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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001761
Title: Development and evaluation of matrix diffusion controlled Transdermal patches of Donepezil
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background study: Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are a class of novel drug delivery systems, which are gaining worldwide accolade, as evidenced by researchers. Objective: The present work was aimed at developing a matrix dispersion type transdermal drug delivery of donepezil, an alzheimer drug to ensure satisfactory drug release with the use of optimum polymers and thereby to avoid first pass metabolism and prolong duration of action. Methods: Donepezil transdermal patches were prepared by solvent casting method using aluminium foil as the backing membrane with different concentrations of hydrophobic polymeric system (eudragit L 100 & pvp) and 30% w/w of dibutyl phthalate (DBT) as plasticizer. Different concentrations of propylene glycol were used to increase the transdermal permeation of donepezil. The drug and polymers physicochemical compatibility were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Formulated transdermal patches were evaluated for thickness, tensile strength, hardness, weight variation, swellability, flatness, folding endurance & water vapour transmission rate. Results: The physicochemical evaluation study reveals that all formulations measured weight and thickness with low standard deviation values. The results of flatness study showed that none of the formulations had the difference in the strip lengths before and after longitudinal cut, indicating 100% flatness, and thus they could maintain a smooth surface when applied onto the skin. The cumulative percentage drug permeation was higher in case of eudragit containing polymer matrix. Conclusion: From the evaluation studies of the transdermal patches, it may be concluded that transdermal drug delivery system of donepezil can be formulated, which provides better compliance than conventional drug delivery system.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001755
Title: GC-MS profile of Punica granatum, Mentha piperita and Curcuma longa leaves
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Selected medicinal plants contain many important metabolites. These are grouped into phenolics, steroids, flavonoids, terpenes and volatile oils. Plant leaves of Punica granatum, Mentha piperita and Curcuma longa by GC-MS analysis and recorded for present features. Materials and Methods: Dried leaves were allowed to treat with methanolic extract and 48 hours treated sample was tested by GCMS analysis. Results: twenty bioactive compounds were identified for three plants with their relative peak area, retention time and CAS number identity. Conclusion: As per GC MS profile many bioacitve compounds remain represent in the mostly antibacterial in nature.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-QA-00001759
Title: Analytical method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of Metformin and Teneligliptin by RP-HPLC in bulk and tablet dosage forms
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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An accurate, precise and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative estimation of Metformin and teneligliptin simultaneously in tablet dosage forms. Younglin (S.K.) gradient System UV Detector and C8 (Agilent) column  with  250mm x4.6  mm  i.d. and 5ìm particle size. Methanol : water 0.05 % OPA (50:50) was used as the mobile phase for the method. The detection wavelength was 235 nm and flow rate was 0.7 ml/min. In the developed method, the retention time of Metformin and teneligliptin were found to be 2.1 min and 7.6 min. The developed method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. The linearity, precision, range, robustness was within the limits as specified by the ICH guidelines. Hence the method was found to be simple, accurate, precise, economic and reproducible. So the proposed methods can be used for the routine quality control analysis of Metformin and teneligliptin simultaneously in tablet dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001744
Title: Antimicrobial stewardship: A global threat
Category: Microbiology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Antimicrobial stewardship is an effort to design, improve, and measure the use of antimicrobials by optimizing the drug, duration, therapy and route of administration by minimizing the toxicity, adverse effects, cost, infections, and tries to decrease the antimicrobial resistance. This review is a source to create aware the consequences of overuse of antimicrobials. The inappropriate use of antimicrobials can lead to multi drug resistant organisms. Previously when resistance developed there was a new drug available for treatment but now the overuse of antimicrobials had left with no option. The front-end or prescription and the back-end or post prescription approach are the most successful programs for controlling the misuse and overuse. The optimal care for an infected patient’s is treating them with properly dosed drugs at correct time

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001745
Title: Synthesis, chracterisation and antimicrobial activity of 1-[3/-(substituted phenyl)-5/-amino pyrimidine ] -3-(substituted phenyl)-5-(substituted phenyl)-2-pyrazolines as potential antimicrobial agent
