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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000036
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Taste masked Fast Dissolving Tablets of Ondansetron Hcl
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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During the last decade, the demand for mouth dissolving tablets has been growing, especially for geriatric and pediatric patients because of swallowing difficulties. Ondansetron Hcl as the model drug is a serotonin receptor (5- HT3) antagonist used in the prevention of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. In this present study, the bitter taste of Ondansetron Hcl was masked using drug: Indion 204 in different ratios (1:1–1:3) and drug: eudragit E 100 in different ratios (1:1–1:4). For taste masking the ratio of drug: Indion 204 and drug: eudragit E 100 were optimized to 1:2 and 1:4 respectively by time intensity method. The FTIR studies showed drug and carrier were compatible. These were then compressed into tablets by direct compression method with using different superdisintegrants like Indion 414 in 1%, 1.5% and 2% concentration and croscarmellose sodium in 2%, 3% and 4% concentration. All formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, wetting time, weight variation, percentage friability and in vitro dissolution rate. Formulations with 2% Indion 414 and drug: Indion 204 in 1:2 ratio (DR6) and with 2% Indion 414 and drug: eudragit E 100 in 1:4 ratio (DE6) showed the disintegration time 10 seconds, 15 seconds and wetting time 30 seconds, 33 seconds respectively. In vitro dissolution studies of both formulations showed more than 90% drug released within 15 minutes. In vitro release profile, disintegration time and wetting time were remaining unchanged after two months when stored at 250C / 60% RH and at 400C / 75% RH.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000037
Title: Comparative evaluation study of matrix properties of natural gums and semi-synthetic polymer
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the granulation and tablet properties of natural gums with the extensively investigated hydrophilic matrices hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as suitable hydrophilic matrix systems. Methods: The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and granulation properties like angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s compressibility index, Hausner’s ratio and drug content were compared. Various sustained release matrices of prepared granules were prepared using HPMC (F1), Guar gum (F2), Xanthan Gum (F3), Locust bean gum (F4) and chitosan (F5). The matrix tablets were evaluated for uniformity of weight, content of active ingredient, friability, hardness, thickness and in vitro dissolution using USP XXIV dissolution apparatus. Results: All the formulations showed compliance with pharmacopoeial standards. A significant difference in release pattern was observed between the formulation F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5. F1, F3 and F5 release almost ~9% compare to initial burst effect of ~31% for F4 and F2 after 1h of dissolution period. At the end of 8 h of dissolution period it was found that 71.36%, 85.91%, 96.98%, 68.76% and 45.5% of drug release for F2, F4, F5, F3 and F1, respectively. Conclusions: Thus, natural gums show granulation and tablet properties that are similar to those of the extensively investigated hydrophilic matrices, HPMC. This suggests that the natural gums may be an ideal candidate in the formulation of matrix tablets on controlled drug delivery.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000039
Title: Drug utilization evaluation study in Indian hospital
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify the prescribing irrationalities and appropriate action have to be taken to reduce the irrational use of drugs and improve the prescribing pattern for rational use of drugs METHODS: Retrospective data from 01-08-03 to 31-07-04 and prospective data from 01-08-04 to 31-08-05 were collected and analyzed for the use of drugs. The prospective data were used to design intervention to change prescribing behavior and evaluate the outcome of results. The prospective statistical analysis consists of the names and quantities of drugs used for a year as well as the annual number of patient days. RESULTS: Two major prescribing irrationalities were observed after an analysis of use of individual drugs and drug groups. Ranitidine use was 1840.00 DDD/1000 PD during 2003-2004 increasing to 2575.67 DDD/1000 PD during 2004-2005 and Ibuprofen use was 573.66 DDD/1000 PD during 2003-2004 increasing to 606.25 DDD / 1000 PD during 2004-2005 at Rajah Muthiah Medical College & Hospital CONCLUSIONS: The result shows that the no need for prophylactic use of ranitidine in short term NSAID therapy in patient without any history of ulcer diseases and the therapeutic use of ibuprofen have to be prescribed careful after assessment of the risks and benefits in each patient is essential.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000040
Title: Taste masked, orally disintegrating tablet containing microspheres for immediate release
