Pune (Maharashtra, India)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Dengue, Chikungunya, Viral Fever and FUO are major threats for social health to India with many patients falling prey to such disorders in recent days. Several patients suffer from long term complications of these endemic fevers such as thrombocytopenia, weakness, joint pains, bleeding problems and occasionally death. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian science of medicine can offer effective solution to manage these endemic fevers. Cap PMA is an Ayurvedic formulation containing extracts of Tinospora cordifolia, Carica papaya and Swertia chirata processed in their juices targeted to increase platelet count affected by endemic fevers. A case series observational study was conducted at different private practitioners’ clinics in Pune, Maharashtra to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Cap PMA in endemic fevers. Total 37 adult patients (19 Males, 18 Females) were recruited using intention to treat model and treated with Cap PMA for 7 days. Primary objective was to assess effect of formulation on different clinical and hematological parameters and secondary objective was to assess tolerability of the formulation. The study revealed excellent tolerability of the formulation with no patient lost to follow up. The patients on treatment did not report any complications or adverse events during study period. All patients showed improvement in clinical and hematological parameters with significant increase in platelet count (p=0.0010, 95% Confidence interval). Other hematological parameters were not significantly affected by the disease as well as the formulation suggesting a protective role of the formulation in endemic fevers. The study reports a promising activity of Cap PMA in endemic fevers for restoration and increase in platelet count and preventing complications.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001661
Title: Process Validation of Pioglitazone 30mg Tablets
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background of the study: The primary objective of pharmaceutical industry now a days is to manufacture products of the good quality at the lowest possible cost and to supply quality products to the customers. In order to achieve the objective, the industries must validate all the operations of the business. Validation is attaining and documentation of sufficient evidence to give reasonable assurance that the process under consideration does what it purports to do.  Methods: This study is intended to demonstrate the process validation of Pioglitazone 30 mg tablets with special reference to the requirements stipulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). The process was limited to the three batches manufactured of specific batch size with specific equipment and control parameters for tablets.  Results: During the study the critical process parameters of Pioglitazone 30 mg tablets like dry mixing, wet granulation, drying, lubrication, and compression were identified and samples collected from each stage was evaluated as per validation protocol. They were within specifications. From the results, it is inferred that the manufacturing process of Pioglitazone 30 mg tablets will produce a product meeting its predetermined specification and quality attributes. Conclusion: Finished product was found meeting the specification in all three batches and the results of all three batches showed that the manufacturing process was effective and produced a product meeting the specification consistently. Hence the manufacturing process is validated and can be used for routine manufacturing of Pioglitazone 30 mg tablets.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-QA-00001660
Title: Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Irbesartan and Atorvastatin in synthetic mixture
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The combination of Irbesartan and Atorvastatin is prescribed for the treatment of hypertension. Objective: To develop and validate HPLC Method for simultaneous estimation of Irbesartan and Atorvastatin in synthetic mixture. Materials and method: The chromatographic separation was performed on Shimadzu HPLC instrument on a Thermo C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm particle size) using 50: 10: 40 %, v/v/v acetonitrile: methanol: 0.1 % formic acid (pH adjusted to 3.5 with triethylamine) as isocratic mobile phase at flow rate of 1 mL/min. Spectro-densitometric scanning was performed at 271 nm. The developed method was validated according to ICH Q2R1 guideline. Results and discussion: The linearity was established over a concentration range of 300-1500 ng and 20-100 ng with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9993 and 0.9996 for Irbesartan and Atorvastatin, respectively. The Rt of Irbesartan and Atorvastatin were found to be 4.01±0.03 and 7.03±0.03 respectively. Recovery of drug was achieved in the range of 99.84–99.98% and 99.90–100.67% for Irbesartan and Atorvastatin, respectively by developed method. Limit of detection was found to be 10.94 and 1.33 ng for Irbesartan and Atorvastatin, respectively. Limit of quantitation was found to be 33.14 and 4.03 ng for Irbesartan and Atorvastatin, respectively. Application: The developed HPLC method was applied for simultaneous estimation of two drugs in their synthetic mixture and results were found to be in good agreement with the labeled claim. Conclusion: The developed HPLC method was found to be accurate, precise, specific and sensitive. It can be applied for routine analysis (assay) of tablets containing combination of Irbesartan and Atorvastatin.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001656
Title: A Study of Attention Set- Shifting Ability in Chronic Epileptic Patients in a Tertiary Care Centre in Kolkata, India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective:  Neuropsychological impairment is an important comorbidity of chronic epilepsy. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performance is used in this study to investigate the executive functioning in general tonic clonic seizure (GTCS) and complex partial seizure (CPS) groups and to identify the neuroanatomical substrates underlying set-shifting ability in epileptic patients. Methods: Epileptic groups (n= 28) with GTCS (n=14 and age= 24±3.7years) and CPS with temporal lobe origin patients (n=14 and mean age=22.2±3years) matched with healthy control (HC) (n=23, mean age=25.9 ± 5.48 years) in terms of age, sex, education, handedness, and IQ were compared. t-test was carried to compare the epileptic group with the HC counterparts on WCST task and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare  the  GTCS and CPS group on WCST task. To find out the effect of duration of illness, age of onset and frequency of seizure in epileptic group on cognitive function step-wise multiple regressions were carried out. Results: Greater perseverative response (PR), perseverative error (PE), total no. of error is observed in the epileptic groups but in non-perseverative error (NPE), failure to maintain set (FTMS) epileptic groups is as per with the HC. No significant difference observed between GTCS and CPS on any parameter of the WCST task. Conclusion: This study indicates epileptic group have impaired set shifting function, cue identification and poor feedback utilization capacity. CPS performance is as per with GTCS on WCST task indicates the epileptogenic discharge is not localized but involves distributed neural network. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001657
Title: Phytochemical Screening, GC-MS Analysis of Bioactive Compounds and Antibacterial activity from Justicia gendarussa Burm.F. Stem
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The aim of the present study was to analyzed the phytochemical screening of methanol, chloroform and petroleum ether extract of the Justicia gendarussa stem and GC-MS technique to study the major and minor phytoconstituents and their antibacterial activity.   Methods: In the present study, preliminary phytochemical analysis and GC–MS was carried out on the methanol, chloroform and petroleum ether extract of stem of Justicia gendarussa for identification of phytocompounds in the plant stem. The disc diffusion Method (Bauer et al. 1996) was used to screen the anti bacterial activity. Result : The preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanol, chloroform and petroleum ether extract of Justicia gendarussa stem showed the presence of bioactive components like carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. Pharmacognosy studies In Stem Physico – chemical values were analysed such as foreign organic matter, Moisture content, Total ash. Florescence analysed in stem on Justicia gendarussa various solvents for Visible light condition under the UV rays (254nm, 366nm). The different extract showed varying degree of antibacterial activity against the P. vulgaris and P. pneumonia tested. Conclusion: Results confirmed the presence of therapeutically potent compounds in the stem of various extract. This study will also helps to predict the formula of biomolecules which can be used as drugs and further investigation may lead to the development of drug formulation and this plant extract in developing a novel broad spectrum antibacterial agent.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001652
Title: Anthelmintic activity of Tephrosia calophylla
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Nature has provided a completely store house of remedies to cure all ailments of mankind. A large number of populations have to rely upon traditional medicines, which are mainly derived from plant source. Methods: In this connection a critical analysis was done on Tephrosia genus by thorough literature survey from this Tephrosia calophylla plant was selected for the present study. The various species of Tephrosia is ascribed to have many medicinal and therapeutic uses for the treatment of various ailments. Results:The present study aims to investigate its qualitative phytochemical analysis and anthelmintic activity of roots of Tephrosia calophylla. Ethanolic extracts of Tephrosia calophylla roots were subjected for the preliminary phyto chemical analysis and found the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates compounds and ethanol extract contains flavanoids. The above said activity shown by the Tephrosia calophylla roots may be due to the presence of secondary metabolites like flavanoids.Conclusion: Anthelmintic activity was performed by using the ethanol extracts of Tephrosia calophylla roots at various concentration .Tephrosia calophylla roots shown potent activity when compared to control and equipotent activity when compared to standard Albendazole.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001651
Title: Screening of Isolated Phytosterol from Leaves of  Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch  for it’s Antiarthritic Activity in Experimental Animals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The majority of scientific documentation suggested prominent role of  Phytosterols towards  anti arthritic  activity. The main objective of the work was to evaluate  antiarthritic activity of  Holoptelea integrifolia isolated Phytosterol  (HIIP) from  petroleum ether extract (PEHI) of leaves of Holoptelea  integrifolia in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant  (CFA) model. Methods: The antiarthritic activity of different doses of HIIP (10 and 30 mg/kg) in rats was evaluated on 7th, 14th and 21st day  of treatment. The paw volume displacement and secondary lesions changes were measured, as a mark of antiarthritic activity.  Results and discussion: HIIP  30 mg/kg  was more potent than HIIP 10 mg/kg for  showing antiarthritic activity. Conclusion: The results indicate that HIIP  shows antiarthritic activity which was dose dependent. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001654
Title: Lyoequivalency, dissolution kinetics and drug – excipient compatibility of some commercially available acetaminophen tablets
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The main objective of this work was to study the lyoequvailency, dissolution kinetic and drug – excipient compatibility of commercially available acetaminophen tablets. Methodology: In vitro dissolution studies were carried out using a dissolution apparatus USP (Paddle type) at a paddle speed of 50 rpm. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to study the possibility of drug–excipient interaction.  Results: The dissolution data for all products of acetaminophen used in this study were fit to the first-order equation with a linear regression coefficient of determination r2 values between 0.886 and 0.977. Also results showed that the best equation that fit to the dissolution data and describe the mechanism of drug release was the Weibull distribution function for Panadol®, Tylenol and Adol®, while the dissolution data for Actifast® was best fit to the Higuchi equation. The dissimilarity factor showed that Actifast® was non lyoequivalent with the other three products. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve for Actifast® showed an interaction of acetaminophen with some excipient(s) present in the product; this interaction was indicated by the decrease of the melting peak of acetaminophen from 170.5oC to 166.5oC. Acetaminophen–excipient(s) interaction observed in the DSC curves for Actifast® was also confirmed from the FT-IR spectra.  Conclusion: It can be concluded that beneficial drug–excipient interaction was observed in Actifast® due to the presence of polyethylene glycol (Macrogol) produced an increase in the dissolution rate of Actifast® in comparison with Tylenol®, Adol® and Panadol®.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001649
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomal Cream Containing Dithranol
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study is aimed to use non-ionic surfactants with cholesterol for the development of niosomes for delivery of Dithranol. Methods : Vesicular diameter, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, drug leakage from vesicles and in-vitro drug release characteristics were determined for the niosomal formulations. It showed that surfactant quantity had an impact on entrapmeat efficiency. Formulation with TDS does not require sonication to form nano size vesicles. Results and discussion: The formulation F22 having maximum entrapment efficiency i.e. 78.47% and 26% vesicles having 76.44 nm diameter, 62.1% vesicles having 484.4 nm diameter and 11.9% vesicles having 4336 nm diameter. The formulation F22 having -15.8 zeta potential, this indicates good particle distribution. In vitro release of Dithranol from the niosomes studied containing TDS was highest for F22 formulation 80.032%. The F22 having stability at 40C. Conclusion: TDS is found to be more effective surfactant than the conventional Spans for the vesicle structure. Entrapment efficiency clearly tells that TDS has profound influence on the drug entrapment efficiency.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001648
Title: Various rodent models for inducing Hepatotoxicity and evaluating Hepatoprotective drugs
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Liver is the principal organ for maintaining the body’s internal environment. There is no substitute for the liver function. Its major influence is on the flow of nutrients and control of carbohydrate, protein and fats metabolism. Liver undergo various kinds of stress and hepatocytes get damaged in presence of toxins resulting into acute liver disease. Acute liver disease when remain undiagnosed progresses into chronic liver disease (CLDs) and become life threatening. Autoimmune disorders, viral infection, metabolic disorder and alcohol abuse are some common driving factors for CLDs. Advanced stage of CLDs can’t be managed & only option left is organ transplantation. Therefore it is very important to understand the molecular mechanism of hepatic damage. Rodents are routinely being used by researchers for preclinical studies but they possess distinct immune system and have different metabolic rates for hepatic homeostasis. Nevertheless, traditional as well as newer animal models (genetically modified models) mimic certain attributes of CLDs. Thus in this review we have discussed traditional animal models as well as recent advances in animal models.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-MPDI-00001647
Title: Biosynthetic Potential of Marine Microbial Symbionts
Category: Marine Pharmacy Drug Investigation
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Marine plants and animals are well known to harbor diverse microorganisms. These marine microbial symbionts are a prolific source of a large variety of bioactive natural products with diverse pharmacological potential. Genome mining of marine microbial symbionts is widely developing techniques to discover novel natural products biosynthetic genes and metabolites. The ever rapidly increasing available whole-genomes of microbes has revealed plethora of secondary metabolites encoding genes than discovered metabolites. The development in genome sequencing technology has triggered the natural products biosynthesis genetics and biochemistry. This review, highlights biosynthetic potential of marine symbiotic microorganisms and their metabolites.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001646
Title: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of new 5-ethoxy-2-mercapto benzimidazole derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: In this study, new derivatives were synthesized from 5-ethoxy-2-mercapto benzimidazole by alkylation, acylation, Schiff base formation and vilsmier-haack reaction (ring closure), and in a good yield. Methods:  The reaction of 5-ethoxy-2-mercapto benzimidazole with different types of alkyl halides to produce S-alkyl derivatives (thioether),1a-c.  The reflux of the parent compound with ethyl bromoacetate, afforded the thioester form of 5-ethoxy2-mercapto benzimidazole derivative, and by treating with benzoyl chloride, lead to the formation of the N-benzoyl thioester form 2. The formation of the thiazolo ring-containing compound 3 was done by equimolar reflux of aliphatic ketone and 5-ethoxy-2-mercapto benzimidazole.The compounds 4a-d  were prepared by the reaction of the parent compound with p-substituted phenacyl bromides, then by addition of 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine produced the Schiff bases 5a-d.  The pyrazole derivatives 6a-d produced by using vilsmier-Haack reaction, by the treatment of 5a-d with phosphorous oxychloride and DMF. New series of compounds 7a-d and 8  were obtained by the reaction of 4a-d with benzoyl chloride and acetic anhydride, respectively. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by using Agar Diffusion Well Assay. The four types of bacteria used to evaluate the in-vitro antibacterial activity were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. All the titled compounds characterized and identified by elemental microanalysis, I.R, and 1HNMR spectroscopic study. It was found that all the results showed good agreements with the proposed chemical structures of the synthesized compounds. Results:  All the new compounds have distinctive and highest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, especially 6b showed the maximum antibacterial activity against Staph. aureus at a concentration of 100µg/ml,  while the compound 7b exhibited the maximum antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram–negative bacteria at a concentration of 100µg/ml. Conclusion: The results illustrated good preliminary antibacterial activity of the new 5-ethoxy-2-mercapto benzimidazole derivatives, especially 6b and 7b, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-HM-00001644
Title: Antianxiety activity of Carissa congesta weight leaves
Category: Herbal medicine
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the antianxiety activity of various extracts of Carissa congesta leaves. In the present investigation, leaves of the plant were extracted using solvents in order of increasing polarity viz., petroleum ether (60-800C), chloroform,ethyl acetate and ethanol. All the crude extracts were evaluated for anti-anxiety activity in mice using elevated plus maze apparatus. Among all these extracts, ethyl acetate and ethanolic extract exhibited significant anti-anxiety activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg in mice with respect to control as well as standard (diazepam, 4 mg/kg).It was observed that at the dose of 400 mg/kg dose the Ethyl acetate and Ethanolic extract shows increase the time spent and the number of arm entries in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. As phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract showed presence of polyphenols, i.e., flavonoids and tannins, thus, these constituents might be responsible for anxiolytic potential of Carissa congesta.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001404
Title: Comparative Study of Binding Properties of Lipidium sativum Seed Mucilage with Methyl cellulose and Gelatin
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To compare the binding capabilities of Lepidium sativum seed mucilage (LSM) with standard binders i.e. methyl cellulose and gelatin as binder in uncoated tablet dosage form in similar experimental conditions. Method: We isolated seed mucilage from Lepidium sativum seeds and prepared different tablet formulations with varying concentration of LSM (0.5% w/w to 5% w/w) as binder. Similar formulation were prepared using methyl cellulose and gelatin as binder in same concentrations i.e. 0.5% w/w to 5 % w/w. All three batches of tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique and performance were compared in terms of their official tests (hardness, weight variation, friability, drug assay, disintegration time, dissolution profile) prescribed by Indian Pharmacopoeia 2007. Results: LSM in concentration from 1% to 5 % w/w of tablet weight produced tablets with acceptable hardness and friability. All the formulations disintegrated within 15 minutes and releases more than 80 % drug within 20 minutes in phosphate buffer when tested with in-vitro dissolution apparatus. Geltin produced almost similar results at same concentrations when compared to LSM as binder although methyl cellulose produced harder tablets and disintegration time was also found to be on higher side in comparison with LSM and gelatin at same concentrations. Conclusion: LSM can be used in uncoated tablets as binder in concentration 1%-5% w/w. It is a good alternative to gelatin but it may not be used in place of methyl cellulose as binder in same concentration.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001643
Title: Perceptions about oral liquid medication dosing devices and dosing errors by caregivers of hospitalized children
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To evaluate oral liquid medication dosing errors in pediatric patients by his/her caregivers before and after educational intervention and perception about liquid oral medication measuring devices. Material and methods: This was a prospective and experimental study carried out at paediatric ward, Jivraj Mehta hospital Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Dosing measurement accuracy of the parents/guardian was evaluated by proposing them to select different measuring devices (traditional /manual kitchen spoon, scaled cup, syringes etc.) to measure liquid dose of selected liquid medicine. Frequency of preference and ability to measure accurate liquid dose i.e. 5ml were evaluated in pre and post education phase. Likert scale was used to rate the response while % of measuring error was calculated for change in measurement of liquid before and after education. Results: Total 128 respondents participated in study. Respondents’ use of dosing cup (n=116) outnumbered the kitchen spoon (n=2) and oral Syringe (n=10). There was a significant decrease in mean medication error post education compared to pre education (2.23, 7.50, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Parents/caregivers were more likely to measure an acceptable dose with calibrated dosing cup and cap of the bottle as compared to other measuring devices. Educational intervention is essential to improve liquid dose measurement errors. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001642
Title: A study on the Outcomes of Modified Tight Glucose Control for the Management of Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased surgical morbidity and mortality.Its relatively high risk may be related to the level of perioperative hyperglycemia. Thisstudy was aimed to compare the outcomes of patients undergoing open cardiac surgery byglucose control in two ways: modified tight versus conventional method. Methods: This open-labeled, randomized control trial was conducted on 75diabetic patients (18-70 years old) with ASA II- III undergoing open cardiac surgery from Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. The patients were randomly divided into modified tight control(Blood Sugar maintained between 100-120 mg/dl) and conventional method (Blood Sugar < 200mg/dl). Primary end points included: hospitalmortality, sternal wound infection, duration of mechanical ventilation, cardiacarrhythmia, cerebrovascular attack and acute renal failure. The secondary end point waslength of ICU staying. Complications after 30 days of surgery were recorded. We used student’s t test, chi-squareand repeated measurement tests. Results: Although the trend of change in blood glucose during surgery and in ICU was notsignificantly different between groups, blood sugar measurement showed a significantdifference at the different times (P<0.001). In terms of primary end pointsandsecondary end pointwere not significantly different between two groups. The occurrence of hypoglycemiawas low in both groups (one patient in each group) and were not significantly different between two groups.Hypokalemia was the most prominent sideeffect in the 34 patients of modified tight control group compared with eight patients in theconventional group (P<0.001). After 30 days sternal wound infection was seen in1 patient oftreatment group versus 7 in control group (P<0.05), which was significant. Conclusion: Modified tight control of blood glucose close tonormal values during cardiac surgery was associated with decreased occurrence of episodes of hypoglycemia andhyperglycemic complications.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001639
Title: Phytochemical studies on Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) from Kashmir Himalaya using GC-MS
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background:Cichorium intybus commonly called as chicory, coffee weed and blue sailor’s succory is traditionally used for the treatment of almost every disease particularly diseases related to heart, kidney and liver. Method: 0.2 g of the powdered seed, roots, stem and flower samples of Cichorium intybus from Kashmir Himalaya was equilibrated with 200 d/m of Cichorium intybus methanol for 24 h, separately. Supernatant was later reduced by heating to 2 d/m. The concentrated methanolic extracts were further subjected to GC-MS analysis.  Results: The GC-MS analysis determined the presence of 109 compounds from different parts of Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) in which 24 compounds were identified from seed, 22 compounds from root, 28 compounds from stem and 35 compounds from flower. The major metabolites from seed were 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (35.03) and n-Hexadecanoic acid (34), from root were n-Hexadecanoic acid (24.37), 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester (1.6), from stem were n-Hexadecanoic acid (35.14), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (16.01) and from flower were 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (33.26), 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (26.86) in terms of their percent area.  Conclusion: This study helps to predict the formula and structures of metabolites which can be further used in drug formulations and chicory from Kashmir Himalaya can be considered as potent candidate for pharmaceutical sector.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001641
Title: Phytochemical and Biological Study of Some Constituents of Asparagus sprengeri Regel., Growing in Egypt
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Asparagus sprengeri  Regel. is an ornamental small shrub native to coastal southeastern South Africa. The main objective of this study was the phytochemical and biological evaluation of ethanolic extract of non-flowering aerial parts of Asparagus sprengeri Regel., growing in Egypt. Methods: The investigation included analysis of the lipoidal compounds in the unsaponifiable and fatty acids fractions by GC/MS. Quantitative estimation of polyphenols, flavonoids and saponins by colourimetric methods. HPLC analysis of polyphenolic compounds was undergone, in addition to LC/MS of the saponins. Isolation of flavonoids was undergone using chromatographic methods and the identification was accomplished on the basis of their spectral data. Results: The unsaponifiable fraction was composed mainly of hydrocarbons (52.99%) and alcohols (31.54%). Moreover, the fatty acids fraction was composed of saturated (52.12%) and unsaturated (21.61%) ones. Determination of total polyphenols (9.83%) and flavonoids (1.87%) was undergone. HPLC analysis of polyphenols revealed that flavonoids were detected in higher amounts than phenolic acids. Extraction, isolation and identification of three flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and genistin) was achieved. Saponins (2.44%) were determined, while LC/MS of the n-butanol fraction indicated the presence of sprengerinin A,B,C&D. The ethanolic (70%) extract exhibited moderate antioxidant (IC50 = 56 µg ml-1) and potent cytotoxic activities. The most potent activity was that on colon cell line (IC50 = 3.73 µg ml-1), followed by the breast cell line (IC50 = 10.20 µg ml-1). Conclusion:  Thus, non-flowering aerial parts of Asparagus sprengeri Regel. could be considered as a potential source for different bioactive metabolites. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001638
Title: Terminalia arjuna aqueous bark extract protects against cadmium acetate-induced injury to rat liver and heart through antioxidant mechanisms: a dose response study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Cadmium-acetate is a potent hepatotoxic and cardiotoxic heavy metal, which induces oxidative stress by disturbing a number of antioxidant enzymes in rat heart and liver. Terminalia arjuna is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger against cadmium acetate induced oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of Terminalia arjuna aqueous bark extract in protecting against the cadmium induced oxidative injury in rat heart and liver. Materials and method: The dose and time dependent changes were studied in heart and liver of male Wister rats following the subcutaneous administration of increasing concentrations of cadmium acetate (0.22, 0.44, and 0.88 mg/kg body weight), in every alternate day for a period of 5, 10, and 15 days respectively, to determine the maximum effective dose of cadmium acetate without any mortality. Pre-treatment of rats with aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) was also studied by oral administration with the increasing doses (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg BW) against cadmium-acetate (0.44mg/kg BW, s.c.,) induced oxidative stress in rat heart and liver to determine the minimum effective dose of TA which can be protected these alterations in both the organs in a concentration dependent manner. The alterations in the activity of the different bio-markers of hepatic and cardiac damage, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and activities of the antioxidant enzymes were studied. Histo-pathological and histo-chemical alterations were also studied through H-E staining, PAS staining and Picrosirius red staining respectively. Structural integrity of hepatic and cardiac tissue were also studied through scanning electron microscopy. Results: The studies revealed that pre-treatment of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna protects the biomarkers of organ damage, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, from getting altered in the rat heart and liver tissue following treatment with cadmium acetate.  Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that the treatment of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna might be beneficial to alleviate cadmium induced toxicity in rat heart and liver.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001637
Title: Standardization of the plant Epaltes pygmaea DC. (Asteraceae)
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: To establish the pharmacognostic parameters using pharmacopoeial standards for correct identity of whole plant of Epaltes pygmaea DC. (Asteraceae).  Methods: In pharmacognostic studies different types of evaluations were carried out that focus on taxonomy of the species, macro- and microscopic characters, physico-chemical parameters, fluorescence analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and HPTLC finger print compared with marker compound stigmosterol. Results and discussion: The taxonomically it is a small annual herb, 8 to 20 cm high, minutely winged branched stem with aromatic roots, leaves are alternate, linear, lanceolate to oblong,  flower pink, solitary, terminal, heterogamous. Microscopically the plant showed the presence of bi or tri-radiate wings of the stem, leaves microscopy indicated the presence of anisocytic type of stomata, thin walled with small spindle shaped cells of leaf epidermis, powder microscopy showed vessel elements with short tail, vertical chain of elongated parenchyma cells with prominent simple pits, large, spherical and spiny pollen grains. Plant extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, phenols, tannin and sugars. The standard marker stigmosterol detected with Rf 0.54 in alcohol extract has been confirmed by TLC/HPTLC finger print. Conclusions: The study provides the scientific data for the proper identification and establishment of standards for the use of Epaltes pygmaea. These information will also be helpful to differentiate Epaltes pygmaea from closely related other species.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-SM-00001636
Title: Standardization of Nandhi Mezhugu, a poly herbomineral Siddha formulation
Category: Siddha Medicine
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Standardisation is essential for scientific validation of any poly herbo mineral formulation. Nandhi mezhugu is a classical Siddha herbo mineral formulation has indication for many diseases such as all types of arthritis, male and female reproductive tract disorders, different types of cancers eg ovarian cancer, testicular cancer, cancer penis, cancer cervix, oral and cheek cancers, fistula, hydrocele, chronic ulcers, skin diseases eg eczema, leucoderma, diabetic carbuncle, chronic ulcers, Hanson’s disease etc. Aim: The aim of this study was to standardise Nandi mezhugu. Materials and Methods: The drug was prepared as per the procedure mentioned in Siddha Literature and then subjected to the following analysis such as physico chemical, heavy metals, pesticide residue, aflatoxin, qualitative phytochemical, qualitative inorganic analysis, TLC photo documentation and HPTLC finger print profile. Results and conclusion: The drug was free of microbial contamination and aflatoxins and pesticide residues. Hence the drug was safe for consumption.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001635
Title: Synthesis of 1-(5-Substituted Benzofuran-2-yl)-3-Arylurea Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Benzofurans are very interesting heterocycles, which are available in nature and show a wide range of pharmacological activities viz antifungal, antibacterial, antitumor, antimalarial, molluscicidal and antioxidant activity etc.  Methods: A convenient method for the preparation of 1-(5-substituted benzofuran-2-yl)-3-arylurea derivatives 6a-6r have been developed. The target compounds 1-(5-nitrobenzofuran-2-yl)-3arylurea 6a-6i and 1-(5-bromobenzofuran-2-yl)-3arylurea 6j-6r has been prepared by reacting 5-nitrobenzofuran-2-carbonyl azide 5a or 5-bromobenzofuran-2-carbonyl azide 5b with aromatic amines in reasonable overall yields. All the synthesized compounds were characterized using FT-IR, 1H NMR and mass spectrometry and were subjected to antimicrobial screening against two Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger) using two fold dilution method. Results and discussion: All the values of FTIR, 1H NMR and mass spectra were found to be prominent. The results indicate that synthesized compound 6d showed potent antimicrobial activity comparable to standard. Conclusion: The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic data and antimicrobial activities of synthesized compounds were reported. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001634
Title: Evaluation of the protective effects of Sapindus trifoliatus aqueous extract on vincristine induced neuropathic pain in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Evidences have been generated over past years that saponins possess anti-convulsant, neuroprotective, anti-neuralgic, anti-nociceptive, anti-migraine and anti-inflammatory effects. It has been documented that saponin is one of the major constituents in aqueous extract of Sapindus trifoliatus. Present study investigated the protective effects of Sapindus trifoliatus aqueous extract (AE-ST) on vincristine induced neuropathic pain in rats.  Materials and methods: Seven groups, each comprising of six SD rats, were employed in the present study. Painful neuropathy was induced in rats by administration of vincristine sulfate (75 µg/kg, i.p.) for 10 consecutive days. Spontaneous, mechanical, chemical and thermal nociceptive sensations were assessed at different time intervals i.e., 0, 3, 7, 9, 14 and 21. Biochemical alterations were determined on 21st day along with histopathological evaluations. Vincristine rats were co-administered aqueous extract of Sapindus trifoliatus (300, 100 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) and pregabalin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for 21 consecutive days. The data from the behavioral results were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferonni’s post test. Data from the biochemical results were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple range test. Comparison results p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.  Results: Administration of AE-ST significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated vincristine induced development of painful behavioral, biochemical and histological changes in a dose dependent manner similar to that of standard drug pregabalin as compared to vincristine control.  Conclusion: On the basis of data in hand, it may be concluded that AE-ST has potential ameliorating role in vincristine induced neuropathy which may be attributed to its multiple actions including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001633
Title: Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves biosurfactants in Hydrocarbon degradation of oil contaminated water
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains of hydrocarbon degradation by producing biosurfactant has been investigated. Methods: The water samples were collected from reservoir receiving soybean oil waste and detected for the presence of P. aeruginosa  by 16S rRNA having potential of biosurfactant production when tested by oil spreading and emulsification assays. These isolates also recorded for the hydrocarbon degradation when tested by the COD reduction. Results and Discussion: The water bodies receiving heavy load of soybean oil was found to be positive for the several strains of P. aeruginosa capable of degrading hydrocarbon due to production of biosurfactant with different inherent capabilities. Conclusion: Isolated P. aeruginosa strains were found to be capable of degrading hydrocarbon due to overproduction of biosurfactant when tested in lab conditions. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001632
Title: Green nanoparticles synthesized from roots of Datura metel and evaluation of anti microbial activity
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Metal Nanoparticles are explored in recent years as an alternative approach to effectively kill drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the metal of choice for anti microbial agents. In this study, phytochemicals extracted from roots of Datura metel using n-hexane as solvent by Soxhlet extract technique. The extract were treated with silver nitrate and kept in the dark conditions for 48 hrs, for the appearance of colour change. The Plasmon peak was observed at 448nm. The physical appearance of these silver  nanoparticles was characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, SEM, EDAX, TEM and X-ray diffraction techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of AgNPs, with a mean size of 50-85 nm. EDAX results confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles in the adsorption peak of  2.30 keV. Nanoparticles average size determined by TEM studies and in identified in the range of  50-80nm. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was tested against two micro-organisms using the disk diffusion method. The results reveal that silver nanoparticles synthesized using Datura metel root extract have potential antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001631
Title: Simultaneous HPLC Determination of Lidocaine-Epinephrine-Tetracaine in a topical solution for pediatric anesthesia
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Background: A simple and rapid reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of lidocaine, epinephrine and tetracaine in specific pharmaceutical children anaesthetic solution.  Method: The elution was done with a mobile phase gradient composed of methanol:phosphate buffer(v:v) on Chromosil C18 column (4 × 150 mm, 3 ìm particle size). The gradient elution started with 40% (V/V) methanol, ramped up linearly to 55% in 8 min, then kept constant until the end of the run. The mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The wavelength detector was set at 254 nm for lidocaine and tetracaine and 220 nm for epinephrine. Results and discussion: Retention times for lidocaine, epinephrine and tetracaine were around 3.058 min, 1.867 min and 6.917 min respectively. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed HPLC procedure were statistically validated according to the respect of linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, repeatibility, reproducibility, detection and quantification limits. Linear ranges were establish between 1,2-2,8mg/mL for lidocaine (r2=0,9973), 15-35μg/mL for epinephrine (r2= 0,9858) and 150-350μg/mL for tetracaine (r2=0,9968). Conclusion: This is the first time that a study combining simultaneous routinely determination of these three compounds has been performed in lidocaine, epinephrine and tetracaine paediatric anaesthetic solution.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001630
Title: GC-MS profile of Biosurfactant producing and Hydrocarbon degrading P. aeruginosa NGB4 in liquid culture system
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The ability of biosurfactant and hydrocarbon degrading capability of the P. aeruginosa NGB4 has been evident by GC -MS profiling. Materials and Methods: Industrial waste water supplemented with soybean oil, P. aeruginosa CFU set at 2 x 108 per ml has been tested for the formation of biosurfactant and metabolites under laboratory studies in liquid culture systems and further identified by GC-MS analysis. Results and Discussion: The ability of P. aeruginosa NGB4 to form biosurfactant found to enhance the degradation capability of the waste water which has resulted in faster degradation and confirmed by number of intermediate metabolites formed. Conclusion: Potential feature of P. aeruginosa NGB4 for hydrocarbon degradation by virtue of biosurfactant production has been elucidated which could be utilized in waste water hydrocarbon degradation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001629
Title: Formulation and evaluation of antidandruff shampoo
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Shampooing is the most common  form of hair treatment to remove dirt, grease and debris from the hair, scalp and other parts of  body without damaging the natural gloss of hair and to keep the hair fragrant, lustrous, soft and manageable. The shampoo is prepared by using two Antidandruff agents such as Sulphur and Benzoic acid. The other ingredients used are sodium lauryl sulphate as surfactant, urea as solubilizing agent, sodium EDTA as chelating agent, guar gum as foam stabilizer and thickening agent, tween 80, distilled water is used as vehicle. It was evaluated for various tests and the ranges were in acceptable limits. The pH range was 6.3 to 6.8, physical appearance was pale yellow, The percentage (%) of solid contents ranges from 22.3 to 26.7, viscosity was in the range of 1209 to 1729, surface tension was 31.16 to 34.19 and foam value 143 to 171. The anti-microbial activity was done by using staphylococcus aureus, The zone of inhibition by 1% solution using Sulphur : Benzoic acid in the ratio of 1: 1.25 have shown 3.1mm of inhibitory action.  The present research emphasizes about the preparation & evaluation of synthetic antidandruff cosmetic shampoo.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001628
Title: Counteracting the Arthritis : A Retrospection of Methotrexate Sustained Release System
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Aim of review is to treat the arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto-immune joint disorder involving pain and inflammation. Various drugs are used for pain management and relief from arthritis with single and multiple dose therapy. Different drugs are especially suitable for achieving controlled and delayed release profile with low risk of dose dumping. These systems have received great attention of thus increasing patient compliance and economic feasibility and avoiding drug associated side effects. Present review mainly deals with the problem of rheumatoid arthritis in pain management, various approaches to overcome this and specifically explore the possibilities to apply modified drug delivery systems for this purpose.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001626
Title: Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant evaluation of 2-(2-substituted) naphthalene-1,4-dione derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: 1,4- naphthoquinone (Lawsone) are widely distributed in nature and have been used since ancient times in traditional medicine. Lawsone has been used as a dye, and both its natural form and synthetic derivatives exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, antitumor, antimalarial, molluscicidal and antioxidant activity. Methods: 1,4- naphthoquinone (Lawsone) was isolated from the leaves of lawsonia inermis by using pH gradient method. A convenient synthesis of 2-substituted amino naphthalene-1,4-dione (3a-e) has been achieved by reaction of  isolated 1,4- naphthoquinone with substituted aniline in the presence of ethanol and evaluated for in- vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH model. The structure of the final analogues has been confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR and mass spectra. All the values of elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR and mass spectra were found to be prominent. Results and discussion: The results indicate that synthesized compound 3d having IC50 75.39 ± 4.12 mg/ml showed potent antioxidant activity comparable to standard ascorbic acid (IC50 45.54 ± 3.06 mg/ml). Conclusion: This study suggests that leaves of Lawsonia inermis have bioactive compounds for a new antioxidant drug development.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001625
Title: Eucalyptus genus: a review
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees (and a few shrubs) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. This review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological Activities of Eucalyptus species which were performed by widely different methods.  Literature indicates various Eucalyptus Species  possesses analgesic, antifungal, antiinflamatory, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antioxidative properties. Literature also indicates various other effect of  Eucalyptus species  such as  Antiviral, Antitumour, antihistaminic, anticancer cytochrome p450  inhibitor and hepatoprotective effect have also been reported by many  Researcher. The present review articles critically discusses some Eucalyptus Species and about their Chemical constituents and Biological activities. This review indicate that  Eucalyptus species have potential therapeutic effects.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001624
Title: Phytochemical profiling and histochemical localization in leaf and stem of Trichosanthes cucumerina (L) var. cucumerina with reference to the influence of plant age and geographical variations
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The study report comprises the results of an investigation on phytochemical evaluation, and histochemical localization in leaf and stem of medicinal species - T. cucumerina (L) var. cucumerina. This medicinal herb has wide application in folkloric medicine and Ayurveda owing to its antiinflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and antihelmintic potential. It is procured on a range of 35 -40 tonnes per year by various Ayurvedic pharmaceutical firms in Kerala for preparing herbal formulations. Parameters studied are the assessment of the efficacy of different extractant solvents in release of plant secondary metabolites, preliminary qualitative and quantitative analysis and evaluation of the occurrence and pattern of distibution of phytochemicals in tissues of leaf and stem through histochemical localization. The stem samples from two localities were compared for the influence of climatic and edaphic conditions on quantity of phytochemicals. Besides, these a comparison on stem of different maturity level (1 year and 2 years old) was also evaluated to assess the impact, if any, of the metabolic state of plant on quantity of secondary metabolites. Extraction of dried and powdered plant parts was carried out successively in five different solvents– petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The results of the study suggested that among the solvents, methanol and water were effective extractants in which most of the common secondary metabolites –alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, terpenoids and saponins – were released. Quantitative analysis of the methanolic and aqueous extracts concluded that both stem and leaf contain appreciable quantity (mg/g tissue) of alkaloids, phenolics and tannins in comparison to flavonoids and terpenoids. Studies on histochemical localization carried out using Wagner’s reagent concluded that alkaloids are mostly located in the parenchyma cells bordering the vascular bundles of stem and petiole. Flavonoids, localized with NaOH revealed that they were marked as a distinct yellow band in the sub hypodermal layer of stem. Tannin localization with FeCl3 also suggested their storage in parenchyma cells.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001623
Title: Effect of a model lipophilic compound on the phase behaviour of hydrophilic self-micro-emulsifying lipid formulations
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background:There has been growing interest in the self-emulsifying lipid technology in recent years as an approach to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble compounds. Nonetheless, for the design of successful lipid formulations with a potential to maximize the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs, key elements in the lipid composite in relation to the physicochemical state of drug after dispersion needs to be optimized. Methods:In this study, various lipid formulations were optimized for oil-in-water micro-emulsion drug delivery systems. The effect of Ibuprofen (a model lipophilic drug) on the emulsification behavior of these systems was also investigated by constructing ternary phase equilibrium diagrams using dynamic phase behavior study method. Results and Discussion: Optimum self-micro-emulsifying systems were obtained by using oil blends of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 308} at ratio of 5:5 in the case of Cremophor RH40 and 4:6 for Tagat S2 or Tagat S Ternary phase equilibrium diagrams reveal extended regions of L2 phase when no drug was added to the lipid mixtures. However, in the case of lipid formulations containing Ibuprofen at 100mg/g, small limited areas of L2 phase was observed which suggests that the drug can interfere in the mechanistic processes of emulsification. Conclusion: in order to design successful self-micro-emulsifying lipid systems, pre-formulation studies which affect the performance of resultant dispersions of these systems with and without drug should be carried using suitable emulsification media.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001621
Title: Design, Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Mononuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Two new mixed ligand ruthenium(II) complexes of the type [Ru(bpy)2(L)](PF6)2, where 2-[ 4,5-bis(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-1H- imidazol -2-yl]-1H-benzimidazole (1) and 2-[ 4,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-1H-benzimidazole (2) have been synthesized. Methods: Both the complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, UV-visible, IR and ESI-MS techniques. Cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry methods have been employed to study the redox behavior of complexes. Results and Discussion: Electrophoretic studies showed that the complexes are able to cleave supercoiled plasmid DNA more effectively in the presence of light at the wavelength of 480 nm. Moreover the newly synthesized complexes show better antimicrobial activity compared to that of the ligands. Cytotoxic activity against MCF7 cancer cell lines has been studied using MTT assay. Conclusion: Both the complexes exhibit significant biological activities against DNA, microbes and MCF7 cancer cell lines.  

