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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001907
Title: Relevance of gonial angle as a determinant for freeway space in edentulous patients in South Indian population
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The amount of freeway space (FWS) in any individual is mainly an expression of muscle function, its equilibrium and gravity. Studies done on the relationship with the form of the lower face found a negative correlation of FWS with the anterior lower facial height and positive with the posterior lower facial height. Hence, correlation of the FWS and corresponding soft tissue gonial angle formed on the lateral profile of dentulous individuals in lateral cephalograms was carried out. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the correlation of FWS and corresponding gonial angle on the lateral profile of dentulous individuals in lateral cephalograms. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 individuals were involved in this study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The FWS was determined using swallowing and phonetics to determine the rest position of the mandible. The mean value was calculated and considered as the FWS for that individual. Gonial angle was determined using a lateral cephalogram taken from a centralized cephalostat at Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. The lateral cephalograms were calibrated and traced using FACAD (FACAD is a software program used for orthodontic tracing, cephalometric analysis, and visual diagnostic imaging, as well as for treatment planning with soft tissue profile prediction) software. Results: Gonial angle ranged from 103° to 140° with an average of 128.90°. FWS had an average of 4.7 mm. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson correlation showed that there is a strong positive correlation. Conclusion: This study indicated that there is a strong correlation between gonial angle and FWS. To extend the benefits to patients and dental practitioners, further studies should be undertaken to assess existing complete denture patients radiographically.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001895
Title: Differences between men and women dental phenotypes with functional disorders of dental-maxillary apparatus on the background of connective tissue dysplasia
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: According to the International Dental Federation data, 90% of the world inhabitants suffer from various dental diseases, most of the causes of which are outside an oral cavity. Materials and Method: They studied 362 men and women, aged 16–56 years with various functional disorders, including the syndrome of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction (TMJ dysfunction syndrome) with a history of complaints of not more than 1.5 months: 275 patients of the main group with connective tissue dysplasia (CTD), 87 patients in the control group without DCT, 258 women (193 women and 65 main and control groups), and 104 men (82 men and 22 main control groups). Result and Discussion: Inclusion criteria: Easy, moderate severity, remission CTD. Exclusion criteria: Severe hypertonicity, hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, bruxism, connective tissue (autoimmune) and inherited disorders of the structure and function of connective tissue (collagenosis or autoimmune and inherited disorders of connective tissue), severe somatic diseases in the acute stage of decompensation, diabetes mellitus, smoking, intake of toxic, and narcotic drugs. Conclusion: Age group and clinical phenotypes of patients with the syndrome of TMJ dysfunction and dental diseases exhibit differences between men and women in conjunction with the CTD.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001894
Title: Comparative characteristics of jaws and facial skull morphometric parameters with normal eruption and bilateral retention of wisdom teeth
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: According to the data of modern literary sources, the retention of third molars is most common among the anomalies of permanent teeth eruption. Materials and method: They studied 200 skulls, divided into two groups: (1) With the presence of fully incised third molars and (2) with the bilateral retention of these teeth. Result and Discussion: Thus, it was established that most studied morphometric parameters on the upper and lower jaw were statistically significant more pronounced in the group with completely erupted third molars as compared to the group with their bilateral retention. The area of the angular triangle with the full eruption of the lower third molars and their bilateral retention did not differ significantly. The area of the incisor and palatal triangle was 66 mm2 less, and the facial - 5.6 cm2 less in the group with the bilateral retention of wisdom teeth. In addition to the reliable difference in size, characterizing the sides of the facial triangle, it is established that there is a statistical difference concerning the value of this geometric figure. Hence, the angle α (the angle with the vertex at the point nasion) is significantly larger in the group with completely erupted third molars, and the angle β (the angle with the vertex at the position point) is minimal with the normal eruption of the third molars. Conclusion: The change in the areas of the examined angular and facial triangles indicates a possible change in the shape of the facial skull and, in particular, the upper jaw. It was proved that in the case of bilateral retention, the presence of fully formed wisdom teeth is not a stimulus to the growth of the jaws due to their incorrect position in relation to the dentition.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-NTTM-00001896
Title: Short-term effect of Bacopa monnieri on memory – A brief review
Category: Natural Treatment of Traditional Medicine
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Bacopa monnieri is an important medicinal herb used in Ayurveda, most commonly known as “Brahmi”, the mythical “creator” in the Hindu pantheon because the brain is the center for creative activity, any compound that improves the brain health is called brahmi, which also means bringing knowledge of the supreme reality. B. monnieri has traditionally been employed as a neurological tonic and cognitive enhancer, and it is currently being studied for its possible neuroprotective properties. This plant has prominent action on the central nervous system, where it improves understanding, memory, intellect, and speech, and corrects aberrations of emotions, mood, and personality in an individual. Bacopa helps to sharpen intellect and attenuate mental deficits. Ancient Vedic scholars to memorize lengthy sacred hymns and scriptures allegedly used this herb. The plant is used especially for insanity, nervous breakdown, dermatitis, and in memory enhancement, and also in antiulcerogenic, adaptogenic activities, and hepatoprotective effect against morphine-induced liver toxicity in rats. It helps in the prevention of neurological diseases and in possessing anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, sedative, free radical scavenging, and lipid peroxidative activities. In animal models, B. monniera provides antioxidant protection for critical memory centers and helps to reduce the effects of stress on the brain. Bacosides play a protective role in the synaptic functions of the nerves in the hippocampus, the seat of memory. Nerve impulses are transmitted across the synapses, and their degeneration is believed to contribute to impaired memory and cognition. The purpose of this article is to review chronic effects of an extract of B. monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001897
Title: Perception of parents when subjecting their children to general anesthesia