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of microspheres for taste masking when incorporated into orally disintegrating tablets. The microspheres were produced by emulsification solvent evaporation method using a model drug theophylline with a taste masking polymer. The solvent evaporation method was optimized to obtain microspheres with desirable characteristics. The microspheres were mixed with other excipients to form orally disintegrating tablets. Optimization using two factors and three levels using factorial approach was carried out. The microspheres were best formed using acetone in 40 ml liquid paraffin at 1600 rpm speed of stirring for 90 minutes. The yield was 85 ± 2 %, particle size was 315 ± 10.84 μ and the assay results showed entrapment of 93.77 ± 0.53 % drug. The tablets formed showed a hardness of 3 ± 0.5 kg/cm2 and in vitro disintegration of 25 ± 3 seconds. The in vitro drug release was 88 ± 4 % at the end of 30 minutes. In conclusion, microspheres can effectively mask the bitter taste of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in combination with the orally disintegrating tablets.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000041
Title: Microscopical and preliminary phytochemical studies on leaves of Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The plant Bryophyllum calycinum salisb (crassulaceae), has potent medicinal values.the present study deals with pharmacognostic examination of morphological and microscopical characters of Bryophyllum calycinum including leaf constant, ash values, extractive values and phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed that the plant contains alkaloids, glycoside, carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compound, steroids, gums, mucilage and lignins.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000043
Title: Peptic ulcer and its management
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Ulceration of gastro-intestinal mucosa is caused by disruption of normal balance of corrosive effect of gastric acid and the protective effect of mucus on gastric epithelial cells. The major cause of ulcer is increased gastric secretions, which may be further aggravated by factors including NSAIDs, impaired production of somatostatins, Helicobacter pylori infection, by stress and dietary habits. Up to 80-90% of ulcers has been associated with H. pylori infection in the stomach. The parietal cells in the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid regulated by the protein H+/K+-ATPase also called proton pump. Acid secretion is also regulated by hormones such as gastrin, chemicals like acetylcholine and histamine. Acid neutralization was recognized as an effective treatment, however with the understanding of pathogenesis of peptic ulcer, treatment has become more effective. One approach for treating ulcer is to block the proton pump by using proton pump inhibitors like omeprazole, lansoprazole. In another approach, blocking of regulatory molecules that stimulate acid secretion like acetylcholine, histamine and gastrin either with anticholinergics or H2 receptor antagonist such as ranitidine, famotidine is effective. H.pylori infection can be eradicated using amoxycillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole or tetracycline. Combination therapy helps in complete eradication of peptic ulcer; one of the combinations, approved by USFDA is omeprazole with clarithromycin. Gastro retentive dosage forms may prove beneficial as they exhibit a prolonged gastric residence time and act locally and systemically.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000044
Title: Pharmacological evaluation of Solanum surattense leaves for antiulcer activity
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol and aqueous of Solanum surattense Burm .f. (Solanaceae) leaves were screened for antiulcer activity by assessing various parameters like pH, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. All the extracts were given at dose of 100 mg/kg, b.w. Antiulcer effects were compared with standard drug Omeprazole (20 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.). These observations enable us to conclude that the alcohol extract of Solanum surattense leaves showed predominantly significant activity on acid secretory mechanisms in all parameters as compared to other extracts.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-000045
Title: Estimation of Bambuterol in Tablet dosage forms by RP-HPLC
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, precise, rapid and accurate reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Bambuterol in tablet dosage forms. An Inertsil ODS-3CV C18, 250x4.6 mm, coloumn with 5 μm particle size and the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% Trifluoro Acetic acid: Methanol in the ratio of 10:90 v/v was used. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at 220 nm. The retention times were 2.381min for bambuterol. The detector response was linear in the concentration of 17.5-420 mcg/ml. The respective linear regression equation being Y= 26705.167x+67644.9694 for Bambueterol. The limit of detection (LOD) is 0.175mcg and 0.35 mcg and the limit of quantification (LOQ) is 0.525mcg for Bambuterol. The percentage assay of Bambuterol was found to be 99.78%. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision and system suitability. The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine determination of Bambuterol in bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-000042
Title: Synthesis of N-acyl heterocycles using conventional and microwave-assisted dry media technique