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001614
Title: Design and synthesis of acridone-4-carboximide derivatives and their cytotoxic studies in cancer cells
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In search of developing potent cytotoxic molecules we have designed and synthesized novel scaffold by linking amines to acridone moiety. Novel acridone-4-carboximide derivatives were evaluated for their cytotoxic potentials against drug sensitive, resistant breast cancer cell lines (MCF7/wt, MCF7/mr and MCF7/dx) by using SRB assay. Moreover, Protein ligand interactions of acridone-4-carboxamide derivatives with P-glycoprotein was performed.  Compound 1 and 2 have shown relatively potent cytotoxic activity among the derivatives against sensitive, resistant cell lines. Further, compound 8 has shown good cytoxicity against sensitive cells, but it has poor activity in resistant cells. Perhaps, these derivatives were substrate for MDR pumps P-gp and BCRP. The predicted dock score was in the range of -10.48 to -4.71 attributed for compound 1 and 5 respectively. Protein residues such as TYR953, LEU339 and TYR310 were the major contributors for the H-bonding with docked ligands. Compound 1 showed 2 H-bonds, one each with TYR953, and TYR310 with a bond distance of 2.33Å, and 1.81Å respectively. Hydrogen bonds with both the residues were formed with 2 carbonyl oxygen. Additionally, dominant hydrophobic interactions were formed each between a phenyl ring of acridone nucleus and PHE983, toluene nucleus and PHE72 an TYR953.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001616
Title: Resveratrol in combination with Green Tea reduces myocardial infarct area and improves histological changes in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Cardiovascular problem is a growing menace which is affecting people globally. Isoproterenol creates oxidative stress that leads to myocardial infarction. The extent of infarcted area in heart reflects the severity of toxicity. Histopathological changes induced by Isoproterenol become another tool for evaluating the effectiveness of the test drugs. In this study we therefore have considered these parameters to evaluate the effectiveness of our test drugs resveratrol, green tea and their combination. Methods: Thirty animals (n=5) were taken and randomly divided into Control, Isoproterenol (ISO), Resveratrol (RES) + ISO, Green Tea Extract (GTE) + ISO, RES + GTE+ ISO and RES + GTE groups. Rats were treated with the test drugs for thirty days and with ISO on 29th and 30th day. Animals were sacrificed on 31st day and histopathological studies and infarct size calculations were performed. Results and Discussions: Myofibril disintegration, vacuolation and pyknotic nucleus were observed in ISO treated rats which were considerably reversed by resveratrol, green tea extract and by their combination. The size of infarcted area in the heart of ISO treated rats was also significantly reduced when the rats were treated with these test drugs. Conclusion: Resveratrol and green tea extract both showed cardio protection in terms of restoration of histological changes and reduction of infarcted area but their combination was found to be better than them.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001613
Title: Natural Mucoadhesive Material Based Buccal Tablets of Nitrendipine-Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In present investigation an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate oral buccoadhesive tablets of Nitrendipine using some natural mucoadhesive material like Zizyphus maurtiana(Jujube), Tamarind seed polysaccharide(TSP),also synthetic polymers like sodium CMC and HPMCK15M was tried .Prepared buccal tablets were comparatively evaluated for their physicochemical parameters like weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity test. The surface pH,swelling index,bioadheive strength ,in-vitro residence time ,ex-vivo permeation test also carried out which has been important  aspect for success of mucoadhesive buccal tablets all these parameters were evaluated shows comparatively better results in formulation containing natural mucoadhesive material than synthetic polymers. In vitro drug release rate of Nitrendipine prepared from this material was studied in isotonic phosphate buffers solution of pH 6.6 at 37 ± 0.50c from this it was found that mucoadhesive buccal tablets prepared from natural mucoadhesive material exhibited extended drug (85%) release up to 10 hrs compared to tablets prepared from synthetic material like sodium CMC and HPMCK15M.Drug release from tablets followed non-fickian diffusion controlled and zero order kinetics pattern up to 10 hrs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-BGSA-00001590
Title: BLASTN Based Methodology to Classify Benzene Degrading Uncultured Bacteria into Bacterial Species using 16S rRNA Gene
Category: Bioinformatics (Genome & Sequence Analysis )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Benzene degradation is an important factor in pollution treatment studies as benzene is listed as frequently used chemical in an industry. Methods: During investigation we have referred several uncultured bacteria bringing about the degradation of benzene but cannot be identified for its taxonomical classification. We have developed a protocol using BLASTN and its associated 16S rRNA database, using it a precise bacterial species could be linked to the uncultured bacteria investigated by sequence homology. Results and Discussion:  Here we have reported 102 bacterial sp. with its genus and species being capable of degrading benzene which was previously being categorized as uncultured bacteria as per the information available in public nucleotide database. Conclusion: BLASTN based protocol can successfully classify the uncultured bacterium based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence by using the 16S rRNA gene database instead of using the nr database linked in BLAST program.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001568
Title: Antimicrobial activities of Coleus aromaticus Benth.
Category: Microbiology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Medicinal plants play a vital role to preserve human health. Currently plants are attracting more attention for new drugs as human diseases caused by antibiotic resistant microorganisms have gained worldwide concern. Coleus aromaticus Benth. (syn. Coleus amboinicus Lour. or Plectranthus amboinicus Lour. Spreng) is an aromatic plant species from the family Lamiaceae having therapeutic and nutraceutical importance. It is large succulent aromatic perennial herb found throughout India. It has wide medicinal properties including antimicrobial activities. The leaves of the plant are bitter, acrid and were being widely used traditionally for the treatment of severe bronchitis, asthma, diarrhoea, epilepsy, vaginal discharge, renal and vesical calculi, fever, etc. It is reported to act as an antilithotic, chemopreventive, antiepileptic and antioxidant. The juice of leaves has been used in wound healing and swelling disorder by the tribal people. This article is an effort to compile the information reported on its antimicrobial activities.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001563
Title: Multivitamin plant: pharmacognostical standardization and phytochemical profile of its leaves
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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To explore the micro morphology and physio chemical parameters of the leaves of Sauropus androgynus L. Merrill. (Euphorbiaceae). Macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed. Leaves: Stipules lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 1.5-3mm long. Petioles 2-4 mm long; leaf blade sub membranous or thin-papery, ovate-lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, 3-10cm long, 1.5-3.5 cm wide, base cuneate, rounded or truncate, apex acuminate; lateral veins 5-7 pairs, flattened adaxially, elevated abaxially, reticular nerves obscure. Microscopic evaluation revealed the Midrib of the leaf is flat on the adaxial side and triangular with conical abaxial part. The adaxial epidermis of the midrib is fairly distinct with squarish cells and abaxial epidermis has small radially oblong cells. The vascular bundle is single broadly top shaped and collateral. The xylem elements are several parallel lines they are thick walled and angular in outline phloem occurs in wide band beneath the xylem. The lamina has bifacial symmetry of the mesophyll and the midrib. The lamina has smooth and even surface. The adaxial epidermis has dilated rectangular cells and small squarish cells. The abaxial epidermis also has circular or spindle shaped dilated cells. The adaxial epidermis is apostomatic. The cuticle layer is fairly thick, smooth and highly waxy. The cells are random in orientation. The abaxial epidermal is stomatiferous. They are paracytic type with two unequal, parallel subsidiary cells for each stoma. The epidermal cells are amoeboid with highly wavy anticlinal walls. Vein islet numbers, vein termination numbers, stomatal number, stomatal index and other physico chemical tests like ash values, loss on drying, extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, proteins and aminoacids, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, sterols and absence of mucilage, saponin, glycosides, volatile oil and fixed oil. Microscopic analysis was informative and provides useful information in the botanical identification, standardization for purity & quality and immense value in authentication of the leaf.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001550
Title: Aldose reductase inhibitors from the fruits of Physalis peruviana Linn.- An In silico Approach
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The fruits of Physalis  peruviana Linn. have been widely used in the traditional medicine for various ailments. Recently, we have reported that the oral administration of Physalis peruviana Linn. fruit extract improves insulin sensitivity and ameliorates hyperglycemia in high-fat diet low dose STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Molecular docking, the technique primarily employed for predicting and analyzing the interactions between protein receptors and ligands, is now an integral aspect in drug discovery and development area. Hence, the present study was aimed to screen the identified phytoconstituents of Physalis peruviana L. fruit to identify the potent constituent attributing for its antidiabetic activity using insilico approach. Methods : HPLC analysis of the ethanolic extract of fruits was performed using Shimadzu HPLC system equipped with a diode array detector. Docking studies on the constituents were carried out using AutoDock 4.2 software against the aldose reductase receptor. Results: HPLC analysis indicated that the major flavonoids present in the fruit extract include kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin and rutin and their binding energy was found to be -12.89, -12.99,-13.31,  -14.84, respectively. The activity was comparable with fidarestat, a standard drug. Conclusion: The study indicates the presence of biologically active flavonoids in the fruit extract and their interactions with aldose reductase. The insilico data provide vital clues that can be used to design new molecules with improved activity for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001545
Title: Trigonelline [99%] protects against copper-ascorbate induced oxidative damage to mitochondria: an in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Fenugreek [Trigonella foenum graecum] (Linn.); family Papilionaceae], commonly known as Methi in Hindi and Bengali is a small annual herb which is cultivated throughout the world. It is commonly used as a dietary ingredient (spice) in India, Middle East, Egypt, North Africa and other parts of the world. It has long been used for several medicinal purposes in folk medicine. In the present study, trigonelline was isolated from the fenugreek seeds at 99% purity and the pure compound was found to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), in vitro.  Oxidative stress was generated, in vitro, by copper-ascorbate in mitochondria isolated from goat tissues like, heart, liver, brain, lung and kidney and the changes brought about in the levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, activities of Kreb’s cycle and respiratory chain enzymes, cardiolipin content, NADH autofluroscence, di-tyrosine fluorescence,  mitochondrial swelling and mitochondrial morphology was studied. Trigonelline [99%] when co-incubated was found to protect against copper-ascorbate induced oxidative stress mediated changes in mitochondria and antioxidant mechanisms appear to be associated with such protection. A dose-dependant protection was also evident. The results of the current study suggests that trigonelline [99%] may be considered as a future therapeutic antioxidant and may be used singly or as a co-therapeutic in the treatment of diseases associated with mitochondrial oxidative stress.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001524
Title: Synthesis and biological evaluation of new Thiadiazole analogues for anti-diabetic activity against Alloxan induced diabetes
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A  series  of  new   5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol  derivatives ( 1a-f)  were  synthesized  by  single  step method. All the synthesised compounds were evaluated for their anti -diabetic activity using Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) as reference drug. 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol was treated with substituted benzaldehyde    and acetanilide  derivatives  in  ethanol with catalytic amount of glacial acetic acid and HCl respectively, gives imine derivatives (Schiff bases). Total seven compounds were synthesised, among that compounds 1a, 1b and 1c shown significant activity (p< 0.0001). Acetanilide derivatives were not shown good activity as compare to standard drug Glibenclamide. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by physical (m.p., TLC) and spectral data (IR, NMR and Mass). The  dose selection  was made  on  the  basis  of  acute  oral  toxicity study  423 (50mg/kg). Alloxan (150mg/kg)   induced diabetic   model   was   used   for anti-diabetic activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001485
Title: Estra-1, 3, 5(10) - triene-3, 17 β-diol protects mitochondria against Cu-ascorbate induced oxidative damage in in vitro system: A novel therapeutic approach
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Cu-ascorbate is a well-established oxidative stress inducing agent in in vitro system. Terminalia arjuna is also a well known medicinal plant used as an anti-ischemic and cardiotonic agent for over three centuries in India. Estra-1, 3, 5(10) - triene-3, 17 β-diol (β-E) was identified as a component of the aqueous extract of bark of Terminalia arjuna. Aims and Objectives: To determine its antioxidant efficacy against cu-ascorbate induced oxidative stress in isolated goat liver mitochondria in an in vitro system. Methods: Goat liver mitochondria was incubated with Cu-ascorbate and different concentrations of β-E at pH 7.4 and 370C for 60 minutes. Then the reaction was stopped upon addition of EDTA. Enzymes and DNA from incubated mitochondria were isolated to determine the alteration in their activities and the status of the biomarkers of oxidative stress.  Results: Incubation of goat liver mitochondria with Cu-ascorbate at pH 7.4 and 370C has resulted in significant elevation of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation , DNA damage, activities of Mn-superoxide dismutase, xanthine oxidase along with a concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione level, activities of the Kreb’s cyle and electron transport chain linked enzymes which  is indicating towards the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, that was confirmed by Janus green B staining. All of these changes were prevented from being occurring on co-incubation of mitochondria with β-E.  Conclusion: From these above results it can be concluded that β-E possesses a significant antioxidant potential and provides protection to mitochondria against Cu-ascorbate induced oxidative damage.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001514
Title: Formulation development and evaluation of topical compositions comprising Arbutin, Tretinoin and Triamcinolone acetonide cream
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation is formulation development and evaluation of topical compositions comprising Arbutin, Tretinoin of Triamcinolone acetonide cream. The Arbutin, Tretinoin & Triamicoriolone acetonide were choosen as a novel drug in the present work of investigation due to wide spectrum of activity, low toxicity and effective against hyperpigmentation. The study aims to develop the triple combination cream due to the additive and synergistic effect of three component. The cream is formulated by using two phase system. The oil phase is melted at 90°C & then transferred into the heated 90°C aqueous phase. The mixture is stirred by using stirrer at 200 rpm. As the temperature decreases, the cream gets formed. The cream is formed by using the fusion technique. The formulation RD – E was found to be the best one which gives accurate result. The % drug content of Rationing was found to be 101.1% Triamcinolose acetonide was found 99% & Arbutin was 98%. The pH was found to be 4.21. Colour was found to be yellowish semisolid cream. The viscosity was found to be 63,000 cps. Spreadibility was found to be 11.30 & tube extrubility was found to be 93.80%.The result shown as per the stability study after three months. It gives the accurate and satisfactory result.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001495
Title: Novel Synthesis of Puriens analougues and Thieno[2,3-b] pyridine derivatives with anticancer and antioxidant activity
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Treatment of Sodium-3-(2,5-dichlorothiophene-3-yl) prop-3- oxo-1-en-1-olate 2 with aminopyrazoles 3 , aminotriazole 4 and aminotetrazole 5 was produced pyrazolopyrimidines 6, triazolopyrimidines 7 and tetrazolopyrimidines 8 derivatives respectively. These derivatives showed potent anti-tumor cytotoxic activity in vitro using Human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2) and anti-oxidant activity. also compound 2 was reacted with cyanoethanethioamide 9 , cyanoethaneamide 10 and 2-cyanoacetohydrazide 11 afforded 6-(2,5-dichlorothiophene-3-yl)-2-mercaptopyridine-3-carbonitrile 12, 6-(2,5-dichlorothio phene-3-yl)-1,2-dihydro-2-oxopyridine-3-carbonitrile 13 and 2-amino-6-(2,5-dichlorothiophene-3-yl)-1,2-dihydro-2-oxopyridine-3-carbonitrile 14 respectively. 6-(2,5-dichlorothiophene -3- yl ) - 1,2 – dihydro - 2- oxopyridine – 3 - carbonitrile  13 was reacted with different reagents to yield pyridinethiol derivatives 15,16 and thienopyridine 17,18,19.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 9, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000219
Title: Melatonin affords protection against myocardial ischemia-induced cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction: an in vivo study.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) is a health problem of global concern. The studies on myocardial ischemia induced changes in brain particularly cerebrum portion are scanty. Lacunae exist in the knowledge whether such changes can be protected by antioxidant(s). The present work was carried out to explore the ameliorating potential of melatonin against isoproterenol induced changes in tissue and mitochondria isolated from heart and brain of male Wistar rats. Methods: The adverse changes were induced by administering isoproterenol bitartrate subcutaneously at a dose of 25mg/kg body weight. Protective effects of melatonin was examined by administering melatonin at the dose of 40mg / kg body weight. After the treatment period, biomarkers of organ damage and oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of mitochondrial antioxidant as well as Kreb’s cycle enzymes, and tissue and mitochondrial morphology was studied. Results: Isoproterenol administration caused remarkable deleterious changes in oxidative stress biomarkers like lipid peroxidation level, reduced glutathione and protein carbonyl content of tissue and mitochondria. Moreover, isoproterenol unfavorably altered the activity of antioxidant enzymes like Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in mitochondria thus confirming the generation of oxidative stress in mitochondria. Altered activity of some of the important Kreb’s cycle enzymes indicated the disturbance in energy metabolism. The degeneration of mitochondria was observed by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence confocal microscopy. Melatonin pre-treatment successfully restored all the parameters to normal level at a dose of 40mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: Isoproterenol causes deleterious changes in cardiac and cerebrum portion of the brain tissue as well as the mitochondria and melatonin pre-treatment protects against such changes. Thus, therapeutic use of melatonin may be considered in treating cardiovascular diseases along with subsequent brain damages as there may be strong relationship between cardiovascular diseases and cognitive functioning of brain.

Cite this article as: Auroma Ghosh, Mousumi Dutta, Arnab Kumar Ghosh, Aindrila Chattopadhyay, Debajit Bhowmick and Debasish Bandyopadyay,Melatonin affords protection against myocardial ischemia-induced cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction: an in vivo study. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2015,9(2),105-118

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-0000163
Title: Ethyl acetate partitioning positively modulates antioxidant efficacy of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Terminalia arjuna (TA) is a well known medicinal plant widely used in herbal medicine for over centuries in India. Initially it was known as “hirdya”for its cardioprotecting and chest pain (induced by cardiac problem) reducing activity. The crude aqueous extract of this plant bark contains phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidines. The present study investigated the biochemical efficacy of TA after ethyl acetate partitioning in comparison with TA crude extract and identification of phytoconstituents retained in this ethyl acetate partitioned fraction (EAPF).The incubation of liver homogenate with Cu-ascorbate system showed a steep rise in lipid peroxidation level and a concomitant decline in reduced glutathione content, the two important biomarkers of oxidative stress. The crude aqueous bark extract of TA and, EAPF obtained from it, when co-incubated with Cu-ascorbate system separately, the latter showed a more pronounced dose-dependent protection in the liver homogenate than crude TA aqueous bark extract. Again the EAPF fraction of TA bark extract was found to scavenge •OH radical and superoxide anion (O2•-) radical more potently (almost 2 fold compared to crude TA aqueous extract) in a chemically defined system. Furthermore, HPLC analysis and UV-visible spectral scanning of this fraction indicated towards enrichment of phenolics and benzoic acid like compound. Finally, GC-MS analysis of the same fraction proved the presence of estra 1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol,â-carotene and benzoic acid,2,4-bis(trimethyl) like compounds that inspired us to consider the EAPF fraction as partially purified, which may have a novel therapeutic relevance for curing several types of diseases associated with involvement of oxidative stress.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001315
Title: Promoter hypermethylation of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the common cancer subtype in the world causing millions of deaths. The detection and analysis of these oral lesions are done through traditional biopsy detection method, which is painful and time taking. The major reason for the oral cancer were found to be smoking and tobacco chewing despite of the several other reasons which are responsible for cancer. Epigenetic changes are one of those changes which occurs due to environment and dietary factors. These epigenetic changes are reversible and can be detected through MS-PCR. Various tumor suppressor genes get hypermethylated cytosine and are in turn inactivated. These changes leads to the downregulation or silencing of the gene which leads to cancer. These tumor suppressor genes may play vital role in the diagnosis of cancer and provide better alternative as a diagnostic biomarker.

Cite this article as: Shantanu Gupta , Sandesh Kumar Patel , Meenakshi Jha, Anju Shrivastava , Abhimanyu Kumar Jha,Promoter hypermethylation of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),426-430.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001300
Title: Pharmacognostic studies on Persicaria odorata (Lour.) Sojak
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Persicaria odorata (Lour.) Sojak (Family: Polygonaceae), commonly known as ‘Vietnamese coriander’ or ‘Daun Laksa’ in Malaysia, often used in culinary and salads, is an important medicinal plant having its application in the traditional system of medicine in treating swelling and inflammation, diarrhoea and excessive bleeding, sores, ulcers and wounds. Earlier reported biological activities of the plant include algaecide,antidiabetic, antibacterial and antifungal, antioxidant and anticancer activities. In spite of several uses of this plant, there are no reports on the pharmacognostic studies about this plant in the literature. Methods: In the present paper, we report some pharmacognostic studies on the leaves using standard recommended procedures. Results and Discussion: The transverse section of the leaves showed the characteristics of a dorsiventral leaf with numerous oil glands present in the mesophyll region. Presence of uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes and calcium oxalate crystals (rosettes) were identified in the powder microscopy. The preliminary phytochemical screening of different extracts revealed presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, mucilages, proteins and amino acids respectively in the plant. Conclusion: The findings of the study can be useful in establishing pharmacognostic standards for the plant.

Cite this article as:Gouri Kumar Dash, Zahida Binti Zakaria,Pharmacognostic studies on Persicaria odorata (Lour.) Sojak,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),377-380.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001314
Title: Green synthesis of silver nanaoparticles from leaf extract of Cascabela thevetia, physicochemical characterisation and antimicrobial activity
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Since there is a great commercial demand for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which have wide applications in medicine and agriculture, the present work biosynthesis of AgNPs have been designed Objective: The present study involves the synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activity of Cascabela thevetia leaf extract mediated AgNPs. Materials and methods: The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-Ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infra red analysis (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Antimicrobial activity of the green synthesized nanoparticles was tested against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and selected pathogenic fungi Results: The leaf mediated silver nanoparticles has shown a single absorption spectrum at 438nm in UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The synthesized green AgNPs are crystalline in nature and mostly spherical in shape with an average size of 14.35nm. AgNPs have shown significant activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as selected pathogenic fungi. Conclusion: The AgNPs of Cascabela thevetia have exhibited antimicrobial property on selected human pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

Cite this article as: Bodaiah Bonigala, Usha Kiranmayi M, Vijayalakshmi M, KRS Sambasiva Rao, Ravi Varma A, Sudhakar Poda,Green synthesis of silver nanaoparticles from leaf extract of Cascabela thevetia, physicochemical characterisation and antimicrobial activity,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),410-418.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001484
Title: Phytochemical standardization of the leaves of a medicinal plant Cipadessa baccifera Roth Miq.
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The present study was undertaken for qualitative, quantitative estimation of phytochemicals and standardization of Cipadessa baccifera leaf and to develop HPTLC finger print profile for its alcoholic extract.  Methodology: The shade dried leaves were subjected to analyse physico-chemical parameters as per standard procedures. The qualitative analysis and quantitative estimation of flavonoids, tannins and phenols were carried out by subjecting the specific extraction procedures using UV – Visible Spectrophotometer. TLC/HPTLC finger print profile was developed by using suitable solvent system. Results and discussion:  Physicochemical analysis of the leaves showed moisture content (9.39 %); ash content (4.58%) acid insoluble ash (0.61%); water soluble extractive value (18.63 %) and alcohol soluble extractive value (13.56%). The qualitative analysis of alcohol extract showed positive test for triterpenoid, flavonoid, alkaloid, coumarin, saponin, tannin and phenol. Quantitative estimation of the plant observed 1.90 % of tannin, 4.79 % of flavonoid and 2.48% of phenol.  Conclusion: HPTLC finger print profile was shown the presence of various phytochemical constituents. The present study on physicochemical analysis, qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed the presences of various biologically active constituents in this plant. This information can be utilised for authentication of this plant for the use of drug preparation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001479
Title: In-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of different fractions of Heliotropium indicum L.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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 In this study we investigated the In-vitro Antioxidant (DPPH radical) and Antibacterial activity of different fractions (hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Heliotropium indicum was carried out against nine selected pathogenic bacteria. In preliminary phytochemical investigation of the plant extracts, quantified the total phenolic content by taking Gallic acid as a standard,  In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts by using cup plate method and In-vitro antioxidant activity by using DPPH free radical. In preliminary phytochemical investigation the plant extracts possesses Steroids, terpenoids, Saponins, Flavonoids, Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Amino acids and oils .Among the selected extracts ethyl acetate fraction of H.indicum showed high phenolic content and same fraction was showed more DPPH radical scavenging activity . For antibacterial activity, Ethyl acetate fraction showed good antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria except Priteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhimurium. The antibacterial activity was may be due to phenolic compounds present in the extracts. In the present study we found that the different fractions of Heliotropium indicum showed good Antioxidant and Antibacterial activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001374
Title: Antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical screening of aqueous methanol extracts of eight Nigerian medicinal and aromatic Plants
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: This study investigates the antibacterial activity, antioxidant potential and major classes of phytochemicals of eight Nigerian plant parts used in combination by traditional healers in Nigeria to treat cancer. Methods: The antibacterial activity was estimated by determination of the zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against fourteen species of bacteria. Results: The results indicated that the Xylopia aethiopica extract possessed the highest activity, active against 7 of the 10 Gram-positive bacterial strains and 3 Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniea and Escherichia coli), with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.313 to 1.0 mg/ml. The phytochemical screening revealed varied distribution of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and steroids in the powdered samples and their methanol extracts. In the antioxidant assay, Globimetula oreophila extract showed the strongest DPPH scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 0.38 ± 0.03 mg mL-1 and the highest FRAP value of 1100 ± 10.63 µmol. Fe2+ /g . Conclusions: This preliminary study shows that tested extracts demonstrated some level of antioxidant and antibacterial effects, thus suggesting that the plant parts may be used, after further characterization of active constituents and in-vivo studies, as possible natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents to control various human diseases.

Cite this article as: Esther O. Faboro, Wisut Wichitnithad, Olatomide A. Fadare, David A. Akinpelu, Craig A. Obafemi, Antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical screening of aqueous methanol extracts of eight Nigerian medicinal and aromatic Plants,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(7),523-532.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001327
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Sildenafil Citrate Fast Dissolving Tablets Using Crospovidone and Croscarmellose Sodium Superdisintegrants
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Sildenafil citrate is the drug of choice for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Bioavailability of Sildenafil citrate is 41% of orally administered dose. The objective of the present study was to develop fast dissolving tablets of Sildenafil citrate and improve its bioavailability, reduce the dosing frequency and thereby maximizing the therapeutic effect of the drug. Method: Sildenafil citrate fast dissolving tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using a combination of superdisintegrants, crospovidone and croscarmellose sodium along with various other excipients in order to confer a therapeutic enhancement on the drug and provide organoleptic characteristics in the final dosage form. Compatibility of the drug with the excipients was investigated by FTIR studies. Fourteen formulations (F1-F14) were prepared and subjected to various pre-compression and post-compression parameters such as average weight, weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, wetting time, in-vitro disintegration time, drug content, and in-vitro drug release. Results: The results of all the formulations were examined after subjecting to various evaluation parameters. Among all the formulations, batch F12 produced promising results in terms of very fast disintegration in 34.11 seconds and dissolving 100.6% in 45 minutes. Hence it was considered as the optimized formulation. Stability study and kinetic modeling were carried out on the optimized formulation, F12. The in-vitro disintegration time and in-vitro drug release of the optimized formulation were compared with the innovator product. Conclusion: Sildenafil citrate fast dissolving tablets were found to be a promising one when compared to the innovator product as they increase the bioavailability, rapid onset of action, avert the problems of swallowing and improve the patient compliance.

Cite this article as: Sandeep Kumar Reddy Adena, Kasi Viswanadh M, Ramya Krishna P, Anusha Induri, Formulation and Evaluation of Sildenafil Citrate Fast Dissolving Tablets Using Crospovidone and Croscarmellose Sodium Superdisintegrants,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(7),484-492.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001356
Title: Partial Purification, Characterization and Optimization of Anti-Leukemic Enzyme L-Asparaginase from Mangrove Soil Actinobacteria
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Marine biosphere is the earth’s richest actinobacterial habitat which is potent for the production of L-asparaginase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine. Method: An aggregate of 45 actinomycetes strains were isolated from a mangrove ecosystem situated in konaseema estuaries of Godavari River at Pallam village of Coastal Andhra Pradesh, of which 3 strains were recorded positive for the production of L-asparaginase. Isolation process was carried out using a selective ISP-2 medium. The potent strain was identified based on polyphasic taxonomical studies including 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and designated as JRS-27. Optimization for maximum production of L-asparaginase was executed by stabilizing the physico-chemical parameters. Protein purification was done partially through ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis, gel filtration chromatography by Sephadex G-100 and Ion exchange chromatography by CM Sephadex C-50. Results: The partially purified L-asparaginase enzyme showed a specific activity of 670.04 IU/mg protein, 94.37 fold purity with a yield of 60%. The enzyme gives optimum activity in the culture medium with pH 8 and temperature 35°C as well as with different nitrogen and carbon sources. Conclusion: The enzyme produced was very specific for L-asparagine but not to L-glutamine. This is the first report on the production of L- asparaginase by JRS-27 from backwaters of konaseema mangroves.

Cite this article as: Ravi Varma A, Sushma Kanapala, Naga Sai Babu V, Bodaiah B and Sudhakar Poda,Partial Purification, Characterization and Optimization of Anti-Leukemic Enzyme L-Asparaginase from Mangrove Soil Actinobacteria,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(7),502-511.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001392
Title: Evaluation of antibacterial activity of successive extract of Lantana camara flower
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Various plant extracts has formed the basis of many alternative medicines and natural therapies. Methods: Powdered sample of flower of Lantana camara   was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. Various extract each of 50 mg/ml concentrations was prepared and antibacterial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Results and discussion: Ethyl acetate extract produced zone of inhibition 35mm and 34mm, 33mm 32mm, 32mm, and against E. coli, S. typhi, B. Subtilis, Pseudomonas, S. aureus respectively. The value of zone of inhibition for ethanol extract was found 34mm, 34mm 30mm 30mm and  25mm against S. typhi, S. aureus, E. coli., Pseudomonas and B. subtilis respectively. Significantly higher activity was shown by ethyl acetate extract against Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus and by ethanol extract against S. typhi, Pseudomonas and S. aureus as compared to positive control. Conclusion: The present research work showed that ethyl acetate and ethanol extract of flower of lantana camara possesses strong antibacterial effect against E. coli, S. typhi, Pseudomonas, S.  aureus, and B. Subtilis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001395
Title: Phenotypic Detection of Various β-Lactamase from Urinary Isolates
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background:  Resistance to antibiotics and other drugs has emerged in most bacterial infections, which constitutes a significant proportion of the burden of health care and disease management in developing countries. The incidence of infections due to organisms resistant to β - lactam agents due to production of various enzymes has increased in recent years. The extensive use of antibiotics in the community and hospitals has fuelled this crisis. Methods: Urine samples were collected from various hospitals and private pathological laboratories. Bacterial strains were identified according to standard microbiological investigations approved by CLSI guideline. Isolated pathogens were undergone for screening test to find out the prevalence of β -lactam resistance towards various generations of β-lactam drugs. Resistant isolates were classified by phenotypic detection method. Result & discussion: The study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of various types of β -lactamase among urinary isolates. Out of 175 samples 152 pathogens were isolated in pure culture. 42.10% resistance were observed among this urinary isolates against various generation of β-lactam drugs. Conclusion: Increasing levels of resistance are being found among common community-acquired urinary pathogens, and nosocomial pathogens. The increasing resistance has made empirical treatment more difficult. UTIs complicated by ESBL organisms tend to lead in our study.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-0000692
Title: Development and Validation of Stability Indicating UV Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Sitagliptin Phosphate in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, sensitive, reproducible and cost effective stability indicating UV Spectrophotometric method has been developed for quantitative determination of Sitagliptin Phosphate in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The UV spectrum was scanned between 200 to 400 nm and 267 nm was selected as maximum wavelength for absorption. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 10-100 mg/ml. Good accuracy (99.87-100.45%), precision (%RSD 1.3147-1.2957) were found, the method was successfully applied to the pharmaceutical dosage form containing the above-mentioned drug without any interference by the excipients. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was found to be 0.16 ìg/ml & 0.45 ìg/ml respectively. Results of the analysis were validated as per ICH guidelines. Forced degradation studies includes the effect of temperature, oxidation, photolysis and susceptibility to hydrolysis across a wide range of pH values, were carried out according to the ICH requirements which can be used for the routine and quality control analysis of Sitagliptin Phosphate in raw material and pharmaceutical formulations.

Cite this article as: Parag Pathade , Md Imran ,Vinod Bairagi , Yogesh Ahire,Development and Validation of Stability Indicating UV Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Sitagliptin Phosphate in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2011,4(3),871-873.

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001387
Title: Stability of extemporanously compounded bosentan liquid
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Bosentan is an endothelin receptor antagonist used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. While it is approved for use in adults, it is frequently used off label for children under 12 years. Since no liquid formulation is available in the U.S., the tablets must be compounded into a liquid suspension for use in children. Current practice requires that bosentan be compounded daily, with two doses drawn from a single suspension. This results in significant waste. We tested the hypothesis that compounded bosentan was stable for longer than 24 hours. Methods: We tested water and Ora-Blend® as diluents and storage at both room temperature and 4o C. Bosentan concentrations and known degradation products were measured by LC/MS-MS. Results: Our data demonstrated that bosentan retained >90% of starting concentration through 48hours. Modest improvement in reproducibility was observed when bosentan was suspended in the Ora-Blend® solution, suggesting improved distribution, andreduced loss was observed when stored at 4o C. Conclusion: While more comprehensive studies are needed, our data indicate that compounded bosentan retains greater than 90% of its original concentration for at least 48 hours and suggests that hospitals could use these formulations for longer than currently indicated.

Cite this article as: Nicholas S. Jones, Molly S. Augustine, Lynette K. Rogers,Stability of extemporanously compounded bosentan liquid,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(8),537-542.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-QA-00001388
Title: Impurity profile of pharmaceuticals ingredient: a review
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Various regulatory authorities like ICH, USFDA, Canadian Drug and Health Agency areemphasizing on the purity requirements and the identification of impurities in ActivePharmaceutical Ingredient’s (API’s). Qualification of the impurities is the process of acquiringand evaluating data that establishes biological safety of an individual impurity; thus, revealingthe need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research. Impurities in pharmaceuticals are the surplus chemicals that stay behind with the active pharmaceutical ingredients or develop during formulation or upon aging of both active content and formulated active ingredients to medicines. The efficacy and safety of pharmaceutical product is affected by presence of unwanted traces of impurities. Impurity profiling is deals with detection, identification/structure elucidation and quantitative determination of organic and inorganic impurities as well as residual solvents in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. Impurities in pharmaceuticals are the surplus chemicals that stay behind with the active pharmaceutical ingredients or develop during formulation or upon aging of both active content and formulated active ingredients to medicines. The efficacy and safety of pharmaceutical product is affected by presence of unwanted traces of impurities. The advent of hyphenated techniques has revolutionized impurity profiling, by not only separation but structural identification of impurities as well. The present review covers various aspects related to the analytical method development for impurity profiling of an active pharmaceutical ingredient.