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental visits and hospitalization can be very stressful to the child and parent, research has often focused on how parental attitudes may contribute to the child’s response, however, little research has been done on the detrimental effects on parents themselves and to determine their perception to the situation, and identify ameliorative measures in anxious parents. Aim: The aim of the present research is to determine the perception of parents when subjecting their children to general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 parents of children < 18 years of age were approached personally for this questionnaire-based study. Demographic data relating to the age of the child, number of siblings, parental education, and occupation were collected in addition to data related to previous anesthetic history. This was followed by a series of questions on specific sources of anxiety, methods that might alleviate anxiety were suggested, and parents were asked to choose any they felt may benefit. Results: Results revealed 31% of parents to be most anxious about the post-operative complications, 26% were anxious about the success of the dental treatment, 24% about induction of general anesthesia, 13% had fear of hospitalization, and 6% were anxious about the pre-operative regimen. Moreover, when questioned about the factors that would help alleviate anxiety, 76% said they would like more explanation by the doctor or nurse, 21% said that they would like to be present with their child during the induction of general anesthesia, 2% said that talking to parents who have had a similar experience would help them cope with their anxiety, and 1% said that they would be benefited by audiovisual aids. Conclusion: Excessive pre-operative parental anxiety may contribute to increased anxiety in children, which has implications not only at the time of surgery but also after hospitalization. There is a need for the preparation of parents such that they are in a position to contribute constructively for the care of their child.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001898
Title: Gingival retraction in prosthodontics - A review
Category: Periodontics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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A common objective for impressions and interim crowns or fixed dental prostheses is to register the prepared abutments and finish lines accurately. For all impression procedures, the gingival tissue must be displaced to allow the subgingival finish lines to be registered. Swift increase in research work in the recent past leaves no option for a clinician, but to be updated and to possess the optimum knowledge to rationalize the use of materials and techniques that are employed for gingival displacement in proximity to teeth. Numerous advancements have occurred in impression making for fixed prosthesis in the present century. The purpose of this article is to review the latest advancements in the field of tissue retraction and analyze their merits and demerits so that adequate amount of unprepared tooth structure can be recorded with least distortion of impression material as well as minimal damage to attachment apparatus of the tooth.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001899
Title: Development of pre-columnar derivatization method of glutathione reduced by dansyl chloride for its determination by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study is devoted to the development of the methodology for the analysis of restored glutathione by pre-columnar derivatization with dansyl chloride. Materials and Method: Glutathione is a tripeptide (L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl glycine), which performs the most important functions in living organisms. As a source of active sulfhydryl group, it provides antioxidant protection of cells and is the factor of xenobiotics conjugation. Currently, this molecule is considered as a promising therapeutic agent. Result and Discussion: Therefore, it is necessary to create an optimal analytical base for the development of pharmaceutical facilities on its basis. Since glutathione does not have the necessary spectral characteristics for direct analysis, the methodology for the determination of glutathione was developed on the basis of this by pre-columnar derivatization with dansyl chloride using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. Dansyl chloride acts as a chromo-shaped marker, according to which a modified molecule of glutathione can be analyzed. Dansyl chloride as a derivatizing agent is chosen because of its safety and availability. The resulting dansylates are extremely stable. The derivatization is a direct interaction of glutathione with dansyl chloride in alkaline medium. The detection of the resulting derivatives was carried out by the absorption in ultraviolet light using a diode array detector. It has been established that two derivates with different spectral data are developed during the interaction of glutathione with dansyl chloride. The division of derivatives was carried out in the mode of gradient elution. Conclusion: This technique was also evaluated for the possibility of glutathione quantitative determination. The sensitivity of this procedure was 0.001% or 3.2 × 10−5 moles. The linear relationship between the analytical signal (peak area) and concentration was observed in the range of 0.001–0.04%, the correlation coefficient made 0.9978.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001900
Title: The role of interleukin 4 and 6 in the mechanisms of periodontium bone tissue metabolic disorder development
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The determination of interleukin-4 and interleukin-6 participation nature in the mechanisms of bone tissue disorder exchange development at inflammatory periodontal diseases. Material and Method: In theoretical and clinical medicine increasing urgency, scientific and practical novelty is the problem of decrease in mineral density of bone tissue. The latter depends on the functional state of osteogenic cells, linked to the balance of processes of bone remodeling and leads to the development of various types of osteoporosis. Conclusion: In turn, the diversity of mechanisms regulating bone remodeling, involves the existence of multiple pathways that cause specific changes in the structure of the bone tissue, many of which are studied insufficiently.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001901
Title: Design development and evaluation of metadoxine nanoparticles
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The hypothesis of the present study is to extend the release of metadoxine nanoparticles (MN). The present study is focused to overcome excessive alcohol intoxication globally by extending the activity of MN. Materials and Methods: The MN was prepared by solvent antisolvent precipitation method using sodium alginate and chitosan at different ratios (1:1, 1.5:1, and 2:1). Results: The dissolution and drug kinetic studies showed an extended release for MN. The evaluation of formulation was found out by scanning electron microscopy, vesicle size determination, drug content, entrapment efficiency, and zeta potential. The in vitro and drug release kinetics were also performed. Drug entrapment for different formulations (F1-F9) was carried out, where F7 had highest followed by F4 and F8. Drug release kinetics was carried out, and it was observed that all the formulations followed zero-order, Higuchi, and Korsmeyer–Peppas model. Conclusion: It can be concluded that both the polymers sodium alginate and chitosan can be used for the successful formulation of MN and the polymer that is most apt was sodium alginate which gives extended release of the drug.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001902