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A rapid and efficient synthesis of acyl derivatives of N-heterocycles has been performed via the Schotten Bauman reaction. Reactants impregnated individually, on basic alumina, and exposed to microwave irradiation in the presence of base as a catalyst, wherein not only the reaction times have been brought down from hours to minutes in comparison to conventional heating but also the yields of products were improved. New N-acyl heterocycles have been prepared for the first time by microwave-assisted dry media technique and conventional method.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ORS-000046
Title: Effect of oilfield waste water on Microbiota of a fresh water in Nigeria
Category: Others ( Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Effect of oilfield wastewater to the Microbiota of the fresh river water was investigated. This was conducted by the determination of some physicochemical parameters which included pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chloride, exchangeable cations and heavy metals as to ascertain the concentration of these constituents in the water samples; and the determination of total viable aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count, total coliform count and coliform types. The mean pH values ranged from 7.36 to 9.06, total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 24.00mgL-1 to 7,600.00mgL-1 while chloride values ranged from 30.13mgL-1 to 3,722.25mgL-1. The results obtained showed that with the exception of turbidity, total suspended solids, and sulphate which values were highest in the raw river water, values of all other parameters determined were highest in the oilfield wastewater. The order of decreasing concentration was oilfield waste water > mixture > raw river water. Total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 0.5 x 106 cfuml-1 to 8.2 x 106 cfuml-1 while the coliform population ranged from 0.07 x 106 cfuml-1 to 0.84 x 106 cfuml-1. Generally, there was a reduction in bacterial populations of the river water after the addition of the oilfield wastewater (5% V/V). The species of coliforms isolated belonged to four genera of Enterobacteriaceae which were Citrobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia and Klebsiella. Escherichia coli was the most predominant in each of the water samples with a percentage occurrence of 50% and 36.36% in the raw river water and polluted water respectively; while Citrobacter sp was the least predominant in the raw river water (7.14%). The present investigation has therefore revealed the necessity of oilfield wastewater treatment prior to discharge into the recipient water body.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-000047
Title: Production of a thermostable extracellular protease from thermophilic Bacillus species
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Isolation and identification of thermophilic Bacillus sp was carried out from soil samples of a tannery area. The isolate KCPSS-3, when cultivated in liquid cultures containing trisodium citrate, produced protease. The production reached a maximum in 9 h, with levels of 2.15 U/mg protein. The microorganism utilized several carbon sources for the production of protease. Starch was found to be the best substrate, followed by trisodium citrate, citric acid and sucrose. Among the various organic and inorganic nitrogen sources used, ammonium nitrate was found to be the best. Studies on the effects of temperature and pH on protease production revealed that the Bacillus sp could grow up to 65 0C within a broad pH range of 5-10 with an optimal growth temperature and pH at 60 0C and 8.0, respectively. Thermostability studies revealed that the enzyme was stable for 2 h at 30 0C, while at 40 0C and 80 0C, 14% and 84% of the original activities were lost. Hence, it’s an indication that the enzyme produced is thermostable.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-000048
Title: Evaluation of wound healing activity of Calotropain – P
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study the isolated compound ‘Calotropain – P’ was employed for its wound healing activity. For the assessment of wound healing activity, Swiss Wister stain rats were employed and the various parameters such as excision wounds, incision wounds and dead space wounds were studied. In excision wound model, treatment was continued till the complete healing of the wound, in incision and dead space wound model the treatment was continued for 10 days. For topical application, 5% w/w ointment of ‘Calotropain-P’ was prepared in 2% sodium alginate and in excision and incision wound models. The healing of the wound was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialisation, skin breaking strength, granulation strength and histopathology of the granulation tissue. It was found that the isolated compound Calotropain-P’ possesses significant wound healing activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ORS-000020
Title: Publishing Research Papers in Peer Reviewed Journals: Guidelines to Pharmacists
Category: Others ( Related Science )
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Publishing papers in peer-reviewed journals bring laurels to the pharmacists.

While writing a paper, the author has to think carefully, then collect the subject mater, identify that who will read their paper?, to which journal this paper suits?, what type of paper has to be prepared? and to whom the authorship can be given?.