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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2-pyrazoline and pyrimidine derivatives play the vital role in the field of drug discovery. In recent decades a large number of pharmacological studies has been done, but still more research is required in order to exigency of biological compounds with enhanced activity, efforts have been made to accommodate 2-pyrazoline and amino pyrimidine in a single molecular framework. In the present study some novel 2-pyrazoline analogues with amino pyrimidine moiety 4(a-h) have been synthesized by refluxing N-substituted chalcone 2-pyrazoline 3(a-h) with guanidine carbonate and characterized by a combined use of IR, NMR (1H, 13C), Mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Bacillus substilis, Streptococcus aureus: gram positive strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli: gram negative strain and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger. Among all, 4d and 4e displayed good inhibitory profile against all micro-organisms used for study. All compounds showed relatively good inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus aureus. All compounds showed poor to moderate activity against Aspergillus niger. Many compounds showed relatively moderate to good activity against all micro-organisms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001746
Title: New Paradigms in Management and Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Diabetic retinopathy, a disease that destructs the blood vessels in the retina which result in vision damage or vision loss. If Left untreated, these blood vessels begin to build up pressure in the eye and leak fluid, causing Diabetic Macular Edema. Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema are common problems for diabetics. The treatments for DME involve laser procedures. Unfortunately, laser surgery does not always provide improved vision to those with DME. Newer treatments like Anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth fac­tor) drugs and steroid therapy for DME are truly a transfor­mative breakthrough that enables us to treat DME with new options of treatment. This review also includes the cases that represent typical approach to DME treatment. It is exciting to see this revolution where patients who have a disastrous disease can be treated and restore functional vision.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001747
Title: Pharmacological and Anticarcinogenic Effects of Grape Seed Extract : A Comprehensive Review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Breast Cancer is a carcinoma of breast tissues, the major recurrent cancer in women worldwide and also the foremost cause of death. Dietary intake of antioxidant rich foods is protective against cancer. Antioxidant rich food  include grape (Vitis vinifera,family:Vitiaceae). one of the world’s largest fruit crops and consumed commonly in the world.The major phenolic antioxidant composition in Vitis viniferae extracts are discussed in this review.The Resveratrol is the main biologically active constituent of grape which is known to produce medicinal properties in human diseases. Grape seed extracts exert free radical scavenging activities and inhibit lipid oxidation invitro cell line studies and also Invivo tumor studies. Grape seed as a antioxidants are effective against a broad range of cancer cells which target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E2 receptors, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Grape seed extracts have great potential in the prevention of cancer and further investigation for this study field is needed.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001748
Title: A review on kidney stones: introduction, diagnosis and pharmacological management and future direction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Kidney stones are one of the major causes of morbidity in worldwide. Medical therapy reduces stone recurrence significantly. The pathogenetic mechanisms of stone formation are intricate and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. This review discusses the introduction of kidney stones and its type and pharmacotherapy in the prevention of stones and future directions in the treatment. Original and review articles were found for Kidney stones, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. Despite the epidemiological development, there exists clear conception how to diagnose the metabolic disorders behind and how to treat them eûectively. It is just good policy to treat the cause of disease instead of removing its symptom. Fluid intake to promote urine volume of at least 2.5 L each day is essential. Dietary recommendations should be adjusted based on individual metabolic abnormalities. Calcium-based urinary calculi are emerging as a new concept in stone research that continues to provide important insights for improved understanding and prevention of urinary stone disease.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001749
Title: Alterations and stages in alzheimer diseases: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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We know the brain is made up of Neuron and these are interconnected to form vast network, these connections are synapse and able to transmission of information from one neuron to another. In AD 10 to 15 years before the appearance of symptoms two main lesions form inthe brain senile plaques composed of Amiloid â protein and Neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau protein On the surface of neuron a large protein called APP, normally APP is sanctioned by enzyme on the surface of the neuron and it freeze a protein called amiloid â .The amiloid â protein then cleard in the body and in case of AD there is an imbalance .The amiloid â protein no longer regulated and found in too greater quantity. The numerous question remains unanswered we know the presence of two cerebral leason is necessary to develop AD,since one will not come with other which leason comes first NFT or senile plaques the answer is still under debate Many CT are destined to reduce senile plaques in the brain have failed .In fact reducing them is not sufficient to eradicate the diseases. It is now been suggested that well formation of senile plaques smaller form of amiloid â called oligomer appeared to be toxic to neuron, disturbing that communication when they fix on synapse it would appear that the toxic oligomer and their accumulation senile plaques or at the origin of NFT which is in their turn are responsible for symptoms. The relationship between amiloid â protein and tau protein still little understood. what is the exact sequence of molecular mechanism and lead in to development of dementia .what is the role of genetic and environmental risk factor in the appearance of diseases. Scientific research is essential and answering these question .Thanks to researcher AD is better and better known in its complexity and new avenue raise real hope to eradicating this devastating diseases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001750
