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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001853
Title: Participation of neuropeptide Y1 receptors in heart development regulation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), containing 36 amino acid residues, belongs to the number of peptides widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system. NPY is released at high‑frequency stimulation. The level of this peptide increases with circular shock, chronic stress, and heavy physical exercises. NPY and its receptors play a diverse role in the body. Material and Methods: The contractile activity of the myocardium in the experiment was studied on isolated strips of white  7‑,  21‑,  and  100‑day‑old  rat myocardium. All  experiments were  carried  out  according  to  the  requirements  of  the World Society for the Protection of Animals and the European Convention for the Protection of Experimental Animals. The determination of myocardial contractile function reaction by Leu(31)Pro(34)NPY was carried out in three consecutively increasing concentrations on the “PowerLab” (“ADInstruments”) unit with “MLT 050/D” force sensor (“ADInstruments”). Result and Discussion: Currently, six types of receptors for NPY (NPY1‑6) have been found. Rat hearts have metabotropic NPY1, NPY2, NPY3, NPY4, and NPY5 receptors. The effect of NPY on the organs of a body is realized through post‑synaptic receptors Y1, Y3, Y4, and Y5, and pre‑synaptic receptors of Y2 type. They studied the effect of NPY receptor agonist on the myocardial contractility 7–100‑day‑old  rats. During  the analysis of myocardium strips  isometric contraction among adult rats, it was established that an agonist at the concentration of 10−7 M causes a positive inotropic effect. Among 21‑day‑old rats,  the  increase  in myocardial contractility  is observed at  the concentration of 10−6 M. Conclusion: Among 7‑day‑old animals, the addition of Leu(31) Pro(34)‑NPY does not cause significant changes in isometric contraction rates. The obtained results indicate the functional activity of NPY1 receptors in the heart of 21‑ and 100‑day‑old rats.
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001846
Title: Peculiarities of heartbeat rate and stroke volume of blood “negative phase” manifestation among young sportsmen after muscular load
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: They studied the features of changes in heartbeat rate (HBR) and stroke volume of blood (SVB) of young athletes during the recovery period after the performance of the standard muscular load. Materials and Methods: To study the peculiarities of changes in HBR and stroke volume of blood (SVB) during the recovery period after a standard muscular load, we examined the athletes engaged in specialized sports schools and specialized in swimming, skiing, gymnastics, and ice hockey. To determine the reaction of the cardiovascular system of athletes to the functional test, the Harvard step test was used. Result and Discussion: At the same time, there was a short-term decrease in HBR and SVB below the initial values, i.e., the “negative phase” of heart rate and SVB. The decrease in HBR and SVB below the initial values in the recovery process after the performance of a low-capacity muscular load among young athletes is manifested itself most often during the stages of initial and special training. During these two stages of long-term sports training, among young athletes that the rates of heartbeat reduction were more pronounced. Conclusion: The “negative phase” of HBR is manifested to a greater extent at the period when the development of fitness bradycardia occurs at a significant rate. With the established bradycardia of training among young athletes, the “negative phase” of pulse is rare, and sometimes, it is completely absent.