Cite this article as: Warad T.A., Bhusnure O.G, Gholve S.B.,Impurity profile of pharmaceuticals ingredient: a review,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(7),523-533.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001397
Title: Oleic acid, one of the major components of ethyl acetate partitioned fraction of aqueous extract of bark of Terminalia arjuna, protects against adrenaline induced myocardial injury in male albino rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Our earlier studies demonstrate the protective role of aqueous extract of bark of Terminalia arjuna against adrenaline-bitartrate induced myocardial injury in male albino rats. In the present study, GCMS analysis of the ethyl acetate partitioned fraction of this aqueous extract revealed the presence of oleic acid as one of the major components. Hence, in the present study, we also investigated the protective role of oleic acid against adrenaline induced myocardial injury in male albino rats and tried to elucidate the underlying mechanism of such protection. Methods: In this set of experiments a total number of 40 adult healthy male albino rats were divided into 10 groups comprising of 4 animals each. First group constituted of the vehicle-treated control. The rats of the second group were treated with sub-cutaneous (s.c.) injection of adrenaline-bitartrate at the dose of 0.3mg/ kg body weight. The rats of the third, fourth, fifth and sixth groups were orally fed, respectively, with different doses of oleic acid (2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg body weight) where water was used as the vehicle. The rats of seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth groups were orally fed with different doses of  oleic acid (2.5,5,10,20 mg/kg body weight) and subjected to sub-cutaneous (s.c.) injection of adrenaline-bitartrate  at the dose of 0.3mg/ kg body weight. Results: Treatment of rats in this set of experiment with adrenaline-bitartrate altered the activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase total (LDH-T), lactate dehydrogenase-1 (LDH-1), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and elevated the level of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, decreased the glutathione content as well as altered the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the enzymes of  Kreb’s cycle and respiratory chain. Tissue histo-morphological studies also showed considerable damage following adrenaline- bitartrate treatment. Pre-treatment of rats with different doses of oleic acid significantly protected against these myocardial damages in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Oleic acid, one of the major components of the ethyl acetate partitioned fraction of aqueous extract of bark of Terminalia arjuna, significantly protected against adrenaline induced myocardial injury in male albino rats in a dose dependent manner.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 9, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001408
Title: Liver disorder and its clinical investigation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Liver disorder is a common disorder seen with the people of almost all age groups due to infection, wrong food habit, sedentary life style, alcoholism etc. Disorder ranges from simple infection to scarring, cirrhosis and cancer. Treatment includes from simple medication to liver transplantation depending on the severity of the disease. The clinical examination and early detection plays a vital role in treating the disease. Jaundice, cholestasis, liver enlargement, portal hypertension, ascites, liver encephalopathy and liver failure are the common symptoms of liver diseases. When diagnosing liver diseases, the physician looks at the patient’s symptoms and conducts a physical examination. In addition, the physician may request a liver biopsy, liver function tests, an ultrasound, or a CT scan (computerized tomography scan). Early diagnosis translates into a better treatment and result.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-SM-00001471
Title: Qualitative Analysis of Volatile Constituents from flowers of Acacia leucophloea Willd through Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrum Analysis
Category: Siddha Medicine
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To establish qualitative analysis of volatile Constituents from flowers of Acacia leucophloea Willd through gas chromatography and mass spectrum analysis. Methods: The qualitative analysis of volatile compounds from the flowers of A.leucophloea were carried out by gas chromatography and mass spectrum analysis. Interpretation of massspectrum GCMS was conducted using data base of National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) andWiley spectra Libraries. Results & Conclusions: This study provides the scientific data for the proper identification of volatile constituents from flowers of A. leucophloea.  The chromatogram shows 8 prominent peaks in the retention time range from 10.65–35.45. The peak at 38.45 retention time is having the %peak area 34.90. This largest peak is due to the presence of triacontane. The second less prominent peak at 27.88 retention time has the %peak area 29.85 is due to the presence of 9, 12, octadacadienoic acid. The third less significant peak at 22.05 retention time with the % peak area 24.99 is characteristic of n-hexadecanoic acid. The fourth less prominent peak at 28.10 retention time with the % peak area 2.87 denotes octadecanoic acid. Consequently, this fast and simple method can be used for the analysis of the volatile compounds emitted from Acacia leucophloea and it offer a platform of using Acacia leucophloea flowers as herbal alternative for various diseases including diabetic, cancer, cardiovascular etc.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001473
Title: Formulation Development and Evaluation of Risperidone Fast Dissolving Tablets
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background:The main aim of present research investigation is to formulate the Risperidone Fast Dissolving tablets. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, belongs to BCS Class-II and used for treating schizophrenia, bipolar mania and autism by blocking D2 and 5-HT2A receptors. Methods: The Fast Dissolving tablets of Risperidone were prepared employing different concentrations of Crospovidone and Croscarmellose sodium in different combinations as a Superdisintegrants by Direct Compression technique using 32 factorial design. The  concentration of Crospovidone and Croscarmellose sodium was selected as independent variables, X1 and X2 respectively whereas, wetting time, Disintegration time, t50% ,t90%were selected as dependent variables.  Results and Discussion: Totally nine formulations were designed, preapred and are evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, Assay, Wetting time, Disintegration time, In-vitro drug release. From the Results concluded that all the formulation were found to be with in the Pharmacopoeial limits and  the In-vitro dissolution profiles of all formulations were fitted in to different Kinetic models, the statistical parameters like intercept (a), slope (b) & regression coefficient (r)  were calculated. Polynomial equations were developed for Wetting time, Disintegration time, t50%, t90%.  Validity of developed polynomial equations were verified by designing 2 check point formulations (C1, C2). According to SUPAC guidelines the formulation (F5) containing combination of 10% Crospovidone and 10% Croscarmellose, is the most similar formulation (similarity factor f2= 93.556, dissimilarity factor f1= 0.976 & No significant difference, t= 0.022) to marketed product (RISPERDAL-4).  Conclusion:The selected formulation (F5) follows First order, Higuchi’s kinetics, mechanism of drug release was found to be Fickian Diffusion (n= 0.383).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001476
Title: Crystal Modification of Aceclofenac by Spherical Crystallization to Improve Solubility Dissolution Rate and Micromeritic Properties
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aceclofenac a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The poor water solubility and poor micromeritic properties of aceclofenac lead to low dissolution rate and poor flow during tableting. The aim of present study was to improve dissolution rate and micromeritic properties of aceclofenac by spherical agglomeration techniques. The spherical agglomerate of aceclofenac was carried out by solvent change method in the presence of hydrophilic polymer in different concentration. The solvent system used was acetone, water and dichloromethane as good solvent, anti-solvent and bridging liquid respectively. The spherical agglomerates were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Also the agglomerates were evaluated for dissolution rate and micromeritic properties. The FTIR and DSC study showed no interaction between drug and polymer. XRD studies showed a slight decrease in crystallinity in agglomerates. The agglomerate showed significantly improved dissolution rate as well as micromeritic properties compared to pure drug. The SEM also showed that the agglomerate possess a good spherical shape.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001458
Title: Formulation and evaluation of Isoniazid loaded -∑-polycaprolactone nanoparticles
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was aimed at developing a sustained release formulation of Isoniazid (INH) nanoparticles using the biodegradable polymers, poly-∑-caprolactone (PCL) as carrier. The PCL nanoparticles (NP) of hydrophilic dug isoniazid (INH), a first line antitubercular drug are developed and the entrapment efficiency of drug in the NPs has been improved. The PCL NPs were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation with ultrasonication technique. 32 factorial designs employed to optimized formula. Two independent variables like ultrasonication time and PCL Concentration were selected for factorial design for its significant effect on particle size, entrapment efficiency of NPs. The prepared PCL NPs were characterized by SEM analysis, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, FTIR, DSC, in-vitro diffusion studies. These results indicate that INH loaded PCL nanoparticles could be effective in sustaining its release for a prolonged period. The PCL NPs could be alternate method for delivery for INH with prolonged drug release profiles and better therapeutic effect can be achieved for the treatment of tuberculosis. However, further studies are needed to confirm its performance in vivo.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001078
Title: Screening of antibacterial potential of leaves and leaf derived callus extracts of Solanum trilobatum L. an important medicinal plant
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of present investigation was deals with the antibacterial activity of leaves and leaf derived callus extracts (ethyl acetate, ethanol, chloroform, and acetone) from the S. trilobatum L. were tested against nine human pathogenic bacteria using agar well diffusion technique. A better inhibition zone was recorded in chloroform extract than other solvents of both extracts. Based on the results, it clearly indicates that most of the extracts were effective against S. aureus, S. typhi, S. dysentriea, S. sonii, C. diptheriea and S. boydii. The other solvent extracts (such as ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate) showed moderate to least inhibitory effect against these organisms. The results from our findings indicated that S. trilobatum is one of the potential medicinal plant used for therapeutic purpose. Among the two extracts tested, callus extracts was found to be superior to field grown plants.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00001077
Title: Evaluation of Self-Medication Antibiotics Use Pattern Among Patients Attending Community Pharmacies in Rural India, Uttar Pradesh
Category: Pharmacy practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Many studies have investigated the prevalence and nature of self medication. It is a common type of self care behavior among the population of various Countries. The Government of India was proposed to develop a policy to control the misuse of antibiotics. The policy calls for making of a new schedule under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 called as Schedule HX.The reason to take up the present study was to carry out head to head comparison of demographic variables with self antibiotic medication. It is a cross section study with a pretested questionnaire and conducted at Sahaswan, Utter Pradesh, India, with 600 study subjects during the period between November and December 2011. It was observed that the antibiotics were extensive supplied medicines without prescription including those used for serious illness conditions. The percentage of patients who were seeking self antibiotic medication was approximately 54%. Most patients were seeking self antibiotic medication for respiratory tract infection (16.83%); wound infection, cough and cold (14.5%); fever and GIT infection (13.66%); eye/ear infection (7%) were commonly noted aligminets. The antibiotics highly dispensed or purchased on a self medication were cephalosporins groups (24.15%) and minimum was tetracyclines groups (12.83%). Patient health awareness programs and pharmacist continuing education are necessary.These findings highlight the need for planning interventions to promote the judicious use of antibiotics, create awareness regarding the problems of antimicrobial resistance.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001075
Title: Phytochemical and pharmacognostical evaluation of Acacia leucophloea flowers (Roxb) Willd
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Acacia leucophloea (Roxb) Willd (Mimosaceae) is a moderate sized deciduous tree, found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout plains of India. In the present investigation an attempt has been made for the pharmacognostical standardization and phytochemical evaluation of A.leucophloea flowers. The pharmacognostical evaluation comprises of detailed macroscopy, microscopy, powdered microscopy and physical constant such as ash and extractive values. The flower extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. The data obtained in present study will serve as valuable tool for identification, authentication and detection of adulterants, standardization and quality control of the drug. The developed technique will be useful for the standardization of formulation containing A. leucophloea.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 9, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001122
Title: Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic activity of Chrysoeriol in diabetic rats, role of HMG CoA reductase, LCAT and LPL: In vivo and in silico approaches
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Diabetes mellitus is associated with dyslipidemia, which is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular complications. The present study was designed to examine the antihyperlipidemic effect of Chrysoeriol (CS) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (40 mg/kg b.w.). Results: Diabetic rats showed increased plasma glucose, Glycosylated Hb, total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density liprotein, atherogenic index and decreased insulin and high density lipoprotein in diabetic rats. The activity of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase significantly increased and decreased levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). In addition, the molecular docking of Chrysoeriol against HMG CoA reductase, LPL and LCAT involved in cholesterol biosynthesis using the Argus software. Diabetic rats were treated with Chrysoeriol shifted all these parameters towards normality. Chrysoeriol has shown the best ligand binding energy -7.59, -7.82 and -6.94 Kcal/mol. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study indicates that Chrysoeriol showed an antihyperlipidemic effect in addition to its antidiabetic effect in diabetic rats.

Cite this article as:Krishnan Baskaran, Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi and Ramalingam Saravanan,Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic activity of Chrysoeriol in diabetic rats, role of HMG CoA reductase, LCAT and LPL: In vivo and in silico approaches,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2015,9(11),597-605.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001383
Title: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coleus amboinicus lour, antioxitant activity and invitro cytotoxicity against Ehrlich’s Ascite carcinoma
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the study was to synthesize silver nanoparticles by using aqueous extract of Coleus amboinicus lour. For the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, 50 ml extract filtrate was mixed with equal volume of 1mM silver nitrate [AgNO3 (1 mM)] and agitated at room temperature in dark. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Results indicate the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture. Obtained silver nanoparticle showed the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against the Ehrlich’s ascite carcinoma (EAC) cell line.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001076
Title: Formulation and evaluation of voglibose mouth dissolving tablets by direct compression method
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present work was carried out to design and evaluate mouth dissolving tablets of Voglibose. The mouth dissolving tablets were prepared different formulation by direct compression technique using Microcrystalline cellulose, Pregelatinised starch (Starch 1500), Starlac as diluent combined with three superdisintegrants like Crospovidone (Polyplasdone XL10), Sodium starch glycollate (Primojel) and Croscarmellose sodium (Primellose). All the formulations were evaluated for physical characteristics, disintegration, in vitro dissolution and stability. The in vitro dissolution studies were performed for the F5, F6, F8, F9 formulations. The formulations F5, F6, F8 and F9 released 68.5, 99.4%, 68.4%, and 88.5% respectively at the end of 30 mins. Formulation F6 showed the maximum cumulative percentage drug release (99.4%). The accelerated stability studies were conducted for 3 months under 400C/75%RH condition as per ICH guidelines in blisters. Finally after the duration, the product was analyzed for physical appearance, loss on drying, disintegration, dissolution and assay. The results obtained were found to be within the specification limits. Mouth dissolving tablets of Voglibose formulated by using direct compression technique were found to be stable.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001454
Title: Schiff Bases of Thiazole as Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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An efficient and convenient procedure has been developed for the synthesis of thiazole derivatives by one-pot condensation reaction of á-haloketone, thiourea and thionyl chloride. Starting from 2-amino-4-phenyl-1,3-thiazole (1), we synthesized Schiff bases of thiazole 2-29 in the search for possible clinically suitable derivatives for antibacterial and antifungal studies. The structure of synthesized compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, 1H-NMR, and EI-MS) methods. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Minimum inhibitory concentrations are also calculated.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001453
Title: Synthesis, antioxidant and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory potential of Schiff bases of thiazoles
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of Schiff bases of thiazole 2-29 was synthesized and screened for their possible antioxidant and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory potential. The structures of synthetic compounds were characterized by using spectroscopic techniques including IR, 1HNMR and EIMS. All the synthetic compounds gave satisfactory elemental analysis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001333
Title: Pulsatile drug delivery system for chronopharmacological disorders: an overview
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Pulsatile systems are gaining a lot of interest as they deliver the drug at the right site of action at the right time and in the right amount, thus providing spatial and temporal delivery thus increasing patient compliance. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body. Chronotherapeutics is the discipline concerned with the delivery of drugs according to inherent activities of a disease over a certain period of time. It is becoming increasingly more evident that the specific time that patients take their medication may be even more significant than was recognized in the past. The tradition of prescribing medication at evenly spaced time intervals throughout the day, in an attempt to maintain constant drug levels throughout a 24-hour period, may be changing as researcher’s report that some medications may work better if their administration is coordinated with day-night patterns and biological rhythms. The potential benefits of chronotherapeutics have been demonstrated in the management of a number of diseases. In particular there is a great deal of interest in how chronotherapy can particularly benefit patients suffering from allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis and related disorders, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and peptic ulcer disease.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001349
Title: Investigation of Hepatoprotective activity of Aerial Parts of Canna indica L. on carbon tetrachloride treated rats
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of aerial parts of Canna indica L. plant was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. Extract at doses (100 and 200mg/kg) restored the levels of all serum parameters like SGPT, SGOT, TB which were elevated in CCl4 administrated rats. A 10% liver homogenate was used for estimation of catalase, GSH content, LPO level for in vivo antioxidant status of liver. All LPO, Reduced GSH, Catalase levels were observed normal in extract treated rats. Histopathology demonstrated profound necrosis, lymphocytic infiltration was observed in hepatic architecture of carbon tetrachloride rats which were found to obtain near normalcy in extract plus carbon tetrachloride administrated rats. This clearly suggests that methanol extract of aerial parts of Canna indica L. has liver protective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001405
Title: Antihyperglycaemic Activity of Ethanol Extract of Aerva javanica Leaves in Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The antihyperglycaemic activity of ethanol extract of Aerva javanica (EEAJ) leaves was studied by administering three doses of EEAJ (i.e. 100,200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and glyburide (10 mg/kg) to alloxan (70 mg/kg, i.v.) induced diabetic mice. The serum glucose levels and body weights of mice were determined. In acute study the maximum reduction in serum glucose level was observed at 2h, peak at 6h but antihyperglycaemic effect was vanished at 24h. The sub acute study was also carried out which showed maximum reduction in serum glucose level at the dose of 400 mg/kg on 35th day. EEAJ (400 mg/kg) showed increased glucose threshold in non-diabetic and diabetic mice at 60 min after administration of glucose. EEAJ (400 mg/kg) prevented the loss of body weight. The EEAJ (400 mg/kg) showed significantly more hyperglycaemic activity than EEAJ (100 and 200 mg/kg).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000036
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Taste masked Fast Dissolving Tablets of Ondansetron Hcl
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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During the last decade, the demand for mouth dissolving tablets has been growing, especially for geriatric and pediatric patients because of swallowing difficulties. Ondansetron Hcl as the model drug is a serotonin receptor (5- HT3) antagonist used in the prevention of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. In this present study, the bitter taste of Ondansetron Hcl was masked using drug: Indion 204 in different ratios (1:1–1:3) and drug: eudragit E 100 in different ratios (1:1–1:4). For taste masking the ratio of drug: Indion 204 and drug: eudragit E 100 were optimized to 1:2 and 1:4 respectively by time intensity method. The FTIR studies showed drug and carrier were compatible. These were then compressed into tablets by direct compression method with using different superdisintegrants like Indion 414 in 1%, 1.5% and 2% concentration and croscarmellose sodium in 2%, 3% and 4% concentration. All formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, wetting time, weight variation, percentage friability and in vitro dissolution rate. Formulations with 2% Indion 414 and drug: Indion 204 in 1:2 ratio (DR6) and with 2% Indion 414 and drug: eudragit E 100 in 1:4 ratio (DE6) showed the disintegration time 10 seconds, 15 seconds and wetting time 30 seconds, 33 seconds respectively. In vitro dissolution studies of both formulations showed more than 90% drug released within 15 minutes. In vitro release profile, disintegration time and wetting time were remaining unchanged after two months when stored at 250C / 60% RH and at 400C / 75% RH.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000037
Title: Comparative evaluation study of matrix properties of natural gums and semi-synthetic polymer
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the granulation and tablet properties of natural gums with the extensively investigated hydrophilic matrices hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as suitable hydrophilic matrix systems. Methods: The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and granulation properties like angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s compressibility index, Hausner’s ratio and drug content were compared. Various sustained release matrices of prepared granules were prepared using HPMC (F1), Guar gum (F2), Xanthan Gum (F3), Locust bean gum (F4) and chitosan (F5). The matrix tablets were evaluated for uniformity of weight, content of active ingredient, friability, hardness, thickness and in vitro dissolution using USP XXIV dissolution apparatus. Results: All the formulations showed compliance with pharmacopoeial standards. A significant difference in release pattern was observed between the formulation F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5. F1, F3 and F5 release almost ~9% compare to initial burst effect of ~31% for F4 and F2 after 1h of dissolution period. At the end of 8 h of dissolution period it was found that 71.36%, 85.91%, 96.98%, 68.76% and 45.5% of drug release for F2, F4, F5, F3 and F1, respectively. Conclusions: Thus, natural gums show granulation and tablet properties that are similar to those of the extensively investigated hydrophilic matrices, HPMC. This suggests that the natural gums may be an ideal candidate in the formulation of matrix tablets on controlled drug delivery.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000039
Title: Drug utilization evaluation study in Indian hospital
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify the prescribing irrationalities and appropriate action have to be taken to reduce the irrational use of drugs and improve the prescribing pattern for rational use of drugs METHODS: Retrospective data from 01-08-03 to 31-07-04 and prospective data from 01-08-04 to 31-08-05 were collected and analyzed for the use of drugs. The prospective data were used to design intervention to change prescribing behavior and evaluate the outcome of results. The prospective statistical analysis consists of the names and quantities of drugs used for a year as well as the annual number of patient days. RESULTS: Two major prescribing irrationalities were observed after an analysis of use of individual drugs and drug groups. Ranitidine use was 1840.00 DDD/1000 PD during 2003-2004 increasing to 2575.67 DDD/1000 PD during 2004-2005 and Ibuprofen use was 573.66 DDD/1000 PD during 2003-2004 increasing to 606.25 DDD / 1000 PD during 2004-2005 at Rajah Muthiah Medical College & Hospital CONCLUSIONS: The result shows that the no need for prophylactic use of ranitidine in short term NSAID therapy in patient without any history of ulcer diseases and the therapeutic use of ibuprofen have to be prescribed careful after assessment of the risks and benefits in each patient is essential.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000040
Title: Taste masked, orally disintegrating tablet containing microspheres for immediate release
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of microspheres for taste masking when incorporated into orally disintegrating tablets. The microspheres were produced by emulsification solvent evaporation method using a model drug theophylline with a taste masking polymer. The solvent evaporation method was optimized to obtain microspheres with desirable characteristics. The microspheres were mixed with other excipients to form orally disintegrating tablets. Optimization using two factors and three levels using factorial approach was carried out. The microspheres were best formed using acetone in 40 ml liquid paraffin at 1600 rpm speed of stirring for 90 minutes. The yield was 85 ± 2 %, particle size was 315 ± 10.84 μ and the assay results showed entrapment of 93.77 ± 0.53 % drug. The tablets formed showed a hardness of 3 ± 0.5 kg/cm2 and in vitro disintegration of 25 ± 3 seconds. The in vitro drug release was 88 ± 4 % at the end of 30 minutes. In conclusion, microspheres can effectively mask the bitter taste of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in combination with the orally disintegrating tablets.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000041
Title: Microscopical and preliminary phytochemical studies on leaves of Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The plant Bryophyllum calycinum salisb (crassulaceae), has potent medicinal values.the present study deals with pharmacognostic examination of morphological and microscopical characters of Bryophyllum calycinum including leaf constant, ash values, extractive values and phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed that the plant contains alkaloids, glycoside, carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compound, steroids, gums, mucilage and lignins.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000043
Title: Peptic ulcer and its management
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Ulceration of gastro-intestinal mucosa is caused by disruption of normal balance of corrosive effect of gastric acid and the protective effect of mucus on gastric epithelial cells. The major cause of ulcer is increased gastric secretions, which may be further aggravated by factors including NSAIDs, impaired production of somatostatins, Helicobacter pylori infection, by stress and dietary habits. Up to 80-90% of ulcers has been associated with H. pylori infection in the stomach. The parietal cells in the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid regulated by the protein H+/K+-ATPase also called proton pump. Acid secretion is also regulated by hormones such as gastrin, chemicals like acetylcholine and histamine. Acid neutralization was recognized as an effective treatment, however with the understanding of pathogenesis of peptic ulcer, treatment has become more effective. One approach for treating ulcer is to block the proton pump by using proton pump inhibitors like omeprazole, lansoprazole. In another approach, blocking of regulatory molecules that stimulate acid secretion like acetylcholine, histamine and gastrin either with anticholinergics or H2 receptor antagonist such as ranitidine, famotidine is effective. H.pylori infection can be eradicated using amoxycillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole or tetracycline. Combination therapy helps in complete eradication of peptic ulcer; one of the combinations, approved by USFDA is omeprazole with clarithromycin. Gastro retentive dosage forms may prove beneficial as they exhibit a prolonged gastric residence time and act locally and systemically.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000044
Title: Pharmacological evaluation of Solanum surattense leaves for antiulcer activity
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol and aqueous of Solanum surattense Burm .f. (Solanaceae) leaves were screened for antiulcer activity by assessing various parameters like pH, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. All the extracts were given at dose of 100 mg/kg, b.w. Antiulcer effects were compared with standard drug Omeprazole (20 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.). These observations enable us to conclude that the alcohol extract of Solanum surattense leaves showed predominantly significant activity on acid secretory mechanisms in all parameters as compared to other extracts.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-000045
Title: Estimation of Bambuterol in Tablet dosage forms by RP-HPLC
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, precise, rapid and accurate reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Bambuterol in tablet dosage forms. An Inertsil ODS-3CV C18, 250x4.6 mm, coloumn with 5 μm particle size and the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% Trifluoro Acetic acid: Methanol in the ratio of 10:90 v/v was used. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at 220 nm. The retention times were 2.381min for bambuterol. The detector response was linear in the concentration of 17.5-420 mcg/ml. The respective linear regression equation being Y= 26705.167x+67644.9694 for Bambueterol. The limit of detection (LOD) is 0.175mcg and 0.35 mcg and the limit of quantification (LOQ) is 0.525mcg for Bambuterol. The percentage assay of Bambuterol was found to be 99.78%. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision and system suitability. The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine determination of Bambuterol in bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-000042
Title: Synthesis of N-acyl heterocycles using conventional and microwave-assisted dry media technique
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A rapid and efficient synthesis of acyl derivatives of N-heterocycles has been performed via the Schotten Bauman reaction. Reactants impregnated individually, on basic alumina, and exposed to microwave irradiation in the presence of base as a catalyst, wherein not only the reaction times have been brought down from hours to minutes in comparison to conventional heating but also the yields of products were improved. New N-acyl heterocycles have been prepared for the first time by microwave-assisted dry media technique and conventional method.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ORS-000046
Title: Effect of oilfield waste water on Microbiota of a fresh water in Nigeria
Category: Others ( Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Effect of oilfield wastewater to the Microbiota of the fresh river water was investigated. This was conducted by the determination of some physicochemical parameters which included pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chloride, exchangeable cations and heavy metals as to ascertain the concentration of these constituents in the water samples; and the determination of total viable aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count, total coliform count and coliform types. The mean pH values ranged from 7.36 to 9.06, total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 24.00mgL-1 to 7,600.00mgL-1 while chloride values ranged from 30.13mgL-1 to 3,722.25mgL-1. The results obtained showed that with the exception of turbidity, total suspended solids, and sulphate which values were highest in the raw river water, values of all other parameters determined were highest in the oilfield wastewater. The order of decreasing concentration was oilfield waste water > mixture > raw river water. Total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 0.5 x 106 cfuml-1 to 8.2 x 106 cfuml-1 while the coliform population ranged from 0.07 x 106 cfuml-1 to 0.84 x 106 cfuml-1. Generally, there was a reduction in bacterial populations of the river water after the addition of the oilfield wastewater (5% V/V). The species of coliforms isolated belonged to four genera of Enterobacteriaceae which were Citrobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia and Klebsiella. Escherichia coli was the most predominant in each of the water samples with a percentage occurrence of 50% and 36.36% in the raw river water and polluted water respectively; while Citrobacter sp was the least predominant in the raw river water (7.14%). The present investigation has therefore revealed the necessity of oilfield wastewater treatment prior to discharge into the recipient water body.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-000047
Title: Production of a thermostable extracellular protease from thermophilic Bacillus species
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Isolation and identification of thermophilic Bacillus sp was carried out from soil samples of a tannery area. The isolate KCPSS-3, when cultivated in liquid cultures containing trisodium citrate, produced protease. The production reached a maximum in 9 h, with levels of 2.15 U/mg protein. The microorganism utilized several carbon sources for the production of protease. Starch was found to be the best substrate, followed by trisodium citrate, citric acid and sucrose. Among the various organic and inorganic nitrogen sources used, ammonium nitrate was found to be the best. Studies on the effects of temperature and pH on protease production revealed that the Bacillus sp could grow up to 65 0C within a broad pH range of 5-10 with an optimal growth temperature and pH at 60 0C and 8.0, respectively. Thermostability studies revealed that the enzyme was stable for 2 h at 30 0C, while at 40 0C and 80 0C, 14% and 84% of the original activities were lost. Hence, it’s an indication that the enzyme produced is thermostable.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-000048
Title: Evaluation of wound healing activity of Calotropain – P
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study the isolated compound ‘Calotropain – P’ was employed for its wound healing activity. For the assessment of wound healing activity, Swiss Wister stain rats were employed and the various parameters such as excision wounds, incision wounds and dead space wounds were studied. In excision wound model, treatment was continued till the complete healing of the wound, in incision and dead space wound model the treatment was continued for 10 days. For topical application, 5% w/w ointment of ‘Calotropain-P’ was prepared in 2% sodium alginate and in excision and incision wound models. The healing of the wound was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialisation, skin breaking strength, granulation strength and histopathology of the granulation tissue. It was found that the isolated compound Calotropain-P’ possesses significant wound healing activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001
Title: Insitu Mucoadhesive Nasal Gels of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride : Preformulation and Formulation Studies
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The prolonged residence of drug formulation in the nasal cavity is of utmost importance for intranasal drug delivery. The objective of the present investigation was to develop a mucoadhesive in situ gel with reduced nasal mucocilliary clearance in order to improve the bioavailability of the antiemetic drug, metoclopramide hydrochloride. The in situ gelation upon contact with nasal mucosa was conferred via the use of the thermogelling Pluronic flake 127 whereas mucoadhesion and drug release enhancement were modulated via the use of sodium alginate and polyethylene glycol polymers respectively. The results revealed that the mucoadhesive polymer increased the gel viscosity but reduced its sol gel transition temperatures and the drug release. The inclusion of polyethylene glycol polymer counteracted the effect of mucoadhesive polymer where by it decreased the gel consistency and increased the sol gel transition as well as in vitro drug diffusion. The in vitro tests performed for mucoadhesive strength and drug diffusion showed that nasal in situ gelling formulations prepared are having good mucoadhesive strength with nearly100% drug diffusion within 4 hours. So this study points to the potential of mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel in terms of ease of administration, accuracy of dosing, prolonged nasal residence and improved nasal bioavailability.

[Cite this article as : Jitendra V. Shinde*1 ,Kailas K. Mali1 ,Remeth J. Dias 1 ,Vijay D. Havaldar 1 and Niranjan S.Mahajan 1, Insitu Mucoadhesive Nasal Gels of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride : Preformulation and Formulation Studies,Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol.1.Issue 1. July-September, 2008,88-96] 

Key words: Nasal, Pluronic F 127, Mucoadhesive, PEG 6000.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002
Title: Use of Canna indica Flower Extract As A Natural Indicator In Acid Base Titration
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Canna indica is a species of the Canna genus, belonging to the family Cannaceae. The present work highlights the use of Canna indica flower extract as an acid base indicator in different types of acid base titrations. The equivalence points obtained by the flower extract coincide with the equivalence points obtained by standard indicators. In case of weak acid and weak base titration, the results obtained by the flower extract matched with the results obtained by mixed indicator. This natural indicator is found to be a very useful, economical, simple and accurate for the said titrations.

Cite this article as : Mahajan Niranjan Shishir* 1 , Jadhav Rahul Laxman1 , Pimpodkar Nayana Vinayak1 , Dias Remeth Jacky1 , and Karande Prashant Pradip1 ,Use of Canna indica Flower Extract As A Natural Indicator In Acid Base Titration,Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol.1.Issue 1. July-September 2008,84-87.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00003
Title: Effect of Ziziphus mauritiana Leaf Extracts on Phagocytosis by Human Neutrophils
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objective of the present investigation was to study immunomodulatory activity of alcohol, chloroform and aqueous extract of leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana using different invitro methods such as neutrophil locomotion and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium test using human neutrophils. This preliminary study reveals that Ziziphus mauritiana extract has stimulated phagocytic and intracellular killing potency of human neutrophils at different concentration. Thus from the results obtained it can be observed that the alcohol and aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana leaves stimulates cell-mediated immune system by increasing neutrophil function and phagocytic activity.

 

Cite this article as:Wadekar R.R1*, Patil K S, Effect of Ziziphus mauritiana Leaf Extracts on Phagocytosis by Human Neutrophils, Journal of Pharmacy Research ,Vol.1.Issue 1. July-September 2008,79-83.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00007
Title: Optimization and In Vitro Evaluation of Floating Tablets of Atenolol
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The main aim of this study was to optimize and evaluate the floating tablets of atenolol that prolongs the gastric residence time. Semisynthetic polymers, HPMC K4M, HPMC K100M and natural polymer, Xanthan gum were used as release retarding agents. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas-generating agent. Dicalcium phosphate was  used as a channeling agent. The floating matrix tablets of Atenolol were prepared by direct compression method. The  concentration of polymers and a gas-generating agent was optimized to get the controlled release of atenolol for 8h. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters and found to be within range. A significant difference in drug release at 0.5, 1, 4 and 8 h (p < 0.0001) was observed. The floating lag time of all the formulations was within the prescribed limit (< 10 min.) Release pattern of Atenolol was fitted to different models based on coefficient of correlation (R). All the formulations showed good matrix integrity. All the formulations retarded the release of drug for 8 h. Based on the diffusion exponent (n) value, drug release was found to be diffusion controlled. The swelling studies of all the formulations showed that formulations containing Xanthan gum has higher swelling indices than HPMC K100M and HPMC K4M. Further it was observed that the formulations, which are having higher swelling indices, retarded the release of drugs than those having low swelling indices.

Cite this article as : Vijay Daulatrao Havaldar, Ajit Shankarrao Kulkarni , Remeth Jacky Dias, Kailas Krishnat Mali.,Optimization and In Vitro Evaluation of Floating Tablets of Atenolol, Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol.1.Issue 1. July-September 2008,73-78

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00008
Title: In vitro Antioxidant Activity from Leaves of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. -A North Indian Highly Threatened and Vulnerable Medicinal Plant
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Free radical scavenging potential of the different extracts of leaves of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. (Bignoniaceae), one of the widely used medicinal plant, was evaluated in vitro by using diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. In this method the antioxidants present in the plant extracts reacted with DPPH, which is a stable  free radical and converted it to 1,1-diphenyl-1,2-picryl, hydrazine. The scavenging effect of plant extracts and standard (L-ascorbic acid) on the DPPH radical decreases in the following order: L-ascorbic acid > Ethyl acetate (I) >Methanol (II) > Water (III) and it was found to be 97.4%, 61.4%, 40.8% and 29.2% at concentration of 100 mg/mL, respectively. The results were expressed as IC50. Ascorbic acid which was used as a standard showed an IC50 of 24.0 mg/mL, whereas, the crude ethyl acetate (I), methanolic (II) and water (III) extracts of leaves of O. indicum showed antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 49.0, 55.0 and 42.5 respectively at 100 mg/mL concentration. None of the extracts were found to be more active than the standard i.e. ascorbic acid. But still, free radical scavenging activity of water (III) and ethyl acetate (I) extracts of leaves of O. indicum (L.) was confirmed in the present investigation. In the present study, different extracts of O. indicum leaves showed concentration dependent free radical scavenging  activity. Significant results were recorded first time in the given estimated parameters from different extracts of leaves of O. indicum, a North Indian highly threatened and vulnerable medicinal plant.

Cite this article as: In vitro Antioxidant Activity from Leaves of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. -A North Indian Highly Threatened and Vulnerable Medicinal Plant,Raghbir C. Gupta1 *, Vivek Sharma1 , Nisha Sharma1 , Neeraj Kumar2 , Bikram Singh2, Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol.1.Issue 1. July-September 2008,65-72.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00009
Title: Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Premna corymbosa (Burm.f.) Rottl. & Willd. in liver Damaged Wistar Albino Rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The Premna corymbosa is a common plant, it is used in various ayurvedic preparations. The aim of the  present study is to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic activity of Premna corymbosa leaves in CCl4 induced hepatic  damaged rats.Liver was damaged in wistar rats of both sex by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in the concentration of 1 ml/kg body weight for every 72 h. The ethanolic extract of Premna corymbosa leaves were administrated at the  doses of 200 & 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o., daily for 14 days. The Antihyperlipidemic effect of the ethanolic extract  was assessed by the assay of the biochemical parameters like serum triglycerides (STG), serum total cholesterol  (STC) and Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c).The ethanolic extract, significantly (p<0.01) restored the levels of biochemical parameters as compared to normal. The results obtained shows that the ethanolic extract of  Premna corymbosa has antihyperlipidemic property.

Cite this article as: Karthikeyan.M*1 , Deepa .M.K2,Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Premna corymbosa (Burm.f.) Rottl. & Willd. In liver Damaged Wistar Albino Rats 63 Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.1.Issue 1. July-September 2008 61-64.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000010
Title: Antiinflammatory Activity of Methanolic Extract of Chlorophytum borivilianum
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extracts of leaves and roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using Digital plethysmometer. The study was carried out using dose of 200 mg/kg orally. Both the methanolic extracts (leaves and roots) produced statistically significant and dose dependent inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at all doses when compared to the control groups. The percentage inhibition was also noted for both the methanolic extract. Both the extracts did't exhibit toxicity in mice when injected intraperitoneally up to the concentration of 2 g/kg.

Cite this article as: Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy1*, Rasheeduz Zafar2 , Vidhu Aeri2, Antiinflammatory Activity of Methanolic Extract of Chlorophytum borivilianum, Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.1. Issue 1. July-September 2008,58-60.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000011
Title: Antibacterial activity of Amchur (Dried Pulp of Unripe Mangifera indica) extracts on some food borne bacteria
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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To assess the antimicrobial activities of amchur extract on some food borne bacteria under in-vitro conditions and to determine the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of the herbal extract against the test bacteria.The antibacterial  activity of amchur (dried pulp of unripe Mangifera indica) extract (50% ethanol) was tested against ten bacterial strains (7 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative), mostly belongs to foodborne pathogens, by agar well diffusion method. The crude extract showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity be inhibiting both the groups of bacteria. Minimal inhibitory concentration of the spice against each test organism was also studied by observing their growth on Mueller Hinton Agar containing the spice extract at various incremental levels, equivalent to 62.5-500mg/mL of spice. The extract was most effective against Staphylococcus aureus (26.0mm). Bacillus mycoides was found to be the most sensitive, survived only up to 62.5mg/mL concentration of the spice, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (125mg/mL), whereas Micrococcus luteus was found to be the most resistant organism which survived up to 500mg/mL. The chief significance of the above study was to search for the alternatives to chemical preservatives used in various food industries so as to minimize their side effects and simultaneously improving the shelf life of the food products. This study shows the potential to replace the synthetic  preservatives by the use of natural extracts of amchur in various suitable food products.

Cite this article as:Charu Gupta*1 , Amar P. Garg1 , and Ramesh C Uniyal2, Antibacterial activity of Amchur (Dried Pulp of Unripe Mangifera indica) extracts on some food borne bacteria, Journal of Pharmacy Research ,Vol.1.Issue 1. July-September 2008, 54-57.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000012
Title: Pharmacognostic Studies on Actinodaphne hookeri Meissn leaves.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Leaves of Actinodaphne hookeri Meissn (Family, Lauraceae) is commonly known as Pisa and traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes and urinary disorders. The fresh leaf was studied for pharmaconostic evaluations, including examination of morphological and microscopic characters, determination of leaf constants, ash values and extractive values. The morphological studies revealed that the leaf is dark green color with characteristic odour and bitter taste, shape accuminate- lanceolate, margin-entire, symmetrical base, and length varying from 7.5 inches to 2.3 inches width. Dorsal side is smooth shining and ventral surface is pubescent and hirsute.In the microscopic studies, the leaves showed the presence of trichomes, collenchyma, vascular bundles, spongy parenchyma, hypodermis, palisade  cells and anisocytic stomata. The total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash values and sulfated ash were observed to be 3.6%, 2.6%, 2.3% and 6.24% respectively. Alcohol soluble and water-soluble extractive values of the leaves were observed to be 18% and 19% respectively. The leaves were extracted with ethanol and successively extracted with  Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water in increasing order of polarity. Preliminary phytochemical investigation showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, triterpenoids, carbohydrates and flavonoids.