Title: Computer aided drug design through molecular docking: Identification of selective COX-2 inhibitorsas potential NSAIDs
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: From the ages, NSAIDs are having a prominent role in antiinflammatory action and pain management. But on other hand it is having numerous adverse effects like when NSAIDs are orally administered they can cause gastric mucosal and renal damage. Recently, introduced curcumin and its derivatives have shown improved activities with reducing adverse effect of the NSAIDs. Moreover, curcumin showed the effects on the cellular target sites in variety of diseases. To impede the adverse effects of NSAIDs particularly celecoxib a selective COX inhibitor has been combined with curcumin to design the new ligands in this study. Methods: The AutoDockVina (ADT) 1.5.6 software is used for molecular docking purposes. The molecular structures were drawn in ChemBiodraw ultra and by the help of ChemBiodraw 3D, all structures were energy minimized by MM2 method and converted to pdb, extention file which is readable at the ADT interface. Results: The newly designed ligands studied through molecular docking on COX-1 and COX-2 proteins through AutodockVina molecular modeling software. Sb1 toSb7 derivatives come up with remarkable binding affinity and among them Sb3 found most potent and selective to COX-2 isoenzyme. Conclusion: Among the designed ligand Sb3 which found selective COX-2 inhibitor could serve as a potential alternate with better antiinflammatory properties and reduced adverse effects accompanied with NSAIDs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001751
Title: Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antibacterial, and Anthelmintic Investigations of bark and leaves of Litsea glutinosa
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Bangladeshi medicinal plants have received considerable attention for their bioactivity in traditional medical systems. The present study was aimed to investigate the comparative phytochemical screening and pharmacological importance of crude ethanolic extracts of leaves and bark of Litsea glutinosa. In DPPH radical-scavenging assay, bark extract showed highest IC50 value at 17.49 µg/mL whereas leaves showed at 76.75 µg/mL. The total phenolic, flavonoids, and tannin content in bark showed 277.73, 38.31, and 78.7 mg/gm of its dried extract respectively with regards to standards equivalent, whereas for leaves these were 53.87, 19.41, and 17.11 mg/gm of its dried extract. Both the extracts of leaves and bark showed strong reducing power. In cytotoxic activity test on brine shrimp lethality bioassy, the LC50 values for bark and leaves extracts were 34.67 and 67.61µg/ml respectively. In antibacterial activity assay, the bark showed activity against eight tested bacterial species except S. sonni and it showed highest activity against S. aureus. Whereas the leaves extract showed activity against seven tested bacterial species except S. epidermidis and S. sonni and it showed highest activity against S. dysentery. In the anthelmintic activity test on H. contortus the bark extract showed paralysis and death time of 31.23 and 42.27 min respectively whereas leaves extract showed these time of 33.85 and 42.27 min respectively at a concentration on 100 mg/mL. The results demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of L. glutinosa bark has more potential antioxidant, cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity than that of leaves.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-QA-00001753
Title: Spectrophotometric method for quantitative estimation of DNA isolated from various parts of Catharanthus roseus Linn
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Plants are attracting more attention among contemporary pharmacy scientists because some human diseases resulting from antibiotic resistance have gained worldwide concern. A number of methods are available and are being developed for the isolation of nucleic acids from plants. Catharanthus is in the Apocynaceae family, well known for being rich in alkaloids. Vinca alkaloids are used widely in the treatment of both childhood and adult cancers. Due to biochemical organization they target the á / â tubulin subunit of heterodimers, and they act to inhibit cell division by disrupting microtubule dynamics. The different parts of Vinca rosea were studied for their nucleic acid content by using spectrophotometric analysis. In order to measure DNA content of the Leaves, Roots and Flowers of Vinca, Spectrophotometry serves various advantages i.e non destructive and allows the sample to be recovered for further analysis or manipulation. Spectrophotometry uses the fact that there is a relationship between the absorption of ultraviolet light by DNA/RNA and its concentration in a sample. This article deals with a modern approaches to to develop a simple, efficient, reliable and cost-effective method for isolation and estimation of total genomic DNA from various parts of the plant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001754