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001847
Title: Age peculiarities of the blockade of α2 -adrenoceptors in the formation of the heart sympathetic innervations
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: α2-adrenoreceptors (ARs) in the heart of mammals modulate various regulatory effects. Located on the presynaptic membrane, α2-ARs regulate the release of noradrenaline and epinephrine from the nerve terminals. Wide expression of this type of ARs in various tissues and organs mediates various physiological and pharmacological effects in the cardiovascular system. α2-AR subtypes have been identified in the human myocardium based on pharmacological analysis and molecular cloning. Material and Methods: However, there are insufficient data on the study of the influence of this AR subtype in the cardiac regulation. The study involved a series of experiments with a α2-AR blockade by a specific blocker yohimbine. The experiments were performed on the striae of the myocardium of the right atrium and ventricles of rats of 3, 6, and 20 weeks of age. Results: The results obtained indicate that the α2-AR specific blockade reduces the contractile force of the atrial and ventricular myocardium striae of rats of 20 weeks of age. The 3-week-old rats had a reduced contractile force in the atria and a steady contractile force in the ventricles. In 6-week-old rats, the contractile force in the atria did not change but decreased in the ventricles. Conclusion: It is possible that during the formation of the sympathetic cardiac innervation, α2
-ARs regulate the contractile function of the heart muscle only in some of its departments.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001848
Title: The use of modern ultrasound methods in the diagnosis of cardiovascular system
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: According to the World Health Organization, the diseases of cardiovascular system (CVS) are the main cause of death worldwide, for the past 15 years. In this regard, the importance of precision diagnosis of this type of diseases has significantly increased. Material and Method: Noninvasiveness, simplicity, reliability, and informativeness are the main features of modern methods of CVS diagnosing. Ultrasonic methods of diagnosis are of particular interest. They are currently preferred in many cases, due to the compliance with the above principles. One of the most important properties of ultrasound is the  Doppler effect, using which it is possible to obtain values of cardiovascular activity in real time, with each heartbeat (beat-to-beat). Result and Discussion: Such investigations are especially important for the people with disabilities. When measuring the parameters of CVS, using an ultrasound cardiac output (CO) monitor, deviations from the norm and the parameters of the control group were found in young people with disabilities. We have analyzed a number of different parameters such as blood pressure, stroke volume, CO, cardiac index, and vascular resistance. The dynamics of changes in these indicators, their nature, require a more thorough study, aimed to determine the factors of their occurrence. Conclusion: The given researchers can be used for functional diagnostics in sports medicine, during medical examinations of students and sportsmen  (professionals, amateurs, and participants of Paralympic games).
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001849
Title: Assessment of adolescents’ exposure to non-carcinogenic risk associated with drinking water
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The level of the total hazard index (HI) at combined oral intake of chemical compounds and elements with drinking water in the separate zones of Kazan indicates the high and average risk for adolescents residing in zones 1 and 4, respectively, and low risk for adolescents of zones 2 and 3, and poses a hazard to health. The permissible level is exceeded only for oil products in zone 1  (4.1) and zone 4  (1.04), as well as  for nitrates  (1.13). Material and Method: Assessment of non-carcinogenic risk was carried out for adolescents aged 12-16 years living in 4 districts (1 - Vakhitovsky, 2 - Sovetsky, 3 - Kirovsky, and 4 - Privolzhsky), city of Kazan, which allowed to minimize uncertainties associated with specific regional parameters in the evaluation of exposure. Result and Discussion: Based on the results of the analysis, the main critical organs and systems were identified in all zones: Blood, central nervous system, kidneys, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, bone system, and teeth. Particular attention should be paid to the indicators of the total HI in zones 1 and 4. They 1.6-3.5 times exceed the levels in other investigated areas. The main contribution to the level of risk is made by the following elements: Petroleum products (29.7-54.0%), nitrates (by NO3), chloroform, and fluorides. Conclusion: The greatest hazard to the adolescents in the studied zones of the city of Kazan is the constant presence and intake of chemicals with drinking water. A combined long-term exposure, even within the limits established by hygienic regulations, creates the danger of chemical load on the body and is a risk factor for the health of the adolescents in the city of Kazan.
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-BGSA-00001850
Title: Epistatic interactions in formation of hysteromyoma
Category: Bioinformatics (Genome & Sequence Analysis )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The article highlights the bioinformatics analysis data of eight polymorphous loci among 569 patients with hysteromyoma and 981 women from the control group. Material and Methods: Investigation of associations of polymorphic markers genes under study was pursued at sampling of 1214 cases, among them, 227 are with hysteromyoma, and 987 persons of the control group. Results: It was found that the increased risk of hysteromyoma in women of Russia Central region is connected with the combination of the following molecular genetic markers: C rs4633 with C rs2288696 with 1398217 with G rs3756261 with G  rs1079866  and T  rs10441737  (odds  ratio  [OR] =  2.28),  and  the  protective  effect  has  the  combination  of  alleles T  rs466639 with C  rs1398217 and A  rs11031010  (OR = 0.32). Conclusion: Thus, in the process of the research, it was found that the risk of hysteromyoma in women of the Central Black Soil Region of the Russian Federation, is raised by the combination of the molecular.
