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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001866
Title: New polymorph of armodafinil and its stability studies
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The study of polymorphism in drugs is very important and is an integral part of drug development in present days.In fact, a detailed drug study helps to resolve problems such as drug solubility and drug formulation techniques in drugmanufacturing processes. The individual of drug polymorphism has received extensive academic and industrial attention.The regulatory requirements for filing new drug application (NDA) and abbreviated NDA of a particular dosage form are so stringent that pharmaceutical companies are bound to study polymorphs along with their bioavailability and stability. The aim of the research is to identify new polymorph of armodafinil. Materials and Methods: A new polymorph of armodafinil oneof the sleep awakening drugs in the market is synthesized and characterized using pXRD, DSC, TGA and its stability studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001833
Title: Examinations of some haematological indices of diclofenaculcerated rats given the methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of the chloroform–ethanol leaf extract of Dacryodes edulis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Gastrointestinal bleeding may be associated with gastric ulceration and when severe could result in haematologic anomalies such as anaemia among others. The use of herbal medicines for the treatment of gastric ulcer and its related problems is encouraged due to their accessibility and affordability inter alia. This study was aimed at evaluating the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol leaf extract of D. edulis for their antioxidant vitamin contents and acute toxicities. Based on the outcomes of the preliminary investigations, the most promising of the three (ethanol layer) was further fractionated, and the effects of the most desirable fraction (methanol fraction) on some haematological indices of diclofenac-ulcerated rats were examined. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant vitamin contents and acute toxicities of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers as well as the effects of the methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of the chloroform–ethanol leaf extract of D. edulis on red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb), and total white blood cell (tWBC) count were determined using standard methods. Results: The antioxidant vitamin contents of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers were: vitamins A (1.34 ± 0.06, 1.83 ± 0.08 and 1.79 ± 0.08 µg/100 g), C (0.76 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.05 and 0.79 ± 0.03 mg/100 g), and E (0.86 ± 0.05, 1.17 ± 0.07 and 1.04 ± 0.05 mg/100 g), respectively. Each of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers caused no mortality up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. Administration of the methanol fraction significantly (P < 0.05) and dose-dependently increased the RBC count, PCV, Hb concentration, and tWBC count of the ulcerated rats. Conclusion: The methanol fraction of the ethanol layer of the chloroform–ethanol leaf extract of D. edulis remarkably increased the haematological indices of the ulcerated rats. These support the use of D. edulis leaves in the treatment of gastric ulcer traditionally, especially when anaemia shows up from such ulcer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001832
Title: Anti-ulcer properties of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform–ethanol extract of the leaves of Dacryodes edulis
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The leaves of D. edulis are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric ulcer. The aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract of the leaves of D. edulis were therefore, investigated for their qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents as well as effects on ulcer index and curative ratio of diclofenac-ulcerated Wistar rats. Methods: The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents as well as effects of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract on ulcer index and curative ratio were determined using standard methods. Results: The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract showed the presence and amounts of the following: alkaloids (1.77 ± 0.26, 3.19 ± 0.14 and 3.52 ± 0.49 mg/100 g), flavonoids (2.21 ± 0.41, 5.25 ± 0.34 and 4.46 ± 0.53 mg/100 g), tannins (1.73 ± 0.33, 3.18 ± 0.38 and 3.98 ± 0.25%), saponins (2.03 ± 0.25, 3.26 ± 0.45 and 4.02 ± 0.30 mg/100 g) and steroids (2.49 ± 0.12, 3.95 ± 0.21 and 3.02 ± 0.10 