The sections of research papers are the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusion, acknowledgements, references, tables and figures.

The information written in one section should not appear in another section. It is always better to start writing the method section first, followed by results, discussion, and then introduction, whereas abstract can be written at the last.

It is the bound duty of the authors to take intellectual and ethical responsibility of the paper. To increase the possibility of publication, the author should thoroughly check the manuscript and follow the journal’s “instructions to author” page.

After submitting the paper to the editorial office, it will be sent to the experts for peer reviewing, where reviewer may put several queries before accepting the paper.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000021
Title: Modern biopharmaceutical classification system: a complex classification system to predict pharmacokinetic failures
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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(Letter to Editor )

Dear Editor,
The present letter is focused on the re-classification of Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS), which is adopted by United States Food and Drug Administration   (USFDA)1.  Bioavailability   (BA)   andBioequivalence (BE) studies of drug products not only assure  the  safety  of  drug  products  but  also  assure  the efficacy and allow inter-changeability of drug products, which  is  important  in  cost  reduction  of  drug  therapy. The traditional biopharmaceutical classification system 2 , appeared  in  literature  a  decade  before,  is  effectively implemented by pharmaceutical companies for designing BA/BE studies, in-vitro in-vivo correlation (IVIVC),optimization  of  dissolution  media  and  formulation  research3. BCS is based on the two important rate-determining  steps  in  BA  known  as  drug  solubility  and drugpermeability4.However, few other parameters like dose,dissolution volume and pH were equally considered for classifying the drugs based on BCS2. Even though BCS made a great impact on discovery and development of drugs in pipeline, BCS is mainly focused on bioavailability and IVIVC3.  Moreover,  BCS  serve  as  a  guideline  forformulators in selection of excipients and processes. Onthe other hand, advent of biotechnology, pharmacology,High Through Put (HTP) screening, combinatorial chemistry and drug delivery research encouraged the invention  of  highly  potent  synthetic  drug  substances  as  wellas protein and peptide molecules5. The future molecules mayface  conventional  pharmacokinetic  problems  such  as  poor solubility, poor permeability and shorter half life. In addition to  that  unconventional  problems  like  high  first  pass  effect,low in vitro  and  in vivo stability, (Pgp) mediated efflux transport, lack of sensitivity to analyze the drug in biological matrices and lack of sensitivity to detect the polymorphs in dosage forms  will  appear  in  front  of  pharmaceutical  scientist  while developing a drug and/or dosage forms. It is really very difficult  and  most  of  the  time  not  necessary  to  consider  all  the parameters  to  classify  the  drugs.  Our  Proposed Biopharmaceutical Classification System (PBCS) allows classifying  the  drugs  not  only  based  on  drug  solubility  and  permeability  but  also  considering  drug  stability  in  GIT  and  first pass effect. Highly stable drugs should be 90% stable in GIT for  the  time  required  to  absorb  90%  of  unchanged  drug  in GIT.  First  pass  effect  of  more  than  60  %  is  considered  as high  first  pass  effect  of  drugs.  Proposed  biopharmaceutical classification  system  is  presented  in  Table  No  1.  The  main aim of PBCS is to predict the BA of dosage form from the results obtained from Phase I clinical studies. PBCS will give the  clue  for  formulation  scientist  to  optimize  the  BA  by  the addition of enzyme inhibitors, change in micro environmental pH  and  addition  of  buffers  to  improve  the  BA.  PBCS  will also allow addition of some enzymes in dissolution media that will  give  the  trend  of  first  pass  effect  in  in-vivo conditions.BA/BE studies are conducted in healthy human subjects. The unnecessary  exposure  of  drug  in  healthy  human  volunteers needs ethical justification. Moreover, human trails are costly affairs and time consuming process. The main goal of PBCS is to reduce the human trails for BA/BE studies. If at all effective  in vitro  dissolution technologies are invented in future on the basis of PBCS that will serve as surrogate marker in BA and  BE  of  drug  products.  PBCS  conventionally  be  termed as  Modern  Biopharmaceutical  Classification  System (MBCS).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000022
Title: Designing of pharmaceuticals to improve physicochemical properties by spherical crystallization technique
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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In 1986, Kawashima and their coworkers developed the spherical crystallization technique for size enlargement of the drug in the field of pharmacy. Kawashima defined spherical crystallization as “An agglomeration process that transforms crystals directly into compact spherical forms during the crystallization process.” It also enables co-precipitation of drug and encapsulating polymer in the form of spherical particle. Spherical crystallization is the  novel agglomeration technique that can transform directly the fine crystals produced in the crystallization process into a spherical shape. It is the versatile process that enables to control the type and the size of the crystals. It is the particle engineering technique by which crystallization and agglomeration can be carried out simultaneously in one step to transform crystals directly into compacted spherical form. This technique of particle design of drugs has emerged as one of the areas of active research currently of interest in pharmaceutical manufacturing and recently came into the forefront of interest or gained great attention and importance due to the fact that crystal habit (form, surface, size and particle size distribution) can be modified during the crystallization process. In consequence of such modifications in the crystal habit certain micrometric properties (bulk density, flow property, compactability) and physicochemical properties like solubility, dissolution rate, bioavailability and stability) can also be modified. The process is simple and inexpensive enough for scaling up to a commercial level. It reduces time and cost by