Title: Changes of myocardial tissue macroelement composition at chronic heart failure with a reduced fraction of the left ventricular ejection
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The purpose of our study is to perform the comparative analysis of macroelement (Ca, K, Mg, Na, S, Fe and P) content distribution in the tissue of myocardial autopsy for the patients with CHF, depending on the heart LV ejection fraction (EF). Material and Method: A comparative analysis of macroelement content in the tissue of myocardial autopsy among the patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) was performed using optical plasma emission parallel spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICPE- 9000) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (FEI Nova NanoSEM), depending on the degree of myocardium contractile ability - the ejection fraction of the left ventricle. Results and Discussion: According to the created profiles of macroelement tissue maps and the calculations of the inhomogeneity values, it was established that the autopsy of myocardial tissue of patients with systolic dysfunction has significant differences in the heterogeneity of macroelement distribution (Ca, K, Mg, S and P), but there were no statistically significant differences in absolute content of cardiomyocyte macronutrients.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001903
Title: Experimental substantiation of esophage stitches inefficiency with Boerhaave syndrome
Category: Medicine and Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The modeling of Boerhaave syndrome among experimental animals (rats), the study of an esophageal wall state at various times after its rupture and the reasons for the failure of the esophagus stitches, which can form the basis for the development of surgical treatment new methods among the patients with Boerhaave syndrome. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out using 3-month-old male rats with the weight of 265–285 g. The study was conducted in two stages: The first stage (experimental) - the modeling of Boerhaave syndrome, the second stage is the study of the esophageal wall pathology at various times after its rupture and the strength of the stitches applied to the esophagus. Original devices were developed for the experiment; the device for the modeling of Boerhaave syndrome and the device for esophagus stitch strength determination. Study Results: The data obtained by us showed that after the wall esophagus rupture and in the esophagus surrounding organs, the inflammatory phenomena increases synchronously and progressively with the increase of the time interval that has passed since the moment of rupture. In parallel with the increase of changes in the chest organs, bacterial contamination of the mediastinum and pleural cavities increases, this explains esophagus, lungs, and trachea inflammatory response and destruction. Conclusion: In our opinion, the increase of infiltration and destructive changes in an esophageal wall, pleura, and adjacent organs is the main reason for the frequent failure of joints among experimental animals, which allows to suggest that the patients with the Boerhaave syndrome have the same reasons for the failure of stitches

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001904
Title: Bar splinted tooth supported mandibular overdenture – A case report
Category: Periodontics
Section: Case Studies
Country: India
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Maintenance of the bone anatomy requires a certain amount of daily stress/strain stimulus. Loss of teeth leads to alveolar ridge resorption, inefficient mastication, altered speech, and lowered confidence. When few firm teeth are present in an otherwise compromised dentition, they can be retained and used as abutments for overdenture fabrication. This helps improve the retention and stability of the final prosthesis significantly. The concept of conventional tooth-retained overdentures is a simple and cost-effective treatment than the implant overdentures. Conventionally, complete denture was the treatment of choice. Preventive prosthodontics aims at avoiding complete edentulism. Advances in technology have introduced attachment retained overdenture which act as stress redirector and shock absorber and also offers several advantages over complete denture such as superior retention, support, stability, psychological benefits, and proprioception. This article presents a case report that describes the steps involved in a bar splinted cast copings tooth supported mandibular overdenture with a 1-year follow up.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001905
Title: Knowledge and practice of infection control among dental students: A survey
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Infection control practices are important in a clinical setup to avoid the risk of infection among the patients. Proper infection control measures such as proper waste disposal and sterilization of instruments that are basic infection control measures should be strictly followed in a clinical setup. Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge of infection control among dental students and the various infections control practices. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Saveetha Dental College in 2016. The study group comprised 3rd year, 4th year, and interns. Total number of students included in the study was 100. Results: The students know the importance of infection control and the knowledge among all students about the protocols about infection control are high, but practice is low. Conclusion: A better knowledge of infection control is essential for safe practice of dentistry. This will ensure the provision of better and safer dental health-care services for the population.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001906
Title: Reliability of various craniofacial reference planes with occlusal plane in Dravidian population
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Besides, stability, optimum level, and inclination of the occlusal plane play an important role in biomechanics of craniomaxillary morphology. Although clinical application of cephalometry has been directed largely toward orthodontics, it is of special value to prosthodontist as significance of variations in the upper face has not been investigated for an ethnic Dravidian population. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the inclination of maxillary occlusal plane with reference to Frankfort horizontal plane (orbitale-porion) and Camper’s plane (ala-porion) and to correlate the degree of separation in Frankfort horizontal plane, Camper’s plane, and occlusal plane in two different ethnic groups with lateral cephalometry. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 20 lateral cephalometric radiographs of both male and female subjects of Dravidian population. Subjects were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The lateral cephalograms were calibrated and traced using FACAD (FACAD is a software program used for orthodontic tracing, cephalometric analysis, and visual diagnostic imaging, as well as for treatment planning with soft tissue profile prediction) software. Results: According to statistical analysis, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in this population; between the two parameters Frankfort horizontal plane – Occlusal plane (FH-OP) and Camper’s plane – Occlusal plane (CP-OP) at 5 %
level of significance (P > 0.05) was observed. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, it can be stated that the reliability of Camper’s plane as a guideline to simulate the natural occlusal plane in prosthodontics is questionable when compared to Frankfort’s horizontal plane and should be regarded as independent anthropometric entities.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001908