mg/100 g) respectively. Each of the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract was found to be safe at a dose as high as 5000 mg/kg body weight (b.w). At the two doses (150 and 300 mg/kg b.w), the chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract caused significant (p < 0.05) and dose-dependent decreases and increases in the ulcer indices and curative ratios respectively of the rats in the test groups compared with those of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group. Only the 300 mg/kg b.w of the aqueous extract produced a similar trend of results. Results of the chloroform and ethanol layers as well as the 300 mg/kg b.w of the aqueous extract were comparable with those of the standard anti-ulcer drug, ranitidine at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: Experimental findings indicate that the aqueous extract, chloroform and ethanol layers of the chloroform-ethanol extract of the leaves of D. edulis possess remarkable anti-ulcer effects and might serve as sources of anti-ulcer drugs in future.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001794
Title: Mutational studies of novel screened molecules against wild and mutated HIV-1 integrase using molecular docking studies
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The screened molecules which proposed novel HIV-1 integrase inhibitors were collected from the literature. Mutational studies were performed to check whether these molecules are having good binding affinity against mutated HIV-1 integrase or not using molecular docking technique. Methods: First homology models of the mutated HIV-1 integrase were prepared and subsequently all the models were refined and optimized in Modeller program. Next, molecular docking studies were performed into the active site of mutated HIV-1 integrase models using the proposed inhibitors in AutoDock 4.1 program. The results of these studies were compared with the wild type docking studies. Results: The docking studies were found that some of the screened molecules (ZINC1245110, 131614, 92749, ZINC05181828 and ZINC13147504) followed the same binding patterns (in term of locations, interactions and binding score) as found with wild type HIV-1 integrase. Conclusions: Computationally, the same binding patterns were exhibited by these molecules (ZINC1245110, 131614, 92749, ZINC05181828 and ZINC13147504) against mutated models as wild type. This elucidated that these molecules having susceptibility against the drug resistant HIV-1 integrase. So, these molecules may be used as a starting point to design novel inhibitors against mutated HIV-1 integrase, which need to be confirmed experimentally.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001816
Title: Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Urtica dioica
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: Urtica dioica has been reported to have an antioxidant activity, so it may be used for the prevention of hepatotoxicity which is caused by oxidative stress with excessive formation of reactive oxygen species and peroxynitrite. The current study investigates the hepatoprotective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of U. dioica. Materials and Methods: Atotal of 36 rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 served as a control, Groups 2 and 3 served as negative control and standard, while Groups 4-6 were administered with 100, 200, and 400 (mg/kg b.w.) doses of plant extract, respectively. On the 7th day after 2 h of respective treatments, the blood samples were collected for the estimation of biochemical marker enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT], serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase [SGPT], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) as well as total bilirubin, and total cholesterol. Then, animals were sacrificed for histopathological examination. Results: Treatment with paracetamol significantly increased the serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, bilirubin, and cholesterol. Treatment with silymarin and 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of a hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica leaves has significantly brought down the levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, bilirubin, and cholesterol. The extract of U. dioica exhibited a concentration-dependent antiradical activity by quenching 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and scavenging nitric oxide radical. U. dioica extract has also shown the ability to reduce oxidative stress by increasing the glutathione level and preventing lipid peroxidation. Conclusion: U. dioica has potent hepatoprotective action on paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001817