Cite this article as: Dharmeshkumar. D. Prajapati 1*, N.M.Patel 1 , S.S.Patel1 , M.S.Patel1 R.V. Savadi 2, K.S.Akki2 , K. Mruthunjaya3, Pharmacognostic Studies on Actinodaphne hookeri Meissn leaves, Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.1.Issue 1. July-September 2008,48-54.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000013
Title: Preliminary Pharmacognostical And Phytochemical Investigation On Feronia elephantum Corr. Fruit
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The fruit pulp of Feronia elephantum corr. was collected and powdered. Methanolic extract was prepared by using soxhlet apparatus and subsequently fractioned with different solvents for detailed chemical analysis. Fluorescence characters of different successive extract and powder were noted under ultra violet light and under normal ordinary light, which signifies their characteristics. The total ash value, acid insoluble ash value and water soluble ash value were 8.56, 0.90 and 4.8 % respectively. The percentage yield for pet. ether, solvent ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, chloroform and ethanol were 0.24, 0.52, 1.45, 5.22, 0.89 and 15.7 % respectively. Reaction behaviors of fruit pulp with seven different reagents were also noted, which revealed characteristic development of particular color. Preliminary qualitative chemical tests of extracts were found positive for Phytosterol, flavonoids and triterpenoids in Pet. ether and solvent ether. Ethyl acetate fraction showed positive results for flavanoids and tannin only. n-butanol fraction showed positive reaction to carbohydrate, tannin and amino acid, whereas, Ethanol fraction was positive to carbohydrate, tannin and amino acid and vitamin C. Chloroform fraction did not showed any reaction. Flavonoids and triterpenoids are the active constituents in fruit pulp of Feronia elephantum corr. and may be responsible for its pharmacological activities.

Cite this article as: Kanhiya Mahour1*, Anurag Mishra1 , Ashok Kumar1 and V. S.Vihan1, Preliminary Pharmacognostical And Phytochemical Investigation On Feronia elephantum Corr. Fruit, Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.1.Issue 1. July-September 2008,44-47.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000014
Title: Pharmacognostic Study Of Plant Euphorbia hirta L
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Euphorbia hirta L (Family: - Euphorbiaceae) is a folklore medicine of India used as antiasthmatic, anthelmetic, wound healing, antibacterial, antioxidant and diuretics. Powdered leaves of Euphorbia hirta linn were subjected to successive soxhelate extraction with petroleum ether (60-800C), chloroform, acetone (70%) and finally macerated with water so as to get respective extracts. Also cold maceration was done using water & Ethanol (70%). The extracts were screened for its physicochemical characteristics, preliminary phytochemical study of extracts and quantitative estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The pharmacognostic study reveals that the plant Euphorbia hirta L contain phenolic and flavonoid constituents.

Cite this article as: Giram Ganesh Bhagwat1* ,Chaulang Ganesh Mahadev1 ,Ghodke Dhananjay Sahebrao1 , Patil Kundan Suresh1 ,Yeole Pramod Govindrao1 ,Ganjiwale Rajendra Onkar1, Pharmacognostic Study Of Plant Euphorbia hirta L, Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol.1.Issue 1. July-September 2008,39-43.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000015
Title: Annona squamosa L.:Phytochemical analysis and Antimicrobial Screening
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Four different solvent extracts of leaves of Custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) were studied for its antibacterial activity. Agar diffusion method was selected to check antibacterial activity, whereas phytochemical analysis was done by HPTLC instrument of Camag system. Two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were selected for screening. The screening results showed that highest zone of inhibition was observed in methanol extract against Ps. aeruginosa (MIC: 130μg/ml) followed by petroleum ether extract against Ps. aeruginosa (MIC: 165 μg/ml) and methanol extract against E. coli (MIC: 180 μg/ml). The present study demonstrates the presence of some phytochemicals (Linalool, Borneol, Eugenol, Farnesol, and Geraniol) in extracts which provide antibacterial activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000016
Title: Antidiabetic And Antihyperlipidaemic Effect of Alcoholic extract of Chlorophytum borivilianum Roots in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rats.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Chlorophytum borivilianum, commonly known as ‘safed musli’, is widely used in different parts of India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of alcoholic extract of Chlorophytum borivilianum root (CREt) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg of body weight). Oral administration of alcoholic CREt to diabetic rats, at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose, urine sugar and serum lipids in alloxan diabetic rats. The extract also increases the total haemoglobin lever. The extract effect was similar to that of insulin. Thus, the investigation clearly shows that alcoholic CREt has both antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effects.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000017
Title: Effect of Different Viscosity Grades of HPMC on Drug Release Profile
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In this study, different grades of hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) were used to develop floating microspheres of Cefpodoxime Proxetil in order to demonstrate the effect of different viscosities on drug release profile. The Cefpodoxime Proxetil microspheres were prepared by non aqueous solvent evaporation method using different grades of HPMC such as HPMC K15M( 15cps), HPMCK4M(4000cps), HPMC100LV(100cps) and ethyl cellulose. The prepared microspheres were characterized by polymer compactibility (FTIR Scan), percentage yield, Buoyancy percentage, Drug Entrapment Efficiency (DEE) and invitro drug release was performed by USP Apparatus type I. The prepared floating microspheres were found to produce the percentage yield of 50.5-72.21%, Drug Entrapment Efficiency of 14.1-28.2%, Buoyancy percentage of 70.1-88.25% and drug release of microspheres of 65.09-101.88%. The better drug release profile was found to be with formulation (F A2 ) with drug:polymer ratio of 1:2, HPMC 15cps showed much significant increase in the drug release while comparing with the other two grades of HPMC.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-000018
Title: The Effect Of Polyherbal Formulation - PHF On Experimentally Induced Reflux Esophagitis In Rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The science of life—Ayurveda is practiced in India since time immemorial. Besides being cheap and easily available, Ayurvedic drugs are considered as safe. Moreover, there is surge in the interest in Ayurveda due to quest of alternative medicines. In Ayurvedic system of medicine, Polyherbal formulations were frequently used to enhance the activity or counteract the toxic effect of compounds, from other plants, but may also act synergistically with other constituents from the same plants. Gastro esophageal reflux disease is a disorder of defense mechanism at the esophageal junction, caused by regurgitation of the gastric contents especially of gastric acid. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of Poly Herbal Formulation (PHF) on experimentally induced reflux esophagitis and gastrointestinal motility in animals. The PHF consists of seven medicinal plants namely Aegle marmelos, Elettaria cardamomum, Glycyrrhiza glabra , Citrus aurantifolia, Rosa damascena, Cissus quadrangularis and Saccharum officinarum. Based on acute toxicity study the PHF was considered as safe and 3 dose (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) levels were employed for pharmacological evaluation. The test drugs were administered orally by suspending in 1% carboxy methyl cellulose solution. The PHF exhibited (P<0.001) significant decrease in lesion index and enhance the % protection of lesion in experimentally induced reflux esophagitis at all the 3 doses in rats. In charcoal meal gastrointestinal transit test, PHF dose-dependently propelled the charcoal meal travel through the small intestines in mice. The study indicates that the PHF has protective effect against surgically induced reflux esophagitis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000019
Title: Novel Pharmaceutical Approaches For Colon- Specific Drug Delivery: An Overview
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Colon specific drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of drugs in the treatment associated with the colon, but also as a potential site for the systemic delivery of therapeutic peptide and proteins. To achieve successful colon targeted drug delivery, a drug needs to be protected from degradation, release and/or absorption in the upper portion of the GI tract and then to be ensured abrupt or controlled release in the proximal colon. The necessity and advantages of colon-specific drug delivery systems have been well recognized and documented. The primary approaches to obtain colon-specific delivery are based on prodrugs, pH- and time-dependent systems or microflora-activated systems and have achieved limited success only. Precise colon drug delivery requires that the triggering mechanism in the delivery system only respond to the physiological conditions particular to the colon. Hence, continuous efforts have been focused on designing colon-specific delivery systems with improved site specificity and versatile drug release kinetics to accomplish different therapeutic needs. Among the systems developed most recently for colon-specific delivery, four systems were unique in terms of achieving in vivo site specificity, design rationale, and feasibility of the manufacturing process (pressure-controlled colon delivery capsules (PCDCs), CODES™, colonic drug delivery system based on pectin and galactomannan coating, and Azo hydrogels). The focus of this review is to provide detailed descriptions of the above mentioned approaches.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ORS-000020
Title: Publishing Research Papers in Peer Reviewed Journals: Guidelines to Pharmacists
Category: Others ( Related Science )
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Publishing papers in peer-reviewed journals bring laurels to the pharmacists.

While writing a paper, the author has to think carefully, then collect the subject mater, identify that who will read their paper?, to which journal this paper suits?, what type of paper has to be prepared? and to whom the authorship can be given?.

The sections of research papers are the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusion, acknowledgements, references, tables and figures.

The information written in one section should not appear in another section. It is always better to start writing the method section first, followed by results, discussion, and then introduction, whereas abstract can be written at the last.

It is the bound duty of the authors to take intellectual and ethical responsibility of the paper. To increase the possibility of publication, the author should thoroughly check the manuscript and follow the journal’s “instructions to author” page.

After submitting the paper to the editorial office, it will be sent to the experts for peer reviewing, where reviewer may put several queries before accepting the paper.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000021
Title: Modern biopharmaceutical classification system: a complex classification system to predict pharmacokinetic failures
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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(Letter to Editor )

Dear Editor,
The present letter is focused on the re-classification of Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS), which is adopted by United States Food and Drug Administration   (USFDA)1.  Bioavailability   (BA)   andBioequivalence (BE) studies of drug products not only assure  the  safety  of  drug  products  but  also  assure  the efficacy and allow inter-changeability of drug products, which  is  important  in  cost  reduction  of  drug  therapy. The traditional biopharmaceutical classification system 2 , appeared  in  literature  a  decade  before,  is  effectively implemented by pharmaceutical companies for designing BA/BE studies, in-vitro in-vivo correlation (IVIVC),optimization  of  dissolution  media  and  formulation  research3. BCS is based on the two important rate-determining  steps  in  BA  known  as  drug  solubility  and drugpermeability4.However, few other parameters like dose,dissolution volume and pH were equally considered for classifying the drugs based on BCS2. Even though BCS made a great impact on discovery and development of drugs in pipeline, BCS is mainly focused on bioavailability and IVIVC3.  Moreover,  BCS  serve  as  a  guideline  forformulators in selection of excipients and processes. Onthe other hand, advent of biotechnology, pharmacology,High Through Put (HTP) screening, combinatorial chemistry and drug delivery research encouraged the invention  of  highly  potent  synthetic  drug  substances  as  wellas protein and peptide molecules5. The future molecules mayface  conventional  pharmacokinetic  problems  such  as  poor solubility, poor permeability and shorter half life. In addition to  that  unconventional  problems  like  high  first  pass  effect,low in vitro  and  in vivo stability, (Pgp) mediated efflux transport, lack of sensitivity to analyze the drug in biological matrices and lack of sensitivity to detect the polymorphs in dosage forms  will  appear  in  front  of  pharmaceutical  scientist  while developing a drug and/or dosage forms. It is really very difficult  and  most  of  the  time  not  necessary  to  consider  all  the parameters  to  classify  the  drugs.  Our  Proposed Biopharmaceutical Classification System (PBCS) allows classifying  the  drugs  not  only  based  on  drug  solubility  and  permeability  but  also  considering  drug  stability  in  GIT  and  first pass effect. Highly stable drugs should be 90% stable in GIT for  the  time  required  to  absorb  90%  of  unchanged  drug  in GIT.  First  pass  effect  of  more  than  60  %  is  considered  as high  first  pass  effect  of  drugs.  Proposed  biopharmaceutical classification  system  is  presented  in  Table  No  1.  The  main aim of PBCS is to predict the BA of dosage form from the results obtained from Phase I clinical studies. PBCS will give the  clue  for  formulation  scientist  to  optimize  the  BA  by  the addition of enzyme inhibitors, change in micro environmental pH  and  addition  of  buffers  to  improve  the  BA.  PBCS  will also allow addition of some enzymes in dissolution media that will  give  the  trend  of  first  pass  effect  in  in-vivo conditions.BA/BE studies are conducted in healthy human subjects. The unnecessary  exposure  of  drug  in  healthy  human  volunteers needs ethical justification. Moreover, human trails are costly affairs and time consuming process. The main goal of PBCS is to reduce the human trails for BA/BE studies. If at all effective  in vitro  dissolution technologies are invented in future on the basis of PBCS that will serve as surrogate marker in BA and  BE  of  drug  products.  PBCS  conventionally  be  termed as  Modern  Biopharmaceutical  Classification  System (MBCS).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000022
Title: Designing of pharmaceuticals to improve physicochemical properties by spherical crystallization technique
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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In 1986, Kawashima and their coworkers developed the spherical crystallization technique for size enlargement of the drug in the field of pharmacy. Kawashima defined spherical crystallization as “An agglomeration process that transforms crystals directly into compact spherical forms during the crystallization process.” It also enables co-precipitation of drug and encapsulating polymer in the form of spherical particle. Spherical crystallization is the  novel agglomeration technique that can transform directly the fine crystals produced in the crystallization process into a spherical shape. It is the versatile process that enables to control the type and the size of the crystals. It is the particle engineering technique by which crystallization and agglomeration can be carried out simultaneously in one step to transform crystals directly into compacted spherical form. This technique of particle design of drugs has emerged as one of the areas of active research currently of interest in pharmaceutical manufacturing and recently came into the forefront of interest or gained great attention and importance due to the fact that crystal habit (form, surface, size and particle size distribution) can be modified during the crystallization process. In consequence of such modifications in the crystal habit certain micrometric properties (bulk density, flow property, compactability) and physicochemical properties like solubility, dissolution rate, bioavailability and stability) can also be modified. The process is simple and inexpensive enough for scaling up to a commercial level. It reduces time and cost by
enabling faster operation, less machinery and fewer personnel.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-000023
Title: Role of Leukotriene in Inflammation and Antileukotriene Therapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The leukotrienes arise from oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid through the action of the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme, leading to the unstable allylic epoxide leukotriene A4. This intermediate represents the substrate for two different specific enzymes, namely leukotriene A4-hydrolase and leukotriene C4-synthase, generating LTB4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes, respectively. LTC4 and LTD4 are potent contracting agents of smooth muscle in airways and blood vessels. LTB4 is known as a potent chemokinetic and chemotactic agent. A number of evidences reported in the literature underline the potential role of leukotrienes in the inflammatory responses that characterizes asthma and other pathological conditions. These potent lipid bioeffectors are synthesized during the course of inflammatory reactions and their pharmacological modulation is able to significantly attenuate the clinical manifestations associated with different inflammatory pathologies. Selective leukotriene inhibitors and receptor antagonists are currently under evaluation in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000024
Title: Taste masking in Pharmaceuticals: an update
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. Nevertheless it is that arena of product development that has been overlooked and undermined for its importance. Taste masking technologies offer a great scope for invention and patents. Several approaches like adding flavors and sweeteners, use of lipoproteins for inhibiting bitterness, numbing of taste buds, coating of drug with inert agents, microencapsulation, multiple emulsion, viscosity modifiers, vesicles and liposomes, prodrug formation, salt formation, formation of inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion system and application of ion exchange resins have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review attempts to give a brief account of different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000025
Title: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Caesalpinia sappan
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In spite of many synthetic compounds, the most efficient drugs available have their roots directly or indirectly related with the plant kingdom. Many of the extracts have proven to possess pharmacological action. Caesalpinia sappan, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and immunosuppressive activities. This review highlights some of  the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects.

 

Cite this article as: Chaitali R.Pawar, Amol D.Landge, and Sanjay J.Surana,Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Caesalpinia sappan,Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol.1.Issue 2. Oct-December 2008,131-138.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000026
Title: Design and in vitro evaluation of alginate beads of ambroxol hydrochloride
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Oral slow and sustained release drug delivery system can release their drug content with a controlled manner, producing a desirable blood serum level, reduction in drug toxicity and improving the patient compliance by prolonging dosing intervals. The major drawback of orally administered drug like ambroxol as mucolytic agent in a variety of respiratory disorders has a shorter biological half-life. To overcome these drawbacks, an attempt has been made to develop a sustained release dosage form of ambroxol embedded alginate microbeads prepared by ionotropic gelation technique. The beads were characterized for its particle size, drug content and in vitro release studies. The results revealed that the surface adhering drug was found to release immediately and a steady state of release was obtained up to 12 h from all the batches. The results indicated there was an inverse relationship between the concentration of alginate and drug release. The drug release was found to follow non-fickian diffusion obeying first order kinetics.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-000027
Title: Anti-ulcerogenic evaluation of the ethanolic extract of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) in aspirin ulcerated rats.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim of the study is to evaluate the anti-ulcer efficacy of the Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (IAF), is known to possess various therapeutic properties. The reason for the study is that, the known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are full of side effects especially ulceration which is at the top. Gastric ulceration is a cause of economic loss and a source of welfare concern worldwide. There are 350,000 to 500,000 new cases per year and more than one million ulcer-related hospitalizations each year. We found that IAF decreased the incidence of ulcers and also enhanced the healing of ulcers. Ethanolic extract of IAF at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg was found to be effective by (68.72%) for 200mg/kg and (62.13%) for 400mg/kg in aspirin (ASP) induced ulcer model and significantly reduced free and total acidity; we observed that anti-ulcer effect of IAF may be due to its cytoprotective effect rather than antisecretory activity. Conclusively, IAF was found to possess potent anti-ulcerogenic as well as ulcer-healing properties and could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000028
Title: Formulation of toothpaste from various forms and extracts of tender twigs of neem.
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Since many centuries, Ayurveda regarded neem (Azadirachta indica Family: Meliaceae) as a cure for many ailments, predominantly due to its superb antimicrobial activity. It has been a practice since time immemorial to use tender twigs of neem as dentifrice. Looking as these facts the possibility of developing an authentic dentifrice from neem extract and formulations were formulated and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and some formulations were found to have significant antimicrobial activity. For the present work the tender stems of neem were specifically chosen so that most specific results could be obtained especially when neem powder is selected for developing dentifrices. In addition to the antimicrobial activity it was thought that the small fibers in the powder may act as abrasive thereby potentiating the activity of the dentifrice. The scope of the present work is limited to testing the antibacterial activity of neem extract and neem powder in a tooth paste form.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-000029
Title: Use of Mirabilis jalapa L flower extract as a natural indicator in acid base titration
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Mirabilis jalapa L commonly known as four o’clock flower is belonging to family Nyctaginaceae. The present work highlights the use of Mirabilis jalapa L flower extract as an acid base indicator in different types of acid base titrations. The equivalence points obtained by the flower extract coincide with the equivalence points obtained by standard indicators. In case of weak acid and weak base titration, the results obtained by the flower extract matched with the results obtained by mixed indicator. This natural indicator is found to be a very useful, economical, simple and accurate for the said titration.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000030
Title: Formulation and in vitro evaluation of niosome encapsulated acyclovir
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Acyclovir entrapped niosomes were prepared by hand shaking and ether injection process with different ratios of (1:1, 1;2 and 1:3) cholesterol (CHOL) and Span-80 (Non-ionic surfactant).The niosomes prepared were in the size range of 0.5- 5 microns in the case of hand shaking process and 0.5-2.5 microns in the case of Ether injection process. The order of encapsulation efficiency increases when span-80 concentration was increased. In-vitro release study on acyclovir niosomes indicates 76.64% release for formulation prepared with CHOL: Span-80 (1:1) and it takes an extended period of 1 day and 16 h for release.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000031
Title: Reparation of solid dispersions of NSAIDS and its mechanism of drug polymers interaction
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This work studied the mechanisms of interaction between Eudragit RSPO and RLPO polymers with 3 Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs: Diflunisal (DIF), Flurbiprofen (FLU) and Piroxicam (PIR). Solid dispersions of Polymers and drugs at different weight ratios were prepared by coevaporation method. The resulting coevaporates were characterized in the solid state (Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) IR, Differential scanning calorimetry, Powder-x-ray diffractometry) as well as by studying the in vitro drug release in a gastroenteric environment. The preparative conditions did not induce changes in the crystalline state of the drugs (Amorphization or polymorphic change). RLPO & RSPO coevaporate usually displayed higher dissolution rates. However, the kinetic evaluation of the dissolution profile suggested that both the drug solubility in the external medium and its diffusion capacity within the polymer network are involved. In the sorption experiments, RLPO showed a greater adsorptive capacity than RSPO, in relation to the greater number of quaternary ammonium functions, which behave as activity sites for the electrostatic interactions. In the presence of Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4), drug adsorption was reduced, as a consequence of the competition of the chloride ions with drug anions for the polymer binding sites. DIF and FLU displayed a similar interaction with RSPO and RLPO active sites. PIR’s was different .The different molecular structures of these agents can justify such things. The presence of a carboxyl group (instead of another dissociable acidic moiety, like the hydroxy-enolic one in the PIR molecule) could help explain the strong interaction with RSPO and RLPO polymers’ quaternary ammonium centers. Preliminary studies like ours are important in helping develop better forecasting and increasing the understanding of the incorporation/release behavior of drugs from particulate delivery systems that can be made from these polymers.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000033
Title: Method development and its validation for simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin and amlodipine in combination in tablet dosage form by UV spectroscopy, using multi-component mode of analysis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Atorvastatin Calcium and Amlodipine Besilate in combination are available as tablet dosage forms in the ratio of 2:1. A simple, reproducible and efficient method for the simultaneous determination of Atorvastatin Calcium and Amlodipine Besilate in tablet dosage form has been developed. The developed method is based on the simultaneous estimation by UV Spectroscopy, using multi-component mode of analysis. 50%v/v aqueous methanol was used as blank. The validation studies were performed according to ICH guidelines.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000034
Title: Development and validation of a stability indicating UV spectrophotometric method for the estimation of losartan potassium in bulk and tablet dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, sensitive and reproducible stability indicating UV Spectrophotometric method has been developed for quantitative determination of Losartan Potassium in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The UV- spectrum was scanned between 220 to 400 nm and 227.4 nm was selected as maximum wavelength for absorption. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 2.02-22.22 mg/ml. Good accuracy (98.11-99.85%), precision (RSD 0.303-0.334) and selectivity (= 0.5%) were found, and the method was successfully applied to the pharmaceutical dosage form containing the above-mentioned drug without any interference by the excipients. The method was fast and economical and it was also selective and sensitive for the desirable range. Results of the analysis were validated as per ICH guidelines and by recovery studies. Stability testing study includes the effect of temperature, oxidation, photolysis and susceptibility to hydrolysis across a wide range of pH values.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000035
Title: Formulation and evaluation of buccoadhesive tablets of Atenolol
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the study was to prepare and characterize buccoadhesive tablets of atenolol using different mucoadhesive polymers such as carbopol 934P, sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M in combination. The bilayered buccoadhesive tablets were prepared by direct compression technology. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters such as hardness, thickness uniformity, weight variation, surface pH and swelling studies. Also prepared tablets were evaluated for bioadhesive strength and in vitro drug release. In vitro bioadhesive strength studies showed that formulations containing combination of carbopol 934P and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were more bioadhesive than sodium alginate. In vitro dissolution studies revealed that all the formulations exhibited non-fickian release kinetics. The optimized formulations F4 and F10 showed 90% release in 8 hr in vitro dissolution studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000059
Title: In vitro free radicals scavenging activity of stems of Cuscuta reflexa
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Cell damage caused by free radicals appears to be a major contributor to aging and to degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, immune system decline, and brain dysfunction. Overall, free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many disease. Cuscuta Reflexa plant reported to have in vitro antioxidant activity (non-enzymatic hemoglobin glycosylation), antibacterial activity, onset of puberty and ovarian steroidogenesis The aim of the present study to evaluate the free radicals scavenging activity by using DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing power assay of methanolic extract of Cuscuta Reflexa (MECR). The DPPH assay results were expressed as IC50 value. Ascorbic acid which was used as a standard showed an IC50 9.22μg/ml, whereas, the methanolic extract of Cuscuta Reflexa (MECR) showed antioxidant activitywith IC50 value 359.48μg/ml. The reducing power of MECR was found to be increase with increasing amount of extract concentration. All the concentrations of MECR showed significant antioxident activities when compared to control and these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001)

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000808
Title: Development of modified Spectrophotometric and HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol hydrochloride and Cetirizine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A high-performance liquid chromatographic and an UV Spectrophotometric method were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of two drugs, Ambroxol hydrochloride and Cetirizine hydrochloride in tablets. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, have been used to estimate the drugs by using water as a solvent at 20oC. Simultaneous equation method developed by UV spectrum measurements indicates the concentration of Ambroxol hydrochloride and Cetirizine hydrochloride in tablets. A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol hydrochloride and Cetirizine hydrochloride in dosage forms (tablets) by using acetonitrile, methanol and water in the ratio 10:20:70 as a solvent system. The method was carried out on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 (25 cm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 ì) column, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 244,230 nm.The retention time of Ambroxol hydrochloride and Cetirizine hydrochloride was -4.2 and 9.3 min, respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and solution stability. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of these drugs in combined Pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-0000806
Title: Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Nutritional Analysis of Leaves of Ehretia laevis
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Ehretia laevis Roxb, a medicinally important plant, belongs to family Boraginaceae. The parts of the plant like bark, leaves and fruits are used in Ayurvedic system of medicines. The phytoconstituents using various cold solvent extracts of different solvent polarities ranging from non polar to polar are acknowledged. The nutritional quantitative analysis is carried out to evaluate the nutritive factors like fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamin- C, E, A, riboflavin and thiamine. It has been proved as a good source of nutritional supplement. The quantitative determination of trace elements such as calcium, iron, potassium, phosphorus present in the leaves is carried out .The vital role of trace elements in the human body has been established.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000805
Title: Pharmacological evaluation of ethanolic extracts of the plant Alternanthera sessilis against temperature regulation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: The antipyretic activity of the 90 % ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Alternanthera sessilis. (Amaranthaceae) was investigated in other to verify its claimed ethno medicinal use in the treatment of fever.Method: The antipyretic activity of Alternanthera sessilis extract (ASE) was investigated for its, potential on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rats. Results: The ASE at doses of 200, and 400 mg/kgBW p.o., showed significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature in a dose-dependent manner. The effect also extended upto 4 h after the drug administration. The anti-pyretic effect of ASE was comparable to that of paracetamol (150 mg/kg p.o.,), a standard anti-pyretic agent. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study it can be concluded that the extract of A. sessilis has potential antipyretic activity. The activity is in dose dependent manner.Consequently our present study gives a scientific ground to the traditional uses of the plant A.sessilis

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000803
Title: Preparation and Characterization of Aspirin-Chitosan Complex: An Attempt for Its Solubility and Stability Improvement
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A lyophilized aspirin-chitosan HCl complex was prepared as attempted to enhance its solubility and consequently reduce its GI side effects. Aspirin-chitosan complex was been investigated using several techniques, namely phase solubility diagrams, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results showed clearly that formation of aspirin-chitosan complex that has different characteristics from the starting materials. The phase solubility diagram of the complex at 25° C indicated a typical AP-type (positively deviating isotherms) solubility curve. Complex solubility was highly significant (P<0.01) enhanced in 0.1N HCl and significantly increased in distilled water and phosphate buffer pH 6.8, comparing to aspirin alone. Also aspirin stability in accelerated conditions (40± 2º C and 75± 5% RH) and its rate of dissolution in the acidic media were considerably improved when complexed to chitosan. Higuchi model was the most suitable one to describe the dissolution kinetics of aspirin and the complex which indicating diffusion-controlled dissolution kinetics.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000801
Title: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of some Pyrazolines Derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A new series of chalcones (C1-7) were synthesized by condensation of substituted aldehydes with substituted acetophenones in presence of alkali. The resulted chalcones (1mmol) and phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride in ethanol and pyridine was added as a catalyst. The mixture was refluxed for 4-6 hr’s and the solvent was evaporated completely. Then the reaction mixture was poured into crushed ice and the solid mass that separated out was filtered, dried and recrystalised from alcohol will yields the title compounds (PY 1-7). The newly synthesized compounds were assigned on the basis of IR, 1H NMR spectral data. All the final compounds were evaluated for their anthelmintic and antimicrobial activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001438
Title: Antiulcer and Antioxidant activity of Methanolic leaf extract of Soymida febrifuga
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The anti-ulcerogenic potential and antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extract of Soymida febrifuga was investigated. Totals phenols and total flavanoids content in the methanolic extracts of Soymida febrifuga were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and rutin equivalent, respectively. Antiulcer activity was determined by three different models in experimental wistar rats: Aspirin induced ulcer, Cold-restraint Stress induced ulcer, Ethanol induced ulcer. Antioxidant capacity was assessed by Enzymatic Antioxidant Activity [Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase] and Non - Enzymatic Antioxidant Activity [Reduced Glutathione]. The extract of Soymida febrifuga yield 98 mg/g of phenol content and 22.12mg/g of flavanoid content. The extract of Soymida febrifuga significantly reduced the gastric lesions at 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o doses in all the three models.  Oral administration of methanolic extract of Soymida febrifuga at doses of 200 and 400mg/kg exhibited dose dependent ulcer inhibition percentage of 70.86 and 79.79, 86.32 & 94.23 and of 49.30 and 73.64 (p<0.001) in Aspirin, ethanol and cold restraint stress induced ulcers. The effects of methanolic extract of Soymida febrifuga on acid parameters were less significant at 200mg/kg dose but showed significant (p<0.001) effect at 400mg/kg dose compared to ulcer control animals. The antioxidant levels were also restored to normal levels in treated animals when compared to non treated animals. Methanolic leaf extract of soymida febrifuga showed potent antiulcer and antioxidant activity. Further research is required to isolate the active phytoconstituents present in the extract and experimentation on the healing action of drug on chronic ulcer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001430
Title: Bioactive compounds in Sesbania sesban flower and its antioxidant and Antimicrobial activity
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In plants, there are number of bioactive compounds present, among them anthocyanins are water – soluble natural pigments found in flowers and fruits . The pigments may appear in different colours such as red, purple or blue. They belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized through the phenylpropanoid pathway. Anthocyanins occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits. Anthocyanins are derivatives of anthocyanidins which include pendant sugars. This work was an attempt to extract anthocyanin from Sesbania sesban flower petals. Anthocyanins from coloured petals of Sesbania sesban flower were extracted by using solvents such as methanol and acidified methanol. The studies were carried out from the crude extracts  to  obtained anthocyanins, total phenol and total flavonoids from flower petals. From the extracts of Sesbania sesban flower petals the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of anthocyanins were analysed. These merits can  put the plant in a wider and more significant perspective with respect to national and global interest in  medicinal uses and food  industries.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000752
Title: Bioprospecting of mangrove rhizosphere actinomycetes from pitchavaram with special reference to antibacterial activity
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Marine actinomycetes were isolated from sediment samples collected from of eight mangrove species of Pitchavaram mangrove ecosystem. The actinomycetes population ranged between 2.1 X 104 and 6.4 X 104 cfu g-1 of dry sediment. Maximum actinomycetes population was noted in rhizosphere of Avicennia marina and the minimum with Excoecaria agallocha. About 50% of the isolates showed activity against S. aureus followed by B. subtilis, E. coli, V. cholerae, K. pheumoniae, P. vulgaris and S. typhi. Bioactive compound from one potential strain Rh1 was produced using soybean meal medium. The culture filtrate and its ethyl acetate extract showed 8-15 mm and 12-20 mm inhibition, respectively. Based on the studied phenotypic characteristics, strain Rh1 was identified as Streptomyces fradiae (Rh1). Purification and characterization of potential actinomycetes strain Rh1 is in progress, to prove its potential further.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-MPS-0000402
Title: Antioxidant mechanism(s) of protective effects of Fenugreek 4-hydroxyisoleucine and trigonelline enriched fraction (TF4H (28%)) Sugaheal® against copper-ascorbate induced injury to goat cardiac mit
Category: Mechanism / Pathway Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Sugaheal®, the 4-hydroxyisoleucine and trigonelline enriched fraction (TF4H (28%)) isolated from the seed of Trigonella foenum graecum (Linn.) is a well established antidiabetic drug. But the mechanism of its protection against diabetes is still unknown. Our experiments has revealed that this fraction (TF4H (28%)) Sugaheal® also possesses good antioxidant characteristics which is evident from its capacity to scavenge hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide and DPPH radical in chemically defined in vitro system.TF4H (28%) Sugaheal® also prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation level, protein carbonyl level and a concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione level in goat heart mitochondria against Cu-ascorbate induced oxidative stress in an in vitro system. These above facts are also confirmed by its inhibition of increase in Mn-SOD activity and induction of glutathione reductase (the reduced glutathione synthesizing enzyme) and Krebs cycle enzyme activity, which makes its antioxidant phenomenon.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001285
Title: Gastroprotective effect of Fenugreek 4-hydroxyisoleucine and trigonelline enriched fraction (TF4H (28%)) Sugaheal® against indomethacin induced ulcer in male wistar rats.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Background: Sugaheal®, the 4-hydroxyisoleucine and trigonelline enriched fraction (TF4H (28%)) isolated from the seed of Trigonella foenum graecum (Linn.) is a well established antidiabetic drug. Several experiments have revealed that Sugaheal® also possesses good antioxidant characteristics. Gastric ulcer generally develops due to long term use of Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), consumed as pain killers. It is well established that oxidative stress and free radical mediated injury play a major role in generation of gastric ulcer. This influenced us to investigate the ameliorative role, if any, of Sugaheal® against indomethacin (IMN), a classical NSAID, induced gastric damage. Objective: Evaluation of the protective effect of Sugaheal® against indomethacin induced gastric ulceration. Methods: Indomethacin was orally administered in male Wistar rats to generate gastric ulcers. These rats were orally fed with aqueous solution of Sugaheal® prior to indomethacin administration. Oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of antioxidant enzymes, activities of mitochondrial enzymes and gastric tissue morphology were studied through histological analysis. Results: From those obtained data, it was seen that, indomethacin treatment altered all the above mentioned parameters whereas; Sugaheal® pre-treatment prevented those deleterious changes. Biochemical and histological data supported these findings. Conclusion: Hence it can be said that besides being a potent anti-diabetic drug, Sugaheal® also possess the potentiality to be used as an antiulcer drug against indomethacin induced gastric ulcer.

Cite this article as : Nirajan Ghosal, Syed Benazir Firdaus, Shamreen Naaz, Sudeshna Paul, Arnab Kumar Ghosh, Aindrila Chattopadhyay, Vishwaraman Mohan, Prasad Thakurdesai, Sunil Bhaskaran, Sanjib Pattari, Debasish Bandyopadhyay, Gastroprotective effect of Fenugreek 4-hydroxyisoleucine and trigonelline enriched fraction (TF4H (28%)) Sugaheal® against indomethacin induced ulcer in male wistar rats, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),351-364.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001428
Title: Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna protects against adrenaline-induced hepatic damage in male albino rats through antioxidant mechanism(s): a dose response study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of different doses of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) on adrenaline-induced hepato-toxicity in male albino rats.  Methods: A total number of 48 adult healthy male albino rats were divided into eight groups comprising of 6 animals each. Group-I served as normal control group. All other groups (group-II and group-VI to VIII) were administered adrenaline sub-cutaneously at a dose of 0.3mg/kg body weight. Group- III to V was treated with different doses of aqueous bark extract of TA at doses of 10mg/kg bw/administered orally (For Group-III), 20mg/kg bw/ administered orally (For Group-IV), 40mg/kg bw/administered orally (For Group-V).  Group-VI, group-VII and group-VIII were also co-treated with different doses of aqueous bark extract of TA at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg bw/ administered orally, respectively.  Results: Treatment of rats with adrenaline induced alterations in the activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase total (LDH T), lactate dehydrogenase-5(LDH 5), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), caused elevation in the level of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, a decrease in glutathione content as well as altered the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the enzymes of Kreb’s cycle and respiratory chain. Tissue histomorphological studies also showed considerable damage following adrenaline treatment. Pre-treatment of rats with aqueous bark extract of TA significantly protected against these hepatic damage. Conclusion: The present studies suggest that the aqueous bark extract of TA may be beneficial in ameliorating adrenaline-induced oxidative stress mediated damages in the rat liver.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001319
Title: Orally administered aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna protects against adrenaline-induced myocardial injury in rat heart through antioxidant mechanisms: an in vivo and an in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present study is aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the most effective dose of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) on adrenaline- bitartrate induced myocardial damages in male albino rats. Methods: After sacrifice of rats, the left ventricular portion of heart tissues were used for determination of biomarkers of oxidative stress, activities of antioxidant enzymes, Kreb’s cycle enzymes and respiratory chain enzymes by using standard methods. Results: Treatment of rats with adrenaline - bitartrate induced alterations in the activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase total (LDH -T), lactate dehydrogenase-1(LDH -1), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), tissue and serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration. Moreover, it caused elevation in the level of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, a decrease in glutathione content as well as altered the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the enzymes of Kreb’s cycle and respiratory chain. Tissue histomorphological studies also showed considerable damage following adrenaline treatment. Pre-treatment of rats with aqueous bark extract of TA significantly protected against these myocardial damages. Conclusion: The present studies suggest that the effective dose of aqueous bark extract of TA may be beneficial in ameliorating adrenaline-induced oxidative stress mediated myocardial injury.

Cite this article as: Sanatan Mishra , Shamreen Naaz , Arnab K. Ghosh, Sudeshna Paul, Nirajan Ghosal, Mousumi Dutta, Debasish Bandyopadhyay, Aindrila Chattopadhyay,Orally administered aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna protects against adrenaline-induced myocardial injury in rat heart through antioxidant mechanisms: an in vivo and an in vitro study, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),454-478.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-NN-00001115
Title: Bio-Reductive Synthesis and Characterization of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (CuONPs) Using Alternanthera sessilis Linn. Leaf Extract
Category: Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: The aim of present study was to synthesize and characterize copper oxide nano particles (CuONPs) from leaf extract of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn). Materials and Methods: Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles has been carried out from aqueous copper sulphate using leaf extract of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.). The bio-molecules present in the leaf juice react with copper sulphate, upon reduction at room temperature resulted in the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs). Results: Synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) were studied by SEM- EDAX to investigate the morphology. NPs were spherical and the size in the range of 22.6nm to 25.2nm. The EDAX spectrum revealed the presence of copper oxide. FT-IR spectrum examined the occurrence of bioactive functional groups required for the reduction method. The elemental composition of synthesized product was determined by XRF technique. The oxidation state of NPs was confirmed through the XPS spectra. Conclusions: This room temperature, one-pot green synthesis shows promising results for producing CuO nanoparticles in a low cost, eco- friendly process. Metal nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity when embedded and coated on to surfaces can find immense applications in water treatment, synthetic textiles, biomedical and surgical devices, food processing and packaging.