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-Tox-00001854
Title: Effect of abiotic stressors on T-2-producing environmental isolates of Fusarium sporotrichioides
Category: Toxicology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: External factors have a diverse effect on the growth and development of fungi, as well as on their toxin formation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature and humidity on the toxin formation of Fusarium sporotrichioides isolates from different climatic geographic regions of Africa and Eurasia. Materials and Method: The T-2 toxin was identified using RIDASCREEN T-2 ELISA test system. A total of 26 isolates were identified using mycological methods.  It was  established  that  2  isolates from Mari El  (Central Russia),  3  from Kazakhstan,  and  4  from Zambia  are producers of T-2 mycotoxin. Result and Discussion: Abiotic factors affect the growth of fungi but depending on the region of origin of the fungal isolate, and there was a variation in optimal temperature conditions. For isolates from samples obtained from Kazakhstan and Mari El,  the optimum  temperature was 25°C, and from Zambia,  it was 30-35°C. It was established 
that the temperature difference may be the provoking factor of the intensification of toxin formation. Conclusion: During mycological monitoring studies, it is necessary to take into account the climatogeographic features of the region that affect the growth and development of microscopic fungi and the processes of toxin formation, and the stressors can have a provoking effect on the formation of mycotoxins by fungi of the genus Fusarium. 
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-B&NPS-00001855
Title: Leaf pests of green plantations in the center of Kazan
Category: Botany/ Herbal/ Natural Pharmacological Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Urban plantations are unique ecosystems, often poorly adapted to the adverse environmental and anthropogenic effects. The influence of a set of negative factors can lead to a tree and shrubby plants weakening, as a result of which they are attacked by pests, lose their decorative qualities, and may even die. This paper deals with the study of five different categories of green plantations of the center of Kazan: Natural plantations - intra-urban recreational forests, and artificial plantations - parks, gardens, squares, interquarter, and sidewalk plantations. Materials and Method: Route research methods were used for the recording of plant pests. The number of model trees was from 20 to 30 units. 500 leaves were examined on each tree in different parts of the crown. Leaf damage was assessed on a 5-point scale: (1) Points - traces of damage, up to 5% of the leaves eaten out, (2) points - slight damage, 5-25% of the leaves eaten out, (3) points - average damage, 25-50% of the leaves eaten out, (4) points - severe damage, 50-75% of the leaves eaten out, and (5) points - complete damage, 75-100% of the leaves eaten out. Result and Discussion: Three main groups of leaf pests were identified: Aphids, miners and gall producers, and leaf-eating pests. The distribution of these groups is shown for the main tree species and categories of green plantations in the center of Kazan. The greatest damage occurs in sidewalk tree and shrubby plants, the minimum - in the trees of the intra-urban recreational forests. Conclusion: The results of the studies allow arguing that the conditions of the urban environment affect the species diversity of leaf pests.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-HT-00001856
Title: The analysis of neurohormonal changes in elderly patients with chronic heart failure
Category: Hospital Therapy
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present research work designed to study the state of neurohumoral regulation of the cardiovascular system by the content of HA, aldosterone (A), and NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), depending on the intensity of myocardial systolic dysfunction in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), due to postinfarction cardiosclerosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 elderly patients, aged from 60 to 74 years (average age 66.6 ± 7.8 years), were examined. The systolic function of the left ventricle was determined by the size of the ejection fraction (EF). The decrease  in EF <40% was found in 48 patients (43.5%), 40-50% in 37 patients (33.5%), and above 50% in 25 patients (23%). CHF of systolic type was determined in 43.5% of patients and CHF of diastolic type in 56.5% of patients. NA, A, and NT-proBNP were determined in plasma of peripheral venous blood. Results of the study: The content of NA and A was increased in all groups of patients with CHF. The blood content of NT-proBNP increased with the appearance of systolic CHF and progressed with increasing of CHF severity. The level of NT-proBNP can be a diagnostic test of a low EF. Conclusion: It is shown that NT-proBNP activation leads to positive effects in the form of vasodilation, natriuresis, suppression of the activity of sympathoadrenal and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, and the action of growth factors. From this point of view, the level of circulating hormones is an important aspect for the diagnostic and therapeutic effects in patients with CHF.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001857
Title: Formation of students’ socially and professionally significant personal qualities in the process of their physical culture and sports activities