Title: Selective and sensitive reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous estimation of mebeverine and chlordiazepoxide in capsule dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: To develop a simple, linear and rapid RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of mebeverine and chlordiazepoxide in capsule dosage form and validate as per ICH guidelines. Methods: Separation was achieved on a Agilent C18 (250x4.6mm, 5µ particle size) column using a mobile phase consisting of methanol : TEA buffer pH 7.0 (40 : 60) (v/v) in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 7.0 with orthophosphoric acid and UV detection was set at 262 nm. Results: The developed method resulted in mebeverine eluting at 3.4 min and chlordiazepoxide at 7.6 min. mebeverine exhibited linearity in the range 27-216μg/ml, while chlordiazepoxide exhibited linearity in the range 1.8-7.4μg/ml. Percentage Mean recoveries were found to be 100.1 and 100.3 for Mebeverine and chlordiazepoxide respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) for Mebeverine and Chlordiazepoxide were found to be 2.2μg/ml and 0.01μg/ml respectively, while limit of quantitation (LOQ) for mebeverine and mhlordiazepoxide were found to be 6.5μg/ml and 0.03μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: A simple, linear and rapid RP-HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of mebeverine and mhlordiazepoxide in capsules dosage form and validated as per ICH guidelines. Hence it can be used for the routine analysis of mebeverine and chlordiazepoxide in capusles in various pharmaceutical industries.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001818
Title: In vitro and in vivo screening of antivenom activities of Vipera russelli venom by Azima tetracantha ethyl acetate extract
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Objective: Azima tetracantha Lam. (Salvadoraceae) possesses pharmacologically active phytochemicals. It has antidiarrheal and antibacterial properties and is used to treat toothache and snakebites. This study evaluates the neutralizing potential of A. tetracantha on Vipera russelli venom. Materials and Methods: The ethyl acetate leaf extract (50-1500 µg/mL) was subjected to in vitro enzyme inhibition of V. russelli venom. The neutralization of procoagulant, fibrinogenolytic, hemolysis of human red blood corpuscles (HRBC), and indirect hemolytic activities was assayed by standard methods. Neutralization of lethality, edematous, hemorrhagic, and myotoxic properties of venom were analyzed in vivo using Swiss Albino mice. Lethality, hemorrhagic properties, and their neutralization were studied using chick embryos as well. Results: The study showed that the ethyl acetate extract was able to neutralize enzyme activities of venom with varying inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) values (57.7-1086.9 μg/mL). The fibrinogenolytic and indirect hemolytic activity was reduced in 1:10 and 1:25 concentration of the extract, respectively, and in vitro hemolysis of HRBC was reduced at 60 μg/mL concentration. The neutralization of lethality (3 × lethal dose [LD50]) in mice was observed at 1:10 ratio of the extract (w/w). The hemorrhagic spot was reduced at 1:20 concentration of extract. The lactate dehydrogenase enzyme levels were reduced in myotoxicity. There was no profound effect on procoagulant and edematous activity. In chick embryos, 10 μg/μL extract concentration neutralized lethality (3 × LD50) and hemorrhagic effect of venom. Conclusion: The in vitro and in vivo studies reveals the neutralizing potential of the ethyl acetate plant extract against toxic effects of the venom.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001819
Title: Development, corroboration and characterization of genotoxic impurity of 2, 6-dichlorobenzyl chloride in guanfacine hydrochloride by gas chromatography
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Object: This research paper describes a simple analytical method for determination of a genotoxic impurity of 2,6-dichlorobenzyl chloride in Guanfacine hydrochloride drug substance by gas chromatography (GC) method. Methods: It is a non-pharmacopoeia method. Validation was carried out in compliance with the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The method utilized GC (Agilent Technologies 6890 N Network GC system with FID detector) and DB-624 capillary column 30 m length × 0.53 mm inner diameter, 3.0 µm film thickness, methyl-phenyl cyanopropyl-polysiloxane as stationary phase. Nitrogen was used as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 4.0 psi with constant pressure mode. The proposed method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and solution stability. It can be conveniently adopted for routine quality control analysis.