Title: High fat diet induced myocardial injury : a time response study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Consumption of high fat diet may precipitate cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) by generating oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of high fat diet consumption for long duration on rat myocardium and to evaluate the time-response of such changes. Methods: 36 healthy, male albino wistar rats of body weight 150g±10g were divided into 6 different groups. 3 control groups of the animals were fed on normal diet and the other three groups were fed on high fat diet (60% energy from fats) for three different time points, i.e., 7, 15 and 30 consecutive days. Alterations in the levels of some important markers of cardiac injury, and biomarkers of oxidative stress along with the activities of some important antioxidant and prooxidant enzymes were assayed and the time-dependent response was analysed. Results: The results indicate that the biomarkers of cardiac injury and oxidative stress as well as the enzymatic activities significantly altered after feeding high fat diet (60%). The alterations revealed a time-dependent pattern and maximum changes were observed after 30 days. The results suggest involvement of oxidative stress in high fat diet induced myocardial injury. Conclusion: Consumption of high fat diet (60% energy from fats) can induce oxidative stress related alterations in rat myocardium in a strongly time-dependent manner.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001756
Title: An Integrated Approach For Psoriatic Arthritis.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Psoriatic arthritis is a debilitating condition, which affects approximately the one-quarter of psoriasis patient. Psoriatic arthritis is a systemic, polymorphic joint disease with a variable presentation and clinical course. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a systemic, polymorphic joint disease with the variable presentation and clinical course. The outcome depends upon the association with severe comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia .This articles reviews about the recent advances done in psoriatic arthritis over a past several years with emphasis on early diagnosis for better understanding of pathogenesis and with new therapeutic approaches. There is lot of clinical laboratory and ultrasound features which help in identifying the patients destined to develop Psoriatic arthritis with the several screening tools which have been developed. It also recognized about the genetic and epigenetic factors, as well as T cells and cytokines, which plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of (PsA), and also several targets have been identified for therapeutic interventions. New therapies have been developed and also tested in Psoriatic arthritis and found to be highly effective for both skin and joint manifestations of the disease. The expectation is that, in future, Psoriatic arthritis patients can be treated early with more aggressively and that there will not be any significant progression of joint damage.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001757
Title: Synthesis, evaluation and molecular docking studies of Schiff base derived benzimidazole-2-thiols as an antimicrobial agent
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: In recent years an increasing frequency and severity of antimicrobial resistance to different antimicrobial agents, demands new remedies for treatment of infections. Benzimidazole nitrogen containing heterocyclic compound, is important scaffold and gained significant attraction towards antibacterial activities. Therefore, the aim of present work was to synthesize a series of 2-((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)thio)-N’-benzylideneacetohydrazides (4-13) and evaluated their in-vitro antimicrobial activity against selected pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. Methods: The synthesis of the intermediate and target compounds was performed by standard procedure. Synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity by tube dilution method. Molecular docking study of synthesized derivatives was also performed to find out their interaction with the target site of topoisomerase enzyme using Autodock Vina software. Results: Compounds 7-9 and 11 with electron withdrawing groups at phenyl ring showed good efficacy against tested strains. Further, docking results revealed that benzimidazole part of compound 11 buried in the D chain, showed the hydrophilic interaction at ARG1122 amino acid residue, whereas another part (Schiff base) showed similar hydrophilic interaction with B chain at ARG458 amino acid residue. Binding affinity of most potent compound 11 (-9.8 Kcal/mol) was comparable to standard drug ciprofloxicin (-10 Kcal/mol). Conclusion: Compound 11 with meta-NO2 substituted phenyl ring showed the highest potency as well as binding affinity with target site among synthesized compounds. These observations show that hybrid of benzimidazole and Schiff base with electron withdrawing groups could be an important lead for further development of antimicrobial agent against resistant microbial strains.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001758
Title: Lipid Nanoparticulate system of Simvastatin- A method for solubility enhancement
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: In the present work, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of simvastatin was formulated with an aim to increase the solubility, rate of dissolution and drug stability. Method: The formulations were prepared by hot homogenization technique using lipids such as stearic acid, glycerol monostearate and tween 20 as a surfactant. The coarse emulsion was homogenized by using Polytron PT 1600 E homogenizer at 30000 rpm. Nanoparticles obtained were characterized for particle size analysis, zeta potential, SEM, DSC, FTIR and also analyzed for drug content and in vitro drug release profile. Results: Out of 12 formulations, selected 5 formulations (F1 to F5) were found to be free flowing. The drug content of the selected formulations was ranging between 61.56 ± 1.02% to 78.34 ± 1.03%. The average particle size and zeta potential of selected formulas, F2 was found to be 795.7nm and -33.7mV and F4 was found to be 369nm and -34mV respectively. The comparative release profile of F1 to F5 was found to be in between 92.05 ± 0.004% to 97.65 ± 0.005% in comparison to pure drug profile of 72.00 ± 0.003% at 24hr release study. The DSC thermogram indicates the melting point of the drug was decreased from 140.95 oC to 57.30 oC, due to molecular dispersion of drug in lipids. Conclusion: Solid lipid nanoparticles can be alternate stable cost effective approach for improving dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001760
Title: Analytical method development and validation of Mirabegraon by RP-HPLC Method