Cite this article as:K.L.Niraimathi, R.Lavanya, V.Sudha, R.Narendran, P.Brindha,Bio-Reductive Synthesis and Characterization of Copper Oxide  Nanoparticles (CuONPs) Using Alternanthera sessilis Linn. Leaf Extract, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),29-32.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001176
Title: Effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica on the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in ethanol-ulcerated rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Increased needs for proteins and anti-oxidants are required to promote wound healing and thus, this study was originated to evaluate the effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica on the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in ethanol-ulcerated rats. Methods : The effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of A. indica on the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase were determined and assayed respectively using standard methods. Results: The extract at the three doses [100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w)] caused significant (p < 0.05) and dose-related increases in the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in the rats of the test groups compared to those of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group (group 2). The 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract exerted the greatest effects in a manner similar to those of the standard anti-ulcer drug, cimetidine at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: The remarkable amelioration of the amount of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in the ulcerated rats by the methanol extract of the leaves of A. indica encourages the local utilisation of the leaves of the plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.

Cite this article as:Christian E. Odo,Effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica on the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in ethanol-ulcerated rats,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),65-68.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001131
Title: Development and validation of HPLC-UV method for the estimation of fulvestrant in bulk drug
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Aim: The present work is aimed to develop a simple, rapid, selective, sensitive and validated HPLC method for the determination of fulvestrant in bulk drug. Method: Fulvestrant was measured using a validated HPLC method with UV detector at 225nm chromatographic peaks were separated on Phenomix, C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm x3.5µ) using 50% aetonitrile in channel A and acetonitlile in channel B as mobile phase with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Results & Discussions: The chromatograms showed good peak shapes and no interference of solvent peaks. The retention time of fulvestrant was found to be 13.6 min. LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.0226µg/ml (0.001%) and 0.0712µg/ml,(0.004%) respectively. The percentage recovery of fulvestrant was found to be 99.1% - 100.75% which are within the limit. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.08to 2ìg/ml with coefficient of correlation (r2) 0.99997. Both intraday and inter day accuracy and precision data showed good reproducibility. Conclusions: The low % RSD values (= 2) indicated that the method was precise and accurate. this method was successfully applied to forced degradation studies and can be adopted for routine estimation of fulvestrant in quality control laboratories.

Cite this article as:Rama Mohan Reddy Thummaluru, Srikanth Gurrala,Development and validation of HPLC-UV method for the estimation of fulvestrant in bulk drug,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),21-24.

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001175
Title: Effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica on some haematological parameters of ethanol-ulcerated rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim:Gastric ulceration may involve bleeding which in extreme cases could result in haematologic abnormalities such as anaemia among others. This research was therefore, designed to ascertain the effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica on some haematological parameters of ethanol-ulcerated rats. Methods:The effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of A. indica on red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb) and total white blood cell (tWBC) count were determined with the aids of standard methods. Results:The extract at the graded doses [100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w)] significantly (p < 0.05) and dose-dependently increased the RBC counts, PCV values, Hb concentrations and tWBC counts of the rats in the test groups compared to the values obtained for the rats in the positive control group (group 2). The effects of the 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract were similar to those of the standard anti-ulcer drug, cimetidine at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion:The methanol extract of the leaves of A. indica remarkably improved the haematological parameters in the ulcerated rats and hence may raise the choice of the plant over some other plants for the treatment of gastric ulcer especially when the ulcer is bleeding-prone.

Cite this article as:Christian E. Odo,Effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica on some haematological parameters of ethanol-ulcerated rats,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),54-57.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001149
Title: Evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Terminalia citrina Leaves
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To investigate antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its derived fractions (petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) of leaves of Terminalia citrina plant belonging to the Combretaceae family. Methods: The antioxidant potential were evaluated in terms of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging potential, ABTS scavenging potential, reducing power assay and total antioxidant capacity by specific standard procedures. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method while cytotoxic was evaluated by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and compared with vincristine sulfate. Results: The methanolic leaf extract exhibited the highest flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity while ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest phenolic content, reducing power, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, the extracts of the leaves does not showed remarkable activities against tested microorganisms and Artemia salina respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that the leaves of Terminalia citrina possess antioxidant activity.

Cite this article as: Narhari Das, Durajan Goshwami, Md. Sharif Hasan, Zobaer Al Mahmud, Sheikh Zahir Raihan,Evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Terminalia citrina Leaves,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),8-15.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001174
Title: Biofilm formation on contact lenses by bacterial pathogens
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Biofilm is an assemblage of microbial cells that is irreversibly associated with the surface and usually enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharide material. The process of any contact lens related keratitis usually starts when opportunistic pathogens binds to the cell surface. Lens material characteristics influence bacterial adhesion to lens surface. Various factors affect biofilm formation on contact lens such as substratum effect, conditioning film, hydrodynamics, quorum sensing etc. The effect of bacterial adhesion on lens varies amongst individuals. This is due to difference between the errors, responses of bacterial strain and the ability of certain tear film protein when bound to the cell surface to kill certain types of bacteria. Prevention of biofilm formation is a necessary step in the successful prophylaxis of infections. Polymer surface modification is one approach to inhibit bacterial adhesion.

Cite this article as: Nishita Jain, Preeti Bhosale, Vidya Tale,Biofilm formation on contact lenses by bacterial pathogens,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),50-53.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001208
Title: Screening of different growth medium for extracellular bacterial synthesis of silver nanoparticles: ecofriendly method
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of present study was to select suitable growth medium for bacteria capable of silver nanoparticle synthesis. Background: The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has received considerable attention with their potential applications in field of life sciences. Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) have extensive applications in civil, therapeutic and industrial areas as catalyst, cryogenic superconductor, biosensor, microelectronic and bacteriostatic materials. Currently, there is a growing need to develop environmentally benevolent nanoparticle synthesis processes that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocol. Among the various known synthesis methods, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is preferred as it is environmentally safe, low cost and less toxic. Methods: In the present study we have screened different culture medium for the growth of bacteria capable of silver nanoparticles synthesis. Different growth medium were screened on the basis of colour and UV-Visible spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Only one culture medium Basal salt medium containing glucose was found to be suitable for synthesis of silver nanoparticles on the basis of colur and UV-Visible spectrophotometric analysis. Conclusion: Basal salt medium containing glucose is suitable for growth of bacteria responsible for ecofriendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

Cite this article as :Divya Bhatia,Deepak Kumar Malik, Ashwani Mittal,Screening of different growth medium for extracellular bacterial synthesis of silver nanoparticles: ecofriendly method,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),76-78.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001148
Title: Hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Saccharum spontaneum in atherogenic diet induced rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Saccharum spontaneum (Poaceae) commonly known as Wild sugarcane is a popular folk medicine in traditional systems of medicine in India. The whole plant is used to treat mental diseases, abdominal disorders, dyspnoea, anaemia, obesity, diuretic, lithotriptic, purgative, tonic, aphrodisiac, gynecological troubles, respiratory troubles etc. The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Saccharum spontaneum whole plant (ESSW) in attenuating hyperlipidemia which is associated with many cardiovascular diseases like atherosclerosis. Methods: Hyperlipidemia was induced to rats by feeding atherogenic diet (AD) for a period of 21 days. The lipid profile was taken as the major marker of Hyperlipidemia and accordingly the changes in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) were measured (using enzymatic kits) after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Saccharum spontaneum whole plant (ESSW) and standard (atorvastatin). Results and discussion: The oral administration of ESSW (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days significantly lowered the TC, TG and LDL-C levels while increase in HDL levels were observed in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that ESSW has significant antihyperlipidemic properties and can be used in the treatment of vascular disorders including atherosclerosis. The potential activity of the extracts can be attributed to the presence of antioxidant principles such as phenolic compounds which were reported from the plant.

Cite this article as:Geetha Kodali and Ahmadi Banu,Hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of  Saccharum spontaneum in atherogenic diet induced rats,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),16-20.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001173
Title: Effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica on some oxidative stress indices of ethanol-ulcerated rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Researches into medicinal plants with potent anti-oxidant activity will continue to receive the attention of researchers due to the role of oxidative stress in many disease conditions and hence, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica on oxidative stress indices of ethanol-ulcerated rats. Methods: The effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of A. indica on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined using standard methods. Results:The extract at the administered doses [100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w)] caused significant (p < 0.05) and dose-related increases in the activities and amounts of SOD and GSH respectively in the rats of the test groups compared to those of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group (group 2). The extract treatment also led to significant (p < 0.05) reductions in the concentrations of MDA in the rats of the test groups compared to that of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group. The 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract exerted the greatest effects which were similar to those of the standard anti-ulcer drug, cimetidine at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: The methanol extract of the leaves of A. indica remarkably ameliorated the gastric ulcer-associated indices in the ulcerated rats and these findings thus support the local application of the leaves of the plant in the cure of gastric ulcer.

Cite this article as: Christian E. Odo,Effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica on some oxidative stress indices of ethanol-ulcerated rats,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),46-49

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001203
Title: Direct compression of cushion layered ethyl cellulose coated extended release pellets into rapidly disintegrating tablets
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this study was to develop and optimize cushion layered ethyl cellulose coated extended release pellets into rapidly disintegrating tablets without changes in the release profile. In order to avoid segregation problems resulting from particle size differences between coated pellets and excipients and to protect the integrity of brittle ethyl cellulose coating during compression the tabletting excipients were layered on to the ethyl cellulose (6%) coated metoprolol succinate pellets. However, the drug release from these cushion layered pellets increased upon compression. Incorporation of a glidant (magnesium stearate) between the cushion layer and ethyl cellulose coating reduced the compression effect on the drug release. Glidant was coated to a coating level of 1-3%. The F2 values of optimized formulation (directly compressed cushion layered formulation with 3% magnesium stearate) was found to be greater than 50 and showed similar release as that of uncompressed pellets. The directly compressed cushion layered pellets protected the pellet coating significantly better from damages during compression when compared to the conventional compression of coated pellets and also facilitated segregation free compression of an extended release ethyl cellulose coated pellets in to fast disintegrating tablets.

Cite this article as:M.Yasmin Begum, G.Pavani,M.Sudhakar,Direct compression of cushion layered ethyl cellulose coated extended release pellets into rapidly disintegrating tablets,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),69-75.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001133
Title: Assessment of Pharmacognostical Characters of Leaves of Tephrosia Purpurea Linn
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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An attempt has been made to highlight this folk herbal medicine through present study which will assist in the identification of the plant both pharmacognostically as well as physiochemically. Various parameters like macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical parameter and Preliminary phytochemical studies of the leaves powder were also carried out. Physiochemical parameters like total ash content, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash, sulphated ash, alcohol soluble extractive and water soluble extractive were observed. The qualitative parameters are reported. The plant is rich in saponins, glycosides, flavanoids and phytosterol. The present study on pharmacognostical investigation of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. leaves might be useful to supplement information in regard to its identification parameters assumed significantly in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs in present scenario lacking regulatory laws to control quality of herbal drugs.

Cite this article as: Sufiyan Ahmad, Md. Rageeb Md. Usman, Rashid Akthar, Md. Imran,Assessment of Pharmacognostical Characters of Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),25-28.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001172
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Poorly Aqueous Soluble Drug by Solid Dispersion Method
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Development of solid dispersions of poorly water soluble drugs is one of the most widely used approaches to enhance the solubility as well as dissolution rate. In the current investigation, Ezetimibe is selected as model drug to improve the solubility and dissolution rate by solid dispersion method. Solid dispersions were prepared using solvent evaporation method by incorporating sol plus as carriers in different ratios and evaluated for solubility studies, FT-IR, X-Ray, DSC studies and in vitro dissolution studies. Based on the solubility and drug release studies, formulations different disintegrates are used and the best natural disintegrating agent i.e. Guar gum was selected to prepare the tablets and in vitro dissolution study is done, tablets containing Guar gum showed almost complete drug release within the 12 min. The percent drug release in 12 min (Q12) and initial dissolution rate for formulation F3 was 94.22±1.08%, 9.26%/min. These were very much higher compared to conventional tablets containing pure drug (23.87±1.13%, 2.38%/min). The relative dissolution rate was found to be 2.14 and dissolution efficiency was found to be 67.52 and it is increased by 4.0 fold with F3 formulation compared to conventional tablets. Thus, it is concluded that the formulation of guar gum as disintegrating agent is a suitable approach to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Ezetimibe than pure form of drug.

Cite this article as:Omprakash G. Bhusnure, Mohite Yogita, Sachin S. Gholve, Giram P. Sidram,Thonte S.S.,Formulation and Evaluation of Poorly Aqueous Soluble Drug by Solid Dispersion Method,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),33-40.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001178
Title: In vitro antioxidant and ptp inhibitory activity of methanolic extract of Anogeissus acuminata leaf and bark.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Anogeissus acuminata is a plant rich in tannins and flavonoids. Various parts of the plant are used in traditional medicine for diabetes mellitus and inflammatory conditions. In the present study, methanolic extracts of leaf and bark are evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and PTP 1B inhibitory activity. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was analyzed by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and TBA (thiobarbituric acid) assay, using vitamin C as a standard. Moreover, antidiabetic potential was evaluated using in vitro protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibition assay using Suramin as a standard. Results: IC50 values for Vitamin C, leaf and bark of the plant in DPPH assay were 45.51 ± 6.657, 111.9 ± 5.534 and 80.9 ± 5.329 ìg/ml, respectively. The extracts also exhibited significant reducing powers and inhibition of lipid peroxidation comparable to that by Vitamin C (P <0.01). Both extracts also demonstrated significant PTP 1B inhibitory activity with IC50 values 20.7± 7.6 and 11.59 ± 7.8 ìg/ml for leaf and bark extracts respectively. Conclusion: Leaf and bark extracts of Anogeissus acuminata demonstrated potent in vitro anti-oxidant and PTP1B inhibitory activity.

Cite this article as:Archana M Navale, Archana N Paranjape, In vitro antioxidant and ptp inhibitory activity of methanolic extract of Anogeissus acuminata leaf and bark,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),65-68.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001151
Title: Effect of the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim:Plants have been the bases for medicinal treatments through much of human history and such medicine however, traditional, is still widely in use today such as the application of the leaves of Azadirachta indica in the treatment of gastric ulcer. The thrust of this work was therefore, to evaluate the effect of the methanol extract of the leaves of A. indica on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Methods: The phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity and lethality and effects of the extract on ulcer index, gastric juice volume and gastric juice pH were assessed using standard methods. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that the plant extract contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, steroids, terpenoids and fats and oil but resins, reducing sugars and acidic compounds were not detected. The extract at a dose even as high as 5000 mg/kg body weight (b.w) was safe for administration. The extract at the tested doses [100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w] caused significant (p < 0.05) and dose-dependent decreases in ulcer indices (gastric lesions) and gastric juice volumes of the rats in the test groups compared to the values obtained for the rats in the positive control group (group 2). Significant (p < 0.05) and dose-related increases in gastric juice pH of the rats in the test groups compared to that of the rats in the positive control group were also brought about by the extract. The effects of the 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract were similar to those of the standard anti-ulcer drug, cimetidine at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: These observations show that the methanol extract of the leaves of A. indica possesses notable anti-ulcer effect and contains some pharmacologically active principles which might be cynosures of future modern anti-ulcer drugs.

Cite this article as:Christian E. Odo,Effect of the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),41-45.

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001177
Title: Influence of solvent extraction on phenolic content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of aerial parts extract from Algerian Artemisia Herba-alba
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Artemisia Herba-alba is a commonly consumed medicinal and culinary herb in Algeria. This current study aimed to obtain the proper solvent for extracting bioactive compounds from Artemisa Herba-alba guided by phenolic content, flavonoid content, proanthocyanidins, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of exhibited the highest phytochemical composition (total phenolic content 92.29±3.25 mg GAE/g W, total flavonoids content 61.24±2.04 mg RT/g DW and proanthocyanidins 25.47±0.95 mg CAE/g DW), while butanol extract (BE), water extract (WE) and the minimum value in chloroform extract (CE). The best DPPH. scavenging capacity (IC50= 36.85±1.17 µm/mL), beta-carotene (23.83± 0.53) and ferric reducing power (IC50= 14.71± 0.51 µm/mL) were observed in EAE followed by BE. Our study also revealed the high anti-inflammatory potential of EAE, BE, WE and CE. Ethyl acetate can be an efficient solvent for extracting antioxidants from Artemisa Herba-alba based on this study. All these biological activities are well correlated with the phenolic contents of these extracts. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of these plants as valuable source of antioxidants with exhibit original and interesting anti-inflammatory and anticancer capacities.

Cite this article as:Laouini S Eddine, Ouahrani M Redha, Segni Ladjel,Influence of solvent extraction on phenolic content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of aerial parts extract from Algerian Artemisia Herba-alba,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),58-64.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001214
Title: In vitro studies on the wound dressing prepared using collagen and teak leaves (Tectonagrandis)
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The inappropriate caring of the burn wound may delay its healing, causing the area to become infected and subsequently resulting in chronic wounds. In this study, methanolic teak leaves extract (Tectonagrandis) has been incorporated into collagen sheet and the bio-composite has been evaluated for its physical, biological properties and also its in-vitro wound healing efficacy using 3T3 fibroblast cell line. This composite sheet is cost-effective, as collagen is being extracted from chrome shavings a by product of tanneries, in which teak extract is incorporated. The results showed that addition of teak leaves extract increased the water absorption capacity (184 %), tensile strength properties (1.11 N/mm2) and also stability of composite sheet against lysozyme. The characteristic spectra of collagen is shown by IR spectrum of amide I, II and III absorption bands at 1663, 1555 and 1242 cm-1 respectively. The bio-composite sheets have exhibited anti-microbial properties and extract release studies show 80 % extract release in 4 hrs. MTT based proliferation assay shows that collagen–teak bio composite sheets are not cytotoxic to cells and also supports the growth and proliferation as indicated by increase in cell number with respect to time.

Cite this article as: Trikkurmadom Seetharaman Amritha, VijiChandran S, Rajalekshmy G, Sujatha S,Pandima Devi M,In vitro studies on the wound dressing prepared using collagen and teak leaves (Tectonagrandis),Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(2),97-105.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-QA-00001213
Title: Formulation and Evalution of Immediate Release Tablets of Fexofenadine Hydrochloride
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present research work is to develop immediate release tablets of Fexofenadine hydrochloride. The rate of dissolution and bioavailability of the Fexofenadine HCL has been increased by using superdisintegrants in its immediate release tablets. Direct compression method was adapted to prepare the tablets by using Sodium lauryl sulphate, microcrystalline cellulose as filler, crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrant in different concentration (2-8%). Tablets were prepared and evaluated pre and post compressional parameters. In-Vitro Disintegration study shows that as there is increase in disintegration time with increase in concentration of sodium starch glycolate while there is decrease in disintegration time with increase in the level of crospovidone. The results indicate that the selected batch of tablet formulation containing crospovidone provides disintegration time between 3-6 minutes with sufficient crushing strength and accepted friability. It was concluded that immediate release tablet for Fexofenadine hydrochloride can be formulated for fast treatment of allergic rhinitis.

Cite this article as:Sachin Gholve, Ganesh Todkar, Sharad Barhate, Ranjana Suryawanshi, Omprakash Bhusnure,Formulation and Evalution of Immediate Release Tablets of Fexofenadine Hydrochloride,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(2),90-96.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001212
Title: Incorporation of METHOCEL E6 PLV by a Novel Foam Granulation Technique for Dissolution Augmentation of the Poor Soluble Silymarin
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: In the present study Foam Granulation Technique (FGT) TM was employed in the development of IR tablets of high dose of silymarin dried plant extract which is a very fine, poorly compressible material with poor water solubility and these characteristic features poses extensive technological challenge in its manufacturing. Methods: In FGT, the Methocel E6 PLV was used as foam binder in varying concentrations of 1%, 5%, 7% and 10%. The evaluation of potentially important foam properties, foam penetration mechanism assessment and tablet evaluation was carried out in details and compared with direct compression tablet of silymarin. Results and Discussion: The foam penetration followed foam drainage controlled mechanism and was found to be less dependent on the powder hydrophobicity compared to water drop which followed drop controlled mechanism. The foam induced nucleation successfully created nuclei with relatively uniform structure, size and sphericity as compared to water. The dissolution profile of silymarin foam bonded tablets with 5% Methocel E6 exhibited better dissolution profiles with T20%, T50%, T75% at 6, 30 and 120 min, when compared with direct compression control tablets with T20% at 120 min. The drug release from optimized 5% foam tablets followed Higuchi model with R2 = 0.8831 and were found to be stable in accelerated stability studies for a period of 3 months. Conclusion: Thus silymarin with high dose-low solubility characteristics can be easily formulated into IR tablet for clinical and commercial use using this helpful technique.

Cite this article as: Shamama Javed, Kanchan Kohli, Waquar Ahsan,Incorporation of METHOCEL E6 PLV by a Novel Foam Granulation Technique for Dissolution Augmentation of the Poor Soluble Silymarin,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(2),79-89.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001221
Title: Swelling Approach A Novel Method For Gastric Retention
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Present investigation deals with the preparation and characterization of swellable gastroretentive drug delivery system of Pregabalin containing Psyllium Husk, HPMC K4M, Crosspovidone and Polyvinylpyrolidone, as the polymers. The swellable gastroretentive drug delivery system tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. Nine formulations were developed which differed in the ratio of polymers. Formulations PRF-1, PRF-2, PRF-3, PRF-4, PRF-5, PRF-6, PRF-7, PRF-8 and PRF-9 were composed of Psyllium Husk, HPMC K4M, Crosspovidone and Polyvinylpyrolidone respectively. All the formulations were evaluated for swelling index, Mucoadhesive Strength, Mucoadhesive force, Mucoadhesive time and in vitro drug release study. In vitro drug release study was performed using United State Pharmacopoeia (USP) type 2 dissolution test apparatus employing paddle stirrer at 50 rpm using 900 ml of 0.1N HCl maintained at 37ºC ± 0.5ºC as the dissolution medium. On the basis of evaluation parameter formulation PRF-5 was selected as developed formulation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the swellable gastroretentive drug delivery system may be exploited successfully for the delivery of drugs such as Pregabalin.

Cite this article as:Lahoti Swaroop Rameshwarji, Shep Santosh Gyandev,Swelling Approach A Novel Method For Gastric Retention, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(2),120-125.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001219
Title: Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of atrovastatin and olmesartan in pharmaceutical formulations
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Combination therapy of Atorvastatin (AT) and Olmesartan (OLM) is used for the treatment of co existing essential hypertension and hyperlipidemia in adult persons. In the present study a simple, precise, rapid, efficient and reproducible reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of AT and OLM present in its tablet dosage forms. Chromatographic separations were carried out isocratically at 30°C ± 0.5°C on a hypersil bds C18 (100,4.6 mm,5µ) with a mobile phase composed of Sodium dihydrogen phosphate pH 4.5 with dilute phosphoric acid : Methanol: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 65:20:15 % v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection is carried out using a UV detector at 232 nm. The retention times for OLM and AT were 2.23 min and 3.46 min respectively. The linearity range for 20-100 ìg/ml AT and OLM were found to be 40-200 ìg/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.999 and 0.999 respectively. The % recovery of the proposed method was found in the range of 100.39 for AT and 98.53 for OLM. The relative standard deviations for three replicate measurements in three concentrations of standard solution were always less than 2%. The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which may be useful for the routine estimation of AT and OM in bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage form.

Cite this article as: P.Koushik koteswara rao, D.Pavan kumar reddy,Dr.Brahma reddy,P.Jitendra kumar, Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of atrovastatin and olmesartan in pharmaceutical formulations,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(2),116-119.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001216
Title: Keratin degradation by bacterial strain isolated from poultry farm soil
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of the current study was to isolate keratinolytic bacteria from the soil samples collected from poultry farm. Background: The awareness of importance of microbial degradation of keratin substrate into usable products many efforts are being conducted to isolate keratinolytic microorganisms. Methods: The isolation was performed by using enrichment technique. Total twenty four bacterial strains were isolated from the collected soil samples. All isolates were screened for proteolytic activity by skim milk agar plate method, among twenty four bacterial isolates. Results: Out of 24 only 6 isolate were showing Proteolytic activity as indicated zone of clearance on skim milk agar plate. Out of these 6 Proteolytic strains only 2 strains were showing keratin degradation ability by using chicken feather as a sole carbon source in feather meal broth. Finally out of two isolates MKR9 bacterial strain was selected for further study. Conclusion: Isolated bacterial strain producing keratinases is prominence in degradation of poultry waste feather. These keratinase producing microbial strains have an important application in removal of poultry waste and recycled into valuable by-product.

Cite this article as:Manoj Kumar, Rajesh Kumar and Deepak Kumar Malik,Keratin degradation by bacterial strain isolated from poultry farm soil,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(2),113-115.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001215
Title: Solvent pH extraction effect on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of Algerian Matricaria Pubescens
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This study investigated the phenolic content, flavonoid content, flavonols and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of different pH of solvent aqueous (water) extraction of aerial part from Matricaria Pubescens. Three phenolic acids (gallic acid, chlorogenic, caffeic acid) and two flavonoids (rutin and vanillin) were identified and quantified using HPLC. The total phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonols were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The assessment of the antioxidant potential of different pH extract (3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, diammonium salt (ABTS). Total phenolic contents flavanoïds and flavonols from leaves were the highest at pH 5, but gradually decreased with elevated pH. The FRAP scavenging effects of extraction pH value 5 and 4 were superior to those at other pH, and paralleled the trend of total phenolic content. The ABTS scavenging capacity was found to be the highest for extract at pH between 5 and 4. HPLC analysis showed rutin to be the most abundant phytochemical, followed by gallic acid. The relative phenolic compounds surface hydrophobicity of all extracts was influenced by pH. The highest anti-radical activity is that in the presence of ascorbic acid. Extraction of phenolic compounds and there antioxidant activity can be completely inhibited by some chemicals and extreme pH.

Cite this article as: Laouini Salah Eddine, Berra Djamila, Ouahrani Mohammed Redha,Solvent pH extraction effect on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of Algerian Matricaria Pubescens,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(2)106-112.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001222
Title: Triazole analogues as novel antioxidants: In vitro bioassay and molecular modeling studies
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The free radical scavenging activity of triazole analogues was estimated by the novel spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant property of triazole is influenced to a great extent by the increase in the strength of electron donating group attached on five member triazole ring. The semi empirical quantum chemical methods, AM1 and PM3 were used to estimate different physicochemical parameters. The electron affinity and softness were found to be responsible for high antioxidant activity. Docking studies were also performed with the active site of cyclo-oxygenase-2 to identify hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and ionic interactions. The suitable chemical environment of triazole analogues for high efficacy is proposed.

Cite this article as: Ramesh Macha, K. Ravindrachary, M. Himabindu,  Perka Shyam,  R.Rajesh, G.P.L.Jayasree , Parthasarathy Tigulla,Triazole analogues as novelantioxidants: In vitro bioassay and molecular modeling studies,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016, 10(3),136-145.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001227
Title: Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of bergenin on C57BL/6J mice with high fat-diet induced type 2 diabetes
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: There is a mounting evidence demonstrating causative links between hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia and examined its effect on insulin resistance and oxidative stress. The objective of study is to investigate the effects of bergenin on insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress, hepatic markers, antioxidant and lipid abnormalities of the liver in high-fat diet (HFD) induced type 2 diabetes in C57BL/6J mice. Methods: Mice were segregated into two groups, one fed standard diet (NC) and the other fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Mice were fed continuously with high fat diet for 16 weeks and subjected to intragastric administration of bergenin (40 mg/kg body weight (BW)), metformin (25 mg/kg BW) 9-16 weeks. After 16 weeks, assays were performed in plasma and liver. Results and discussion: HFD fed mice showed hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, oxidative damage, lipid accumulation, elevated antioxidant and serum aminotransferases. The biological abnormalities associated with HFD feeding were significantly reduced by bergenin administration. Bergenin addition significantly improved insulin sensitivity index, reduced liver damage and oxidative changes, and brought back the antioxidants and lipids towards normal. The effects of bergenin were comparable with that of standard drug, metformin. Conclusion: These data suggest that bergenin affords hepatoprotection by its antioxidant and insulin-sensitizing activities. With additional studies, bergenin might be used as a functional drug or as an adjuvant in the management of insulin resistance and associated fatty liver disease.

Cite this article as: Sagadevan Ambika and Ramaligam Saravanan, Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of bergenin on C57BL/6J mice with high fat-diet induced type 2 diabetes,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(3),126-132.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-ORS-00001224
Title: Phosphate solubilizing bacteria as biofertilizer and its applications
Category: Others ( Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Objective: Phosphorus (P) is the second major plant nutrient limiting factor for crop productivity. It has a defined role in plant metabolism such as cell division, development and photosynthesis nutrient transport, transfer of genetic information and regulation of metabolic pathways. In most of the soil, phosphate is present in combination with Ca2+, Al3+, Fe2+ or Mn2+ depending on soil pH, organic matter and type of microorganisms. It occurs in the soil as inorganic phosphate, produced by weathering of parent rock as organic phosphate derived from decayed plants, animals or microorganisms. Conclusion: Therefore, application of phosphatic fertilizers is essential for optimum crop yield.

Cite this article as: Meenu Rathi and Nitant Gaur,Phosphate solubilizing bacteria as biofertilizer and its applications,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(3),146-148.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001234
Title: Local tissue damage induced by Echis carinatus venom: Neutralization by Albizia lebbeck seed aqueous extract in mice model
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Albizia lebbeck L. (Fabaceae) is an Indian traditional medicinal plant used in treatment of snakebite and scorpion sting. The present study aims to determine its scientific basis. Methods: Pulverized seed aqueous extracts (cold and hot) was evaluated for neutralization of enzyme activities (hyaluronidases, proteases and PLA2s) of Echis carinatus S. (Viperidae) venom (ECV), in vitro and local tissue damage using murine model. Results and discussion: Cold extract contained proteins which resolved into three fractions on Sephadex G-50 (ALF-1, ALF-2, and ALF-3), while hot extract (ALHE) contained no proteins. ALF-1 contained proteins and did not inhibit any enzymes. ALF-2 and ALHE contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, and steroids. All four fractions were positive for peptides/amino acids. ALF-2 and ALHE demonstrated significant inhibition of hyaluronidase. Only ALHE showed potent inhibition of proteases, ECV induced hemorrhage, myotoxicity and pro-coagulant activity. ALF-3 inhibited PLA2 activity and edema. In summary, hyaluronidases and proteases inhibitory phytochemicals present in A. lebbeck seed get extracted in both cold and hot water. The PLA2s inhibiting peptides/amino acids get extracted largely in cold water. Therefore, this differential extraction method can be used to isolate specific inhibitors. Conclusion: The results support the significance of A. lebbeck extracts towards management of snakebite by the local traditional healers in India.

Cite this article as :  P U Amog, M Yariswamy, Vikram Joshi, A N Nanjaraj Urs, K N Suvilesh, V N Manjuprasanna, M N Savitha, G V Rudresha, Nataraju Angaswamy, B S Vishwanath,T Veerabasappa Gowda,Local tissue damage induced by Echis carinatus venom: Neutralization by Albizia lebbeck seed aqueous extract in mice model,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(4),167-175.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-B&NPS-00001232
Title: Allelopathic effect of Silene villosa on germination and seedling growth of Triticum aestivum L.
Category: Botany/ Herbal/ Natural Pharmacological Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the allelopathy of Silene villosa Forssk collected from District Karak Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Materials and Methods: For allelopathy stock solution of 1000 ppm (1mg/ml) was prepared in 1% DMSO for each of n-Hexane, Chloroform and Ethyl acetate soluble fractions. For each stock solution 4 dilutions of 10, 30, 100 and 300ppm were prepared. The stock solution and dilutions were tested against Triticum aestivum L. variety Shahkar 2013. The allelopathy was obtained by measuring the germination percentage, root shoot length and fresh and dry weight of root and shoot. Results: The result showed that, Silene villosa have significant inhibitory role against wheat. The germination percentage was reduced in all the fractions as the concentration was increased. Increasing concentration has definite inhibitory effect on root and shoots length, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot. Conclusions: The investigation shows that the plant has remarkable allelopathic activity against wheat plant.

Cite this article as : Waheed Murad, Rehman Ullah, Aziz Ullah, Muhammad Gul Riaz Khan, Hameed ur Rehman, Zulqarnain, Zain Ullah Khan,Allelopathic effect of Silene villosa on germination and seedling growth of Triticum aestivum L.,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(4),176-180.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001231
Title: Simple and rapid method development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the determination of zidovudine in human plasma
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Zidovudine, as monotherapy or in combination with other antiretroviral agents, remains a first-choice therapy for the prophylaxis of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Since sufficient bioanalytical methods have not been reported officially for the quantitative estimation of zidovudine, there is necessity for investigation of new analytical method for quantitative estimation of zidovudine in human plasma. Objective: An isocratic, simple, precise and accurate HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for determination of zidovudine in human plasma using nevirapine as an internal standard to support anti-retroviral pharmacology programs. Materials and methods: The extraction process involved a liquid-liquid extraction and were chromtographed on a Phenomenex C18 (250×4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) column at ambient temperature using a mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.1% orthophosphoric acid (40:60 %v/v), the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 265 nm. The method was found to be specific for AZT and no endogenous biological substances were found to be interfering with peaks of drug and internal standard. Results: The method showed good linearity in the range of of 81.70-5263.55 ng/mL and correlation of coefficient (r2) was found to be 0.99784. The day co-efficient of variations was 0.37-4.95%. The overall recovery for AZT was found to be 55.48 % respectively. Stability data revealed that the drugs were stable in plasma under various test conditions. Conclusion: The proposed method was applicable for clinical therapeutic drug monitoring programs of AZT and useful in the determination of pharmacokinetic profile and bioequivalence studies of HIV research.

Cite this article as : Nalanda R. Baby, Srinivasa A. Rao, Pavani S. Naidu, Druga Surla, Nagamani Bolla, Simple and rapid method development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the determination of zidovudine in human plasma,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(4),160-166.

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001230
Title: Antibacterial Efficacy of Natural Dye from Melia composita Leaves and Its Application in Sanitized and Protective Textiles
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: In view of the increasing consciousness on higher level of hygiene and health safety, development of protective textiles through giving antimicrobial finish is in focus. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of natural dye from Melia composita leaves and different types of dyed fabrics. Methods: Antibacterial efficacy of natural dye and dyed fabrics were evaluated against gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus epidermidis and Bacillus cereus and gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella flexneri and Proteus vulgaris using agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by serial dilution method. Results: The dye was found to have potent antibacterial against all the test bacteria at all the tested concentrations. Highest antibacterial activity against all the test bacteria was recorded with 50 mg/ml treatment, which was also higher as compared to positive control whereas minimum activity was found at 5mg/ml treatment. The MIC of natural dye against test bacteria was found in the range of 2.75-4.00 mg/ml. Dyed fabrics substrates (silk, wool and cotton) also showed significant antibacterial efficacy against the test bacteria.  All dyed fabrics showed maximum reduction in S. aureus population and lowest in E. coli. Of the three dyed fabrics, silk exhibited the maximum reduction in all the test bacteria followed by wool and cotton. Conclusion: The study concluded that M. composita leaves can be a potential source of natural dye with remarkable antibacterial potency which can be applied in sanitized fabrics for medical applications and protective clothing.

Cite this article: Anita Pal, Y.C. Tripathi, Rakesh Kumar and Lokesh Upadhyay,Antibacterial Efficacy of Natural Dye from Melia composita Leaves and Its Application in Sanitized and Protective Textiles,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(4),154-159.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BGSA-00001229
Title: Cell surface antigen search of Campylobacter jejuni by Reverse vaccinology
Category: Bioinformatics (Genome & Sequence Analysis )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: By involving the approach of Reverse vaccinology highly conserved cell surface antigens of Campylobacter jejuni were searched. Materials and Methods: To score and select best scored cell surface protein antigens online servers Signal P 4.1, TMHMM, LipoP 1.0, PsortB and BLASTP were used. Observation and Results: With the complete information available for pathogen C. jejuni  genome, our study reported 27 highly conserved cell surface antigens which may be put into vaccine research in future. Conclusion: Study highlighted the role of Bioinformatics in selecting best scored cell surface antigens available for pathogen C. jejuni.

Cite this article as : Rajni Mishra, Dilip Gore, Avinash Upadhyay,Cell surface antigen search of Campylobacter jejuni by Reverse vaccinology,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(4),149-153.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001254
Title: Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Banana, Cantaloupe and Guava Waste Parts
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: This work aimed to study the lipoidal matter, phytoconstituents, total polyphenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and total carotenes (TC) contents of peels of both Musa paradisicae L. var. sapientum Kuntze (banana) and Cucumis melo L. (cantaloupe) in addition to pulp of Psidium guajava L. (guava) cultivated in Egypt and evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Methods: Lipoidal matters were prepared and analyzed by GC/MS according to British pharmacopeia. TP, TF and TC of 80% hydro-methanolic extracts of the parts under investigation were detected by colorimetric methods. The isolated compounds were identified by different physico-chemical methods including UV, HPLC, 1H NMR and ESI-MS. Results: Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid in the three parts and the percentage of sterols, in banana peel only was detected as 72.47% higher than the percentage of hydrocarbons (23.58%). Twenty compounds were isolated and identified by different physical and chromatographic techniques (7 compounds from banana peels, 5 compounds from cantaloupe peels and 8 compounds from guava pulp). Extract of banana peel showed the best antimicrobial activity while extract of guava pulp showed the best activity against all tested tumor cell lines. Conclusion: Thus, waste parts of the investigated fruits showed a significant medicinal value for their active compounds.

Cite this article as:Mona E. El-Tantawy, Eman G. Haggag, Amel M. Kamal, Rasha M. Lithy,Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Banana, Cantaloupe and Guava Waste Parts,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),308-318.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001241
Title: Effect of Pullulan concentration in fast dissolving films formulation and exploration of film properties
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dissolvable oral thin films made from biopolymers gain much attention by pharmaceutical industries due to their fast dissolution capabilities. Objective: To cast the pullulan based film with plasticizer and silver nitrate and to explore the film properties for appearance, thickness, and disintegration and dissolution times for various films. Materials and methods: Aqueous solutions of pullulan (1-5%), 1-5 % of poly ethylene glycol (400, 600 varieties) and 1- 10 mM silver nitrate were formulated into films by solvent casting method. Thickness was measured by screw gauge and disintegration and dissolution times were physically observed and reported. Results: Formulated films were clear transparent, translucent and opaque in color. Least values of disintegration (15 sec) and dissolution (37 sec) times were observed and increase in the concentration of polymer and plasticizers increased the disintegration and dissolution times. Conclusion: The prepared pullulan based films can be used as fast dissolving films for systemic delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).