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001820
Title: Neuroprotective role of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb in streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain in Type 2 diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study was aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb (PM) on the pain threshold response in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic neuropathic pain. Material and Methods: STZ (40 mg/kg; i.p.) administered for 4 weeks in rats was monitored in 0th and 8th week by measuring blood sugar levels and body weight. Thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical hyperalgesia, and thermal allodynia were performed in 0th, 4th, 6th, and 8th week of the study. At the end of 8th week study, formalin-evoked pain model followed by measurement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 level, and morphological changes in sciatic nerve were studied. All the rats except the vehicle-treated group received insulin 1 IU/kg/day to maintain plasma glucose levels. Results and Discussions: After 4 weeks of diabetic induction, administration of PM (100 and 200 mg/kg) along with 1 IU/day for 4 weeks had no significant effect on body weight and feed intake when compared to control rats. Pregabalin (10 mg/kg) and PM (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) were injected for 4 weeks significantly attenuated the nociception in behavioral models. Furthermore, pregabalin and PM significantly inhibited the TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels comparable to STZ group. In comparison to STZ with insulintreated rats, PM exhibited significant increase in the pain threshold response. PM also reversed the STZ-induced axonal degeneration and deposition of collagen fibers in the sciatic nerve. Conclusion: The study concludes that neuroprotective effect of PM in STZ-induced neuropathic pain can be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and neuroregeneration mechanism.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001821
Title: Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel 3-[5-(4-substituted) phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2yl]-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: Our previous studies (Gupta et al., 2007) have demonstrated the effectiveness of synthesized series of 3-[5-(4-substituted) phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2yl]-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives as antimicrobial agents. In this work, the effect of substitution of electron withdrawing groups at the phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety was investigated. Approach: Nitro group (NO2 ) and fluorine group (F) were substituted each at the 4th position of phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety to produce 3-(5-(4-nitrophenyl)- 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one and 3-(5-(4-fluorophenyl)- 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-2-styrylquinazolin- 4(3H)-one, respectively. Findings: Synthesized compounds were confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Their antimicrobial activity was tested against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli using cup-plate method. The two synthesized compounds were found to possess substantial antibacterial activity. They exhibited higher antibacterial activity compared to standard drugs streptomycin and penicillin. Further, the fluorinated derivative was found to have more antibacterial activity compared to the nitro derivative. Conclusion: Monosubstitution of electron withdrawing groups at the oxadiazole moiety is an effective approach for improving the potency of the 3-[5-(4-substituted) phenyl-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole-2yl]- 2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one scaffold.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001822
Title: Relationship between the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in indomethacin-ulcerated rats pre-treated with Anacardium occidentale methanol leaf extract
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Increased needs for proteins and anti-oxidants are required to promote wound healing; hence, this research was originated to investigate the relationship between the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in indomethacin-ulcerated rats pre-treated with A. occidentale methanol leaf extract. Materials and Methods: The effects of the methanol leaf extract of A. occidentale on the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase were determined and assayed, respectively, using standard methods. Results: The extract at the three doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight [b.w]) caused significant (P < 0.05) and dose-related increases in the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in the rats of the test groups compared to those of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group (Group 2). The 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract exerted the greatest effects in a manner similar to those of the standard anti-ulcer  drug, famotidine at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: The remarkable amelioration of the amount of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in the ulcerated rats by the methanol leaf extract of A. occidentale encourages the local utilisation of the leaves of the plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001831
Title: Phytochemical evaluation and pharmacological screening of nootropic activity of Eclipta alba