Title: Pharmacological activities of mushroom- A short review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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There is a common saying, “medicines and foods have a common origin.” Mushrooms are an ideal example of this in constituting both a nutritionally functional food and a source of physiologically beneficial medicine. There are many varieties of mushroom, which are nutraceuticals such as cordyceps mushroom and Prosopis cineraria. Some varieties of mushroom are for treatment of cancer such as extract of Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) is used as anti-tumors medicine. The general biochemical compounds which are obtained in mushrooms are triterpenes, polysaccharides, germanium, adenosine, ganoderic essence, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, proteins and fibers, beta-glycan, heteroglycan, proteoglycan, and nucleotides. This review
focuses on various types of mushrooms and their biochemical extracts, which have greater nutraceutical value. Mushroom is an unlimited source of compound with anti-tumor and immunostimulants. Mushroom intake has been shown to reduce the risk of cancer, especially in the breast cancer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001909
Title: Study of phytochemical compositions of leaves extracts of Phlogacanthus thyrsiformis, its antibacterial and silver nanoparticle derived cell cytotoxicity on HeLa cell line
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Phlogacanthus thyrsiformis (Nongmangkha) plant has immense medicinal property. It is a shrub belongs to the Acanthaceae family. It is very commonly used as a folk medicine in Assam. It is used as an anti-allergic. Curry prepared from aerial portion is given orally with rice once daily until cure. It is also used in curing coughs and cold, chronic bronchitis, asthma, and rheumatism. Materials and Methods: In this study, phytochemical screening was done for the water, methanol, and acetone extract. The most important of these bioactive constituents present in plants are alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds which were determined by doing the phytochemical tests of the extract, and it was responsible for antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was studied by disc diffusion method. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using green synthesis route of reduction of silver ions. Moreover, it was found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of cervical cancer cells, i.e., HeLa cells. Results: Phytochemical extracts were found antibacterial, and it was also found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of cervical cancer cells, i.e., HeLa cells. In current finding, phytochemical extracts derived from Nongmangkha leaves have shown as anticancerous agents. Conclusion: It has been suggested that P. thyrsiformis (Nongmangkha) can be explored as green drug development for antibacterial and anticancerous agent. Nanoparticles derived from these extracts can be further explored for more effective green drug development.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001910
Title: Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of fermented fruit juice-mediated cu powder: A traditional approach
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Traditional metallic medicines have innate discernable structures; systematic dissection and investigation of their synthesis, may lead to invaluable human benefits and proven applications. Transmutation of even toxic metals and minerals for internal administration has been a very interesting process; it has gathered much research attention these days. Such synthesized metals involved as drugs, for healing diversified human diseases are mercury, gold, silver, copper, zinc, lead and tin etc. The present work aims to synthesize copper in powdered form following traditional lines of thought that has biomedical application. Materials and Methods: The synthesized Cu powder is characterized using PXRD, FTIR, UV, SEM and TEM studies. Its anti microbial activity was also investigated against E.Coli., and S.Aureus bacteria. Results and Discussion: UV and XRD patterns confirmed the presence of Cu; XRD revealed the copper structure to be face centered cubic in nature. SEM and TEM revealed surface morphological properties; FTIR revealed vibration bands corresponding to C-H bending, C-O stretching and overlapping of OH with amine N-H stretching bonds. The powder exhibited sound anti microbial activity against the two selected species. Conclusion: An interesting green and biogenic synthesis involving pre and pro biotic beverages is presented here. This is a novel, cost cutting, eco friendly and excludes the usage of hazardous chemical.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001911
Title: Associations of candidate genes with clinical-laboratory parameters in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia
Category: Medicine and Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: The associations of polymorphic variants of folate metabolism genes with clinical and laboratory parameters in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia (PE) were studied, depending on hereditary burden. Materials and Methods: The study group included 274 pregnant women, diagnosed with PE. Polymorphisms of the folate cycle genes (+677С>Т MТHFR [rs1801133], +1298А>С MТHFR [rs1801131], −1053С>Т ТYMS [rs699517], IVS6-68С>Т ТYМS [rs1059394], and −1122А>G ТYMS [rs2790]) were investigated, using the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of DNA synthesis in real-time (real-time-PCR). Results: In the group of pregnant women with PE, without a burdened familial history, the genetic variants −1053СТТYMS and −1053ТТТYMS are associated with an increased level of proteinuria. In the group of pregnant women with PE, with a burdened familial history, the polymorphic variants −1053СТТYMS and −1053ТТТYMS, IVS6-68СТТYMS and IVS6-68ТТТYMS are associated with a higher level of glucose in blood, and the genotypes +1298СС MТHFR and +1298АСMТHFR are associated with the increased activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Conclusions: Thus, as a result of this study, significant associations of folate metabolism genes with increased levels of proteinuria, glucose, and APTT in groups of pregnant women with PE were established, depending on the burdened familial history

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001912
Title: Polymorphisms of candidate genes, associated with the risk of pre-eclampsia
Category: Medicine and Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: The associations of polymorphic variants of folate metabolism genes with the risk of pre-eclampsia (PE) were studied, depending on hereditary burden. Materials and Methods: The study group included 274 pregnant women, diagnosed with PE, and 179 women with normal gestation course. Polymorphisms of the folate cycle genes (+677С>Т MТHFR [rs1801133], +1298А>СMТHFR [rs1801131], +66А>G MТRR [rs1801394], +2756А>G MТR [rs1805087], −1053С>Т ТYMS [rs699517], IVS6-68 С>ТТYМS [rs1059394], and −1122А>G ТYMS [rs2790]) were investigated, using the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of DNA synthesis in real-time (real-time-PCR). Results: In the group of pregnant women with PE, without hereditary burden, high frequencies of alleles + 2756G MTR (odds ratio [OR] = 1.61, P = 0.01) and the genotype + 2756GG MTR (OR = 7.26, P = 0.0007, pbonf = 0.0021) were revealed. Conclusions: Thus, as a result of this study, significant associations of polymorphism of the methionine synthase gene +2756A>G MTR with the risk of PE were established, depending on the burdened familial history.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-GS-00001913