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A novel very rapid, sensitive, reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) technique was developed for the quantitative estimation of mirabegraon in bulk and tablet dosage form..It was resolved by using a mobile phase Potassium di-hydrogen phosphate: acetone in the ratio (40:60 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. using UV - Visible detector at the wavelength of 243 nm for quantification. Efficient separation was achieved for mirabegraon on used Waters Acquity HSS C18(100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7ìm). The retention time mirabegraon of was 2.754min. The calibration graphs were linear and the method showed excellent recovery for tablet dosage form. The developed method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001762
Title: GC-MS Analysis (Qualitative as well as Quantitative) of the Commonly used Pesticides for increasing Production of Mango in Moradabad City, U. P., India
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In this paper, we provide research work of recent scientific findings on health effects and preference valuation of health risks related to pesticides, and the role of benefit cost analysis in policies related to pesticides. Acceptable analytical implementation methods are available to monitor the remains of pesticides on the commodities under consideration. Based on the danger valuation results, EFSA completes that the proposed use of pesticides on beetroots, mango, radishes, swedes, turnips, garlic, onions, shallots, herbal infusions from roots, root and rhizome spices, sugar beet and chicory roots will not result in a customer contact above the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to posture a consumer health risk. in this research study the alpha lindane was found 0.0036011 ppm and beta lindane was found 0.0036011ppm. Atrazine pesticide was found in 0.004995 ppm and HCB was found in the 0.0035098 ppm.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-HM-00001763
Title: Antibacterial activity of ethenolic extract of mucilage from various plant parts
Category: Herbal medicine
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The mucilage from the flowers of Spathodia campanulata (P. Beauv), fruits of Muntingia calabura, and Bridelia scandens(Roxb.) were extracted and isolated. The mucilages with different concentrations were tested for its antibacterial potential. It was noticed that the different concentrations of extract exhibits the antibacterial potential. The mucilage of Bridelia scandens, Spathodia campanulata shows very good antibacterial potential against Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi and Proteus vulgaris while Muntungia calabura mucilage was less effective against these bacteria but found effective against the Staphylococcus aureus.Thus, if these mucilages are used for the tablet coating or as emulsifiers for the antibacterial formulations then it will definitely improves the quality and delivery of drug and also helpsto avoid the side effects of synthetic polymers.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001764
Title: Overview of Antibiotic Resistance
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Antibiotics’, refers only to antimicrobials produced biologically by microorganisms that inhibit or kill other microorganisms, such as penicillin produced by the Penicillium fungus. Antibiotics are often used after a medical treatment, as well as an important addition to the treatment of patients with cancer. Thus, antibiotics are essential to saving individuals from infection. Antibiotic resistance is a global public health threat Antibiotic resistance, which is implicated in elevated morbidity and mortality rates as well as in the increased treatment costs, is considered to be one of the major global public health threats and the magnitude of the problem recently prompted a number of international and national bodies to take actions to protect the public. The fastest emergence of resistant bacteria is rising worldwide, endangering the efficacy of antibiotics, which have transformed medicine and saved millions of lives. When the antibiotic is not intended to kill or inhibit a pathogen, then the term is equivalent to dosage failure or drug tolerance. Multidrug-resistant is a word which is used when an organism is resistant to more than one drug. Bacteria from clinical and non-clinical settings are becoming rising resistant to conventional antibiotics. However, clinical microbiologists increasingly agree that multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria pose the greatest risk to public health. Most common and obvious contributing factor of antibiotic resistant pathogens is self-medication and lack of knowledge about antibiotic resistance. The taking of medicines on one’s own initiative or on another person’s suggestion who is not a certified medical professional is termed as Self-medication. Factor that contributes to the promotion of self-medication in developing countries is the availability of prescription drugs as OTC medicines and can be easily purchased from any pharmaceutical store. Prevention should be the ultimate solution, and vaccines have been suggested as a strategy that can be used to slow down the emergence of drug resistance by decreasing the infection rate and hence antibiotic usage. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as well as other organizations and experts, recommends various steps that health care practitioners (HCPs) and facilities can pursue to reduce antibiotic resistance, such as adopting an antibiotic stewardship program; improving diagnosis, tracking and prescribing practices; optimizing therapeutic regimens; and preventing infection transmission. Restrictive use of newer and broad-spectrum antibiotics has also been applied and advocated.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001765
Title: A Review on Preventive Measures of Surgical Site Infections