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present study focuses on the evaluation of nootropic activity using passive avoidance paradigm test model (step-down method) in white albino mice using ethanolic extracts of Eclipta alba aerial parts. Materials and Methods: The study was comprised of primary phytochemical constituents screening of extracts using standard methods such as alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and terpenoids. The nootropic activity is analyzed by step-down method using nine white albino mice (120-150 g) at doses of 100 mg in 0.52 ml saline solution (oral administration) based on body weight. Results: Results showed that the phytochemical constituents present in plants increase the nootropic activity as there was a significant increase in step-down latency compared to untreated and standard. Conclusion: It was concluded from the present study finding that the ethanolic extract of plant has a potential nootropic activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001834
Title: Studies on the in vitro antihepatotoxic activity of Indigofera tinctoria (Linn.) against Hep G2 Human liver carcinoma cell lines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Medicinal plants have been used extensively throughout human history to cure many ailments and diseases. Indigofera tinctoria (Fabaceae) is traditionally used for curing various ailments including inflammation, cancer, liver disorder, fever, and arthritis. The plant is reported to give relief to victims suffering from microbial infections and against illness caused by oxidative stress. The plant has also been reported to cure liver ailments but there is no scientific evidence for it. Thus, the present study is undertaken with the objective to study the antihepatotoxic potential of methanolic extract of this plant. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical compounds were identified and confirmed by high-performance thinlayer chromatography. The antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity of this plant was also determined by 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl assay and well diffusion agar method, respectively. 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to check the cytotoxic activity and antihepatotoxic potential of the plant extract. Results: The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of major bioactive compounds. The plant extract also exhibited good antioxidant potential that showed 69.3% of free radical scavenging at highest concentration (5 mg/ml) tested and also was effective against Gram-positive bacteria which showed 15 mm zone of inhibition at highest concentration (4 mg/ml) tested. The plant extract showed good antihepatotoxic activity with inhibitory concentration at 1.8 mg/ml, thus preventing the damage to the liver by hepatotoxins. Conclusion: The presence of many major compounds suggests that this plant extract contributes to antihepatotoxic activity by synergistic effect.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001835
Title: Neurotherapeutic efficacy of nutraceuticals in combating Parkinson’s disease: A promising alternative
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly progressive neurodisorder that affects movement, muscle control, and balance. At present, there is no cure for PD. Conventional medications such as L-Dopa have been the pharmacologic standard for the treatment of PD. Like L-Dopa, other therapeutic strategies for PD remain largely symptom-relieving that includes dopamine agonists, monoamine oxidase B inhibitors, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, amantadine, and anticholinergics. Unfortunately, these pharmacological interventions are often accompanied by serious side effects affecting the PD patient in the long run. Surgical treatments of Parkinson’s, namely, deep brain stimulation and implantation of embryonic dopaminergic cells have their own limitations. In this context, nutraceuticals by virtue of their origin from natural food products with no/ less side effects remain a safe and better choice compared to the conventional medications. For the onset and progression of PD, several risk factors may be involved including oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly, some nutraceuticals have been found to target and attenuate these risk factors, thereby preventing or delaying the progression of PD. In this study, different search engines such as Science direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov were used for gathering data using suitable keywords focusing on neutraceuticals and their efficacy in combating PD. All the references cited in this review fall within the time interval of 20 years after publication. This review contains requisite details of in vivo, in vitro, and clinical trials involving human and animal models. After research, a good number of neutraceuticals showed potential efficacy in combating PD though further studies are required to authenticate the desired efficacies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-SM-00001836
Title: In vitro antioxidant property of siddha formulation, Irunelli karpam
Category: Siddha Medicine
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Siddha system of medicine is a renowned holistic system of traditional medicine emphasizing curative and preventive measures. The medicines used in siddha are of plant origin, metals, minerals and animal products. Kaya-karpam (Elixir science) is a treasure for the siddha system as they improvise the longevity of life through their anti-oxidant activities. Irunelli karpam is one of the karpa medicine, is a herbo-mineral drug, widely used in siddha for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases like psoriasis, eczema, urticaria, etc. Mateials and Methods: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of Irunelli karpam. DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and total reducing power assay was determined as per standard procedures. Results and Discussion: The results of the present study, it was observed that the IC 50 of the tested drug was found to be 29.73±0.87 µg/ml for DPPH, 61.22±6.75 µg/ml for hydroxyl radical, 51.22 ± 4.75µg/ml for superoxide radical and 37.94±3.44 for nitric oxide radical respectively. Hence it may be concluded that Irunelli karpam is a potent antioxidant candidate which can be used for the treatment of various non communicable diseases like Cancer, Diabetes, Arthritis and other inflammatory diseases which involve oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. This result is for the world at large from Siddha system of medicine