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: In the process of professional training, i.e., while studying at the university, a student should acquire a range of knowledge and skills, without which his/her further activity in the chosen profession is impossible, and in addition, some socially and professionally important personal qualities and abilities that contribute to the maturity of the graduate must be formed. They include an ability to manage new social roles, make quick decisions and take responsibility for them, the skills of effective interaction with colleagues on the basis of generally accepted norms and rules, readiness for lifelong self-education, and the awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle for a successful self-realization in the society and profession. Materials and Method: The research methods were as follows: Questionnaire survey, pedagogical observation, analysis of scientific literature, and statistical methods of experimental data processing. Result and Discussion: The article
contains a characteristic of sports activity as one of the most effective factors contributing to students’ social adaptation to learning conditions in a university and developing socially and professionally significant personal qualities in future specialists and the ability to operate efficiently and effectively in a continuously changing social environment and public production. Conclusion: The need to improve the sports activity of students on the basis of optimization of educational process is emphasized which is possible using the most effective methods and forms of classes, the expansion of the applied means of physical training for the purpose of formatting a person with the required qualities.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-HT-00001858
Title: Prediction of frailty impact on the results of treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome
Category: Hospital Therapy
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Study Materials and Methods: The research was a retrospective, current, and prospective study of the registers of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) within the framework of the international project “GIRAFFE - Gerontological Research International Against Frailty: Fit Experience” for 2011-2115 years. A total of 1635 patients were examined: 1002 patients of middle age and 633 patients of the elderly and senile age. Frailty was diagnosed in 368 patients of the elderly and senile age. All patients were divided into groups: Patients with ACS with ST-segment elevation (961 patients) and patients with ACS without ST-segment elevation (674 patients), and groups of patients of older age groups were divided into subgroups depending on the presence or absence of frailty (senile asthenia). The choice of patient care strategy was based on risk stratification scales in accordance with the European and national recommendations used in centers, management protocols, including organizational capabilities. The effect of frailty on the outcomes of each strategy was analyzed. Study Results: In patients with ACS with ST-segment elevation, as well as in patients with ACS without ST-segment elevation receiving conservative therapy, the risk of adverse cardiac events is higher than in patients undergoing invasive therapy. When joining frailty syndrome, the development of adverse cardiac events increases significantly. The excess of the average intrahospital lethality was observed only in the elderly and senile patients with frailty and to a greater extent in those who received conservative therapy. The number of deaths during the year in patients with ACS with ST-segment elevation is higher than in the group with ACS without ST-segment elevation. Patients of older age groups in groups with frailty having ACS with ST-segment elevation and without ST-segment elevation had significantly more frequent complications by the military acute concussion evaluation scale and had significantly more deaths compared to elderly and senile patients without frailty.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001859
Title: Milking incentives role in secretion of cows’ milk
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The possibility of an intensification of milk secretion for cows during the first hours after milking under the influence of the milking irritations exceeding threshold limits of nervous impulses sensitivity that can stimulate additional emission in the blood of the hormones strengthening metabolism and milk secretion process in an animal organism is established. Materials and Method: Considering that all this is connected generally with the level of incentives of milking, in experiences we used methods of strain gauging of forces operating on sites of a nipple of an udder from the basis (I) to its top (IV) at various ways of extraction of milk, representing them the main irritants of mechanoreceptors of a nipple. Result and Discussion: Discovery of this regularity allows offering a scientific explanation to the various efficiency of milking cows manually and by milking machines. It opens the new scientific direction in improvement and development of the milking equipment which extraction of milk has to be carried out on the principle of expression with intensive massage of nipples and an udder. Conclusion: All this allows to define the main ways of purposeful management of lactation function of an animal, since increasing the milk yield, we come to increase in the intensity of incentives of milking, justification of ways and frequency rate of milking, development of the automatic milking system of animals with an intensification of milking irritations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-B&NPS-00001860
Title: Morphological features and economic value of buckwheat varieties with physiological determination of growth