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Surgical site infections(SSIs) are one of the most common source known to cause the nosocomial infection. These have economic impacts on the health care system, also results in increased length of hospital stay and in turn causes hospital costs rising.. Most of the surgical site infections (SSIs) are preventable in nature. The common pathogens responsible for SSI are Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. Practices to prevent SSI are aimed at minimising the number of micro-organisms introduced into the operative site during the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative duration by following the standard procedures and guidelines. Implementing multidisciplinary strategies in SSI prevention must be consistently applied as per the needs of the individual patient and health care organization. This review has identi­fied that using a bundled approach, sharing responsibility, and adhering to best practice are strategies used by health care professional teams in the prevention of SSI.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001766
Title: A review on Deep vein thrombosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is basically the formation of clot into the veins of the body. The areas mostly affected by DVT are generally Left thigh, calf of foot etc. Deep vein thrombosis mainly occurs in the iliac vein as is the vein deep inside the foot. It mainly affects adults, geriatrics, and obstrecticts etc. People that have undergone major surgery, undergone bed rest, spinal cord injury, and hyper coagulation are on the severe risk of this disorder. After the formation of DVT, when the thrombi from the thrombus broke down due to pressure applied by blood and blood components, it goes directly to the pulmonary nerve; it then causes the fatal stage of pulmonary embolism. A scientist Rudolf Virchow has proposed a Virchow triad that shows the three major causes and risk factors of DVT. It consists of three major factors, the injury to the endothelium, the deficiency of protein C and last but not the least, the hyper coagulation stage. The diagnosis can be done by, D-Dimer test; it is a very useful test in the diagnosis of DVT. Rest the tests are, venous ultrasonography, contrast impedence, and impedence plethysmography etc. Treatment generally requires the use of Vitamin K antagonist i.e. Warfarin and low molecular weight heparin, fractionated heparin. The heparin therapy after a week is overlapped by Warfarin and the treatment duration is up to 3-5 months. Physiotherapy is also needed in patients with long term best rest. The other method for the removal of thrombus in insertion of Intra cathedral device the calf.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001767
Title: Development and Validation of RP- HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Saquinavir in Bulk and Dosage Form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Attempts were made to develop RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Saquinavir from   tablet.  For the  RP   HPLC  method, Younglin (S.K.) Gradient system UV detector and  C18 (Cosmosil)  with  150mm x 4.6 mm  i. d.  and 5ìm particle size Methanol : Water 0.05 % OPA (65:35v/v) pH 3.0 was used as the mobile phase for the method. The detection wavelength was 239 nm and flow rate was 0.7 ml/min. In the developed method, the retention time of Saquinavir were found to be 6.5 min. The developed method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. The linearity, precision, range and robustness was within the limits as specified by the ICH guidelines. A new, simple, accurate, precise, linear and rapid RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Saquinavir in bulk drugs and formulations as per ICH guidelines. Hence the method was found to be simple, accurate, precise, economic and reproducible. So, it is worthwhile that, the proposed methods can be successfully utilized for the routine quality control analysis Saquinavir in bulk drug as well as in formulations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001768
Title: Review on Osteoporosis A Preventable and management disease in Relation to Diabetes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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It is a chronic bone disease associated with poor bone remodeling and bone formation. Bone mass and changes in bone structure leads to increased risk of fracture. The pathological condition creates bones to become weak and fracture that commonly affects the parts of hip, wrist and spine. It consist of proteins, collagen, and calcium and associated substances confers the strength.The diabetes is a prolong metabolic disorder associated with multiple complications. The diabetes develop at younger age and suffering from neuropathy,vision problems may reduces the bone mass responsible for risk of bone fracture. The imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast bone response through out the remodeling buildup the disease. The repeated events promotes bones to meet normal demands and falling more stress on bone advancing the risk of fracture. The diagnosis pattern can be suggested towards X-rays, various vital organ function test, pathological test towards the disease and confirmed by tests to measure bone density. It affects men and women in normal health care scenario. The risk factors include aging, low body weight, low sex hormones and menopause, smoking, alcohol, some medications will impact the development of disease. Current treatment address the medications like bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators, calcium and vitamin D supplements. It is a healable disease that can results in devastating the physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences of the patients. The early recognition of the causes and risk factors medication therapy measures impact the outcomes.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001769
Title: Probiotic Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits COX-2 Inflammatory pathway