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001837
Title: Synthesis, type 2 diabetic, and in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of some substituted 4-(2-butyl-5-chloro-1himidazole-4-yl)-6-arylpyrimidine-2-imine derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aims: The aim of this work is to synthesis of a novel series of 4-(2-butyl-5-chloro-1H-imidazole-4-yl)-6-arylpyrimidine-2- imine derivatives (9a-e) and evaluate their anti-diabetic and anticancer activities. Methods: Compounds (9a-e) were prepared by a simple cyclization method using metformin hydrochloride and substituted (E)-3-(2-butyl-4-chloro-1H-imidazole-5- yl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one in the presence of a strong base such as sodium methoxide. Results: Compounds 9c, 9d and 9e showed maximum alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=58.83 µg/ml, 57.19 µg/ml and 59.72 µg/ml ) and the compounds 9a, 9c and 9e showed excellent alpha-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50=50.09 µg/ml, 48.66 µg/ml and 49.68 µg/ml). Administration of compounds 9b, 9c and 9e at a small dose of 10 mg/kg to streptozotocin and nicotinamide induced diabetic rats for four weeks produced a significant blood glucose reduction and regains their body weight when compared with the diabetic control. The present anticancer study result revealed that the compound 9e (IC50=7.50 µM) possesses the inhibition effect on the growth of HeLa tumor cell line. Conclusion: It was found that 4-(2-butyl-5-chloro-1H-imidazole- 4-yl)-6-arylpyrimidine-2-imine derivatives analogue bearing 4-chloro substitution on the phenyl ring (9e) has exhibited excellent anti-diabetic and anti-cancer activities activity at the lowest concentration

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001838
Title: Development and validation of different spectroscopic method for escitalopram in bulk and solid dosage forms by ultraviolet spectroscopy
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim:  This study aims to develop a simple, accurate, precise, and economical difference spectroscopic method for the estimation of escitalopram in bulk and solid dosage form. Materials and Methods: In this method, difference spectrum of the drug was measured by placing escitalopram in 0.1M NaOH solution as a sample and 0.1M HCl solution as the blank, in ultraviolet region between 200 and 400 nm. The difference spectra of escitalopram in 0.1M NaOH against 0.1M HCl were recorded. Results: From the spectral data, it was observed that it gave maximum absorbance at 240 nm and the minimum absorbance at 220 nm. The  isosbestic point was noted as 229 nm (0.350), which revealed  the absence of any  interference due to additives. Results of the analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies, according to the ICH guidelines. Conclusion: Based on results, it was concluding that the estimation of escitalopram by difference spectrum is a simple and economical method, as it makes the use of common reagents and do not require any sophisticated instruments, and also, we found that there was no effect on the amount of escitalopram by the commonly used additives and excipients. From the results, it is an accurate and precise method. Hence, this method can afford ordinary laboratory
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001839
Title: Development of surfactant-based nanocarrier system for delivery of an antifungal drug
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The current work was attempted to develop a surfactant-based nanocarrier system (spanlastics) for delivery of an antifungal drug (miconazole nitrate) and its in-vitro and ex-vivo evaluation. Materials and Methods: Spanlastics formulations were developed by ethanol injection method. Different batches of formulations containing miconazole nitrate were prepared by varying the type and ratios of surfactants. The optimization of formulation was carried out on the basis of higher drug entrapment efficiency. The optimized formulation was characterized and evaluated for different parameters such as droplet size, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, and ex vivo permeation study through porcine cornea and obtained results were compared with its niosome formulation. Results: Size and zeta potential of optimized formulation were found to be 242.8 nm and −28.3 mv. The morphology study ensured the formation of spherical vesicles. Further, the spanlastics was compared with control niosome containing drug for permeability and it was observed that the permeability was higher in case of spanlastics formulations. Conclusion: From these studies, it could be concluded that the optimized spanlastics may act as a promising delivery for the treatment of ocular fungal infections.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001840
Title: Geraniol ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Geraniol is a major component of various essential oils of various spices and aromatic herbs. Essential oil has shown promising role in metabolic complications in our previous study; hence in this study, we evaluated effect of geraniol component of various essential oils on diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. Materials and Methods: STZ (45 mg/kg i.p.) was injected to adult male Wistar rats to induce diabetic complications. Diabetic rats were administered geraniol (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o) for the past 6 weeks of 12 weeks study. Plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, lipid profile, serum nitric oxide (NO) level, and endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular function in aorta were assessed. Results: Oral supplement of geraniol administered to rats in the past 6 weeks of a 12-weeks study showed significant decreases in plasma glucose (P < 0.01), HbA1C (P < 0.001), insulin resistance (P < 0.001), triacylglycerol (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein concentrations, and increases in insulin (P < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (P < 0.01) concentrations in diabetic rats. Decreased serum NO level (P < 0.01) was attenuated by geraniol and reduced acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxation was enhanced significantly in geraniol-treated rats (89.36 ± 0.35%). Conclusion: Geraniol improves endothelial dysfunction and associated complications in diabetic rats by normalizing NO production with suppressive effect on insulin resistance and lipid profile. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001841