Category: Botany/ Herbal/ Natural Pharmacological Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: One of the successful directions of buckwheat breeding in Russia is the creation of varieties with physiological determination of growth. Such varieties have a set of valuable attributes and properties: Earliness of ripening, simultaneity of flowering and ripening, macrocarpousness, resistance to lodging, and shedding. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the morphological features and economic value of new buckwheat varieties with physiological determination of growth. Materials and Method: Varieties, significantly exceeding the regionalized standard for the sugar content of nectar, have been identified. Significant influence on this indicator was provided by the time of buckwheat sowing and vegetation conditions of different years. The sugar content of nectar in all studied breeds varied in the same manner, in response to growing conditions changes. Result and Discussion: Varieties with the high net productivity of photosynthesis in the second half of generative period, as well as varieties of buckwheat with more simultaneous flowering, were distinguished. The net productivity of photosynthesis was higher in conditions of spaced planting. New studied varieties differed from the standard by the stunting and weak degree of stem
branching. Relatively high seed productivity, economic coefficient, ear grain content, and weight of 1000 grains are specific for grade K-890 created on the basis of morphotype TVS. Low values of seed productivity were found in varieties, representing morphotype Kudryavyi-VBS. Conclusion: Herewith, these varieties showed high values of indirect parameters of lodging resistance. The results, obtained during the research, can be used in selection and seed production of buckwheat.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-B&NPS-00001861
Title: The analysis of morphofunctional characteristics of 7-year- old boys, living in different environmental conditions
Category: Botany/ Herbal/ Natural Pharmacological Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The problem of anthropogenic impact on the environment is the most urgent topic of the research, as it directly affects the health and living conditions of the population. It is known, that children have a special sensitivity to the influence of unfavorable environmental factors. Growing organism is characterized by high reactivity to the external influences, and the degree of its adaptive capacity depends on the age-gender characteristics and other factors. Therefore, the urgency of studying the physiological systems, ensuring the adaptation of the organism to the environment, is quite obvious. Materials and Method: Based on this, a comprehensive study of the cardiovascular system functions, external respiration parameters, physical development of 7-year-old boys, attending secondary school (the first form), living in different environmental conditions, was carried out. In the study, the following methods were used: The method of directional contingent selection, physiological methods, and statistical methods. Result and Discussion: Based on the results of the study, the morphofunctional parameters of the studied group of children, depending on the environmental living conditions, were compared and analyzed. Conclusion: In the process of the study, it was found, that environmental pollution is one of the causal factors of declining physical development and adaptability of individual systems (cardiovascular, external respiration system) in the study group of 7-year-old children, living in different environmental conditions.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-MAP-00001862
Title: Conventions on biological diversity: Content and implementation
Category: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This article examines the international legal frameworks of the biological diversity agreement. We analyzed the course of the agreement implementation on the basis of studying the indicators of recent years. We revealed and substantiated the most important substantive aspects of the agreement relevant in the current conditions. We studied the mechanisms and indicators for the implementation of the biological diversity agreement. The purpose of this article is to describe the progress in the implementation of the main objectives of the convention on biological diversity, conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its components, and fair and equitable receipt of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. The article gives a description of the main measures adopted in the national legislation for the implementation of these goals. We singled out separately the problem of implementing the goal of ensuring equal access to the genetic resources and an equitable distribution of the benefits derived from them. Based on the research conducted, the author has concluded that such agreements play an important role in the implementation of the modern concept of environment since the analyzed statistics clearly indicate the formation of positive trends on the issue of ecosystem cooperation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-B&NPS-00001863
Title: The role of toponymic objects in the system of settlement and reconstruction of landscapes in the Pre-Volga Region of the Republic of Tatarstan
Category: Botany/ Herbal/ Natural Pharmacological Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Work on the study of geographical names (toponyms) which include natural and anthropogenic objects is relevant to the present. Toponymy is a relatively young science that studies geographical names, their origin, patterns and conditions of formation, semantic content, grammatical form, pronunciation, and transmission from one language to another. Toponymy stands at the intersection of such sciences as geography, history, architecture, linguistics, etc. With the help of toponyms, it is possible to trace the history of the development of the territory, to understand what alien and indigenous people inhabited a region, and also to reveal the landscape features of the studied area. Materials and Method: A total of 882 toponyms in the territory of Pre-Volga Region of the Republic of Tatarstan which included the names of settlements (553), natural sites such as rivers, lakes, springs (158), terrain forms, geology, and flora and fauna (171) have been studied in this work. The