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Conjugate linoleic acid (CLA), a novel functional lipid , synthesised from linoleic acid by probiotic lactobacilli. In the present study, the CLA derived from Lactobacillus plantarum (LP-CLA) was assessed for its activity against COX-2 inflammatory pathway. Methodology & Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of Lactobacillus plantarum and LP-CLA was studied using chronic inflammation model .The in vivo experimental data was validated with in-silico analysis by docking CLA isomers into the proteins of inflammatory cascade using CHARM m-based molecular docking algorithm. The CLA isomers demonstrated stronger interaction than standard NSAIDs such as indomethacin and diclofenac .The impact of LP-CLA on the expression of COX-2 was investigated in MDA-MB-231 cells by Western blot analysis. The concentration-dependent inhibition of COX-2 expression was found without affecting the constitutive COX-1 protein expression in LP-CLA treated cells. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the inhibition of inflammatory cascade by conjugated linoleic acid derived from Lactobacillus plantarum.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001770
Title: Formulation design and development of Orodispersible tablets of Levetiracetam
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Levetiracetam is a medication used to treat epilepsy. It is used for partial onset, myoclonic or tonic clonic Seizures. It works by decreasing abnormal excitement in the brain. The Current research work is aimed at developing a formulate and evaluate of an orodispersible tablet dosage form of Levetiracetam. The target of these new oral dissolving/disintegrating dosage forms have generally been pediatric, geriatric, bedridden and developmentally disabled patients and also patients with persistent nausea, who are in traveling, or who have little or no access to water are also good candidates for ODTs Direct Compression method was employed for blending of drug with polymers in the given ratio as a Nine formulations. The prepared powder blends were then compressed into tablets using the necessary Superdisintegrants (CP, SSG and CCS) and Excipients. The tablets were evaluated for Weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, Drug Content and Disintegrating Time (Sec) were subjected to a 20 minutes in vitro drug release studies (USP dissolution rate test apparatus II, 50 rpm, 370C ±0.50C) using phosphate buffer, pH 6.8 as a dissolution medium (900ml). The amount of Levetiracetam released from the tablet formulations at different time intervals was estimated using a UV spectroscopy method. The formulations that showed a considerable retardation of the drug release are considered promising. Among the nine formulations, F5 formulation containing Drug to Sodium Starch Glycollate (SSG) and Cross Povidone (CP) is optimized based on its ability to till 10 minutes of in-vitro dissolution time, and its Cumulative % drug release of the 99.82±0.37% of dissolution study.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001771
Title: Phytochemical screening, in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oil from Myrtus communis L.
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Myrtus communis L. (family - Myrtaceae) is an evergreen aromatic medicinal plant which has been used since ancient times for medicinal, food and spice purposes. The main purpose of this study was to determine the phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Myrtus communis leaves Methods: The Present study was to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis (Alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, amino acids, reducing sugars, anthraquinones, and volatile oils), antioxidant potential of Myrtus communis by 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and antibacterial activities by disc diffusion method. Results:The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was studied by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and its activity was compared with ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant. The essential oil and standard showed their maximum activity (88.33 % inhibition) and 98.33 % inhibition at 200 µg/mL respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the essential oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against S. aureus, E. coli and S. typhi. showed high activity against E.coli. Conclusion:The essential oil of Myrtus communis leaves is a potential source of natural antioxidants and antibacterial compounds which are used for the treatment of various diseases caused by free radicals and microbes. Thus, it is a promising candidate for antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001772
Title: Sickle Cell Disease: An Overview
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Sickle cell disease is a serious problem in Africa where the required medication is often not available or too expensive for local Africans. Other possibilities have to be investigated, like traditional medication in the form of medicinal plants to control the symptoms of the disease. By screening scientific articles, a big table in Excel was made, containing 93 species which all have a potential effect against sickle cell disease. . The inset image shows a cross-section of a normal red blood cell with normal hemoglobin. Part B shows abnormal, sickled red blood cells blocking blood flow in a blood vessel.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001773
Title: Methanol extract of the leaves of Anacardium occidentale and its interaction with haematological parameters of indomethacin-ulcerated rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Bleeding might be associated with gastric ulceration and when severe, could bring about haematologic abnormalities such as anaemia among others. This research was therefore, designed to investigate the interaction of the methanol extract of the leaves of A. occidentale and haematological parameters of indomethacin-ulcerated rats. Methods: The effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of A. occidentale on red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb) and total white blood cell (tWBC) count were determined with the aids of standard methods. Results: The extract at the graded doses [100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w)] significantly (p < 0.05) and dose-dependently increased the RBC counts, PCV values, Hb concentrations and tWBC counts of the rats in the test groups compared to the values obtained for the rats in the positive control group (group 2). The effects of the 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract were similar to those of the standard anti-ulcer drug, famotidine at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: The methanol extract of the leaves of A. occidentale remarkably improved the haematological parameters in the ulcerated rats and hence may raise the desirability of the plant above some other plants for the treatment of gastric ulcer especially when the ulcer is bleeding-prone.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001775