Cite this article as: V S Rama Krishna Ganduri, N Meher Reethika, M Jayasai, V Sirisha, S Vasudha, Sudhakar Poda,Effect of Pullulan concentration in fast dissolving films formulation and exploration of film properties,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),211-215.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001247
Title: Effect of Aspirin and Celecoxib on Lens Glutathione and Soluble Protein Profile in Naphthalene-Induced Cataract in Wistar Rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Opacification of eye lens causing cataract, has become a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Aspirin, a non selective COX inhibitor and Celecoxib, a NSAID and selective COX II inhibitor, have been evaluated for their anti-cataract effect using naphthalene cataract model. Methods: Adult female albino rats of Wistar strain weighing between 180 and 230 grams were taken and divided into six groups. Group I received light liquid paraffin 5 ml/kg/day p.o. for 6 weeks. Group II received naphthalene solution 0.5 gm/kg/day p.o. for first three days and 1 gm/kg/day p.o. thereafter for six weeks. Group III received Aspirin suspension at the dose of 100 mg/kg/day p.o. along with naphthalene. Group IV received Celecoxib suspension at the dose of 34 mg/kg/day p.o. along with naphthalene. Group V received Aspirin suspension alone at the dose of 100 mg/kg/day p.o. Group VI received Celecoxib suspension alone at the dose of 34 mg/kg/day p.o. Drug suspensions were made every day by 1% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) in 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. All the above groups were treated for 42 days. Cataract was examined by torchlight and ophthalmoscope. Cataract was developed in all animals. On the 43rd day lenses were removed from the eyes of all groups of rat for estimation of lens glutathione and lens soluble protein. Results and discussion: Naphthalene administered to the rats reacted via a metabolite 1, 2-naphthequinone which caused oxidative damage primarily to the lens proteins located in the cortex and decreased the cellular oxidants level. The fact that decreases in reduced glutathione (GSH), the earliest biochemical changes observed, has suggested that oxidative stress may be the primary mechanism of damage in this model. With the increase in oxidative stress created by 1, 2- naphthoquinone, the protein gets denatured and forms disulfide cross-linkages leading to disulfide and mixed disulfide bond formation, hence protein aggregation, precipitation and lens opalescence. Our test drugs have increased the GSH and soluble proteins level thereby shown protection towards cataract. Conclusion: Lens glutathione and soluble protein profile showed the preventive role of Aspirin and Celecoxib in naphthalene-induced cataract in female rats.

Cite this article as: Syed Ehtaishamul Haque and Mohammad Tauseef,Effect of Aspirin and Celecoxib on Lens Glutathione and Soluble Protein Profile in Naphthalene-Induced Cataract in Wistar Rats,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),270-274.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001253
Title: Amelioration of gastrotoxic effect of indomethacin by piperine in male Wistar rats: a novel therapeutic approach
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Gastric ulcer, an alarming disease among middle aged person in India and middle East Asia, generally develops due to long term use of Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), consumed as pain killers. It is well established that oxidative stress and free radical mediated injury play a pivotal role in generation of gastric ulcer. Antioxidant activity and gastro protective effects of black pepper are well known for long time. Piperine, a major alkaloid present in black pepper also possesses free radical scavenging activity. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the ameliorative role of piperine against indomethacin, a classical NSAID, induced gastric damage. Methods: Indomethacin was orally administered in male albino Wistar rats to generate gastric ulcers. These rats were orally fed with graded doses of aqueous solution of piperine prior to indomethacin administration. Oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, PGE2 level, activities of mitochondrial enzymes and histology of gastric tissues were studied. Results: From the obtained data, it was seen that, Indomethacin treatment altered all the above mentioned parameters whereas, piperine pre-treated animals were protected against indomrthacin induced ulceration. Conclusion: Hence, piperine possess the potentiality to be used as an antiulcer drug against indomethacin induced gastric ulcer or can be used as an co-therapeutic agent among those patients undergoing NSAID treatment.

Cite this article as:Nirajan Ghosal, Syed Benazir Firdaus, Sudeshna Paul, Shamreen Naaz, Aindrila Chattopadhyay, Prachi Shukla, Garima Jain, Sanjib Pattari, Vinod D. Rangari and Debasish Bandyopadhyay,Amelioration of gastrotoxic effect of indomethacin by piperine in male Wistar rats: a novel therapeutic approach,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),240-254.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001239
Title: Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plant extracts and its synergistic interaction with some antibiotics
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The synergism is a new concept in developing agents for antimicrobial therapy. The new approach is combination therapy i. e. combination of different plant extracts with antibiotics against resistant microorganisms which may lead to new ways of treating infectious diseases. Synergistic interaction means when two agents are combined together and they exert an inhibitory effect that is greater than the sum of their individual effects. The present study focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity and synergistic activity of various parts of different plants such Aegle marmelos, Annona squamosa, Citrus limon, Piper betle, and Azadiracta indica. Material and Method: The synergistic antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the Agar disc diffusion method against Gram- positive, Gram -negative and Fungi. Result and Discussion: All the plant extracts with Gentamicin showed good synergistic antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. All the plant extracts with Ketoconazol showed good synergistic antifungal activity against fungi. Conclusion: Hence, these plants extracts can be used as good medicinal sources in combination with antibiotics to treat infectious diseases.

Cite this article as:Hemali Padalia, Anjali Trivedi, Sumitra Chanda,Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plant extracts and its synergistic interaction with some antibiotics, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),211-220.

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001246
Title: Storage and Disposal of Medicines in Home -A Review
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Appropriate household storage and use of drug products reduce drug wastage and unnecessary hazards. Rational use of drug also focuses on the storage and disposal of drugs irrespective of both Over the Counter (OTC) and prescription drugs. At present, pharmacy practice is in developing stage and focuses on drug related issues. Therefore, the awareness and importance of storage and disposal of drugs among consumers remained/s underreported and less focused topic. Pharmacist has prime responsibility to make aware people regarding storage and disposal of medicine.

Cite this article as: Patel Denis Pankajkumar, Sneha Chacko, Bhatt Sandipkumar Prakashkumar,Storage and Disposal of Medicines in Home -A Review,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),290-295.

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001252
Title: Studies on Phytochemical Screening of Leaf Fraction of Lantana camara Linn.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activity of varying concentrations of Lantana camara Linn. leaf extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Methods: Broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was evaluated through streaking of bacterial suspension onto Mueller-Hinton agar. Phytochemical tests were done to identify bioactive compounds present in the extracts. Results and Discussion: The results showed that among extracts used, L.camara leaf ethanolic fraction (EF) demonstrate best antibacterial activity. The MIC of ethanolic fraction ranges from at 1,250μg/mL – 5,000μg/mL. Bacillus subtilis is the most sensitive organism inhibited at 312.5 ìg/mL. The MIC-MBC ratio revealed that the extracts possess bactericidal activity against test bacteria. Phytochemical evaluation indicates the presence of saponins, tannins and terpenoids in EF. Conclusion: L.camara leaf ethanolic fraction showed antibacterial activity and contain phytochemicals responsible for the broad antibacterial spectrum of the plant which may lead to new drug development.

Cite this article as: Preeti Caesar, Jainendra Kumar,Studies on Phytochemical Screening of Leaf Fraction of Lantana camara Linn.,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),304-307.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-00001228
Title: Phytochemical Evaluation and Antiinflammatory Effects of Hymenodictyon excelsum (Roxb.) Wall Grown in Uttarakhand State of India
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Background: A number of medicinal plants have traditionally been used as potent anti-inflammatory drug. The present study was aimed at phytochemical evaluation and assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of bark of Hymenodictyon excelsum (Roxb.) Wall., a deciduous tree in the Himalayan region of India. Methods: Different extracts of the bark were qualitatively evaluated for presence and/or absence of different types of phytochemicals. Physicochemical evaluation and TLC profiling of extracts was carried out to develop standard parameters for authentication. The anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract was carried out by egg albumin induced rat paw edema model. Results: The phytochemical evaluation showed the presence of highest number of secondary metabolites in the methanol extract. The tested plant exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to the standard anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam. Conclusion: The study led to the conclusion that the bark of H. excelsum possesses promising anti-inflammatory efficacy. Results of physicochemical and phytochemical studies provided the scientific basis to bioefficacy of the plant. However, further research is needed on the active ingredient of the plant responsible for anti-inflammatory and other biological activity.

Cite this article as :Paramita Chakraborty, Y. C. Tripathi, Devesh Tewari, Lokesh Upadhyay,Phytochemical Evaluation and Antiinflammatory Effects of Hymenodictyon excelsum (Roxb.) Wall Grown in Uttarakhand State of India.,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),199-204.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001245
Title: Phytochemical and pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf and stem extracts of Gynochthodes ridsdalei Razafim & B. Bremer (Rubiaceae): An endemic medicinal plant of southern Western Ghats
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Phytochemistry describes the large number  of secondary metabolic compounds found in plants. Pharmacognosy describes the discovery of new drugs or as an aid for plant  physiology studies. Methods: The powdered leaves and stem of Gynochthodes ridsdalei ( Syn: Morinda reticulata) were used for physicochemical, fluorescent analysis and different solvent extracts of leaf and stem were used for phytochemical screening. Results and Discussion: The results of physicochemical parameters such as moisture content, fibre content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash, alcohol soluble extractives  and water extractive values were interpreted in the tables  followed by the results of fluorescent analysis and phytochemical analysis. Conclusion: The present investigation on the pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation serve as a tool to identify and determine the quality and purity of the plant material in future and the phytochemicals  present in the plant which is having many medicinal properties.

Cite this article as: Renji  Ramachandran  Nair, Gangaprasad Appukuttan Nair,Phytochemical and pharmacognostic evaluation of  leaf and stem extracts of Gynochthodes ridsdalei Razafim & B. Bremer  (Rubiaceae): An endemic medicinal plant of southern Western Ghats,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),233-239.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001251
Title: Hybrid Triazoles: Design and Synthesis as Potential Dual Inhibitor of Growth and Efflux Inhibition in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Staphylococcus aureus, the bacteria on the verge of eradication once, is now a great threat to mankind due to resistance. Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) & vancomycine-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) have reaffirmed their dominance in the area of infections. However, new antibacterial drugs with new mechanisms of action have not been developed in over forty years. Apart from mutation, efflux of drug by bacteria is one of major way for drug resistance. Methods and Materials: Efflux inhibitors (EI) have been tested recently as adjuvant therapy to treat MRSA & VRSA. Toxicity and untoward side effects, limits wide use of these EI to treat MRSA & VRSA. Here we report a series of compounds containing linked triazoles to hybrid molecules derived from known efflux inhibitor. Synthesized molecules were evaluated as growth (GI) and Efflux inhibitor of TB initially with S. aureus. Pharmacologically active compounds were then tested for their cytotoxicity to further narrow down search. Results & Discussion: Most active compounds 107, 121, 132 & 134 were then tested for their GEI action against methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Said compounds were also tested for their synergistic action with first line and second line anti-TB drugs and ethidium bromide (EtBr). Conclusion: We herein report compound 135 as most potent dual inhibitor of MRSA.

Cite this article as : Prasad P. Dixit, Prashant P. Dixit, Bharat D. Dond, Shivajirao N. Thore,Hybrid Triazoles: Design and Synthesis as Potential Dual Inhibitor of Growth and Efflux Inhibition in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),275-289.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001238
Title: Synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial activities of novel N-[6-fluoro-7-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl]-4-[3-chloro-2-(nitrophenyl)-4-oxo-azetidin-1-yl]benzenesulfonamides.
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of novel N-[6-fluoro-7-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl]-4-[3-chloro-2-(3-nitrophenyl)-4-oxo-azetidin-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide 6-17 and N-[6-fluoro-7-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl]-4-[3-chloro-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-oxo-azetidin-1yl] benzenesulfonamide 18-29 derivatives were synthesized using appropriate synthetic route. Their structures were characterized by elemental analysis, UV, IR and 1HNMR. The entire test compounds 6-29 were screened for anti-microbial activity which exhibited good to moderate activity.

Cite this article as:Vijay Jagtap, Rashmi Mahabal, Vinod Mule, Sandip Murtale and E. Jayachandran,Synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial activities of novel N-[6-fluoro-7-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl]-4-[3-chloro-2-(nitrophenyl)-4-oxo-azetidin-1-yl]benzenesulfonamides,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),191-198.

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001244
Title: Studies on the Anti-fibrotic potential of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. hexane extract on human activated hepatic stellate cell line- LX-2
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Hepatic fibrosis has become a serious life threatening condition, without effective therapy till date. This condition is characterized by increased deposition of Extra Cellular Matrix proteins (collagens, proteoglycans, fibronectin etc.), secreted by activated Hepatic Stellate Cells (HSCs) and hepatic scarring. Methods: In the present study, we used activated LX-2 cells that mimic HSCs functionally. To evaluate the in vitro anti fibrotic activity of the promising extract , the various methodologies adopted in this study are immunofluorescence, MTT , Morphological studies, and Hoechst staining. Results and Discussion: Our findings showed that Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. hexane extract not only inhibits the proliferation of activated LX-2 cell (IC50– 200µg/ml for 48 hours or 100 µg/ml 72 hours), but also suppressed the fibrotic gene expression (as evidenced by the inhibition of α-Smooth muscle actin- the marker- expression) along with functional restoration. Our study showed that Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. hexane extract has good anti-fibrotic potential. Conclusion: Through the preliminary in vitro screening studies, the anti-fibrotic potential of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. hexane extract has been demonstrated confirmedly, but demands further studies towards identification of the mechanism of action of the extract, which is underway.

Cite this article as: K.A. Krishnakumar, Sheena Philip, Greeshma Tom , V.V.Asha, Studies on the Anti-fibrotic potential of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. hexane extract on human activated hepatic stellate cell line- LX-2, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),205-210.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001250
Title: In-vitro Antibacterial Activity in Different Extracts of Lantana camara L. Leaf Fraction
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Medicinal use of plants is the oldest form of healthcare known to mankind. India has a rich profusion of medicinal plants and 75% of its folk population is still using herbal preparations. Present study reports about antimicrobial potentiality of Lantana camara as its leaf extracts exhibit good antimicrobial, fungicidal, insecticidal and nematicidal properties and the plant might be a novel source of antimicrobial drug. Methods: Two enteropathogens as (A) - B. subtilis (positive, obligate aerobic) and (B) - E. coli (Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic) were used for the present study. Four solvent phases viz, methanol, ethanol, acetone and aqueous were used for extraction of antimicrobial agent. The screening of antimicrobial property was done by well diffusion method. Results and Discussion: Leaves of Lantana camara showed excellent antibacterial activity in all the solvent phases used against both E. coli as well as B. subtilis. Lantana is effective against both the bacteria. The aqueous extract showed minimum ineffective antimicrobial activity against E. coli and B. subtilis, where as acetone phase showed maximum activity against B. subtilis and ethanol against E. coli as shown in the terms of maximum zone of inhibition. Conclusion: The leaves of Lantana camara linn. proved to be good antibacterial agent as they show antagonistic effect on the growth of both tested microbes in all the solvent phases used. Large scale production of its active constituents would be an advantageous for natural, herbal antimicrobial agents.

Cite this article as: Preeti Caesar and Dr. Jainendra Kumar,In-vitro Antibacterial Activity in Different Extracts of Lantana camara L. Leaf Fraction,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),301-303.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001237
Title: Assessment of Variation in Rhoifolin Content in Aerial Parts of Uraria picta Desv. from Different Locations of Madhya Pradesh
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Uraria picta Desv. is one of the ingredient of ten herbs formulation called Dashmoola. Rhoifolin is an active compound which has been isolated from the aerial parts of Uraria picta and has been established as marker compound for quality evaluation of this species. In the present time of global resurgence in traditional and alternative health care systems, the quality assurance of medicinal plants is very essential. Since, WHO and herbal Pharmacopoeia are also emphasizing on quality standardization of medicinal plants in terms of active ingredients, the present study was aimed to assess the variation in rhoifolin content in aerial parts of Uraria picta collected from eight locations of Madhya Pradesh for its quality standardization and selection of superior chemotype. Methods: The powdered samples of aerial parts were extracted by soxhlet extraction in methanol for 4 hours on water bath. Extracts were quantified for rhoifolin content using Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Glacial acetic acid: Water (10: 1.1: 1.1: 2.6) mobile phase and a CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner, WIN CATS software Version 1.4.8 and Hamilton Syringe (100 µL). Results: Rhoifolin content varied from 0.039% to 0.195% among the aerial part samples of eight locations corresponding to seven agroclimatic regions of the state. The highest content was found in aerial parts of Pandado, Sehore (0.25%) followed by Kapoornala, Chhindwara (0.167%) and Pamakhedi, Khandwa (0.152%) respectively and lowest content in plant sample of Navali, Mandsaur (0.039%). Conclusions: The study provided significant variation in rhoifolin content in aerial parts of Uraria picta. The accession collected from Pandado, Sehore emerged out of best quality on the basis of rhoifolin content and superior chemotype too.

Cite this article as:Hari Om Saxena, Brij Mohan and Arun Kakkar,Assessment of Variation in Rhoifolin Content in Aerial Parts of Uraria picta Desv. from Different Locations of Madhya Pradesh,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),185-190.

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001243
Title: To study toxic potential of Melia azedarach, Euphorbia helioscopia and Sapium sabiferum leaves extracts against Cimex lectularius
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: The aim of the research work was to find out the toxic potential of Melia azedarach, Euphorbia helioscopia and Sapium sabiferum. C. lectularius or bed bugsare the ectoparasites of bats, man, chicken and rarely other animals, which are cosmopolitan in distribution. They reduce the caliber of human life by triggering banishment, discomfort, nervousness and restlessness.Bed bugs show resistance to Insecticides such as DDT, lindane, malathion, carbaryl, permethrin and d-phenothrin. Newly, researchers take countlessconcern in the use of plant extracts as a new control substitute to synthetic insecticides. Methods : In present study, toxicprospective of three local plants, Melia azedarach, Euphorbia helioscopia, and Sapium sebiferum against Cimex lectularius was determined. Plant samples were collected from territory of Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan. For determination of toxic activity of these plants, 20 bed bugs were placed in each petri dish having filter paper saturated in different concentrations (100ppm, 200ppm, 300ppm) of water and chloroform extracts of leaves. In many choice experiment percent mortality of bed bugs was calculated after 12, 24 and 48 hrs. Results: Maximum mortality rate of Melia azedarach, E. helioscopia,and S. sebiferum was observed after 48 hours for all three plants in water solvent (10.34, 12.34and 14.34 %, 5.67, 7.67and 10.34%, 5.67, 8.00and 10.34 % correspondingly) as well as in chloroform solvent (9.67, 12.67 and 15.67 %, 8.67, 10.34 and 14.67 %, 8.34, 9.34 and 11.67 % respectively). Conclusion: Among three solvent extracts tested, the maximum activity was observed in both water and chloroform extracts of Melia azedarach against Cimex lectularius.

Cite this article as: Sumbal Haleem, Sadaf Niaz, Shahid Niaz Khan, Hameed Ur Rehman, Shazab Sajad, Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi,To study toxic potential of Melia azedarach, Euphorbia helioscopia and Sapium sabiferum leaves extracts against Cimex lectularius,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),226-232.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001249
Title: Design and Synthesis of Hybrid Triazoles as Potential Dual Inhibitor of Growth and Efflux in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Efflux inhibition is proven bacterial machinery responsible for removal of bacterial wastage including antibiotics. Recently, efflux inhibitors (EI) have been tested with encouraging results as an adjuvant therapy for treatment of various bacterial invasions especially methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although, EI have emerged as innovative approach of treatment for several multi drug resistant bacterial infections including tuberculosis, toxicity profile limits their wider use. Materials and Methods: To address this issue, we have attempted synthesizing hybrid molecules those results by combining known EI and triazole. This synthesis was aimed to arrive at structure that possesses pharmacophore from known EI. Synthesized molecules were evaluated as growth inhibitors (GI) and Efflux inhibitor of S. aureus. Pharmacologically active compounds were then tested for their cytotoxicity to further narrow down search. Results and Discussion: Most active compounds 144, 145, 154 and 163 were then tested for their GEI action against MRSA. Synthesized compounds were also tested for their synergistic action with first line and second line antibacterial drugs and ethidium bromide (EtBr). Conclusion: We arrived at compound 145 as most potent dual inhibitor.

Cite this article as : Prasad P. Dixit, Prashant P. Dixit, Amol B Kale, Shivajirao N. Thore,Design and Synthesis of Hybrid Triazoles as Potential Dual Inhibitor of Growth and Efflux in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),255-269.

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001235
Title: Detection of adulterated Radix valerian herb by FTIR spectroscopy and extraction solvent optimization for HPTLC fingerprinting
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Background: Radix valerian is a natural preparation of the root and rhizome of the perennial herb utilized primarily in the treatment of insomnia and sleep disturbances. Quality control of valerian represents a major concern in the pharmaceutical industry due to the huge variety of these species and their almost daily new scientific findings. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the sensitivity of FTIR spectroscopy for the detection of adulterated Radix valerian and optimization of a solvent extraction method for HPTLC fingerprinting. Methods: Radix valerian medicinal plant adulterant was measured by FTIR spectroscopy. The obtained data were evaluated using SIMCA (soft independent modeling of class analogies) in order to determine the detection limits of adulterants with a dataset comprising 50 batches and HPTLC system was utilized to evaluate optimal solvent composition consisting of methanol, water and dichloromethane for which the flavonoid fingerprint is determined. Results: With regard to the chemometric analysis of the FTIR spectra we found that for this particular dataset the overall detection rates computed from leave-one-out cross-validation were 56.2%, 85.9% and 98.3% at 5%, 10% and 20% contamination levels, respectively. Solvent extraction optimization, we found that a mixture of 40-80% Methanol, 30-50% Dichloromethane and 10-30% water was most efficient for the analysis of the flavonoid patterns in the six plant systems under investigation. Conclusion: Concerning the extraction optimization, a universal solvent could not be defined exactly by response surface methodologies as reported in similar studies involving different analytical platforms mostly by HPLC but suggestions for near optimal solvent compositions with competitive performances compared to pure and 70% methanol could be made.

Cite this article as: Praveen Kumar Vemuri, Bhavana Talluri, VBSC Thunuguntla, Suryanarayana Veeravalli, Vijaya Lakshmi Bodiga,Detection of adulterated Radix valerian herb by FTIR spectroscopy and extraction solvent optimization for HPTLC fingerprinting, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),181-184.

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001242
Title: Formulation development and evaluation of Carbamazepine fast dissolving tablets
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The main objective of present research work is to formulate the Carbamazepine Fast Dissoving tablets. Carbamazepine, an antiepileptic, belongs to BCS Class-II and used to control some types of seizures in the treatment of epilepsy and Neuropathic Pain by blocking use-dependent sodium channels. Methods: The Fast Dissoving tablets of Carbamazepine were prepared employing different concentrations of Crospovidone and Croscarmellose sodium in different combinations as a Sperdisintegrants by Direct Compression technique using 32 factorial design. The concentration of Crospovidone and Croscarmellose sodium was selected as independent variables, X1 and X2 respectively whereas, wetting time, Disintegration time, t50% ,t90%were selected as dependent variables. Results and Discussion: Totally nine formulations were designed and are evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, Assay, Wetting time, Disintegration time, In-vitro drug release. From the Results concluded that all the formulation were found to be with in the Pharmacopoeial limits and the In-vitro dissolution profiles of all formulations were fitted in to different Kinetic models, the statistical parameters like intercept (a), slope (b) & regression coefficient (r) were calculated. Polynomial equations were developed for Wetting time, Disintegration time, t50%, t90%. Validity of developed polynomial equations were verified by designing 2 check point formulations (C1, C2). According to SUPAC guidelines the formulation (F5) containing combination of 9.375% Crospovidone and 9.375% Croscarmellose, is the most similar formulation (similarity factor f2=82.675, dissimilarity factor f1= 2.049 & No significant difference, t= 0.041) to marketed product (TEGRETOL-100). Conclusion: The selected formulation (F5) follows First order, Higuchi’s kinetics, mechanism of drug release was found to be Non-Fickian Diffusion (n= 0.665).

Cite this article as: Raghavendra Kumar Gunda, J. N. Suresh Kumar, V. Satyanarayana, Swathi Batta, Ch . Meher Harika,Formulation development and evaluation of Carbamazepine  fast dissolving tablets,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),216-225.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001248
Title: Sequential Heating and Solvent Precipitation For Effective Pullulan Recovery From Jaggery Based Fermentation Broths
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Cost-effective downstream processing is very important aspect in successful fermentative production of pullulan biopolymer. Objective: To study the heat treatment method for removal of proteins in cell free supernatant and to optimize the pullulan concentration using several solvents in terms of type, solvent ratio and precipitation time for their efficacy. Materials and methods: Fermentation broths obtained from sucrose and jaggery based shake flasks fermentations were exposed to heat at 50 to 1100C for 5 to 60 min to remove proteins and precipitated with organic solvents like ethanol, methanol, acetone, isopropanol, chloroform and diethyl ether. Various effects such as supernatant: solvent ratio, precipitation time were analyzed. Results: For jaggery (50 g/L) fermentation broth, the optimum heating temperature and time were found at 1100C and 50-60 min, respectively. Addition of Isopropanol, solvent ratio of 1:3 and 12 hours of precipitation time at 40C were observed for maximum pullulan concentration from precipitation. Conclusion: These sequential steps may enhance efficiency of pullulan recovery and would become effective downstream processing method.

Cite this article as:V S Rama Krishna Ganduri, Srinivasulu K, Usha Kiranmayi M, Bodaiah B, Y V V Aswani Kumar, Vijaya Lakshmi M, Sudhakar Poda, Sequential Heating and Solvent Precipitation For Effective Pullulan Recovery From Jaggery Based Fermentation Broths,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),296-300.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001326
Title: Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for estimation of Tapentadol hydrochloride
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple, novel, sensitive, precise and specific RP-HPLC method for the determination of Tapentadol hydrochloride. METHOD: The chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm inner diameter, 5 μm particle size) as a stationary phase using potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.2M):Methanol (pH 5, adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid) as mobile phase in 40: 60 ratio at detection wavelength 215 nm in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. RESULTS: The calibration curve for tapentadol hydrochloride was linear from 1 to 50 μg/ml. The correlation coefficient (r2) value was found to be 0.9908. Precision study showed % RSD value less than 2% in all selected concentrations. The % recoveries of tapentadol hydrochloride are in the range of 100.49-102.85 %. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for Tapentadol hydrochloride were found to be 1.4827 and 0.4893 μg/ml respectively. CONCLUSION: Considering the specifications of this method, the system was found to be suitable for rapid, direct routine analysis and stability of tapentadol in bulk drugs.

Cite this article as: Nikunja B Pati*, Vinyas Mayasa, Swapna Velivela, Dr. Gupta VRM,Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for estimation of Tapentadol hydrochloride,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),479-483.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001289
Title: Characterization of AuNPs in enhancing efficiency of quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction [qPCR]
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are useful material in diagnostic applications. AuNPs provide attractive feature for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) enhancement ability because they have excellent heat transfer property. In this study, we evaluated the role of AuNPs in improving the efficiency of PCR using complement Factor H related protein 1 (cfhr1) as gene of interest. Methods: AuNPs were prepared following a previously reported citrate reduction protocol in M.A. Hayat book with slight modifications using chloroauric acid as source of gold. Results and discussion: We found that the sensitivity of qPCR technique was enhanced with the help of AuNPs. We have standardized the appropriate size (51.51 and 33.2 nm) and concentration (0.7 nM) of AuNPs, to optimize the qPCR assay for cfhr1 gene detection. We find that the PCR sensitivity is modulated by the size of the AuNPs. It is observed that, AuNPs of larger sizes are less efficient as compared to lower size. Conclusions: We also state that AuNPs can cause PCR inhibition when added at higher concentration in PCR master mix. These results demonstrate that appropriate concentrations and size of AuNPs seems to be the key factor of enhance qPCR.

Cite this article as: Bahadur Singh Gurjar, Satyajit Rath, Anita Kamra Verma,Characterization of AuNPs in enhancing efficiency of quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction [qPCR],Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),327-333.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001312
Title: Development and Evaluation of Solid Self Double Emulsifying Drug Delivery System(SSDEDDS) : A Novel Approach to Enhance Bioavailability of BCS Class III Drugs
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Even after having a good therapeutic importance few drugs may not be utilize effectively because they may lack either in solubility or permeability. BCS class III drugs have high solubility but low permeability thus bioavailability of these drugs is always low. The present study is based on the development of Self Double Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SDEDDS) to enhance bioavailability of such drugs. Methods: Four formulation of the w/o emulsions was developed by one step emulsification procedure containing a fixed proportion of ranitidine and different amount of phospholipids. Ranitidine was dissolved in distilled water the pH was adjusted to 6.0±0.5 by a pH meter. Then, the drug aqueous solution was added to the oil phase which consisted with oleic acid, Span 80 and bean phospholipids under moderate magnetic stirring. Hard gelatine capsules (size 00) were manually filled with 890 mg of each formulation (F1–F5), resulting in each capsule containing 40 mg ranitidine. Results: Formulations were evaluated for weight variation, drug content, viscosity, globule size, visual grading, Dissolution & stability. The prepared formulation were complies the test as per the standard. The dissolution study revealed the sustained release of ranitidine from the formulation and enhances in vitro bioavailability. Conclusion: The present studies have clearly demonstrated the potential utility of SDEDDS for formulating ranitidine with sustained release in vitro and improved oral bioavailability in vivo. The SDEDDS readily released the lipid phase to form fine water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions, with a sustained release of ranitidine.

Cite this article as:Sachin M. Kolhe, Arun T. Patil, Pradeep P. Bawane, Jineetkumar B. Gawad,Development and Evaluation of Solid Self Double Emulsifying Drug Delivery System(SSDEDDS) : A Novel Approach to Enhance Bioavailability of BCS Class III Drugs,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),403-409.

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001324
Title: Multidrug Resistance Reversal Acridones: Pharmacophore Modeling and 3D QSAR Studies
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the current investigations, we have performed pharmacophore modeling and built a 3D QSAR model for a series of substituted acridone derivativeswith multidrug resistance reversal activity. An efficient pharmacophore has been identified from a data set of 32 molecules and the identified pharmacophore hypothesis consisted of two hydrogen bond acceptors, one hydrogen bond donor, and three aromatic rings i.e., AADRRR. A powerful 3D-QSAR model has also been constructed by employing Partial Least Square regression analysis with a regression coefficient of 0.95 (R2) and Q2 of 0.79, and Pearson-R of 0.84.

Cite this article as:M Amareswararao, Y Rajesh Babu, VVSR Prasad,Multidrug Resistance Reversal Acridones: Pharmacophore Modeling and 3D QSAR Studies,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),450-453.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001311
Title: Synthesis, and anti-cancer activity of some novel 3-(piperazin-1-yl)pyrazin-2-amine derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Synthesis of some new 2-aminopyrazine derivatives for the preliminary studies on cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells. Methods: The starting materials for the synthesis of new 2-aminopyrazine derivatives (PP1-18) are aryl-piperazines and 3,5-dibromo-2-aminopyrazine , which were prepared by the known literature procedure and condensed to get the new derivatives. The structure of newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral data and studied for their cytoxicity activity against breast cancer lines. Results: Some compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells and some have non toxic. Conclusions: In this article we reported the synthesis of a new (PP1-18) 2-aminopyrazine derivatives. The cytotoxicity studies showed that compounds were moderately toxic and some are non-toxic Hence the fact that the compounds prepared in this study are chemically new and not related to current medication and further work is clearly warranted.

Cite this article as:Sadagopan Sekar, Nagaraja Naik, Ajjanna M Sridhara , Shivanna Yogish,Synthesis, and anti-cancer activity of some novel 3-(piperazin-1-yl)pyrazin-2-amine derivatives,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),419-425.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001282
Title: Storage and Disposal of Medicines In Home Among Students
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The awareness and importance of storage and disposal of drugs among consumers remained/s underreported and less focused topic. Therefore, attempt found essential and made to explore storage and disposal of medicine at home in society. Purpose: To study storage and disposal of medicines in home among students. Method: This was an observational, prospective self-administered cross sectional survey conducted among students of the Pharmacy, Nursing, Arts and Commerce College, Kadi Sarva Vishwavidyalaya (KSV), Sector 23, Gandhinagar. The survey was conducted with help of predefined questionnaire in pre and post education session. Only close-ended questions were designed to get the required information with maximum possible options in short period of time. Finally a leaflet (summary form) with instructions for storage and disposal of medicine in home was provided to students. Result: A total of 372 respondents replied usable responses in our study. The mean age of respondents was 21 years. The most of students rated common places of storage were kitchen, bedroom and bathroom. The respondents used to throw their unwanted or expired medication in dustbin as they were. Conclusion: We conclude that knowledge about storage and disposal at home among students were inadequate. Drug-use assessments are necessary to increase their awareness about safe and proper storage and disposal methods.

Cite this article as: Patel Denis Pankajkumar, Sneha Chacko, Bhatt Sandipkumar Prakashkumar, Deshpande Srikalp S.,Storage and Disposal of Medicines In Home Among Students,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),343-350.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001309
Title: Melatonin protects against lead acetate induced oxidative stress-mediated changes in morphology and metabolic status in rat red blood cells: a flow cytometric and biochemical analysis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Lead is an abundantly occurring heavy metal known to be toxic in higher quantities for humans and other animals. Moreover, lead exposure has previously been shown to cause damage to red blood cell. However, a detailed study with a plausible mechanism is still lacking. The pineal hormone, melatonin, is well known for its antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Thus, we examined the effect of melatonin pre-treatment on lead acetate-induced toxicity in rat RBCs in vivo as well as in vitro and tried to find out the mechanism behind such protection. Main methods: Rats were injected intra-peritoneally with lead acetate (15mg/kg/day) for seven consecutive days in presence/absence of melatonin (10mg/kg body weight). RBCs isolated from whole blood were haemolysed and was used for measuring changes in biochemical parameters and altered red blood cell morphology. Results & Discussion: Rats injected intra-peritoneally with lead acetate (15mg/kg/day) for seven days exhibited an altered status of lipid peroxidation level, reduced glutathione content, protein carbonyl and oxidized glutathione levels along with inhibition of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in RBCs indicating generation of oxidative stress. Data obtained using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry indicate deterioration of RBC morphology along with marked alterations in granularity. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis revealed lead accumulation and reduction in iron and zinc levels along with decreased carbonic anhydrase and met haemoglobin reductase activities in RBCs isolated from lead acetate-treated rats. An increase in osmotic fragility and marked changes in the activities of the glutathione metabolising enzymes, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase and acetylcholine esterase in RBC were also observed following lead acetate treatment. Rats pre-treated with melatonin (10mg/kg body weight) displayed restoration of these altered activities, suggesting its ameliorative action against lead acetate toxicity. Additionally, in vitro studies indicated that lead acetate-induced alterations of RBC enzyme activities are time and concentration-dependent and when co-incubated with melatonin, these changes were restored. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the potential ability of melatonin to provide protection against lead acetate-induced injury to RBCs through its antioxidant properties in addition to removal of non-competitive inhibition of some of the enzymes.

Cite this article as: Debosree Ghosh, Sudeshna Paul, Shamreen Naaz, Debajit Bhowmik, Mousumi Dutta, Arnab K. Ghosh, Syed Benazir Firdaus, Aindrila Chattopadhyay, Russel J. Reiter , Debasish Bandyopadhyay,Melatonin protects against lead acetate induced oxidative stress-mediated changes in morphology and metabolic status in rat red blood cells: a flow cytometric and biochemical analysis,Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2016,10(6),381-402.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001318
Title: Anti ulcer potential of ethanolic extract of Syzygium alternifolium leaves on Albino rats.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The fruit juice of Syzygium alternifolium is used to cure stomach ache and ulcers, while fruit pulp and alcoholic extract of seeds posses anti-diabetic properties. The leaves of plants are claimed for anti-ulcer properties by folklore medicine. Objective: To investigate the antiulcer activity of Ethanolic extract of Syzygium alternifolium (EESA) leaves by Pylorus ligation (Shay rat model), stress ulcers by cold water immersion, Indomethacin induced ulcers, ethanol induced mucosal damage (cytoprotective activity) in albino rats. Materials and methods: The different concentrations of EESA 1gm/kg and 2gm/kg and Ranitidine as standard 150mg/kg and saline (control) were administered orally to albino rats (n=6 animals per group). The antiulcer effect was investigated by measuring ulcer index, determination of total acidity, acid volume and pH of gastric juice. Results: The EESA showed significant (p<0.001) reduction in the ulcer index, reduction in the volume of gastric contents. Total acidity and PH was increased as compared to control group in all the models. Conclusion: The results of the study reveal that the EESA has antiulcer activity which supports the claims in folklore medicine.

Cite this article as: D. Priyadarshini, Saroj Kumar Sahoo*, G. Soundarya, Ch. Kishore Kumar, K. Usha Rani,Anti ulcer potential of ethanolic extract of Syzygium alternifolium leaves on Albino rats,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),442-449.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001274
Title: Evaluation of antiatherosclerotic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Sirolimus and Mycophenolate mofetil in high fat diet induced atherosclerosis in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the vascular wall typified by the accumulation of lipid and macrophage derived foam cells. As the endothelial cells become activated and adhesive, monocytes stick to them, pass between them, and enter the intimal layer of the vessel wall. With the use of Immunomodulators. Majority of immunomodulators like Sirolimus and Mycophenolate mofetil are being used in renal transplant patients. Some of clinical evidences indicated that use of immunomodulators causes hyperlipidemia and increases the chances of atherogenesis. Whereas in preclinical studies various researchers reported that immunomodulators reduces the chances of atherogenesis. So because of non uniform results in clinical and preclinical studies, this study was designed with a purpose of evaluating role of Sirolimus and Mycophenolate mofetil in atherosclerosis. Methods: Sirolimus and Mycophenolate mofetil at 3 different doses have been evaluated in High Fat diet (1% Cholesterol) induced atherosclerosis in rats. Atorvastatin 2 mg/kg was used as standard treatment. Up to day 28 High fat diet was administered and then from day 29 to day 56 treatment and High fat diet was administered. Biochemical estimations of Serum lipid profile, C Reactive Protein, Malondialdehyde and histopathology of aorta was performed. Results and Discussion: There was significant reduction in Triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, Total Cholesterol, Atherogenic Index, HMG to mavelonate, C reactive protein and MDA level was observed with treatment of Cyclosporine and ashwagandha. There was significant elevation in HDL cholesterol level and was observed with treatment of Sirolimus and Mycophenolate mofetil. Conclusion: Sirolimus and Mycophenolate mofetil effectively reduce the risk of development of atherosclerosis.