formation of geographical names in this territory is associated with the history of its settlement, ethnographic features, and the diversity of natural conditions. Result and Discussion: Studies have shown to us that the old names of geographical objects were either completely replaced by Russian names, or moved into a group of mixed ones. The toponyms of natural objects initially closely associated with the components of nature, nowadays, continue to bear the names of pre-existing flora, fauna, or water objects on anthropogenically changed territories. Conclusion: The information obtained in the course of work on the toponyms of the Pre-Volga Region of the Republic of Tatarstan is of great importance for paleogeographers and historians and can be widely used in ecology and geography and local lore studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001864
Title: The role of If and ICa,L in α-adrenergic regulation of rats cardiac activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: A heart has a very effective receptor system that interacts with mediators and activates intracellular signaling systems. Adrenoreceptors (AR) are common receptors in a man’s body. They are distinguished by a variety of functional responses arising from their activation. The currents activated by hyperpolarization (If) and the potential-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels (ICa,L) play an important role in a heart rhythm development. However, their change in ontogenesis can lead to the changes in the work of cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of α-AR regulation on the chronotropic function of adult rat hearts. Materials and Method: A series of in vivo experiments was performed on the study of adult rat heart chronotropic function. The right femoral vein was administered with phenylephrine - a non-selective α-AR agonist at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg, ZD 7288 - the preparation blocking If at the dose of 0.07 mg/kg, and verapamil - the blocker of ICa,L at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg. Result and Discussion: The results indicate that the non-selective α-AR phenylephrine agonist causes a significant decrease in the cardiac activity of rats. Phenylephrine against the background of If ZD-7288 blocker causes a significant two-phase decrease in the heart rate. Conclusion: The introduction of phenylephrine against the background of ICa,L verapamil blocker action causes a significant decrease in the cardiac activity of rats.
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001865
Title: The effect of α1 -adrenergic receptor subtypes blockade on the rat myocardium inotropy
Category: Medicine and Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: It is believed that catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) more activate β1-adrenergic receptor (AR), β2-AR, and α1-AR. Although the density of α1-AR compared to β-AR is lower, they play an important role in the regulation of heart function. Materials and Method: The literature presents various data on the role of α1-AR in the regulation of blood circulation. Different authors, with the activation of α1-AR, obtained both positive and negative inotropic effects on the heart. The effect of blockade of α1-AR subtypes on the cardiac chronotropy in rats of different ages is shown in vivo. In connection with the lack of selective agonists α1B-and α1D-AR, researchers increasingly use blockers of these receptor subtypes. In the literature, there are no convincing descriptions of the effects of blockers of α1-AR on the inotropic function of myocardium in rats. In connection with this, we studied the effect of blockade of different α1-AR subtypes on the contractility of isolated strias of the myocardium atrium and ventricles of adult rats. Result and Discussion: The results of this study showed that all subtypes of α1-AR are involved in the regulation of myocardial contractility at both the auricles and ventricles in rats. The blocker α1A-AR WB4101 reduces the contractility of the atrial myocardium but leads to multidirectional ventricular contractility effects depending on the concentration. Conclusion: Summing up the studies of the effect of selective blockade of different α1-AR subtypes, it can be concluded that all subtypes of α1-AR are involved in the regulation of myocardial contractility of both the atria and ventricles of rats. The blockade of α1B-and α1D-AR has only a negative inotropic effect on the myocardium of the atria and ventricles.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001868
Title: Preliminary study of ethanolic extract of pogun tano (Picria fel-terrae lour.) leaves on β2 -adrenoceptors, histamine1 receptors and muscarinic3 acetylcholine receptors on isolated guinea-pig tr
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Picria fel-terrae Lour. leaves on the β2-adrenoceptors, histamine1 and muscarinic3 acetylcholine (M3-Ach) receptors in isolated guinea pig tracheal. Materials and Methods: Tracheal was incubated with the extracts before administration of the cumulative concentrations of β2-adrenoceptor and histamine1 receptor agonist. Relaxation evaluation of extracts on M3-ACh receptors was performed by administration of the extract concentrations series (0.5-4 mg/ml) on acetylcholine-induced contraction. Results: The results showed that the leftward shifts in isoprenaline curves were obtained in the presence of 2 mg/ml of the extract compared with isoprenaline alone. The effective concentration of isoprenaline causing 50% of maximum response half maximal effective concentration (EC50) obtained in the presence of 2 mg/ml of the extract was 2.26 × 10−7M compared with isoprenaline alone (5.91 × 10−7M). A rightward shift in histamine curve obtained in the presence of the extract was shown on the histamine1 receptor. The EC50of histamine obtained in the presence of both concentrations of the extract (6.1 × 10−6 M and 6.0 × 10−6M) were significantly higher than histamine alone (3.7 × 10−7M). The extract also produced relaxation effect on M3-ACh receptor, and it was prostaglandin-dependent relaxation. Conclusion: The ethanolic extracts of Picria fel-terrae leaves possesses stimulatory effect on β2-adrenoceptors, inhibitory effect on histamine1and relaxation effect on M3-ACh receptors that depended on prostaglandin.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001869