Title: A Review on Early and Late Neonatal Sepsis : An Update
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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A Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of death in newborn infants. Sepsis,which is a very common bacterial infection of the bloodstream, presenting in a newborn baby with a high mortality.The blood culture which is a gold standard required for identification of sepsis, culture reports are available only after 48-72 hours. The new born infants are more prone to infection due to bacterial invasion than the older children due to their weak immune system, premature ,very low birth weight ,weak immune system is a major factor through this neonates are more susceptible to sepsis.The neonates are required a proper means of care in condition of sepsis. The requirement of the initiation of empirical antibiotic therapy till the suspected sepsis found. In the increasing rate of drug resistant organisms make the treatment options fewer and the effective treatment is delayed.The proper means of antibiotics and treatment must be required for sepsis patients.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001780
Title: A Novel Stability Indicating Analytical Development and validation of a RP-HPLC Assay Method for the Quantification of Ibrutinib in Bulk and its Formulation
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present study was aimed to develop a novel stability-indicating Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) assay method with its validation study, to quantify Ibrutinib in bulk and its formulation. Methods: The High performance liquid chromatographic separation was carried out for the assay determination of Ibrutinib by means of isocratic elution at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min on a Symmetry C8 XTerra column (150x4.6mm, 5µ particle size) at 30oC with the mobile phase consisting of Potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and Acetonitrile (40:60 v/v) pH 3.0. The chromatographic separation was monitored by UV detection at 226nm. Results: The developed method was validated fulfilling the guidelines of ICH. Rt of Ibrutinib was found to be 3.40 min. Linearity of the method was established in between 5-30 ìg/ml. Limit of detection and Quantitation was found to be 0.64 and 1.95 ìg/ml respectively. The percent relative standard deviation for the precision studies was within 2%. Stability studies are carried for various conditions like acid, base, peroxide, thermal, photolytic and hydrolytic and hence shows the stability of the method. Conclusion: The method was simple, precise, accurate, robust and rapid that can be utilized to quantify Ibrutinib in bulk and its capsule formulation. The ability to elude the Ibrutinib under forced degradation conditions proves the stability indicating nature of the developed method.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001781
Title: Molecular characterization of bacteria isolated from rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil of Saraca asoca
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this work was to study biochemical and molecular characteristics of bacterial communities isolated from the rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil. Methods: Twelve different bacterial cultures, six from rhizospheric soil and six from non-rhizospheric soil were isolated by using spread plate method. Out of 12 bacterial isolates, three cultures (RDD3, RDD5 and NDD4) were selected for biochemical and molecular characterization on the basis of % abundance and pigment production. Results: Sequence, obtained from 16S rRNA amplification, was compared with the NCBI database by using BLASTn, to find the most similar sequences and were sorted by the E score. These bacterial isolates were characterized as Arthrobacter sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rRNA. Conclusion: Bacteria isolated from rhizospheric soil were identified as Arthrobacter sp. and Exiguobacterium sp. and from non rhizoshpheric soil was identified as Bacillus sp.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001782
Title: Rapid Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Spermacoce hispida Linn
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The development of an eco-friendly process for the synthesis of nanoparticles is an important and emerging area in the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by using aqueous leaf extract of the medicinal plant Spermacoce hispida. The synthesized AgNPs were initially noticed through visual color change from yellow to reddish brown. This is confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. The spectra of the reaction medium containing silver nanoparticles showed maximum absorbance at 425 nm. Morphology and size of AgNPs were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prolonged stability of AgNPs was due to capping of oxidized polyphenols and carboxyl protein which was established by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study. The silver nanoparticles have shown anticancer activity against A549 lung cancer cell lines.The synthesized AgNPs show good cytotoxic activity. The out comes of this study indicate that these nanoparticles could be effectively utilized in pharmaceutical, biotechnological, and biomedical applications