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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001724
Title: In-vivo Antianxiety and Antidepressant Activity of Extracts and Isolates of Argyreia speciosa Linn. Roots
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Present study investigates the use of Argyreia speciosa roots in anxiety and depression disorders. The plant is reported to contain alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and triterpenoids. Various ethanopharmacological reports revealed that the plant roots are extensively used in mental disorders. Different extracts of A. speciosa (pet ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) were initially screened for antianxiety and antidepressant activity using Elevated plus maze model and Porsolt’s despair swim test respectively. The active ethanol extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed significant antianxiety and antidepressant activities. Bioactivity guided fractionation using column chromatography showed that isolate F4.3 possessed significant antianxiety (3 mg/kg) and antidepressant activity (6 mg/kg). Further, phytochemical screening of ethanol extract and fractions showed that these contain alkaloids and flavonoids. Alkaloid fraction was isolated (0.20 % w/w) and was quantified using TLC densitometry. Total flavonoid content was determined as 0.016% w/w. Present investigations suggest that flavonoids and alkaloids are responsible for antianxiety and antidepressant activity of A. speciosa roots.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001704
Title: Optimization of physiochemical parameters for the production of withaferin A employing cell suspension culture of Withania somnifera : A review
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Withania  somnifera  (Ashwagandha )  is  a  plant  used  in  medicine  from  the  time  of presence by ayurveda, the  ancient  system  of  Indian  medicine  and  in  plant  biotechnology. The  dried  roots  and  leaves   of  the  plant  are  used  in  the  treatment  of  various  nervous  and  sexual  disorders. Medicinal  properties  of  plant  have  been  attributed  to  the  presence of  a  group  of  steroidal  lactones  which  are  known  as   withanolides  which  are  present  in  roots  and leaves. Withaferin  A  is  a  steroidal  lactone  being   derived  from  Withania  somnifera. It  is  used  in  ayurvedic  medicine. It  has  a  wide  range  of  activities  which  comes  under  pharmacy ,cardio protection, the  anti-inflammatory  agent ,  an  immuno  modulatory,  an   anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis  and anti-carcinogenic  property.  This  review  article  is     focusing  on   the  methodology  to  achieve  the  maximum  production  of  withaferin  A  employing cell  suspension  culture  of  Withania  somnifera.  As  withaferin  A  low  concentration  was  found  to  be  a  limiting  factor  in  previous  reports   on  Withania  somnifera . This  article  will  encompass  the  parameters  which  are  responsible  for  optimum  production  of  withaferin  A   employing  cell  suspension  culture  of  Withania  somnifera.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001708
Title: Aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) protects against high fat diet-induced injury to rat liver through antioxidant mechanisms: a dose- and time-dependent study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Consumption of high fat induces oxidative stress by disturbing the activity of a number of antioxidant enzymes in rat liver. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of the aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) to provide protection against the High Fat Diet (HFD) induced oxidative injury in rat liver. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine whether administration of aqueous extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) do possess a protective effect against HFD-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Materials and method: The dose and time dependent changes were studied in the liver of male Wistar rats following the oral feeding of the rats with HFD for a period of 5 days, 10 days and 15 days to determine the maximum oxidative damage in the hepatic tissue of rats without any mortality. Pre-treatment of rats with aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi (TLE) was also studied by oral administration of TLE with the increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW) against HFD induced oxidative stress in rat liver to determine the minimum effective dose of Tulsi, which can provide protection to the liver damage and minimize the alterations in a concentration dependent manner. The alterations in the activity of some of the important different bio-markers of hepatic damage, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and activities of the antioxidant enzymes were studied. Histo-pathological and histo-chemical alterations were also studied through H-E staining and Picrosirius red staining. Scanning electron microscopy was done to see the structural integrity of hepatic tissue surface. Result: The studies revealed that the extract protected the biomarkers of organ damage, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, pro-oxidant enzymes and oxidative stress index from being altered in the rat hepatic tissue following treatment with HFD. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the current work that this aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi possess antioxidant properties and may be used as a potential antioxidant supplement to combat oxidative stress-induced tissue damages due to high fat diet consumption.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BGSA-00001705
Title: Molecular modeling and docking studies on OXA-10 enzyme of Acinetobacter baumannii
Category: Bioinformatics (Genome & Sequence Analysis )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The strains of Acinetobacter spp. producing Oxacillinase enzyme pose a crucial threat to clinicians worldwide due to limited treatment options against these strains. A 3D model of OXA-10 enzyme from A. baumannii was successfully predicted and its interaction with six different protease inhibitor compounds of cyanobacterial origin was studied. Among the six compounds tested, kempopeptin showed the good atomic contact energy and effective binding with OXA-10 enzyme, which indicate its ability to hydrolyze oxacillinase enzymes. Thus, this compound may be helpful in reducing the burden of infections caused by oxacillinase producing members of Acinetobacter spp, if used in combination with standard antibiotics.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001703
Title: A Review on Diabetic Retinopathy Prevention and Management in Community care
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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It consist of  group of  metabolic diseases that affects the diabetic community. The high glucose levels damages to the smooth blood vessels in the retina and causes the several changes with vision and causes the leakage of fluid causes the vision loss. People affected with diabetes and long periods of high blood sugar, abnormal lipid levels may contribute for progressing other health complications, leads to vision loss. The diabetic retinopathy diagnosis depends on tonometry, visual acuity testing, optical coherence tomography are commonly monitored. Diabetic eye disease impacts quality of life for patients with diabetes by decreasing visual activity and increasing the risk of vision loss. Deposition of fluid in the retina secondary to capillary leakage and with edema which contributes to loss of vision in diabetic retinopathy. Prescribing the combination of pharmacological agents like steroidal drugs and eye screening examinations, identification and treating at earlier eye stages will betterment for patient community. The Prevention and management of retinopathy depends on Pharmacological and life style modifications interventions to the patient community. It is essential that healthcare providers should interacts with patients to identify that every stage of eye risk and  individuals are screened and treated early and to promote better preserve vision leads to arrest the retinopathic complications in community.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001702