Title: Peculiarities of runners adaptation to the conditions of middle altitude
Category: Medicine and Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim:  Parameters of heart pump function of the track athletes, specializing in short, long, and super long distances running, in the process of training and adaptation to the middle altitude conditions, have been studied in the research. Materials and Method: The HR and the SV in track athletes were measured with the help of device for computer analysis РПКА2–01, intended for work in the hardware-firmware complexes of medical purpose. The tetrapolar thoracic rheography method was used for determining the SV. Result and Discussion: It was revealed that, during the 6 weeks of muscle training in  the middle altitude conditions, all  the groups of examined  track athletes had a  reliable  increase  in heart  rate  (HR),  in comparison with baseline data. At the same time, the most pronounced increase in the HR, in the process of muscle training in middle altitude conditions, occurred in sprinters, and the least changes in the HR were revealed in long-distance runners and marathon runners. It was established that the parameters of the stroke volume in all groups of track athletes, in the process of muscle training in middle altitude conditions, were reduced. Conclusion: The most positive adaptation to training in the middle altitude conditions, at the end of training camp, was observed only in long-distance runners and marathon runners.
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001870
Title: Social integration factors of the population living in a rural environment
Category: Medicine and Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The article presents the results of the analysis of social integration factors of the population living in four rural districts of Belgorod region (the Russian Federation). Materials and Method: The sociological research had two stages and was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methods. On the first stage, there was a survey (n = 715) of people living in rural environment aged 18-70 regarding the specific features of their social integration process. On the second stage, there was an expert survey (n = 23), included theorists from higher education establishments, representatives of local authorities managing regional social policy as well as practitioners working in government social services and NGOs. Result and Discussion: Te present study results could indicate the main factors, influencing the effectiveness of social integration of the population living in rural settings: (1) Following traditions and an active participation in rural community’s life, (2) the development of infrastructure in the place of residence as well as the transportation accessibility, (3) the type of economy, (4) the type of settlement (small town and village), and (5) the level of trust in local authorities as well as the assessment of local social services’ activities. Conclusion: The results of the study allowed us to state that the current processes of social integration of the population living in rural areas, on the one hand, are due to the consequences of urbanization as a world trend and, on the other hand, it is due to the influence of a new, reverse process of de-urbanization.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001871
Title: Enhancing the level of endurance of sprint skiers via the rational weight-lifting exercises
Category: Medicine and Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Rationally planned power training of sprint skiers in the preparatory period makes it possible to improve both aerobic and anaerobic abilities of the athlete’s muscles, which has a significant impact on the level of sporting achievements in ski races in general. Material and Method: The study involved 15-16-year-old skiers: 10 boys of the experimental group (EG) and 10 boys of  the control group  (CG). The experiment  lasted during  the preparatory period  for 12 weeks  from  June  to August 2016. The CG was training in accordance with the work program of the children and youth sports school and without the rationalization of strength exercises. The EG was also training in accordance with the program of the children and youth sports school, but with the addition of an improved method of power training with the rationalization of dynamic and static-dynamic exercises. Result and Discussion: During the first half of the week, the racers of the EG performed a dynamic load with a bar with 70-80% of the maximum, and in the second half - static-dynamic exercises with a bar with 30-50% of the maximum. The following physical fitness tests were used in the study: 3,000 mrun; 400 mrun; bench press 30 kg; lying barbell rows 30 kg; barbell squats 35 kg; exercises on Master-ski “cart” simulator for 1 min; 500 m roller ski run; 3,000 m roller ski run. To determine the power of the aerobic and anaerobic threshold, the maximum alactic power was tested on Kettler E3 bicycle ergometer with a stepwise load increase. Conclusion: The tests performed on the bicycle ergometer after the experiment showed the highest and most reliable growth in the parameters of maximum, explosive and aerobic muscle strength of both the upper shoulder girdle and the leg muscles of the EG of the sprint skiers.