Title: Influence of 60-day introduction of tartrazine in various concentrations on the ultrastructure of tibia graft biomineral
Category: General Sciences
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the research was to study the effect of 60-day intake of tartrazine with food at various concentrations on the ultrastructure of the biomineral crystalline lattice of the tibia regenerates among sexually mature white rats. Material and Method: The experiment was carried out on 140 rats distributed into four groups: 1st group - control, 2nd- the rats with an applied 2.0 mm defect in both tibia, and the group 3, 4 - the rats with tartrazine administered intragastrically for 60 days in the dose of 750 and 1500 mg/kg/day, after which the defect for the tibia was applied. X-ray structural study was carried out using DRON-2.0 apparatus with a goniometric attachment GUR-5. Кαa radiation of copper with the wavelength of 0.1542 nM was used; the voltage and the strength of the anode current were 30 kV and 20 A, respectively. Results and Discussion: The results of the study showed that the microtexturing ratio of the regenerate biomineral was less than the 2nd group values at 3rd, 10th, 15th, 24th, and 45th day after the administration of tartrazine at the dose of 750 mg/kg/day by 3.49%, 6.24%, 6.50%, 8.19%, and 6.33%, and the sizes of crystallites were more by 14.14%, 8.40%, and 3.45% on 15th, 24th, and 45th day. With the dose increase of preliminary introduced tartrazine up to 1500 mg/kg/day, the regeneration biomineral development slowed more significantly: The microtexturing coefficient was less than the values of the 4th group in all terms by 4.49%, 7.36%, 7.95%, 8.53%, and 7.55% and crystallite sizes increased by 5.30%, 20.36%, 11.47%, and 9.16% during 10–45th day. Conclusion: Thus, intragastric administration of tartrazine for 60 days is accompanied by the delay in the development of the biomineral crystalline lattice of bone regenerate, and the intensity of the changes depends on tartrazine dose.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001914
Title: The structure of dental patient first visit with the complaints that arise after prosthetics with removable and/ or non-removable orthopedic structures
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The article presents the analysis of the structure and reveals the main patterns of 1524 patient visits at the age of 30–80 years with the complaints that arise after the prosthetics with removable and/or permanent orthopedic structures. Materials and Method: The intolerance of prosthetic devices was found among 64% of patients in the sample under study, the intolerance of dental materials is revealed in 36% of cases (galvanosis - 15%, allergic stomatitis - 11%, toxic chemical stomatitis - 6%, and the combination of several types of intolerance to dental materials - 4%). The intolerance of dental materials is more often diagnosed among middle-aged women; the intolerance of prosthetic devices is diagnosed among the women of older age
groups. Result and Discussion: A high incidence of comorbidity in the oral cavity organs and tissues are revealed among the sample patients. Conclusion: The patients with various types to dental material intolerance and the intolerance to prosthetic devices show different terms of main disease manifestation, the age intervals of primary appeal to a dentist, and comorbidity, which must be taken into account during the diagnosis, the treatment and the prevention of the main disease.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-GS-00001915
Title: Coach’s actions significant for powerlifter in the “coach–athlete” system
Category: General Sciences
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Coaching (instructing) activity in sports attracts the attention of researchers since the emergence of sports in general and sports competitions in particular. Of course, the conditions that ensure the growth of sports achievements arouse interest. Nevertheless, some young types of sports such as powerlifting, for example, remain understudied. In this study, the researchers focus their attention on the role of the coach in the sports activities of the powerlifters. Materials and Methods: The study involved a questionnaire survey conducted with the participation of 60 Russian powerlifters. The structure of the author’s questionnaire includes 13 actions of a coach, which the athletes have considered from the following point of view: “What would you like your coach to apply in relation to you”. In the course of the study, five priority actions of a coach, expected from him by the athletes, were analyzed. Results: The first place is occupied by the action “availability of a unique method of training athletes” (9.75), 2 - “assistance at the competitions” (9.74), 3 – “consideration of the athlete’s individual characteristics” (9.38), 4 - “explanation of the technique of doing the exercises” (9,34), and 5 - “working out of the training plan” (9.3). Conclusion: The presented information will be useful for coaches in terms of improving the training process of powerlifters. Knowing the preferences and understanding the features of the athlete, the trainer will be able to implement an individual approach in his coaching activities within the “coach–athlete” system to improve the athletic performance of the athletes.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001916
Title: Comparative cytotoxic studies of methanolic, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and pet ether (60–80°C) extracts by MTT assay of marine sponge Haliclona taenurimosa
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Cytotoxic study of marine sponge Haliclona taenurimosa With 79% of the earth’s surface covered by water research into thechemistry of marine organisms is relatively unexplored and represents a vast resource for new medicines to combat majordisease such as cancer, AIDS, or malaria. Standard research involves extraction of the organism in a suitable solvent followed by assay of this crude extract for a particular disease target. In this study, we have collected the marine sponge Haliclona taenurimosa from Vizhinjam coast, identified and undergone successive solvent extraction by different solvents of increasing polarity. The color and consistency of the extract noted. MTT assay was performed on SW480 (Colon carcinoma) cell line,and pet ether (60–80°) extract showed significant result with LD50 value 21.9747 µg/ml.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001930
Title: Detection of inducible clindamycin resistance among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction and Background: The resistance to antibiotic employed against staphylococcal isolates is an alarming problem. This has led to the interest in using macrolid-lincosamide streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics to treat infection produce by Staphylococcus aureus. In vitro test for detecting clindamycin suspectibility may fail to detect inducible clindamycin resistance due to presence of erm gene which results in treatment failure. Aim: This study aims to develop a simple method for detection of inducible resistance to clindamycin in staphylococcal isolates exhibiting resistance to erythromycin. Methodology: A total of 20 clinical isolates of S. aureus were subjected to antibiotics suspectibility testing by disc diffusion method. Inducible resistance to clindamycin was detected by D-test as per CLSI guideline. Result: 20% isolates of were positive for iMLB phenotype, while 15% isolates were belong to MS phenotypes.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001931
Title: Condition of lateral teeth in physiological types of bite and complete dentition in individuals aged 18–29