Cite this article as: Gajjar A.V., Deshpande S.S.,Evaluation of antiatherosclerotic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Sirolimus and Mycophenolate mofetil in high fat diet induced atherosclerosis in rats,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),319-326.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001304
Title: In vitro anti-inflammatory screening of stem bark of Cordia obliqua Willd. in raw 264.7 cell lines
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background:Inflammation is a protective response that is initiated either after injury, physical and chemical damage, or infection by microorganism, but persistent inflammation may cause chronic disesases. The present study was made to assess the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Cordia obliqua Willd. The plant belongs to family Boraginaceae, is medium sized deciduous tree. The traditional uses of bark are anthelmintic, constipating, cooling, depurative and used in vitiated conditions of kapha, pitta and leprosy. Method: Antiinflammatory studies were conducted by analyzing inhibition of cycloxygenase(COX), 5-lipoxygenase(5-LOX), myeloperoxidase and cellular nitrite levels on cultured RAW 264.7 cell lines and compared with standard diclofenac sodium. Estimation of secondary metabolites like flavanoids, and carotenoids were conducted. Antioxidant activity screening of the extract was also carried out by DPPH, nitric oxide and iron chelating assays. Result and Discussion: IC 50 value of the extract by COX/ 5-LOX inhibition was found out as 84.32µg/ml, 21.26 µg/ml respectively. Diclofenac showed COX/ 5-LOX inhibitions at the IC 50 values of 2.84 &12.14 µg/ml. The extract showed its ability to reduce myeloperoxidase and cellular nitrite levels also. Antioxidant activity screening showed that the extract is a potent source of antioxidants. Results revealed that the extracts are having anti-inflammatory activity, by inhibiting COX, 5-LOX, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide due to the presence of flavanoids and carotenoids through antioxidation. Mechanism of action of the traditional claim of C.obliqua bark may be due to the COX/ 5-LOX inhibition, and the dual inhibition can reduce the common adverse effects of NSAIDs. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that stem bark of Cordia obliqua Willd is a potent anti-inflammatory agent.

Cite this article as: Bindu AR, NA Aleykutty, Jyoti Harindran,In vitro anti-inflammatory screening of stem bark of Cordia obliqua Willd. in raw 264.7 cell lines,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),370-376.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001316
Title: Design, synthesis and anti-malarial activity of coumarin fused quinoline derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Novel coumarin containing quinoline derivatives were synthesized by convergent synthesis in which quinoline derivatives and coumarin were separately synthesized and finally fused together, 2-cholro-3-formyl quinoline derivatives were synthesized by reacting various substituted acetanilide with Vilsmeier-Haack reagent (DMF & POCl3). Later 3-acetyl coumarin was synthesized by treating salicylaldehyde with ethyl acetoacetate in the presence of piperidine using grindstone method. Finally 3-acetyl coumarin and 2-cholro-3-formyl quinoline derivatives were condensed by dissolving in ethanol in presence of 40% KOH. This reaction was called as crossed Aldol or Clasein Schimdt condensation and it was done by microwave assisted technique. The formed product was called as Chalcones. All synthesized compounds were identified by melting point and TLC, as well as characterized by IR, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry. The synthesized and characterized compounds were screened for anti-malarial activity. The anti-malarial activity of selected derivatives was performed by In vitro schizonticidal testing method (ISM) using plasmodium falciparum as test organism and chloroquine phosphate as standard. Results revealed that some compounds showed equipotent anti-malarial activity and rest of the compounds showed mild to moderate when compared to the standard. Based on the results, it had been concluded that the derivative 5d showed effective anti-malarial activity due to the presence of nitro group at para position compared to other derivatives.

Cite this article as:Geetha Pushpalatha , N. Pramod , G. Mahaboob Basha, M. Deepa, P. Neelaphar, BHM Jayakumar swamy,Design, synthesis and anti-malarial activity of coumarin fused quinoline derivatives,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),437-441.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001273
Title: Evaluation of antiatherosclerotic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Cyclosporine and Ashwagandha in high fat diet induced atherosclerosis in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the vascular wall typified by the accumulation of lipid and macrophage derived foam cells. As the endothelial cells become activated and adhesive, monocytes stick to them, pass between them, and enter the intimal layer of the vessel wall. With the use of Immunomodulators. Majority of immunomodulators like cyclosporine, Sirolimus and Mycophenolate mofetil are being used in renal transplant patients. Some of clinical evidences indicated that use of immunomodulators causes hyperlipidemia and increases the chances of atherogenesis. Whereas in preclinical studies various researchers reported that immunomodulators reduces the chances of atherogenesis. So because of non uniform results in clinical and preclinical studies, this study was designed with a purpose of evaluating role of cyclosporine and ashwagandha in atherosclerosis. Method: Cyclosporine and Ashwagandha at 3 different doses have been evaluated in High Fat diet (1% Cholesterol) induced atherosclerosis in rats. Atorvastatin 2 mg/kg was used as standard treatment. Up to day 28 High fat diet was administered and then from day 29 to day 56 treatment and High fat diet was administered. Biochemical estimations of Serum lipid profile, C Reactive Protein, Malondialdehyde and histopathology of aorta was performed. Results: There was significant reduction in Triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, Total Cholesterol, Atherogenic Index, HMG to mavelonate, C reactive protein and MDA level was observed with treatment of Cyclosporine and ashwagandha. There was significant elevation in HDL cholesterol level and was observed with treatment of Cyclosporine and ashwagandha. Conclusion: Cyclosporine and ashwagandha effectively reduce the risk of development of atherosclerosis.

Cite this article as: Gajjar A.V., Deshpande S.S.,Evaluation of antiatherosclerotic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Cyclosporine and Ashwagandha in high fat diet induced atherosclerosis in rats,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(5),334-342.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001301
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Taste Masked Spherical Agglomerates of Telmisartan
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Oral administration of bitter drugs, using novel solid dosage forms essentially require an acceptable degree of taste masking. Telmisartan is chosen as the model drug as it is bitter in taste and has poor water solubility and low bioavailability. Telmisartan is an orally active non peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist belonging to BCS class II with an aqueous solubility of 9.9 µg/ml and log P of 7.7. One of the major formulation problems with this drug is the bitter taste which gives rise to patient compliance problems when it is given as conventional dosage forms. In the present study taste masking of telmisartan was achieved by preparing taste masked spherical agglomerates using a pH-sensitive polymer, Eudragit RS-100, and polymers like chitosan and carbopol. Taste assessment of these prepared agglomerates was done by both spectrophotometric taste evaluation technique and panel testing. Compressed tablets of taste masked agglomerates which rapidly disintegrated in the oral cavity were prepared using oxidized starch as directly compressible filler and sodium starch glycolate as a super-disintegrant. These were subsequently evaluated for various pharmacopoeial tests, drug release, and disintegration time in the oral cavity. Sensory taste evaluation was carried by panel testing in 20 healthy human volunteers. Results indicate successful formulation of taste masked oral fast disintegrating tablets which disintegrated in the oral cavity in about 30 s and possessed good taste.

Cite this article as:Varinder Soni,Gagan Shah,Sandeep Rahar,Shaina Sharma, Formulation and Evaluation of Taste Masked Spherical Agglomerates of Telmisartan,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(6),365-369.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001364
Title: Comparative Assessment of In-Vitro Anthelminthic Studies of Some Plants From Indian Origin
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Helminthiasis is a now global problem mostly in poor countries. The main purpose of the present research is to investigate in-vitro anthelmintic activity of some plants of Indian origin. Methods: Different concentrations (25, 50, 100 mg/mL) of all the five plant (Areca catechu, Tamarindus indica Linn, Daucus Carota L., Nigella sativa Linn, Ocimum tenuiflorum ) extracts diluted with 3% Tween 80 in normal saline were used for the anthelmintic activity. Albendazole was used as a reference standard and normal saline has been treated as control. Results: The result was expressed in terms of time in minutes to report paralysis time and death time of earthworms. Ethanolic extracts of all the plant parts have exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of spontaneous motility i.e. Paralysis of Earthworms. At the concentration of 100mg/mL all the extracts except Daucus Carota L. showed significant result (p<0.05) against earthworms. Conclusions: The ethanolic extracts of all the five ethno botanicals have been supported their folklore use and possess the anthelmintic activity. The present research also established a more potent candidature of Ethanolic extracts of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. as compared to others. This study can be extended for the isolation of condensed Tannin which is particularly responsible for the activity.

Cite this article as: Shambaditya Goswami, Kushal Nath Mishra, Ashutosh Mishra, Ajay Pratap Singh, Pradeep Singh , Prashant Singh,Comparative Assessment of In-Vitro Anthelminthic Studies of Some Plants From Indian Origin, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(7),514-518.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001345
Title: Isolation, Identification and anti oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Tridax Procumbens flower extracts
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The present study was aimed to isolate Quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside from flowers ethyl acetate extract of Tridax procumbens Linn for the first time. Methods: The structure of isolated bioactive compound was confirmed by using various spectral data like UV, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts was evaluated by using DPPH radical with reference to ascorbic acid. The results show that the petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts has a promising antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method with IC50 = 92.17 ± 0.01, 82.08 ± 0.60, 99.73 ± 0.20 respectively. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of the petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts with reference to diclofenac sodium was evaluated in carrageenan induced hind paw edema. Results: These extract at dose of 200, 300 mg/kg produced significant inhibition of oedema by above mentioned methods. Conclusion: The results of the present investigation concluded that the flowers ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens is a good source of Quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside which harbors significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Cite this article as: R. Manivannan and S.Saravanan,Isolation, Identification and anti oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Tridax Procumbens flower extracts,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(7),502-506.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001340
Title: Molecular targets of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and its bio-active compound Cinnamaldehyde for anti-tumor activities against oral cancer
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZE) and Cinnamaldehyde (Cin) which is its bioactive component have recently been exploited for their versatile therapeutic potentials including anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory. Methods: Here, we demonstrated their elaborate anti-tumor activities in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines namely SSC-4 and KB. Tumor growth inhibition was studied by MTT assay and the effects on cell cycle and apoptosis by propidium iodide (PI)/annexin-V binding assay and subsequent flow cytometry. Finally, the different protein targets of these two compounds underlying these above cell processes were studied through western blotting. Results: We found that both CZE and Cin inhibited tumor cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 values were found to be 270 and 125 µg/ml for CZE) and 300 and 180 µM for Cin in SCC-4 and KB cell lines at 48 h respectively. Further, both CZE and Cin arrest tumor cell proliferation at G2/M phase of cell cycle by down-regulating cyclin D1 expression and induce apoptosis by up-regulating P53 protein along with inhibiting NF-κB. We also showed anti-angiogenic effects of CZE extracts on these cells as it minimizes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression while no such effect was seen in case with Cin. Conclusion: Overall, we provide evidences that propose pharmaceutical implication of CZE extract and Cin for the prevention and/or treatment of oral cancer by targeting P53, cyclin D1, VEGF and NF-κB.

Cite this article as: Vijaya Bharti, Poonam Gaur, Satya N Das, Molecular targets of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and its bio-active compound Cinnamaldehyde for anti-tumor activities against oral cancer, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(7),493-501.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001335
Title: Method Development and Validation of Acyclovir in Rabbit Plasma by RP-HPLC
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background:A simple, sensitive and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for Acyclovir from rabbit plasma. Method: Chromatographic separation and detection was carried out on a SHISEIDO C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5μ) column using 0.2M di-potassium hydrogenorthophosphate buffer pH 7 (pH 5 adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid) and Acetonitrile in theratio of 40:60with a flow rate of 1 ml/min at 254 nm. Results:Retention times of drug and Internal Standard (IS) were found out to be 4.05 min and 5.50 min respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range of 1-6mg/ml. The regression coefficient value was found to be 0.998. Conclusion: The proposed method was validated by performing linearity, recovery, specificity, robustness, LOD/LOQ and interday/intraday precision. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 0.001093 and0.003012 μg/ml.

Cite this article as: Swapna Velivela, Konde Abbulu, Vinyas Mayasa, Nikunja B Pati, Method Development and Validation of Acyclovir in Rabbit Plasma by RP-HPLC,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(7),509-513.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001386
Title: Effect of Aspirin and Sorbitrate on Trace Element Status in the Patients of Ischemic Heart Disease and Myocardial Infraction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The effect of drugs aspirin and sorbitrate on the capability to change trace element level of serum and its relative change in enzyme activity for aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, ceruloplasmin and lactate dehydrogenase was analyzed for the patients of Ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infraction (MI). Material and Methods: Patients in the age group of 40 to 55 years were treated with the aspirin (300 mg) and sorbitrate (10 mg) and samples were analyzed along with control population for trace elements and enzyme activities. Results: With the treatment of the aspirin and sorbitrate no significant change in the trace element level was detected in both MI and IHD patients along with that no change was observed in the enzyme activity in treated patients even though the trace elements and enzyme activity remained abnormal when compared to control. Conclusion: Treatment of aspirin and sorbitrate patients of MI and IHD showed no significant effect on the trace element level along with enzyme activity but it has been recorded that enzymes remained dependent on trace elements for their activities in every condition.

Cite this article as: Vijay D. Gavhale, N R Akarte, Rajita A Lonare,Effect of Aspirin and Sorbitrate on Trace Element Status in the Patients of Ischemic Heart Disease and Myocardial Infraction,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(7),519-522.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001330
Title: Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Prunus cerasoides D. Don Leaves
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Natural antioxidants have the ability to protect organisms from damage caused by free radical-induced oxidative stress. A lot of research has been carried out worldwide for finding natural antioxidants of plant origin. The present study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical composition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of P. cerasoides leaves. Methods: Extracts of P. cerasoides leaves were phytochemically examined for presence of different phytochemicals by standard methods. Total phenolic content of the various extracts was determined spectrometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu method, total flavonoid content by reported method and antioxidant efficacy by following DPPH radical scavenging protocol. Results: Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrate, protein and amino acids in different extracts of P. cerasoides leaves. Methanol extract recorded the maximum number of chemical constituents. Presence of flavonoids and phenolic constituents were mostly found in extracts obtained with solvents of medium and high polarity. The total phenolic content (6.26±0.033 mg GAE/g of extract), total flavonoid content (3.86±0.016 mg QE/g of extract) and free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity (IC50, 56.00±0.242 μg/ml) were highest in methanol extract. Total phenolic content had positive correlation with antioxidant capacity. Conclusions: The present study established leaves of P. cerasoides as rich sources of phenolic compounds and natural antixodants. The study further provided scientific basis to traditional medicinal claims of the plant.

Cite this article as: Nino Joseph, Nishat Anjum and Y.C. Tripathi,Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Prunus cerasoides D. Don Leaves,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(7),502-508.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001418
Title: Alkamides and their biological activity from Piper longum Linn.
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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From the air dried fruits of Piper longum Linn., four secondary metabolites: brachystamide D (1), isopiperlongumine (2), piperine (3) and piplartine (4) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive  physical and chemical analysis (UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR) and comparison with known compounds. One of the compound, isopiperlongumine (2) is new to the literature and brachystamide D (1) is the first report from this plant. The methanolic extract, its fractions and isolated compounds were examined for in-vitro dendrite elongation inhibition property and showed good activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001070
Title: Antibacterial activity of Dibutyl Phthalate : A secondary metabolite isolated from Ipomoea carnea stem.
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human disease as they contain components of therapeutic value. Ipomoea carnea is one of those reported as used in folk medicine. Ipomoea carnea belongs to convolvulaceae family and fistulosa sub-family. It is a wild herb, largely available in all states of India and a native of South America. It is a green manure crop and also used as a folk medicine. Many Ipomoea species having antimicrobial activities were reported in literature. Taking this into consideration, chromatographic separation of the components from ethyl acetate extract of the stem of I. carnea was carried out. A bioactive secondary metabolite – dibutyl phthalate was isolated for the first time from this plant source. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by IR, MS, 1H-NMR, 13C- NMR, DEPT, etc. The antibacterial activity of the isolated compound was assayed in vitro by Agar disc diffusion method against gram negative bacteria Klebseilla pneumonia (ATCC33495), Proteus mirabilis (ATCC12453) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC10662) in concentration 40 μL/m .The compound showed significant activity against the tested strains. MIC study of the isolated compound was also carried out. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found most susceptible as the compound showed the highest activity against this strain. The antibacterial activity was determined by using disc diffusion method. Streptomycin was used as a standard.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001069
Title: Phyto-chemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activities of Dhaman grass and Indian Ginseng
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed) of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358) and (Unripen fruit, ripen fruit and calyx) of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668) were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their Biological activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Raoultella planticola) and one yeast (Candida albicans) by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC). Water extract of Unripen fruit of W. somnifera showed highest antibacterial activity (IZ-13.33±0.24 mm, AI- 0.833) and highest antifungal activity (IZ-18.67±0.22 mm, AI- 2.667) against E. coli and C. albicans respectively as well as chloroform extract of stem (IZ-12.50±0.64 mm, AI- 1.042) and seeds (IZ-10.67±0.23 mm, AI- 0.821) of C. ciliaris against C. albicans and S. aureus.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-0000718
Title: Cassia tora Linn:A review on its ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological profile
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Cassia tora Linn is a small annual herbs or undershrub growing as common weed in Asian countries. It is found as a weed throught India. The plant which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. This weed has been known to possess antiproliferative, hypolipidemic, immunostimulatory, anticancerous, antimutagenic and hepatoprotective activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including anthraquinones, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, euphol, basseol, palmatic, isostearic, behenic acid etc. have been isolated from this plant. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activity and toxicity of the Cassia tora plant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-MPDI-00001042
Title: Anticancer property of sponge associated Actinomycetes along palk strait
Category: Marine Pharmacy Drug Investigation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was made an attempt to find out the diversity of sponge associated actinomycetes and their anticancer property along Palk Strait. Among the actinomycetes, Streptomyces sp. (67%) were predominant followed by Nocordiopsis sp. (17%), Micromonospora sp. (8%) and Glycomyces sp. (8%). Cell free extracts from Streptomyces sp. ACT12 showed LC50 124.58 µg.ml-1 followed by ACT11 146.09 µg.ml-1. The cytotoxic index (MTT assay) of ACT12 and ACT11 on breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7) exhibited the IC50 values of 70.12±1.11 and 89.75±1.84 at 24hrs and 27.37±1.52 and 29.75±3.22 at 48 hrs. The results suggest that, the sponge associated Streptomyces sp. (ACT11 and ACT12) isolated from Thondi coast of southern India, might indeed have potential anticancer drugs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000467
Title: Cytotoxicity of Thymoquinone (TQ) from Nigella sativa Towards Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells (HeLa)
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Thymoquinone (TQ), the bioactive constituent of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-neoplastic effects both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the cytotoxicity of TQ was evaluated on human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa). Results showed that TQ exhibited cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities towards the cells with IC50 value of 2.80±0.10mg/ml and 5.37±0.12mg/ml after 72 hours incubation time as being detected by trypan blue dye exclusion test and MTT assay, respectively. Significant decrease in the percentage of cell viability was observed after the treatment with 1.0, 3.0, 10 and 30mg/ml (p<0.05) indicating that TQ induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 values determined by the trypan blue dye exclusion test were significantly decreased from 5.93±0.81mg/ml (24 hours) to 2.80±0.10mg/ml (72 hours) suggesting that TQ induced cytotoxicity in a timedependent manner. HeLa cells treated with TQ for 72 hours showed a significant decrease in cell population at G0/G1 phase and significant increase of cell population at sub-G1 phase at 6.0, 10 and 30mg/ml (p<0.05), suggesting that TQ inhibited cell proliferation by induction of apoptosis in the cells. Expression of p53 detected by using the Human p53 ELISA showed that HeLa cells incubated with 10mg/ml of TQ for 72 hours resulted in significant up-regulation of the expression of the protein (p<0.05) compared to the control untreated sample. It is concluded that TQ was cytotoxic towards HeLa cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis via p53-dependent pathway.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000496
Title: Antihyperlipidemic Activity of methanolic extract of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemic rats
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study is designed to evaluate the effect of garlic extract on lipid profiles in Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemia in male wistar rats. Three fractional extracts (AS1, AS2 and AS3) were obtained by column chromatography from methanolic extract of garlic. All three garlic extract significantly increased (p < 0.0001) plasma HDL-Cholesterol and decreased plasma TC, LDL-Cholesterol and TG levels as compared with hyperlipidemic control. Among three fractions, AS3 has more significantly reduced the plasma lipid levels than others AS1and AS2.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000507
Title: Simultaneous Estimation of Atorvastatin and Ramipril by First Derivative Spectrophotometric method
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, precise and economical procedure for the simultaneous estimation of Atorvastatin (ATV) and Ramipril (RAM) in tablet formulation has been developed. ATV is a anticholesteremic agent as well as hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor and RAM is a antihypertensive agent belonging to category of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The formulation of Atorvastatin (ATV) and Ramipril (RAM) (Stator-R 5) in a combination mixture is very good pharmacologically since it enhances the efficacy of the individual drugs. The present study involving the simultaneous estimation done by first derivative method. ATV has absorbance maxima at 246nm in methanol and RAM has absorbance maxima at 208nm in methanol. Both these drugs obey Beer’s law in the concentration range employed for the present method. The result of analysis has been validated statistically by recovery studies. The slope and intercept for ATV were -0.00183 and -0.001and for RAM were 0.0036 and -0.046 respectively as determined by the method of least squares. The results were found satisfactory and reproducible. The method was applied successfully for the estimation of ATV and RAM simultaneously in tablet dosage form without the interference of common excipients.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000032
Title: A Study On The Effect Of Marigold Flower Dye With Natural Mordant On Selected Fibers
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In present study Marigold (Tagetes erecta) petals were used for the extraction of the natural dye material. Aloe vera juice was selected as natural mordant to standardize the dyeing effect of Mari gold dye on natural and synthetic fibers. Natural dye was formulated with Marigold dye and natural mordant Aloe vera juice in the ratio 2:10, 5:10 and 10:10 and the effect was compared with synthetic mordant namely copper sulphate, lead acetate and potassium dichromate with Mari gold dye in the ratio 10:1. Natural dye with Aloe vera juice in the ratio 10:10 shows a good dyeing effect on the animal fibers when compared to plant or synthetic fibers. The natural dye with Aloe vera juice in the ratio 10:10 was subjected to skin irritation study and the result showed no skin irritation, erythema or edema.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-0000446
Title: Antibacterial activity and TLC Bioautography of Ocimum basilicum L. against pathogenic bacteria
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The study was designed to examine the in vitro antibacterial activity of Ocimum basilicum Linn. Aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum were extarcted with organic solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and then evaluated for in vitro activity by using agar well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherischia coli, and Salmonella typhi. The methanol extract showed prominent effect on the tested microorganisms. However, Salmonella typhi was found to be most resistant against the extracts. The MIC and MBC of methanol extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus were found to be 0.625 and 1.250 mg/mL ,respectively whereas it was 1.250 and 2.500 mg/mL against Escherischia coli. The TLC analysis of methanol extract showed the appearance of seven spots. The compounds eluted at Rf 0.14, Rf 0.25 and Rf 0.35, exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.The results provide evidence that Ocimum basilicum might be prominent sources of preservatives in food products.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000455
Title: Formulation and evaluation of controlled release alginate microspheres using locust bean gum
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The microspheres were prepared by ionic cross-linking technique. Chemical reaction between sodium alginate and calcium chloride to form calcium alginate was utilized for microspheres. For slowing the rate of release from microspheres the hydrophilic polymer Locust bean gum was used in different concentration with model drug as Diclofenac sodium, so that the drug will be release constantly for 12hrs. The formulation prepared showed the angle of repose within acceptable range having a good flow property. The drug entrapment efficacy of all the formulation was in the range of 90.6–98.9%. The drug entrapment efficacy of microspheres increases with increase in concentration of hydrophilic gums. In vitro drug release from microspheres was studied. The microspheres containing 1.5% of Locust bean gum shows 97.8% drug release. The values of co-efficient correlation (r) were calculated and were found to be linear for first order release as compare to zero order release. Stereo microscopy invade that the microspheres are spherical in shape and with porus surface. Stability studies reveled that polymers used were stable and compatible with the drug and there is no significant effect on physical characteristics, drug content and dissolution profile of the microsphere.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MPS-0000141
Title: Orally administered melatonin protects against adrenaline-induced oxidative stress in rat liver and heart: Involvement of antioxidant mechanism(s)
Category: Mechanism / Pathway Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present studies intended to investigate the protective effects of melatonin (5mg/kg bw, fed orally) against adrenaline (0.25mg/kg of body weight, s.c. for a period of 15 days) induced oxidative stress in rat liver and heart through certain antioxidative indices like Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO), other biochemical parameters such as mitochondrial Kreb’s cycle enzymes as well as respiratory chain enzymes were also measured. Antioxidative enzymes and other parameters showed a significant reduction while LPO, Mn SOD and reduced glutathione levels increased significantly in adrenaline-treated rats as compared to control groups. These biochemical changes were supported through our studies on tissue morphology. However, all these parameters were protected from being altered when rats were pre-treated with melatonin. The present studies perhaps for the first time comprehensively indicated that melatonin has the potential to provide protection against adrenaline-induced tissue injury and further strengthen the notion that this indole may be relevant therapeutically in future days in humans exposed to various stressful situations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 9, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-00001109
Title: In vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticholinesterase activities of Rumex vesicarius L
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Objective:To investigate phenolic content, flavonoid content, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticholinesterase activities of ethyl acetate extracts of Rumex vesicarius Lfrom leaf, stem, flower and seed. Materials and Methods: The assessment of the antioxidant potential of crude leaf, stem, flower and seed extracts, using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and 2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and β-Carotene radical scavenging capacity assays was carried out. Furthermore, the 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was evaluated by the ferrous oxidation- xylenol orange (FOX) assay method. Moreover, Cholinesterase inhibitory activities were examined using Ellman’s colorimetric method. The total phenolic content measured by Folin-ciocalteu method was as well conducted. Results: The raw seed, flower, stem and leaf extracts of Rumex vesicarius L was found to contain a high content of total phenolic content (36.44 to 54.15 mg GAE/g DW) and flavonoids (12.36 to 21.97 mg CE/g DW). All extracts organs exhibited a higher antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of radicals scavenging activity against FRAP, ABTS and β-Carotene. For the anti-inflammatory activity, the extracts tested had significant 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory ranging from 33.82 to 62.45% and had a noticeable inhibition towards AChE and BChE. Conclusion: the results suggest that the seed, flower, stem and leaf of Rumex vesicarius L exhibited high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, this property may be related with high quantity of phenolic and flavonoid in extracts, this plant can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammation drugs as well as potent anticholinesterase effect.

Cite this article as: Laouini S Eddine*1, Ladjel Segni2, Ouahrani M Redha1,In vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticholinesterase activities of Rumex vesicarius L, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2015,9(12),635-642.

 

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 9, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-0000336
Title: Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Ursodeoxycholic Acid using RP-HPLC.
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The Present work is undertaken with an aim to develop and validate an accurate, precise and rapid method for the estimation of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in tablet and bulk dosage form. The method is simple, accurate and sensitive. The separation was achieved on a gradient high pressure liquid chromatograph (Jasco, RI 2031 Plus) pumps Jasco PU 2080 Plus, IR detector column oven (Jasco), system controller (Jasco), a disposable guard column LC-18 (PELLIGUARD)TM , LC-18, 2 cm, supelco, inc., Bellefonte, and a Reverse Phase C-18 (phenyl) Column (25 cm x 4.6 mm) i.d., particle size 5 µm) was used The HPLC system was equipped with the software class, Borwin (Jasco). Flow Rate : 1.0 ml/min Injection Volume : 10µl Run Time : 15 min, Detector temp: 40 oC. The method was validated for specificity, precision, linearity, and accuracy. The recovery range for baclofen is in the range of 99.0–102.0% and the method can be successfully applied for the routine analysis of the drug substance.

Cite this article as: Soni Varinder, Parminder Kumar, Saini Gurjeet,Gagan shah, R.K Dhawan,Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Ursodeoxycholic Acid using RP-HPLC,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2015,9(1),46-53.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001223
Title: Validated UV-Spectrophotometric Determination of Velathamate Bromide in Pure and Pharmaceutical Formulation
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present work is aim to develop simple, extraction free and UV spectrophotometric method for the quantitative estimation of valethamate bromide in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations. Method: A simple double beam UV spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated with different parameters according to ICH guidelines. Results and discussion: The drug showed strong absorption at 227 nm and linearity in the concentration range of 50-300 μg/ml. Recovery studies for valethamate bromide was found to be 99.9%. The % RSD values were found to be within the range and found not interference from excipients and the proposed method was statistically validated. Conclusion: The results showed that the proposed method is suitable for the precise, accurate and rapid determination of valethamate bromide in bulk drug and its formulations.

Cite this article as:Meghana. G.S, Gurupadayya B.M. Sowmya. S and Vasavi.T.N, Validated UV-Spectrophotometric Determination of Velathamate Bromide in Pure and Pharmaceutical Formulation,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(3),133-135.

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000573
Title: Traditional medicinal uses of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Medicinal and Aromatic Plants ( MAPS ) are the ingredients of herbal drugs, herbal preparations, and herbal medicinal products, besides traditional/ complementary medicines, house hold remedies and nutraceuticals. Over 100 million women world wide are currently using hormonal contraceptives. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis with these drugs, fertility can be suppressed at will, for as long as desired, with almost 100% confidence and complete return of fertility on discontinuation. The efficacy, convenience, low cost and overall safety of oral contraceptives ( OCS ) has allowed women to decide if and when they will become pregnant and to plan their activities. This article highlights some of the traditional medicinal uses, chemical composition, therapeutic evaluation of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 9, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000371
Title: Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Acyl Hydrazone Derivatives of 3-(4,5-diphenyl-1,3-oxazol-2-yl) propanoic acid as Anticancer, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Agents
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of acyl hydrazone derivatives of 3-(4,5-diphenyl-1,3-oxazol-2-yl) propanoic acid have been synthesized and screened for in vivo anti inflammatory, analgesic and in vitro anti cancer activities. The key intermediate N-acylhydrazine is prepared in good yield from NSAID oxaprozin, was coupled with a variety of aromatic aldehydes under conventional as well as microwave irradiation conditions. The microwave approach utilized solvent free condition, required short time and resulted in very good yields. The newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass analysis. The results of the biological activities showed that the compounds 5b, 5d and 5e exhibited significant in vivo analgesic and anti inflammatory activities than reference compound oxaprozin. Compounds 5a, 5b, 5e, 5g, 5h, 5i and 5j revealed promising in vitro cytotoxicity than reference compound Cisplatin.

Cite this article as: Parsharamulu Rayam, Jaya Shree Anireddy, Naveen Polkam, Tejeswara Rao Allaka, Kalyani Chepuri and Mukharjee Nadendla,Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Acyl Hydrazone Derivatives of 3-(4,5-diphenyl-1,3-oxazol-2-yl) propanoic acid as Anticancer, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Agents, Journal of Pharmacy Research 2015,9(2),157-164

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 9, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MPS-000083
Title: Benzoic acid, one of the major components of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna protects against Copper-Ascorbate induced oxidative stress in human placental mitochondria through antioxidant m
Category: Mechanism / Pathway Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Very recently, we have shown that a number of compounds isolated from plants and their parts having medicinal importance are capable of providing protection against copper-ascorbate induced oxidative stress mediated damages in isolated mitochondria in vitro. The results demonstrated that these compounds appear to be potentially effective in ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated, in individual experiments, the protective effects of the aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) or benzoic acid, as its major constituent, against copper-ascorbate induced oxidative stress mediated damages to mitochondria obtained from human placenta, in vitro. Methods: In this study, the antioxidant property of TA was established by hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical and nitric oxide scavenging activities. The composition of the aqueous bark extract of TA was analyzed by GC-MS analysis. Human placental mitochondria were used as a model organelle to investigate whether the aqueous bark extract of TA or benzoic acid protects against copper-ascorbate-induced oxidative stress, in vitro, by spectro-photometrically measuring the levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the enzymes associated with energy metabolism, and evaluating the status of morphology of mitochondria through studies using scanning electron microscopy. Results: In separate experiments, aqueous bark extract of TA or benzoic acid were found to protect against copper-ascorbate-induced alterations in the level of biomarkers of oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes also were protected from being altered by aqueous bark extract of TA or benzoic acid. The alterations in conjugated diene level, tryptophan and di-tyrosine fluorescence, mitochondrial swelling, thiolase activity and NADH autofluroscence, mitochondrial membrane potential and morphology were found to be protected when the mitochondria were co-incubated with copper-ascorbate and the aqueous bark extract of TA or with copper-ascorbate and benzoic acid in a dose-dependent manner. Although the aqueous bark extract of TA or benzoic acid independently can protect the placental mitochondrial from copper-ascorbate-induced oxidative stress mediated damages but the degree of protection provided by benzoic acid was found to be more compared to the aqueous bark extract of TA. Conclusion: Based on these findings it can be concluded that the aqueous bark extract of TA containing benzoic acid as its major constituent may serve as a potential medicinal resource for future use in situations associated with oxidative stress.

Cite this article as: Mousumi Dutta, Aindrila Chattopadhyay,Arnab Kumar Ghosh, Utpal Roy Chowdhury, Debajit Bhowmick, Biswajyoti Guha, Tridib Das, Benzoic acid, one of the major components of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna protects against Copper-Ascorbate induced oxidative stress in human placental mitochondria through antioxidant mechanism(s): an in vitro study,Debasish Bandyopadhyay1, #,*Journal of Pharmacy Research 2015,9(1),64-88.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000663
Title: Solubility and Dissolution Enhancement: An overview
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Poorly water soluble compounds have solubility and dissolution related bioavailability problems. The dissolution rate is directly proportional to solubility of drugs. Drugs with low aqueous solubility have low dissolution rates and hence suffer from oral bioavailability problems. The poor solubility and poor dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs in the aqueous gastro intestinal fluids often cause insufficient bioavailability. Other in-vivo consequences due to poor aqueous solubility include increased chances of food effect, more frequent incomplete drug release from the dosage form and higher inter-patient variability.Enhancement of solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of drug is a very challenging task in drug development, nearly 40% of the new chemical entities currently being discovered are poorly water soluble drugs. Aqueous solubility of any therapeutically active substance is a key property. As it governs dissolution, absorption and thus the in vivo efficacy. The present review deals in detail about the different techniques used for the improvement of the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs include, Inclusion complexation with cyclodextrins, Size reduction technology, Functional polymer technology and Solid dispersions etc.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001146
Title: Evaluation of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of leaf extract from Phoenix Dactylifera L obtained by different pH of aqueous extraction
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Influence of pH aqueous medium extraction on phenolic content, flavonoid content, proanthocyanidins, phytochemical composition, antioxidant activities of leaves extract from Phoenix dactylifera L was investigated. It was observed that extraction yield increased at weak acidic condition (value of pH between 2 and 3), and the pH effects on the composition extraction process were illustrated. For the low value of pH, the yield extraction increase, similar phenomena for the antioxidant activity and concentration of individual phenolic compounds obtained by HPLC, but the phenolic content decrease. For the high value of pH, the yield extraction decrease, the low antioxidant activity and concentration of individual phenolic compounds obtained by HPLC, but the phenolic content increase. The optimum pH value of medium extraction solvent it is 2.

Cite this article as:Rouiha Zohra, Ouahrani Mohammed Redha, Laouini Salah Eddine,Evaluation of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of leaf extract from Phoenix Dactylifera L obtained by different pH of aqueous extraction,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2016,10(1),1-7.  