enabling faster operation, less machinery and fewer personnel.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-000023
Title: Role of Leukotriene in Inflammation and Antileukotriene Therapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The leukotrienes arise from oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid through the action of the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme, leading to the unstable allylic epoxide leukotriene A4. This intermediate represents the substrate for two different specific enzymes, namely leukotriene A4-hydrolase and leukotriene C4-synthase, generating LTB4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes, respectively. LTC4 and LTD4 are potent contracting agents of smooth muscle in airways and blood vessels. LTB4 is known as a potent chemokinetic and chemotactic agent. A number of evidences reported in the literature underline the potential role of leukotrienes in the inflammatory responses that characterizes asthma and other pathological conditions. These potent lipid bioeffectors are synthesized during the course of inflammatory reactions and their pharmacological modulation is able to significantly attenuate the clinical manifestations associated with different inflammatory pathologies. Selective leukotriene inhibitors and receptor antagonists are currently under evaluation in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000024
Title: Taste masking in Pharmaceuticals: an update
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. Nevertheless it is that arena of product development that has been overlooked and undermined for its importance. Taste masking technologies offer a great scope for invention and patents. Several approaches like adding flavors and sweeteners, use of lipoproteins for inhibiting bitterness, numbing of taste buds, coating of drug with inert agents, microencapsulation, multiple emulsion, viscosity modifiers, vesicles and liposomes, prodrug formation, salt formation, formation of inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion system and application of ion exchange resins have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review attempts to give a brief account of different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000025
Title: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Caesalpinia sappan
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In spite of many synthetic compounds, the most efficient drugs available have their roots directly or indirectly related with the plant kingdom. Many of the extracts have proven to possess pharmacological action. Caesalpinia sappan, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and immunosuppressive activities. This review highlights some of  the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects.

 

Cite this article as: Chaitali R.Pawar, Amol D.Landge, and Sanjay J.Surana,Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Caesalpinia sappan,Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol.1.Issue 2. Oct-December 2008,131-138.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000026
Title: Design and in vitro evaluation of alginate beads of ambroxol hydrochloride
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Oral slow and sustained release drug delivery system can release their drug content with a controlled manner, producing a desirable blood serum level, reduction in drug toxicity and improving the patient compliance by prolonging dosing intervals. The major drawback of orally administered drug like ambroxol as mucolytic agent in a variety of respiratory disorders has a shorter biological half-life. To overcome these drawbacks, an attempt has been made to develop a sustained release dosage form of ambroxol embedded alginate microbeads prepared by ionotropic gelation technique. The beads were characterized for its particle size, drug content and in vitro release studies. The results revealed that the surface adhering drug was found to release immediately and a steady state of release was obtained up to 12 h from all the batches. The results indicated there was an inverse relationship between the concentration of alginate and drug release. The drug release was found to follow non-fickian diffusion obeying first order kinetics.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-000027
Title: Anti-ulcerogenic evaluation of the ethanolic extract of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) in aspirin ulcerated rats.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim of the study is to evaluate the anti-ulcer efficacy of the Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (IAF), is known to possess various therapeutic properties. The reason for the study is that, the known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are full of side effects especially ulceration which is at the top. Gastric ulceration is a cause of economic loss and a source of welfare concern worldwide. There are 350,000 to 500,000 new cases per year and more than one million ulcer-related hospitalizations each year. We found that IAF decreased the incidence of ulcers and also enhanced the healing of ulcers. Ethanolic extract of IAF at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg was found to be effective by (68.72%) for 200mg/kg and (62.13%) for 400mg/kg in aspirin (ASP) induced ulcer model and significantly reduced free and total acidity; we observed that anti-ulcer effect of IAF may be due to its cytoprotective effect rather than antisecretory activity. Conclusively, IAF was found to possess potent anti-ulcerogenic as well as ulcer-healing properties and could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000028
Title: Formulation of toothpaste from various forms and extracts of tender twigs of neem.