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Occlusive and articulation interaction is affected by a number of factors, a thorough study of which is of particular importance in the prevention of temporomandibular joints dysfunction. Iatrogenic factors of therapeutic, orthodontic, and orthopedic treatment can have a significant negative impact on articulation. Materials and Method: We conducted a study to assess the occlusal-articulatory interaction in patients with complete dentition and physiological types of occlusion. Result and Discussion: Improper location of third molars resulting in premature hyperbalancing contacts is a common cause of occlusion disharmony. Diagnosing of occlusive interactions as well as proper planning and conducting therapeutic treatment taking into account the state of the antagonizing dentition is of prime importance in the prevention of traumatic occlusion and dysfunctional conditions of temporomandibular joints. Conclusions: The findings clearly demonstrate the significance of diagnosing occlusal-articulatory relationships, their proper formation at the stages of development of the masticatory and speech apparatus and the influence iatrogenic factors exert on them.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001932
Title: Organ distribution of potential hypoglycemic drugs С7070
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The organ distribution of a potential hypoglycemic drug - C7070 in rats was studied. Materials and Methods: The object of the study was the pharmacological substance C7070. The C7070 concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometer (MS)/MS detection. The measurement range was from 0.02 μg to 3876.00 μg in 1 ml of plasma or 1 g. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a 150 mm × 3.0 mm column of Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 with a particle size of 3.0 μm (Agilent technology, USA). To obtain stable results for all analytical cycles, a protective membrane of Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 (Agilent Technologies, USA) measuring 12.5 mm × 3.0 mm with a particle size of 5.0 μm at 40°C was used. Ballast proteins in test solutions were precipitated with acetonitrile, followed by extraction of the analyte with ultrasound. Results and Discussions: The drug is well distributed into organs. The greatest content of C7070 was observed in the tissues of the small intestine. The smallest content of C7070 was observed in muscle tissue and brain. The parameters obtained can be useful for clinical application and further studies of preparations C7070 on its basis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001933
Title: Correction of retinal ischemia/reperfusion by 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-il)-1,2,2-trimethyl cyclopentanecarboxylic acid in experiment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Studying the way of how to improve tissue tolerance to ischemia is an actual problem of pharmacology. Up to now, the treatment of ischemic retinal conditions was done by use of angioprotectors, antioxidants, fibrinolytics, anticoagulants, and others. Due to the instability and short-term effects after using these drugs and physiotherapy treatments is necessary to seek out a more effective way to improve blood circulation and increase resistance to ischemic retinal tissue. Research tasks: The aim of this study is to increase the effectiveness of pharmacological correction of retinal ischemia-reperfusion using agonist of imidazoline receptors Type I, II, 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-il)-1,2,2-trimethyl cyclopentanecarboxylic acid. Methods: To investigate the fundus of experimental animals, a direct ophthalmoscopy was
used. To zoom a lens, Osher MaxField 78D model OI-78M has been used. Electroretinography (ERG) was performed at once after the ophthalmoscopy. To assess the degree of functional damage to the retina, we evaluated the ratio of amplitudes of a- and b-waves - the coefficient b/a. For all data, the descriptive statistics were used, and data are checked for normal distribution. Distribution type was determined using the criterion of Shapiro–Wilk. Between groups, differences were analyzed by parametric (t-Student criterion) or non-parametric (Mann–Whitney test) methods, depending on the type of distribution. Differences were determined at 0.05 significant level. Results: The protective effect of agonist of imidazoline receptors Type I, II, 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-il)-1,2,2-trimethyl cyclopentanecarboxylic acid, in doses 10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg on the retinal ischemia-reperfusion model on Wistar rats was studied. In the experiment, it was found that the 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-il)-1,2,2-trimethyl cyclopentanecarboxylic acid in a dose 50 mg/kg prevents the development of neuronal damage in the retina caused by intraocular pressure increase to 110 mmHg within 30 min by applying the mechanical pressure to the anterior chamber of the eye to a greater extent than in a dose 10 mg/kg. The detected protective effects were confirmed by the results of ophthalmoscopy and ERG after 72 h of reperfusion. Conclusion: Results of ocular fundus studies revealed the most pronounced protective effects of 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-il)-1,2,2-trimethyl cyclopentanecarboxylic acid in a dose 50 mg/kg on the model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion in Wistar rats, which is reflected in the restoration of the optic disc. Correction of retinal ischemia-reperfusion by 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-il)-1,2,2-trimethyl cyclopentanecarboxylic acid in a dose 50 mg/kg leads to higher values of the coefficient b/a of ERG after 72 h of reperfusion compared to the group with pathology correction by the same drug in a dose 10 mg/kg, which indicates the restoration of the electrophysiological state of the retina.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001934
Title: Analysis of the results of the surgical treatment of thyroid and parathyroid diseases
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Diseases of the thyroid gland take an important place in the structure of the endocrine system’s pathology. Materials and Method: To determine the optimal tactics of the surgical treatment for various diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid glands a retrospective analysis of the results of surgical treatment of 727 patients was performed between 2014 and 2016 in the Surgical Department No 1, Belgorod Regional Clinical Hospital of St. Joasaph. Results and Discussion: Patients were admitted after an endocrinological out-patient examination with such clinical diagnoses: Nodular euthyroid goiter 371 (51%), diffuse-nodal euthyroid goiter 15 (2.1%), diffuse euthyroid goiter 2 (0.3%), diffuse toxic goiter 132 (18.2%), diffuse-nodal toxic goiter 36 (5.0%), nodal toxic goiter 97 (13.3%), autoimmune thyroiditis 9 (1.2%), thyroid cancer 33 (4.5%), recurrent goiter 27 (3.7%), and parathyroid adenoma 5 (0.7%). In all nosological groups, females have traditionally predominated. The diagnostic tests included an ultrasound of the thyroid gland, T3, T4, TSH, and, if necessary, computed tomography scan. Further, during the choose of the treatment tactic, we adhered to the principle of maximum surgical radicalism, especially in the treatment of patients with toxic and multinodular goiter forms, since unjustified leaving of thethyroid tissue can lead to the risk of the recurrence of the disease. According to the results of our work, the percentage of thyroidectomies in the past 3 years (2014–2016) was 70.1%. Conclusion: At the same time, an increase in the percentage of radical operations did not lead to a significant increase in the segment of the specific complications (injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve-1.65%, bleeding-0.4%, hypoparathyroidism-2.5%).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001942