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000706
Title: Hypoglycemic activity of saraca indica Linn barks.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of the methanolic bark extracts of Saraca indica Linn in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Saraca indica Linn belongs to the family Leguminosae is traditionally used for the treatment of menstrual disorders, piles, ulcers and many other disorders including diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single dose intraperitoneal injection of 50mg/kg of streptozotocin in overnight fasted rats. The blood glucose levels of Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were estimated on days 0th , 4th , 7th 10th and 15th after oral administration of the extract. In normal rats the blood glucose levels were estimated at 0th , 1st , 2nd , 3rd and 4th hours. In both of these models at 400mg/kg through oral route the extract has shown a very good hypoglycemic activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000753
Title: In-vitro anthelmintic activity of Caesalpinia bonducella (Linn). Flem. leaves.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Helminth infections remain a major constraint to livestock productivity across all agro-ecological Zones. 1Today, the principal mode for control of gastrointestinal parasites is based on the commercial anthelmintic. However, wide spread increase of anthelmintic resistance, scarcity and high cost especially to farmers of low income in developing countries led to the need of other alternative helminth control methods 2 Among other alternative methods, there is considerable and expanding interest in traditional herbal dewormers.3 In present communication methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella Linn. Flem were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli. Various concentrations were used in the bioassay, which involved paralysis and death time of the worms. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000804
Title: Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of Rhododendron arboreum
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study the ethyl acetate extract of Rhododendron arboreum (Family: Ericaceae) was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential in animal models.Oral administration of Rhododendron arboreum extract (EERA) (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited dose dependent and significant anti-inflammatory activity in arachidonic induced hind paw edema (p<0.01), cotton pellet granuloma model of inflammation (p<0.01) and Freund’s adjuvant-induced paw arthritis (p<0.01). A significant (p<0.05) anti-nociceptive activity was evidenced in mice, protection in acetic acid-induced writhing. EERA at the dose levels of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited significant (p<0.001) resistance against analgesymeter induced pain in mice. The hot plate reaction time was increased at a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly (p<0.001).The present study justifies the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential of Rhododendron arboreum.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001039
Title: Validation of Uv Spectrophotometric method for estimation of Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A selective, simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of levocetirizine dihydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. The drug obeyed the Beer’s law and showed good correlation. It showed absorption maxima at 231nm; in Phosphate Buffer Solution pH 7.0. The developed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy and precision. The linearity was observed between 0-36µg/ml having line equation Y=0.032046X + 0.007151 with correlation coefficient of 0.9994. Results of the analysis were validated statistically and by recovery study.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-MPDI-0000788
Title: Oceans: A Store house Of Drugs - a review
Category: Marine Pharmacy Drug Investigation
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The biodiversity of ocean living resources provide an ample scope for the extraction of drugs and chemicals for therapeutic purposes. The oceans are the source of a large group of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in invertebrates such as sponges, corals, bryozoans, mollusks, tunicate, shark, sea hare etc. Pharmacological activities has been seen in several of these compounds, which are helpful for the invention and discovery of biologically active compounds, required primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, or in treating inflammation etc. The potential of the oceans as medicinal storehouse depends largely in the realm of survey and experimentation. Marine products, many of which are unknown to mankind are the key to the development of new types of drugs and secondary metabolites, which will be helpful for public health and to environmental issues for treatment in the next century. Men must adhere to limitations for unearthing the living resources from the sea in order to ensure pathogen free environs. Modern technologies have revealed out vast areas of research for the extracting biomedical compounds from marine ecosystem. The objective of this review is to emphasize on some of the recent developments and conclusion in the area of marine biology with special reference to the biomedical / pharmaceutical potential of marine natural products.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-000038
Title: Eugenol Derivatives as Future Potential Drugs
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Eugenol, a phytochemical , is a pale yellow oil which is isolated from essential oil of Ocimum sanctum Rama. Eugenol has wide medicinal applications. It affects central nervous system and cardiovascular system. It is used in dentistry and as an analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial, anti septic, antidepressant agent. Its analogues also show many biological activities which prompted us to synthesize new analogues for their future application as bioactive molecules.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-QA-0000542
Title: Simultaneous determination of Finasteride and Tamsulosin in pharmaceutical preparations by ratio derivative spectroscopy
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Simple, accurate, precise, and sensitive spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Tamsulosin(TAM) and Finasteride(FINA) in combined tablet dosage form have been developed and validated. The ratio derivative spectroscopic method involves measurement of first derivative amplitude of ratio spectra at 240.01nm for FINA and 229.91 nm for TAM as two wavelengths for estimation. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 2-10 and 25-125 μg/mL for TAM and FINA, respectively.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000553
Title: Flavonoids: An Overview
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Flavonoid constitute one of the largest class of naturally occurring plant products mostly phenols either in the Free State or as their respective glycosides. The main constituent of flavonoid drugs are 2-phenyl-g-benzopyrones. The family includes monomeric flavanols, flavanones, anthocyanidins, flavones, isoflavonoid and flavonols. It is very probable that a number of herbal remedies, whose constituents are yet unknown, will be shown to contain active flavonoids, quercetin and rutin in plant trigonella foenum seed, they are known for its antiinflammatory properties, The flavonones hesperidin and neohesperidin were shown to protect against the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide, as well as protecting against DNA damage. Most flavonoids have anti-tumor properties. A diet rich in flavonol such as onions, apples and berries may cut the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidant. Extract from onion contain quercetin which induce the cellular antioxidant system. Diets rich in either flavonoids including red wine, quercetin or catechin induce endothelium dependent vasorelaxation. More than 2000 of these compounds are known, with nearly 500 occurring in the free state. Flavonoid research began in an attempt to isolate the various individual flavonoids and to study the mechanism by which flavonoids act. There are many herbal drugs containing flavonoid which have different morphological characters and are not yet fully exhausted for their pharmacological activities.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-QA-0000985
Title: Development and Validation of Extractive spectrophotometric method for determination of Rosuvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical dosage forms
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A sensitive and rapid extractive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the assay of Rosuvastatin calcium ( RSVC) in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the formation of a chloroform soluble ion-pair complex between Rosuvastatin and Safranin ( SFN ) in phosphate buffer medium at pH 7.2. The complex shows absorption maximum at 518 nm and it obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range of 5-25 µg/ml. The average recovery of Rosuvastatin calcium was found to be 100.94 %. The %CV for repeatability of measurement for Rosuvastatin calcium was found to be 1.956. The intra and inter day precision in term of %CV was found to be 0.481-3.866 % and 1.481-4.139 % respectively. Limit of detection and Limit of quantification for Rosuvastatin calcium were found to be 1.5µg/ml and 2.5µg/ml respectively. A market formulation of Rosuvastatin calcium was analyzed with the proposed method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the labeled amount of Rosuvastatin calcium (98.67-103.33 %) in various dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000715
Title: Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Euphorbia hirta l. Leaves: A comparative study.
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a potent medicinal plant in the traditional Indian medicinal systems. Traditionally the leaves are used in the treatment of cough, coryza, hay asthma, bronchial infections, bowel complaints, worm infestations, wound, kidney stones and boils. In the present study leaves of E. hirta L. were collected during different time periods. The ethanol extract of the leaves of E. hirta L. was analyzed for their antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against bacteria species namely aureus (MTCC 2940), Bacillus ceresus, Salmonella typhi (MTCC 733), Klebsiella Pneumoniae (MTCC139), Pseudomonas aeuroginosa (MTCC 741), and fungus species namely Aspergillus niger (MTCC 277), Aspergillus fumigatus (MTCC 343), Aspergillus flavus (MTCC 418), Rhizopus oryzae (MTCC 262). It was observed that the leaves collected during mid August to December end showed significant antimicrobial effect compared to other extracts.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000669
Title: Antioxidant efficacy of Cynodon dactylon leaf protein against ela implanted swiss albino mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The levels of enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants were determined in Ehrlich’s Lymphoma Ascite (ELA) transplanted Swiss albino mice treated with the protein fraction of Cynodon dactylon (Cdpf). ELA induced mice showed significant decrease in the level of enzymic antioxidants like catalase (73.43 to 55.03), superoxide dismutase (4.49 to2.47) and glutathione peroxidase (48.48 to 36.98) in units/mg protein and non enzymic antioxidant like vitamin A (7.18 to 3.25), vitamin E (8.55 to 3.18) in µg/g protein and reduced glutathione (2.38 to 1.65) in nmoles/g protein which indicated the production of free radicals in the liver. Administration of protein fraction to the ELA induced mice showed enhanced level of enzymic antioxidants (69.18, 4.11 and 49.39 units/mg protein) and non enzymic antioxidants (5.63, 5.20 µg/g protein and 3.43 nmoles/g protein) respectively which proved their protective action against the free radical damage caused by ELA tumor cells and maintains the normal function of the organ and confirmed their antioxidant activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000510
Title: Natural excipients in controlled drug delivery systems
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The emergence of controlled release (CR) technology as an effective way to enhance patient compliance and extend the life cycle of a drug has led to the need for novel ways of controlling the drug release profiles. Polymers present a logical and simple approach to control the release of drugs. Natural and synthetic polymers serve as key excipients in oral and parenteral CR formulations. The use of natural excipients for controlled deliver of the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. This article gives an overview of natural excipients which are used in controlled drug delivery systems.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000561
Title: Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Screening of Bauhinia variegata Linn leaves.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Pharmacognostical characters of the leaves of Bauhinia variegata Linn was studied which showed the presence of thin walled epidermis, parenchymatous cells, abundant solitary calcium oxalate crystals, vascular bundles and multicellular covering trichomes. Leaf constant viz., stomatal index -5.27, vein islet number - 8.3, vein termination - 6.6, palisade ratio -7.6 were also studied. Physiochemical parameter such as total ash - 8 % w/w, water soluble ash value-2 % w/w, acid insoluble ash value - 6 % w/w, alcohol extractive value- 8 % w/w, water soluble extractive value -18.4 % w/w and loss on drying - 7 % w/w were also determined. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000709
Title: Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Calotropis gigantea Latex Extract on Selected Pathogenic Bacteria.
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The search for novel antibiotics like compounds from medicinal plants continues to be of extreme importance in recent research programs around the world because of the increase of multidrug resistance and toxicity of some used antibiotics. One such medicinal plant used since ancient times is Calotropis gigantea. The plant produces large quantity of latex with various medicinal properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effect of partially purified C.gigantea latex extract on some human pathogenic bacteria. The antibacterial activity was tested against three Gram positive and three Gram negative bacteria. The inhibitory effect was assessed by well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also determined by serial dilution method. The ethanolic extract was subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening for the presence of bioactive ingredients. The ethanolic extract shows the presence of many biologically active molecules such as flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins and glycosides. The latex extract shows significant zone of inhibition in dose dependent manner. The MIC and MBC values of latex extract against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains varies from 1mg to 5mg and the results are comparable with chloramphenicol. From this study, we conclude that the latex extract possesses potent bactericidal activity which may be due to the presence of biologically active ingredients with antimicrobial activity in the ethanolic extract of C.gigantea. The present study would also contribute to the acceptance of C.gigantea latex in traditional medicine and to the solution of growing problems of drug resistance by microorganisms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000707
Title: Antifungal activity of twenty two ethanolic plant extracts against food-associated fungi
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study, a total of 22 plant extracts were evaluated for antifungal activity against ten food-associated fungal isolates by poisoned food technique. Of the 22 plant extracts, clove and ginger ethanolic extracts showed inhibitory activity against all the test fungal isolates while garlic ethanolic extract also showed inhibitory activity against all the tested fungi except Penicillium oxalicum. Three extracts namely cumin, turmeric and cinnamon showed inhibitory activity against few of the tested fungi. Sixteen ethanolic extracts did not show any activity against any of the tested fungal isolates. The highest activity was observed in clove ethanolic extract with percent mycelial growth inhibition ranging from 70 to 100% followed by ginger extract (30 to 100%). On the basis of this finding, it may be suggested that these extracts may be used as natural antimicrobial additives to increase the shelf-life of foods.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000785
Title: Effect of Eugenia Jambolana on Plasma Glucose, Insulin Sensitivity and HDL-C Levels: Preliminary Results of A Randomized Clinical Trial
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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To validate scientifically a household remedy of Eugenia jambolana seed based drug Madhuhara churna [AVA Trust Regd] in diabetes mellitus, a use based on ethnic preferences. A 6 month parallel designed open labeled randomized, controlled trial was conducted in 30 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were enrolled to: Group 1 (n = 15) received Madhuhara churna [AVA Trust Regd]; Group 2 (n= 5) received metformin and Group 3 (n=10) were on diet restriction and exercise therapy only. They were followed up each month for 6 months with detailed clinical examination; assessment of compliance to drug intake, diet adherence and exercise; a complete history of adverse events; different parameters to measure the efficacy were done. There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics of patients in each of the three groups enrolled for study. The results showed a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose at 3rd (152.0 mg/dl± 22.5 to 140.7 mg/dl± 26.6, P=0.016) and 6th (152.0 mg/dl± 22.5 to 134.0 ± 21.3, P=0.043) month, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance at 3rd (10.3 ± 4.7 to 6.5 ± 4.1, P=0.027) month and a highly significant rise in high density lipoprotein value at 3rd (39.7 ± 9.6 to 47.3 ± 6.8, P= 0.001) month was seen in group 1 when compared to baseline values. Madhuhara churna [AVA Trust Regd] treatment in type 2 diabetic patients for 6 months has a beneficial effect in improving the glycemic profile in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001382
Title: Phytochemical Analysis of Cocos nucifera L
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The phytochemical screening of Cocos nucifera L was studied. The aim of the study was to determine the phytochemical constituents of the endosperm of Cocos nucifera L. The nuts of Cocos nucifera were collected from a coconut tree in the Botany Department of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The nuts were broken to release the solidified endosperm (kernel). The endosperm was cut, washed, dried and milled using a laboratory mill. The phytochemical analyses carried out on the milled kernel showed the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, resins, glyco-sides and steroids. Flavonoids and acidic compounds were not detected. The macronutrient analyses, on the order hand showed the presence of carbohydrate, proteins, reducing sugar, fats and oil. Of the above macronutrients, oil is known to be the major constituent that is necessary for the medicinal uses of coconut, though the phytochemicals: alkaloids, steroids and terpenoids are known to have antioxidant properties. The nutritional and health implication of coconut consumption are also discussed.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000519
Title: Anti-asthmatic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Tamarindus Indica Linn.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Tamarindus indica Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae), is a medicinal plant, used in folk medicine for treating asthma, dysentery, vaginal and uterine complaints, inflammation and variety of other condition. In this study methanolic extract of leaves of Tamarindus indica Linn at the doses of 175, 350 and 700 mg/kg, p.o., exhibited significant (p<0.01) mast cell stabilizing activity against clonidine induced mast cell degranulation in rats and significantly inhibited (p<0.01) the milk induced leucocytes and eosinophilia in mice. Clonidine, a α2 adrenoreceptors agonist induces dose dependent catalepsy in mice, which is inhibited by histamine H1 receptor antagonists. Prior treatment with methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica Linn at the dose of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., significantly inhibited (p<0.01) the clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice. Thus the present study revealed that the methanolic extract of leaves of Tamarindus indica Linn exhibited significant antihistaminic, adaptogenic and mast cell stabilizing activity in the laboratory animals.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000503
Title: Wound healing activity of the leaves of Tribulus terrestris (linn) aqueous extract in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The leaves of Tribulus terrestris(zygophyllaceae) are used traditionally in the folklore for the treatment of various kinds of wounds. The present study was undertaken to verify the effect of the leaves of T. terrestris on experimentally induced excision wound, incision wound and burn wound models in rats. Aloe vera was used as standard wound healing agent. A formulation of aqueous leaves extract in carbopol at 2.5% and 5% concentrations were prepared and applied to the wounds. In the excision and burn wound models, the animal showed significant reduction in period of epithelization and wound contraction (50%). In the incision wound model a significant increase in the breaking strength was observed. The results suggest that T. terrestris aqueous leaves extract applied topically possess wound healing activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001381
Title: Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Artemisia absinthium Linn. and Artemisia asiatica Nakai : A Review
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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A world health organization survey indicated that about 75-80% of the world’s populations rely on non-conventional medicine, mainly of herbal sources, in their primary healthcare. There has been an explosion of scientific information concerning plants, crude plant extracts and various substances from plants as medicinal agents during last 30-40 years. Although herbal medicine has existed since the dawn of time, our knowledge of how plants actually affect human physiology remains largely unexplored. Numbers of plants are claiming various medicinal uses and many researches are going on in this view. They are believed to be much safer and proved elixir in the treatment of various ailments. The genus Artemisia consists of about 500 species, occurring throughout the world. Among the different species of Artemisia, A. absinthium and A. asiatica have a vast range of biological activities including cytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antimalarial etc. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus Artemisia. The present review comprises the phytochemical, ethnopharmacological and pharmacological reports of A. absinthium and A. asiatica. The future scopes of these plants have been emphasized with a view to isolate bioactive moieties which could be used for multifarious biological activities.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000497
Title: The antiulcer activity of Pterospermum acerifolium bark extract in experimental animal
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The role of ethanolic fraction of Pterospermum acerifolium bark extract on different experimental ulcer models in rats was investigated.The extract demonstrated significant antiulcer activity against aspirin, indomethacin & ethanol induced ulcerations, significant inhibition of gastric secretary volume, and total acidity in pylorus ligated rats were observed to occur with the extract.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000469
Title: Phytoconstituents from the genus Polyalthia – a review
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A review of the phytoconstituents of the genus Polyalthia (Annonaceae) so far reported, has been presented considering that the genus comprises of 70 species and distributed all around the world. Keeping in view of the potential of the genus, an attempt is made to present a review of phytoconstituents of the genus Polyalthia which still remains as a source of lead molecules.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001365
Title: Free Radicals and Antioxidants : A Review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Oxidation is a significant biological process for energy production in the body. One of the crucial problem is the tendency of the oxygen molecule to create free radicals. These radicals are by-products of the natural metabolism, and their constant exposure can give rise to oxidative stress which causes the oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. The release of reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur species results in cellular damage, gene mutation, organ malfunctioning or organ failure and may even lead to death. This oxidative damage has a significant role in chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, AIDS, nephropathy,neurodegenerative and reproductive disorders, pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases etc. If our body’s supply of antioxidants fall short from the free radical generation, then its possible that it could cause damage before the radicals are quenched. This review deals with the types of free radicals, their role in various disease, antioxidants and the different constituents which show antioxidant activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000765
Title: Suitability of Factorial Design in Determining the Processing Factors Affecting Entrapment Efficiency of Albumin Microspheres
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: A trend in NSAID development has been to formulate them into sustained release microspheres to improve therapeutic efficacy and to reduce the severity of upper gastro intestinal side effects. Many processing variables can influence the characteristics of the resultant albumin microspheres. Objective: The objective of the present study was to study the effect of some selected process variables (drug/albumin ratio, amount of glutaraldehyde, and duration of cross-linking time) on the encapsulation efficiency, by applying 3-level full factorial design analysis, accounting for percent drug entrapment as dependant variable. Methods: Sustained-release formulations of ketorolac tromethamine loaded albumin microspheres were prepared by chemical cross-linking method. F-statistic was applied to reduce polynomial equation by neglecting non-significant (P>0.05) terms.The coefficient value for independent variable, drug/albumin ratio, was found to be maximum (19.33) and hence this variable was considered to be a major contributing variable for percent drug entrapment. Response surface plots clearly showed optimal drug/albumin ratio, amount of glutaraldehyde and duration of cross-linking. The conformity of the established equation was checked by preparing three batches of microspheres thrice, taking values of the independent variables from the contour plots for prefixed value of percent drug entrapment. Conclusion: Findings established the role of the statistical design in predicting the values of independent variables for preparation of microspheres having predetermined percent drug entrapment.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000478
Title: A validated UV spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous estimation of Lamivudine, Nevirapine and zidovudine in combined tablet dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, accurate, precise, economical and reproducible UV spectrophotometric method is being developed for the simultaneous estimation of lamivudine, nevirapine and zidovudine in pure bulk drug and in tablet dosage form. The stock solutions were prepared in 0.5M HCl followed by the further required dilutions with distilled water. The lmax for lamivudine, nevirapine and zidovudine were 280.2nm, 312nm and 266.8nm respectively. Linearity in concentration range of 5-25 mg/ mL, 5-50mg/ mL and 5-40mg/mL was shown respectively by the three drugs. The proposed method has estimated lamivudine 97.56%, nevirapine 98.03% and zidovudine 98.2% in marketed tablets. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and also by recovery studies. Thus the present study gives an excellent method for the determination of all the three drugs in combined dosage formulation without their prior separation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000058
Title: Anti-Hyperglycemic activity of Ficus racemosa Linn leaves
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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To evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of ethanol (95%) and petroleum ether extract of Ficus racemosa leaves. Both extracts were tested on glucose loaded and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were evaluated at 0h, 1, 3, 5 hours and 0 , 1st, 3rd , 7th day intervals, respectively. In both test samples extracts at a dose of 300mg/kg /oral, has shown good antihyperglycemic activity in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000458
Title: Simultaneous estimation of Tamsulosin hydrochloride and Dutasteride in combined dosage form by UV spectroscopy method
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Fixed dose combination tablets containing Tamsulosin hydrochloride & Dutasteride are used to treat the symptoms of an enlarged prostate, a condition technically known as benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH. Several chromatographic methods have been reported for simultaneous estimation of these drugs and individual drug. The drugs individually and in mixture obeys Beer‘s law over conc. range 0.0347 mg/mL for Tamsulosin hydrochloride (TAM) and for Dutasteride 0.012 mg/mL (DUTA). The mean recoveries from tablet by standard addition method were 99.0% and 99.5 %. The present work reports simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous estimation of Tamsulosin hydrochloride and Dutasteride in combined from tablet dosage form.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000680
Title: Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some newer benzimidazole derivatives – an overview
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Benzimidazole derivates play vital role in biological field such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiabetic, and anticancer activity. Therapeutic significance of these clinically useful drugs in treatment of microbial infections encouraged the development of some more potent and significant compounds. Benzimidazoles are remarkably effective compounds both with respect to their bacteria inhibitory activity and their favorable selectivity ratio. Extensive biochemical and pharmacological studies have confirmed that these molecules are effective against various strains of microorganisms. This comprehensive overview summarizes the chemistry of different derivatives of substituted benzimidazole along with their antimicrobial activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001054
Title: The diverse pharmacological importance of Pyrazolone Derivatives : A Review
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Scientific research programs and reports are continuously pouring in with respect to improvised synthetic techniques to prepare numerous pyrazolone derivatives and with regard to their diverse biological, pharmacological and chemical applications. When pyrazolones were discovered, they were only known as NSAID but in recent times, they are known to exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and several other pharmacological actions. These derivatives were withdrawn from the market because of their adverse effects such as agranulocytosis, skin rashes and blood dyscrasis etc, but recently they are again finding their place in the market and are being extensively used in cerebral ischemia and cardio vascular diseases. Since its introduction into medicine, there have been more than 1000 compounds made in an effort to find others with more potent analgesic action combined with less toxicity. Keeping in view the increasing importance of these derivatives, a need for the review is felt. This review deals with up to-date literature on biological and pharmacological properties of pyrazolone derivatives.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000708
Title: Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel ciprofloxacin analogues
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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From the cyclisation of potassium dithiocarbazinate with hydrazine hydrate in water, 4-(amino)-5-phenyl - 4H-1, 2, 4-triazole- 3- thiol belonging to the 1,2,4- triazole derivative have been prepared. The different aromatic aldehydes such as benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dichloro benzaldehyde, 3-methoxy 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde, 4-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde and furfuraldehyde have been attached to the triazole through the Schiff reaction to give different Schiff bases. Ciprofloxacin have been incorporated to the new series of Schiff bases of 1,2,4- triazole via Mannich reaction. The new compounds have been evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against B.subtilis, K.Pneumoniae, and P.aeruginosa. All the compounds showed in vitro gram positive and gram negative activity generally comparable or superior to that of reference ciprofloxacin.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001058
Title: Design and development of sustained release microspheres of Quetiapine Fumarate using 32 full factorial design
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objectives of this investigation were to prepare sustained release microspheres of the anti-psychotic drug, quetiapine fumarate, using ethyl cellulose as the polymer and evaluate it’s encapsulation efficiency, release characteristics in vitro; utilizing emulsion solvent evaporation and extraction technique. A 32 factorial factorial design was applied to investigate the influence of drug: polymer ratio and average particle size on release characteristics. The drug release was proportional to square root of time, indicating that the drug release from ethyl cellulose microspheres was diffusion controlled. The optimized batch showed no signs of interaction with sustaining the drug release up to 12 h along with identical release behavior to that of marketed sustained release tablet. The sphericity and smoothness of microspheres were also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy study.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001348
Title: Novel anticancer compounds from marine actinomycetes : A Review
Category: Microbiology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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It is increasingly evident that the true biological origin of many metabolites isolated from certain marine microorganisms. The prokaryotic marine actinomycetes continue to be an important source of bioactive secondary metabolites and potent cytotoxic compounds. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, and others. The medical and pharmaceutical application of these compounds were investigated for a few decades, This review presents a total of 35 anticancer metabolites, belonging mainly to the structural class, which mainly emphasis on their biological activities of the anticancer metabolites against cytotoxic cells isolated from marine actinomycetes from different places between January 2005 and December 2009. This new innovations in the research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine actinomycetes dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity which reveals the presents trends on the role of anticancer compounds for the potential lead.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000738
Title: Estimation of Thiocolchicoside And Ketoprofen in pharmaceutical dosage form by Spectrophotometric methods.
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Two rapid, economical accurate and precise, methods have been developed for estimation of Thiocolchicoside and Ketoprofen in tablet dosage form. First method is first order derivative spectroscopy, wavelengths selected for quantitation were 233.0 nm for Thiocolchicoside (zero cross for Ketoprofen) and 243.0 nm for Ketoprofen (zero cross for Thiocolchicoside). Second method is Absorbance correction method in which absorbance is measured at two wavelengths 372.0 nm at which ketoprofen has no absorbance and 260.0 nm at which both the drugs have considerable absorbance. In first order derivative spectroscopy linearity for detector response was observed in the concentration range of 3-15 ìg/ml for Thiocolchicoside and 12-60 ìg/ml for Ketoprofen. In Absorbance correction method linearity for detector response was observed in the concentration range of 1-5 ìg/ml for Thiocolchicoside and 10-50 ìg/ml for Ketoprofen. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in commercial tablet preparation. The results of the analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001068
Title: Simultaneous estimation of rizatriptan, sumatriptan and zolmitriptan by RP-HPLC method in bulk
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Rizatriptan, Sumatriptan and Zolmitriptan in bulk form. Chromatography was performed by gradient reverse phase separation on a Stainless steel column 4.6 x 250mm, symmetry column packed with octa decyl silane bonded to porous silica (C18) with particle size 5 micron with mobile phase Acetonitrile: Sodium Phosphate buffer. The flow rate was 1.0ml/ min and effluent was monitored at 280 nm. The retention times were 7.215min, 8.432 and 9.185min for of Rizatriptan, Sumatriptan and Zolmitriptan respectively. The standard curve was linear over a working range of 1–10 µg/ml and gave an average correlation coefficient of 0.9996, 0.9992, and 0.9992 for Rizatriptan, Sumatriptan and Zolmitriptan respectively. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of this method was 2µg/ml for rizatriptan Sumatriptan and Zolmitriptan. The absolute recovery was 101.84 for rizatriptan, 101.492 for sumatriptan and 101.44 for zolmitriptan. This method can be easily and conveniently adopted for routine analysis of Rizatriptan, Sumatriptan and Zolmitriptan in pure form and can also be used for dissolution or similar studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000508
Title: Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System: Current Approaches
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Oral controlled release delivery systems are programmed to deliver the drug in predictable time frame that will increase the efficacy and minimize the adverse effects and increase the bioavailability of drugs. It is most widely utilized route of administration among all the routes that have been explored for systemic delivery of drugs via pharmaceutical products of different dosage form. Oral route is considered most natural, uncomplicated, convenient and safe due to its ease of administration, patient acceptance, and cost-effective manufacturing process. In order to overcome the drawbacks of conventional drug delivery systems, several technical advancements have led to the development of controlled drug delivery system that could revolutionize method of medication and provide a number of therapeutic benefits. One of the most widely gastro retentive drug delivery system. The present paper highlights the current approaches and another aspects of the GRDS.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000571
Title: Sodium alginate: the wonder polymer for controlled drug delivery
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The objective of this paper is to discuss the potential of sodium alginate as a biopolymer in the formulation development and its allied applications. There is a growing trend in pharmaceutical in food industry to avoid the harsh condition in the preparation for administration to the body or for the storage purpose as it induce the side effects, instability or loss of therapeutic effect of the medicament. The sodium alginate is a versatile functional biomaterial for viscosity enhancement, stabilizer, matrixing agent, encapsulation polymer, bioadhesive and film former in transdermal and transmucosal drug delivery. The present article reviews sources, preparation, properties, crosslinking methodology, compendial standards, methods utilized for preparation of drug delivery systems using sodium alginate and its potential applications.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000529
Title: An Overview of Resealed Erythrocyte Drug Delivery
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Among the various carriers used for drug delivery, erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC) constitute potential biocompatible carriers since they possess several properties which make them unique and useful carriers. Erythrocytes are biocompatible, biodegradable, possess long circulation half lives, and can be loaded with a variety of biologically active compounds using various chemical and physical methods. This systemic review deals with advantages, requirement, methods of drug loading, characterizations, and application of erythrocyte mediated drug delivery.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000604
Title: Antifeedant Activity of Selected Ethno-botanicals used by Tribals of Vattal Hills on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Phytochemicals, especially botanical insecticides are currently of interest because of their successful application in plant protection as potential biocontrol agents. Biological activity of leaf aqueous extract of twenty five medicinal plants were evaluated against the VI instar larvae of gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Antifeedant activity of leaf aqueous extracts of Abutilon indicum, Acalypha fruticosa, Achyranthus aspera, Adhatoda zeylanica, Aegle marmelos, Aerva lanata, Albiziza amara, Andrographis lineaeta, Andrographis paniculata, Azadirachta indica, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Cassia tora, Catharanthus roseus, Datura metal, Gymnema sylvestre, Melia azedarach, Ocimum canum, Ocimum sanctum, Pergularia daemia, Plectranthus coleoides, Solanum nigrum, Solanum surattrense, Solanum trilobatum, Tribulus terrestris, Vitex negundo were evaluated in this study. Preliminary screening after 24h of exposure to leaf aqueous extracts of the selected plants at a concentration of 1,000 ppm exhibited significant larval mortality rate. The percentage mortality rate varied considerably between 11.8 and 78.9. The mortality rate was observed in the decreasing order of M. azedarach > A. indica > S. trilobatum > A. paniculata > A. marmelos > A. lineata > S. surattrense > C. roseus > A. zeylanica > A. fruticosa > D. metal > S. nigrum > O. canum > P. coleoides > O. sanctum > P. daemia > A. amara > G. sylvestre > C. halicacabum > V. negundo > A. indicum > C. tora > T. terrestris > A. aspera > A. lanata against the larvae of H. armigera. The results imply that leaf aqueous extract of M. azedarach, A. indica, S. trilobatum, A. paniculata, A. marmelos, A. lineata, S. surattrense, C. roseus, A. zeylanica, A. fruticosa and D. metal can potentially be used as eco-friendly pest control agents against the larvae of H. armigera.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-QA-0000523
Title: Validation of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method of metolazone and its determination in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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To develop and validate a sensitive, selective, precise high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of analysis for metolazone both as bulk drug and formulations. A new sensitive and reproducible HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of metolazone in tablets. The separation was achieved by using a JASCO HPLC system 2000 series comprising of JASCO PU 2080 plus pump, JASCO UV 2075 plus detector, Rheodyne manual injector fitted with 100 μl sample loop. The analytical column used was thermo C18 (250 X 4.6mm; 5μm) at ambient temperature using a mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile: Water (50:50). The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, reproducibility and robustness and statistical comparison was performed by analysis of variance. The developed HPLC technique is precise, specific, accurate and stable. Statistical analysis proves that the method is reproducible, selective and suitable to be applied for analysis of metolazone in commercial pharmaceutical dosage form for routine quality control application.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001343
Title: Antidiabetic activity of Lantana camara Linn fruits in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract of lantana camara linn fruits in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Material and methods: Methanolic extract of lantana camara linn fruits were orally tested at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg forhypoglycemic activity for normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In addition changing in body weight, HbA1c, assessed in the methanol-treated diabetic rats, were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathological observations during 21 days treatment were also evaluated.Statistical analysis:Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Multiple comparison student two-tail‘t’ test was used for statistical analysis of collected data. Differences were considered significant at p

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000725
Title: Antidiabetic activity of insulin plant (Costus igneus) leaf extract in diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this research was to investigate antidiabetic activity of Costus igneus (also known as insulin plant) leaves extracts in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. A comparison was made between the action of Costus igneus extract and a known antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (600 µg/kg body wt.). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in experimental diabetic rats. Ethanolic extracts of Costus igneus were obtained by simple maceration method & were subjected to standardization by phytochemical screening methods. Preliminary phytochemical investigations showed the presence of alkaloids and steroids in ethanolic extract. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50mg to 5000 mg/kg body weight) as per OECD guidelines. Costus igneus ethanolic extract showed significant (P<0.001) antidiabetic activity. These extracts also prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. We are the first to report Costus igneus leaves pharmacognostic, phytochemical investigations and its antidiabetic activity in OGTT and alloxan induced model.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-QA-0000555
Title: Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn – ‘‘Rudrapuspa'': A Review
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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“World Health Organization’’ has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are has proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. is certain to emerge in the near future as a major player in the growing field of herbal health supplements and medicines both in daily self-care and in professionally managed health care system.The principal constituents of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. are flvones. Flvones contain quercetin-3-diglucoside, quercetin-3,7-diglucoside, cyaniding-3,5-diglucoside, quercetin-3-sophorotrioside, kaempferol-3xylosylglucoside, cyaniding-3-sophoroside-5-glucoside and other constituent are cyclopeptide alkaloid, cyanidin chloride, hentriacontane, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, thiamine, taraxeryl acetate, ß-sitosterol , cyclicacids sterculic and malvalic acids. All the parts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn and chemical constituents are used as anti-tumor, antifertility, antiovultory, antiimplantation, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiestrogenic, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, hypoglycaemic, spasmolytic, CNS depressant, hypotensive and juvenoid activity. This article compile all the information related to Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001341
Title: Preliminary phytochemical screening and HPTLC fingerprinting of Nicotiana tabacum leaf
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The leaf of Nnicotiana tabacum was collected, gabbled, pulverized air dried and subjected to gradient extraction with soxhlet apparatus and the different extracts were screened phytochemically for its chemical components. This revealed the presence of alkaloids, reducing compounds (carbohydrates), flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and steroids in moderate concentration. hptlc fingerprintint parameters had been developed for alcoholic leaf extract of nicotiana tabacum. At wavelength (550 nm), resolution was better for this extracts and hence, this wavelength can be taken for obtaining optimum hptlc fingerprinting for this medicinal plant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000681
Title: Potentiation of solvent character by mixed-solvency concept :A novel concept of solubilization
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A new, simple, safe, accurate and reproducible titrimetric method was developed for the quantitative estimation of frusemide in the bulk drug sample and tablets by the novel application of mixed solvency concept. Ethanol has weaker solubilizing power for frusemide. The addition of 15% w/v niacinamide (a solubilizer) in ethanol showed very good solubility of frusemide (about three fold enhancement) and hence, this solvent system was employed to solubilize frusemide for its titrimetric analysis. This is a safer (non toxic) solvent system than dimethyl formamide (which is employed in pharmacopoeial method). Like this, ethanol (which is a relatively safer organic solvent) can be made a strong solvent by proper choice of solubilizers, precluding the use of hazardous, toxic organic solvents. Mixed solvency concept may be utilized to prepare the concentrated (say 30% w/v or so, in strength) combined aqueous solutions of various water-soluble additives from the categories of so called, hydrotropes (sodium benzoate, sodium ascorbate, sodium citrate, niacinamide, urea), co-solvents (glycerin, propylene glycol, ethanol, PEG 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 ), water soluble solids (PVP, PEG 4000, 6000, 8000, 10000), cyclodextrins (beta cyclodextrin, HP beta cyclodextrin) employing them in small, safe (GRAS) concentrations to solubilize the poorly water-soluble drugs to develop their dosage forms (solutions, syrups, injections, topical solutions etc) and thus, the toxicity issues of solubilizers may not raise concern (to illustrate one example, a 30% w/v aqueous solution may be made by employing 5% w/v, each, of glycerin, PVP, PEG 4000, niacinamide, HP beta cyclodextrin and tween 80).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000721
Title: Microwave assisted organic reaction as new tool in organic synthesis
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS) has emerged as a new “lead” in organic synthesis. The technique offers simple, clean, fast, efficient, and economic for the synthesis of a large number of organic molecules. In the recent year microwave assisted organic reaction has emerged as new tool in organic synthesis. Important advantage of this technology include highly accelerated rate of the reaction, Reduction in reaction time with an improvement in the yield and quality of the product. Now day’s technique is considered as an important approach toward green chemistry, because this technique is more environmentally friendly. This technology is still under-used in the laboratory and has the potential to have a large impact on the fields of screening, combinatorial chemistry, medicinal chemistry and drug development. Conventional method of organic synthesis usually need longer heating time, tedious apparatus setup, which result in higher cost of process and the excessive use of solvents/ reagents lead to environmental pollution. This growth of green chemistry holds significant potential for a reduction of the by product, a reduction in waste production and a lowering of the energy costs. Due to its ability to couple directly with the reaction molecule and by passing thermal conductivity leading to a rapid rise in the temperature, microwave irradiation has been used to improve many organic syntheses.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001338
Title: RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for Estimation of Thiocolchicoside and Diclofenac Potassium in Bulk and Capsule Dosage Forms
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A new simple, specific, precise and accurate reversed-phase liquid chromatography method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Thiocolchicoside (THC) and Diclofenac potassium (DICP) in capsule formulation. The separation were achieved on a 5-micron C18 column (250 X 4.6 mm) using mobile phase consisting of a mixture of Acetonitrile: Methanol: water (35:15;50), pH adjusted to 3.5 with orthophosphoric acid. The flow rate was maintained at 1.0 ml/min, with an average operating pressure of 2630 psi. The detection of the constituents was done using UV detector at 286.0 nm for THC and DICP. The retention time of THC and DICP were approximately 3.3 and 4.0 min respectively. Recovery study values of THC and DICP is 100.09+0.30 and 99.91+0.29 respectively, relative standard deviation of less than 2% for the assay and linearity coefficient of 0.999 shows that the method is precise, accurate and linear in the concentration given and demonstrate the method developed is rugged and robust. Linear response obtained for THC was in the concentration range 20-100 μg/ml and DICP in the range 20-100 μg/ml.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000554
Title: Liposomes: A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Liposomes are microparticulate lipoidal vesicles which are under extensive investigation as drug carriers for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents. Due to new developments in liposome technology, several liposome-based drug formulations are currently in clinical trial, and recently some of them have been approved for clinical use. Reformulation of drugs in liposomes has provided an opportunity to enhance the therapeutic indices of various agents mainly through alteration in their biodistribution. This review discusses the potential applications of liposomes in drug delivery with examples of formulations approved for clinical use, and the problems associated with further exploitation of this drug delivery system.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000445
Title: Wound Healing Activity of Annona muricata extract
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The wound healing activity of alcoholic extract of stem bark of Annona muricata was evaluated in albino rats by open wound method for a period of 12 days. Extract showed marked reduction in area of the wound in comparison with that of the control group from 4th days onwards suggesting its possible use in healing the wound.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000672
Title: Nanosuspension:A novel drug delivery system
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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During the last two decades, many modern technologies have been established in the pharmaceutical research and development area. The automation of the drug discovery process by technologies such as high-throughput screening, combinatorial chemistry, and computer- aided drug design is leading to a vast number of drug candidates possessing a very good efficacy. Unfortunately, many of these drug candidates are exhibiting poor aqueous solubility. The use of drug nanosuspension is an universal formulation approach to increase the therapeutic performance of these drugs in any route of administration. A nanosuspension is a submicron colloidal dispersion of drug particles which are stabilized by surfactants. Nanosuspension is defined as very finely dispersed solid drug particles in an aqueous vehicle for either oral and topical use or parenteral and pulmonary administration. The particle size distribution of the solid particles in nanosuspensions is usually less than one micron with an average particle size ranging between 200 and 600 nm. Nanosuspension consists of the pure poorly water-soluble drug without any matrix material suspended in dispersion.This review article describes the physicochemical properties of drug nanosuspension, preparation methods and; its potential clinical advantages.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001339
Title: Plant natural products: Their pharmaceutical potential against disease and drug resistant microbial pathogens
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Plants contain diverse groups of phytochemicals such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids that possess enormous antimicrobial potential against bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. These are much safer than synthetic drugsand show lesser side effects. Approximately 25 to 50 % of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants. Plant products are  also used for the treatment of skin urinary, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, which also show antidiarrheal, hepato-protective, hypoglycemic, lipid lowering, antiseptic, and antioxidant activities. Few important plant products such as ellagic acid coumarin, gallic acid, benzenoide, chebulic acid, corilagin, punicalagin, terchebulin, terflabin A-tannin, ellagic acid, ethyl acetate, galloyl glucose and chebulagic acid, triterpenes, flavonoids, quercetin, pentacyclic triterpenoids, guajanoic acid, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, leucocyanidin, ellagic acid, amritoside, beta- sitosterol, uvaol, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are considered as prominent antimicrobial agents. Natural products also exhibit high susceptibility to drug resista