Title: Validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous estimation of curcumin and duloxetine hydrochloride in tablet and self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a suitable, simple, precise, accurate, robust, and reproducible RP-HPLC method for a reliable simultaneous estimation of duloxetine hydrochloride (DXH) and curcumin (CRM). Methods: The separation was carried out on a Nucleodur C18 column (Reverse phase, 250mm × 4.6mm i.d., 5micron particle size) using a mobile phase combination of acetonitrile and 5% acetic acid (pH 2.35) in the ratio of 60:40, v/v, in an isocratic mode of elution. The flow rate of mobile phase was 1 mL/min and injection volume were 20µL. The eluent was monitored at 289 nm for simultaneous measurement of curcumin and duloxetine. The method was validated by determining system suitability, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, inter-day and intra-day precision, accuracy, and robustness as per ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines. Results and Discussion: The obtained retention time for CRM and DXH was 6.9 and 3.3 min respectively. For both, CRM and DXH, the responses were found linear in the range of 2-10µg/mL with a correlation coefficient more than 0.99. The mean % recovery for both the drugs at all the three levels (MQC, HQC and LQC) was within the limits of 98% to 102%, indicated that the method was accurate. The percentage relative standard deviation for intraday and intermediate precision at all the three levels was less than 2%. Limit of detection were 0.12 µg/mL for CRM and 0.05 µg/mL for DXH and limit of quantification were 0.36 µg/mL for curcumin and 0.14 µg/mL for DXH. The validated method was successfully implemented in the estimation of CRM and DXH in tablet and self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) in terms of percentage drug loading/assay. Conclusion: The developed method was successfully used to quantify the drugs released from dissolution and diffusion samples of prepared solid SNEDDS and raw drugs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001842
Title: Effect of Nardostachys jatamansi extract on vascular endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive, hyperglycemic patients: An open-label, prospective study
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The vascular endothelium is directly involved in peripheral vascular disease, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, insulin resistance, chronic kidney failure, tumor growth, metastasis, venous thrombosis, and severe viral infectious diseases. Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium is thus a hallmark of human diseases. The present treatment packages available are unable to control/manage the progress of diseases mentioned above. Method: Jatamansi liquid 10 ml contains 500 mg of extract equivalent to 2.5 g raw herb given twice a day on open-label study to 10 subjects suffering with diabetes and hypertension for 15 days, and observation of augmentation pressure (AP) and augmentation index (AIx) done before and after treatment with SPHYGMOCOR machine, which show the vascular resistance and nitric oxide (NO)- dependent vascular relaxation at Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad. The method was performed by using SPHYGMOCOR instrument. Results: The results are encouraging in the reduction of blood pressure, improvement of NO availability, reduction of AP, and AIx shows a considerable reduction in vascular resistance indicating an improvement of endothelial function. Conclusion: To sum up the study, Jatamansi extract showed improvement of NO availability apart from the reduction of blood pressure and reduction of vascular resistance by improving endothelial function, and being a small study, future investigation of Jatamansi extract may aid in better understanding the molecular mechanism associated with the observed protection.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-B&NPS-00001843
Title: Assessment of antioxidant potential of different extracts of some common spices of Apiaceae family: A comparative in vitro investigation
Category: Botany/ Herbal/ Natural Pharmacological Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: The study was carried out to assess antioxidant potential of various extracts of spices of Apiaceae family. Methodology:  Seeds of  Cuminum cyminum and  Coriandrum sativum  and resin of  Ferula asafoetida were extracted successively using solvents of varying polarity, namely, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and methanol (70%) in Soxhlet apparatus. Antioxidant potential was compared utilizing 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, hydrogen peroxide assay, hydroxyl ion assay, superoxide assay, and reducing power assay using Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) as reference standard. Results: All extracts exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activities. Methanolic extract of C. cyminum seeds and ethyl acetate extract of C. sativum seeds exhibited better potency in all assays as compared to other extracts of the same plant. However, methanolic extract of F. asafoetida resin showed better activity in all assays, except hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Conclusion: The free radical scavenging potential of these extracts can be attributed to the presence of some of the well-established antioxidant phytoconstituents (e.g., flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, and polyphenols).