Title: Personality traits of Russian men of 18–30 years old with different diplotypes in polymorphic loci COMT VAL158MET and MAOA-uVNTR
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Scope: The article is devoted to the analysis of associations of genotype combinations of neurotransmitter system genes of MAOA and COMT with psychological features of young Russian men. Material and Methods:The study aimed finding associations of diplotypes by polymorphic loci Val158Met COMT and-uVNTR MAOA with such psychological characteristics as aggressiveness level and preferred forms of its expression, hostility level (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory), propensity to various kinds of addictive behavior, level of legitimized aggression, formally dynamic properties of individuality (diagnostication of personal inclination to deviant behavior), strategies of behavior in conflict, level of achievement motivation and personal traits (MMPI), were analyzed. Result and Discussion: It shows that carriers of a highly active diplotype have the lowest level of aggressiveness and are inclined to cooperate in the conflict; carriers of the highly active genotype MAOA in combination with the heterozygous genotype COMT have an average level of aggressiveness and high rates of emotional lability; carriers of low-level MAOA in combination with heterozygous genotype COMT have the highest rates of motivation to achieve success and verbal aggression; and carriers of low-level MAOA and highly active COMT are emotionally labile and non-aggressive. Men who are carriers of a low-active diplotype, have the highest level of aggressiveness and addiction to addictive behavior, which may indicate the association of this diplotype in a sample of young Russian men with social disadaptation. Conclusion: Russian men, carriers of different diplotypes at polymorphic loci Val158Met of gene COMT and -uVNTR of gene MAOA, have significant differences in the severity of such psychological characteristics as the level and forms of aggression and hostility, propensity to deviant behavior, strategies of behavior in a conflict, the level of motivation to achieve success, the formal dynamic properties of individuality, and the level of emotional lability, depressiveness, and suspicion

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001943
Title: Protective effects of incretin mimetics in cardiomyopathy induced by doxorubicin
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The results of experimental and clinical trials make it clear that incretin mimetics possess pleiotropic effects and demonstrate the value in terms of assessment of their potential opportunities as cardioprotectors. Research Tasks: The aim is to study the cardioprotective effects of exenatide and vildagliptin on the model of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Materials and Methods: The experiments on the Langendorff isolated rat heart were dedicated to the study of cardioprotective activity of exenatide (10 mcg/kg/day) (“Byetta®,” Eli Lilly and Company, USA) and vildagliptin (0.2 mg/kg/day) (“Galvus®,” Novartis, Switzerland), on the contractile function of the isolated heart which was previously perfused with doxorubicin (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally before 48 h). The evaluation of cardioprotective activity was based on the findings of the functional trial with high-frequency stimulation (480 bmp) in hypercalcemia (5 mmol) perfusion. The complex evaluation of the myocardial damage in the flowing perfusate from isolated hearts included the assessment of creatine phosphokinase muscle brain isoenzyme (CPK-MB) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). The activity of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated by measuring the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and diethenoid conjugant (DC). Results: Exenatide (10 mcg/kg/day) and vildagliptin (0.2 mg/kg/day) demonstrate a cardioprotective effect on the model of doxorubicin-induced pathology, resulting in a decrease of diastolic dysfunction to 5.3 ± 0.1 units and 6.5 ± 0.2 units, respectively, compared to control 8.3 ± 0.1 units. The cardioprotective effect was confirmed by 27% and 19% decrease in the levels of CPK-MB marker damage, and by 11.8% and 9.6% decrease in LDH levels, respectively, in exenatide and vildagliptin series, compared to control. The cardioprotective effect was also confirmed by prevention of accumulation of LPO products of MDA and DC in the ventricular myocardium. Conclusion: Exenatide (10 mcg/kg/day) and vildagliptin (0.2 mg/kg/day) decrease diastolic dysfunction, resulting in the recovery of the contractile function of the heart, reduction of the “diastole defect” (StТТI), and the decrease in irreversible damages of cardiomyocytes.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001944
Title: Gene polymorphism of CYP2C9 in patients with ischemic heart disease and its significance in the manifestation of genoprotective properties of meldonium
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The work was carried out in the direction of personalized medicine - an individual approach to the appointment of a metabolic corrector meldonium to patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) on the basis of determining the genetic characteristics of patients. Research Tasks: To study of the polymorphism of the cytochrome CYP2C9*2 C430T gene in patients with IHD and to evaluate the significance of this factor in the manifestation of the genoprotective properties of meldonium in this category of patients. Methods: A study of 90 patients with IHD: Stable angina pectoris was performed. The polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the gene polymorphisms of cytochrome CYP2C9*2 C430T. By the method of DNA comets, according to the method developed by us in in vitro tests, the effect of meldonium on the DNA of blood leukocytes of patients was evaluated.Results: The presence of gene polymorphisms by the alleles CYP2C9*2 C430T was found. They revealed a more severe clinical condition of patients with pathological genes by the alleles CYP2C9*2 C430T in connection with the apparent decrease in the enzymatic activity of cytochrome. Potential genotoxicity of meldonium was revealed when it was administered to patients with normal cytochrome CYP2C9*2 C430T (CC) genotype, and to the genoprotective effect of meldonium when administered to patients with the pathological CYP2C9*2 C430T genotype (CT genotype). Conclusion: When prescribing meldonium to patients with stable angina, one should take into account, the genetic information on the individual polymorphism of the CYP2C9 gene and give preference to individuals who have the pathologic genotype of CYP2C9*2 C430T (СТ) in view of the predicted genoprotective effect of the drug.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001946