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Since many centuries, Ayurveda regarded neem (Azadirachta indica Family: Meliaceae) as a cure for many ailments, predominantly due to its superb antimicrobial activity. It has been a practice since time immemorial to use tender twigs of neem as dentifrice. Looking as these facts the possibility of developing an authentic dentifrice from neem extract and formulations were formulated and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and some formulations were found to have significant antimicrobial activity. For the present work the tender stems of neem were specifically chosen so that most specific results could be obtained especially when neem powder is selected for developing dentifrices. In addition to the antimicrobial activity it was thought that the small fibers in the powder may act as abrasive thereby potentiating the activity of the dentifrice. The scope of the present work is limited to testing the antibacterial activity of neem extract and neem powder in a tooth paste form.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-000029
Title: Use of Mirabilis jalapa L flower extract as a natural indicator in acid base titration
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Mirabilis jalapa L commonly known as four o’clock flower is belonging to family Nyctaginaceae. The present work highlights the use of Mirabilis jalapa L flower extract as an acid base indicator in different types of acid base titrations. The equivalence points obtained by the flower extract coincide with the equivalence points obtained by standard indicators. In case of weak acid and weak base titration, the results obtained by the flower extract matched with the results obtained by mixed indicator. This natural indicator is found to be a very useful, economical, simple and accurate for the said titration.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000030
Title: Formulation and in vitro evaluation of niosome encapsulated acyclovir
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Acyclovir entrapped niosomes were prepared by hand shaking and ether injection process with different ratios of (1:1, 1;2 and 1:3) cholesterol (CHOL) and Span-80 (Non-ionic surfactant).The niosomes prepared were in the size range of 0.5- 5 microns in the case of hand shaking process and 0.5-2.5 microns in the case of Ether injection process. The order of encapsulation efficiency increases when span-80 concentration was increased. In-vitro release study on acyclovir niosomes indicates 76.64% release for formulation prepared with CHOL: Span-80 (1:1) and it takes an extended period of 1 day and 16 h for release.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000031
Title: Reparation of solid dispersions of NSAIDS and its mechanism of drug polymers interaction
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This work studied the mechanisms of interaction between Eudragit RSPO and RLPO polymers with 3 Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs: Diflunisal (DIF), Flurbiprofen (FLU) and Piroxicam (PIR). Solid dispersions of Polymers and drugs at different weight ratios were prepared by coevaporation method. The resulting coevaporates were characterized in the solid state (Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) IR, Differential scanning calorimetry, Powder-x-ray diffractometry) as well as by studying the in vitro drug release in a gastroenteric environment. The preparative conditions did not induce changes in the crystalline state of the drugs (Amorphization or polymorphic change). RLPO & RSPO coevaporate usually displayed higher dissolution rates. However, the kinetic evaluation of the dissolution profile suggested that both the drug solubility in the external medium and its diffusion capacity within the polymer network are involved. In the sorption experiments, RLPO showed a greater adsorptive capacity than RSPO, in relation to the greater number of quaternary ammonium functions, which behave as activity sites for the electrostatic interactions. In the presence of Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4), drug adsorption was reduced, as a consequence of the competition of the chloride ions with drug anions for the polymer binding sites. DIF and FLU displayed a similar interaction with RSPO and RLPO active sites. PIR’s was different .The different molecular structures of these agents can justify such things. The presence of a carboxyl group (instead of another dissociable acidic moiety, like the hydroxy-enolic one in the PIR molecule) could help explain the strong interaction with RSPO and RLPO polymers’ quaternary ammonium centers. Preliminary studies like ours are important in helping develop better forecasting and increasing the understanding of the incorporation/release behavior of drugs from particulate delivery systems that can be made from these polymers.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000033