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00001844
Title: Investigation of herbal antilipedimic drugs as a follow-up treatment against statin drugs
Category: Pharmacy practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Lipidaemiais a devil condition give rise to atherosclerosis, is one of the factor of cardiovascular disease. Statin drugs are till now used which is responsible for side-effect- Rhabdomylosis. Here, it’s a successful replacement of the Atorvastatin (statin)with targeted herbal drugs Arjuna-Amla combination for long therapy. Method: The patients were clinically investigated before and after targeted drug and the better improved results was carried-out in 20 patients ongoing through lipid profile (LP), TMT, ECG, Doppler-test, spirometer reading.The patients are categorized as per age 40-45, 46-50, 51-55, and 56-60 to estimates the values of Cholesterol/ HDL -4.8 ± 0.2, 5.1 ± 0.7, 6.0 ± 1.3, 3.2 ± 4.2respectively. Results and Discussion: After calculating the comparative data study of average Lipid profile values of VLDL, LDL, TGD, HDL, T.C for 20 patients before and after targeted drug therapy is 35.77 ±5.81, 115.9 ± 23.12, 178.6 ± 28.79, 42.17 ± 18.34 and 190.75 ± 38.89 and 29.62 ± 4.57, 98.98 ± 16.84, 144± 21.45, 32.93± 4.5, 167.63± 19.4 respectively. The mean value of the same was statistically identified to trace t-value -3.530925 and p-value 0.02421. And the result found is significant at p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: On comparative study of the data values of lipid profile like VLDL, LDL, Triglycerides, and total Cholesterol reflects the slight declination in lipid profile on targeted drug therapy. This remarkable change is eligible to discontinue the statin drugs slowly, which acquires more side effects.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001845
Title: Development and validation of mixed hydrotropic solubilisation method for spectrophotometric determination of Ornidazole in bulk drug and tablet
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: A novel method was employed for solubilization and spectrophotometric estimation of poorly water-soluble drug, Ornidazole. In the present manuscript, an analytical method has been prescribed for the estimation of Ornidazole by ultraviolet spectrophotometry using mixed hydrotropic solubilization technique. Mixed hydrotropic solubilization technique is the phenomenon to increase the solubility of poor water-soluble drugs in the blends of hydrotropic agents, which may give miraculous synergistic enhancement effect on solubility of poor water-soluble drugs. Method: The present work was made to obstruct the use of toxic organic solvents by preparing mixed blend of 10% sodium acetate, 10% urea, 10% niacinamide, and 10% sodium tricitrate. Result: Wavelength 319.20 nm was selected for the developed spectrophotometric method of ornidazole. The solubility enhancement for Ornidazole in the mix hydrotropic solution was found to be more than 40-fold as compared to the distilled water. The linearity was found to be 5-25 μg/ml with correlation coefficient 0.999. The inter- and intraday precision was found 0.9166% and 0.6066% relative standard deviation (RSD), respectively. The repeatability was found 0.23 in %RSD. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.1264 and 0.38, respectively. Ruggedness study for external parameters was found within limits. The percent recovery was found to be 101.48 (for n = 9). The % purity was found 101.41. Results of method for analysis of tablet were found 99.905%. All validation parameters were found within limits. Conclusion: The developed method was found to be simple, fast, accurate, eco-friendly, precise, and economic.