Title: Internal forms of suicidal behavior among medical students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The problem of suicidal behavior among young people does not lose its relevance. According to the Russian school of suicidology, it is divided into external (suicidal attempts) and internal (suicidal thoughts, ideas, and intentions) forms. Aims: This study aimed to identify the prevalence, clinical-psychopathological characteristics, and risk factors for the formation of internal forms of suicidal behavior in medical students to develop recommendations for primary psychoprophylaxis of suicides. Materials and Methods: A solid sample of 143 Russian-speaking medical students aged 17–29 years were examined using the medico-sociological and psychometric methods. The comparative analysis was carried out in two groups: The first group consisted of 52 students who had internal forms of suicidal behavior and the second - 91 students who had not. Results: It was found that 36.4% of students had suicidal thoughts and intentions, and at the time of the survey, 23.1% of respondents said that they did not want to live. The level of anxiety (P = 0.0319) and depression (P = 0.0186) was higher among students with internal forms of suicidal behavior than that of students without them. Students with suicidal thoughts and intentions had a moderate level of stress (34.6% of cases) more often (P = 0.0237) than students without suicidal behavior (16.5%). There was a high risk of forming addictive behavior in 19.2% of cases in the first group and 6.6% of cases in the second group (P = 0.0424). Factor analysis revealed four significant factors causing the formation of internal forms of suicidal behavior (55.1% of variance): Aggressiveness, lack of social support, choice of avoidance, or competing strategies in a conflict situation. Conclusions: The most significant factors causing the formation of suicidal behavior are aggressiveness, choice of avoidance, or competing strategies in a conflict situation. Lack of social support is of particular importance. A high level of stress (a manifestation of which is an increased level of anxiety and depression and psychosomatic diseases, using of alcohol) contributes to the emergence of suicidal thoughts. The prevention programs developed based on research and implemented in practice will allow students to learn how to cope with stress, find constructive ways to resolve conflicts, which will increase adaptive abilities, help overcome aggressive tendencies, and preserve health status.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001975
Title: Antitubercular herbal extracts- A review
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a highly infectious pathogen and causative agent for TB. There are many herbal extracts, which have been identified with potential claims of anti TB spectrum. Although established anti TB regimen with drugs are effective, these medications do cause certain adverse effects. The use of herbal extracts in treating TB is becoming more interesting and prevalent due to minimum adverse reactions observed with herbal medications. In this review, the various types, constituents and the antitubercular activity of traditional herbal extracts have been discussed.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001976
Title: Sleep disorders in the 1st -year medical students as the result of the educational stress: Clinical and prophylactic aspects
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aimed to verify the clinical structure of sleep disorders and its relationship to educational stress among the 1st -year medical students for developing approaches to primary psychoprophylactics. Materials and Methods: A solid sample of 166 Russian-speaking students aged 16–22 years were examined using the medicosociological, psychometric, and clinicopsychopathological methods. Results: It was found that the most significant manifestations of educational stress were affective and psychosomatic disorders as well as attention disorders. The majority (98.8%) of students had asthenia, which was moderate and severe in 65% of cases. Anxiety was detected in 64.5% of cases and clinical level of anxiety in 35%. Sleep disorders were detected among 88.6% of the students, and in 92.3% cases, they arise on the base of asthenia. A nightmare was observed in 71.7% of students. A majority of medical students need to reduce night sleep because of high training load and 62.7% of them went to bed after 1:00 am, and 63.8% slept <6 h a day on weekdays. Cluster analysis identifies four groups of sleep disorders, the closest to each other: 1 – presomnia disorders and middle insomnia disorders – the most significant; 2 – postsomnia disorders and nightmares; 3 – somnambulism (neurotic conditioned); and 4 – night terrors and “sleepy paralysis.” Conclusion: The most significant factors associated with sleep disorders are asthenia, anxiety, and personality frustration caused by the academic process. Stress management and time management programs have been developed on the base of research and have been implemented in teaching process. These programs include informing students about stress and teaching methods for manage it, teaching planning of time, methods of optimal work with educational literature, informing about a healthy life, the regime of the day, and the features of nutrition. This allows students to learn how to cope with stress and plan their time properly.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001977
Title: Methods of scanning blood microscopy in oncology diagnosis of kidney pathology
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The purpose of this article is to reveal pathomorphological changes in erythrocytes with oncological processes in the kidneys with the help of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Erythrocytes of patients with kidney pathology are the object of this research. After allocation of erythrocytes, blood samples from a vein were studied in SEMs “FE1 Quanta 200 three-dimensional” and “FE1 Quanta 600 FEG.” AFM was done in the probe laboratory Ntegra Aura (Russia). The studies were performed in contact modes of intermittent or constant profiles using commercial Si or SiN cantilevers (NSG01, NT-MDT, Russian Federation) under conditions of low atmospheric vacuum. AFM images were processed and implemented using the NOVA software (NT-MDT, Russian Federation) and image analysis (NT-MDT, Russian Federation). Results: The number of transient forms of erythrocytes is increased with aging of patients. There was a decrease of discocytes and an increase of the number of transitional, prehemolytic and degenerative cell forms with kidney cancer. When studying the appearance of erythrocytes with the help of AFM, it was established that the depth of the discocyte cavity counted by studying the cell profile was significantly changing. With the progression of the disease, the cells acquired elongated forms, as well as contacts between the cells, were more common. Conclusions: The study has found that the appearance and condition of erythrocyte membranes depend on the age of the recipient and to the greater extent on pathological processes in the kidneys (cysts and cancer) with a change of their cytoarchitecture. The greatest changes have been found in kidney cancer with distant metastases. Modified cells are functionally defective in part and cannot fulfill their most important oxygen transport function in full measure.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00002038
Title: Hemosuccus pancreaticus as a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis
Category: Medicine and Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Hemosuccus pancreaticus is one of the rare but difficult to diagnose complications of chronic pancreatitis. The aim of the work is to analyze the possibilities of minimally invasive methods of diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis complicated by a spurious aneurysm of the splenic artery. Materials and Method: In this work, it is shown a retrospective analysis of the results of treatment of 5 patients with aneurysms of the splenic artery was performed in the Surgical Department of the Belgorod Regional Clinical Hospital of St. Joasaph. In all patients, pancreatitis was an alcoholic etiology. Results: The clinical picture manifested in 4 patients with massive gastrointestinal bleeding, in 1 - bleeding in the cavity of pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusion: Therefore, at the present stage, it is necessary to remember that destructive pancreatitis is increasingly the cause of duodenal hemorrhage in the form of hemobilia, hemosuccus pancreaticus - from spurious aneurysms of the branches of the celiac trunk.