Title: Method development and its validation for simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin and amlodipine in combination in tablet dosage form by UV spectroscopy, using multi-component mode of analysis
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Atorvastatin Calcium and Amlodipine Besilate in combination are available as tablet dosage forms in the ratio of 2:1. A simple, reproducible and efficient method for the simultaneous determination of Atorvastatin Calcium and Amlodipine Besilate in tablet dosage form has been developed. The developed method is based on the simultaneous estimation by UV Spectroscopy, using multi-component mode of analysis. 50%v/v aqueous methanol was used as blank. The validation studies were performed according to ICH guidelines.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000034
Title: Development and validation of a stability indicating UV spectrophotometric method for the estimation of losartan potassium in bulk and tablet dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, sensitive and reproducible stability indicating UV Spectrophotometric method has been developed for quantitative determination of Losartan Potassium in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The UV- spectrum was scanned between 220 to 400 nm and 227.4 nm was selected as maximum wavelength for absorption. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 2.02-22.22 mg/ml. Good accuracy (98.11-99.85%), precision (RSD 0.303-0.334) and selectivity (= 0.5%) were found, and the method was successfully applied to the pharmaceutical dosage form containing the above-mentioned drug without any interference by the excipients. The method was fast and economical and it was also selective and sensitive for the desirable range. Results of the analysis were validated as per ICH guidelines and by recovery studies. Stability testing study includes the effect of temperature, oxidation, photolysis and susceptibility to hydrolysis across a wide range of pH values.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000035
Title: Formulation and evaluation of buccoadhesive tablets of Atenolol
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the study was to prepare and characterize buccoadhesive tablets of atenolol using different mucoadhesive polymers such as carbopol 934P, sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M in combination. The bilayered buccoadhesive tablets were prepared by direct compression technology. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters such as hardness, thickness uniformity, weight variation, surface pH and swelling studies. Also prepared tablets were evaluated for bioadhesive strength and in vitro drug release. In vitro bioadhesive strength studies showed that formulations containing combination of carbopol 934P and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were more bioadhesive than sodium alginate. In vitro dissolution studies revealed that all the formulations exhibited non-fickian release kinetics. The optimized formulations F4 and F10 showed 90% release in 8 hr in vitro dissolution studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000032
Title: A Study On The Effect Of Marigold Flower Dye With Natural Mordant On Selected Fibers
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In present study Marigold (Tagetes erecta) petals were used for the extraction of the natural dye material. Aloe vera juice was selected as natural mordant to standardize the dyeing effect of Mari gold dye on natural and synthetic fibers. Natural dye was formulated with Marigold dye and natural mordant Aloe vera juice in the ratio 2:10, 5:10 and 10:10 and the effect was compared with synthetic mordant namely copper sulphate, lead acetate and potassium dichromate with Mari gold dye in the ratio 10:1. Natural dye with Aloe vera juice in the ratio 10:10 shows a good dyeing effect on the animal fibers when compared to plant or synthetic fibers. The natural dye with Aloe vera juice in the ratio 10:10 was subjected to skin irritation study and the result showed no skin irritation, erythema or edema.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-000038
Title: Eugenol Derivatives as Future Potential Drugs
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Eugenol, a phytochemical , is a pale yellow oil which is isolated from essential oil of Ocimum sanctum Rama. Eugenol has wide medicinal applications. It affects central nervous system and cardiovascular system. It is used in dentistry and as an analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial, anti septic, antidepressant agent. Its analogues also show many biological activities which prompted us to synthesize new analogues for their future application as bioactive molecules.