Title: Clinical Pharmacist Interventions on Life Style Modification in Management of Hypertension in the Community Practice- A Brief Review
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Hypertension is a chronic cardiovascular disease affecting the adult population. Clinical pharmacy is a health science discipline in which pharmacists provide patient care and optimizes medication therapy management and promotes health and disease prevention. Clinical pharmacist meets multiple health care practioners during the practice and promotes beneficial services to them. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries. Hypertension causes many health complications that results in increased morbidity and mortality. Blood pressure is the combination of  cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance.The regulation of blood pressure depends on baro receptor and chemo receptor mechanisms may plays vital role in regulating the blood pressure changes with in the body. The higher elevated blood pressure may impact the functions of vital organs leads to damage the organs. The clinical pharmacist should Provide awareness and implementation of effective life style interventions in the practice it includes both pharmacological and non pharmacological methods will maintain the blood pressure in controlled levels. The life style modifications includes increasing physical activity, reduced salt intake, increase potassium intake, decrease the use of alcohol,proper use of antihypertensive medications and promoting effective suggestions towards public health strategies can ultimately support to reduce the blood pressure in the community.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001701
Title: Aqueous Curry leaves extract protects against lead induced oxidative stress in rat spleen: a new insight
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Lead is a toxic heavy metal and a persistent environment pollutant. Exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and causes oxidative stress mediated damages in various organs including spleen in a living system. Murraya koenigii is a popular Indian spice herb with established antioxidant properties. We have earlier checked the potential of the Murraya koenigii leaves extract against lead induced oxidative stress in organs like heart, liver and kidneys. Aims and objectives: Aim of the study is to find therapeutic potentials of aqueous Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii) Extract (MUR) against lead induced oxidative damage in spleen tissue using rat as an animal model. The objectives are to study the alterations of various stress parameters in lead induced toxicity in spleen and amelioration of the same with MUR. Methods: Rats were intra-peritoneally injected with lead acetate (15mg/kg body weight [bw]). Another group was pre-treated with MUR (50 mg / kg, fed orally).The positive control group was fed MUR (50 mg / kg bw), and the control animals received treatment with vehicle i.p. for 7 consecutive days. The alterations in the activity of the different bio-markers of organ damage, biomarkers of oxidative stress, activities of the antioxidant and some of the mitochondrial enzymes were studied. Histo-morphology was studied through routine H-E staining and concentration of lead in spleen tissue was estimated using atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry (AAS). Detailed changes in splenic cyto-architecture were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Lead caused alterations in all the parameters studied. All these changes were mitigated when the rats were pre-treated with MUR. Also, the concentration of lead in tissues was found to be significantly lower in animals treated with MUR along with lead. Histo-morphological changes induced by lead exposure in spleen were significantly ameliorated with pre-treatment of the animals with MUR.  Conclusions: The results indicate that the MUR ameliorates lead-induced oxidative stress mediated damage in spleen in experimental rats. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging mechanisms may be responsible for such protective effects. MUR may have future therapeutic relevance in the prevention of lead-induced toxicity and damage in spleen in humans exposed occupationally or environmentally to lead and may be used for development of new drug formulation of herbal origin with less cytotoxic effects.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001700
Title: RP-HPLC-PDA method for the simultaneous determination of Phenylepherine, Chlorpheneramine, Paracetamol and Dextromethorphan in bulk and marketed formulation
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: a new method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of phenylephrine, chlorpheneramine, paracetamol and dextromethorphan in bulk and marketed formulations. Method: Chromatography was performed using C8 column of dimension 250*4.6mm and particle size 5µ. the best results were obtained by phosphate buffer (20 Mm) pH 6.6 adjusted with diluted orthophosphoric acid and Acetonitrile(70:30) taken in Gradient Programme at flow rate of 1ml/m with detection at 225 nm. Retention time was less than 6mins for all the four drugs. According to ICH guidelines the method was proven to be linear, precise and accurate. Results: The linearity ranges from 0.5-487.5 µg/ml. LOQ was found to be 0.02,0.01,3.92 and 0.06. The sample solution injected after 24 hr did not show any appreciable change. Recovery  was found to be 100.38-100.53. Conclusion: The developed method was simple, specific and sensitive as the excipients have no interference in the determination of main components. The proposed method can be used for routine analysis of phenylephrine, chlorpheneramine, paracetamol and dextromethorphan in combined dosage form which are present in variable concentrations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001699
Title: Phytoremediation potential of three leguminous plants towards Chromium
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Phytoextraction of Chromium was done by using three leguminous plants Cicer arientum,V. radiata and V. mungo in hydroponic culture. The main objective was to explore the phytoremediation potential of the selected plants. The plants were exposed to a range of concentrations of chromium dichromate from 50 to 750 ppm. The uptake ability of Vigna radiata for chromium increased with the increase of Cr (VI) concentration. Remediation percentage of 51.58% at 750 ppm in Vigna mungo, was observed hence it can be a potential candidate for the removal of Cr. The accumulation of chromium was found to be more in shoot as compared to root and was quite potent in resisting stress caused by Chromium.  

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001698
Title: Conserved Domain Analysis of Photorhabdus luminescens Strain TTO1 Hypothetical Proteins Encoding Enzyme Activity
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Photorhabdus luminescens genome encoding number of hypothetical proteins, among them probability of coding enzyme function has been reported by conserved domain analysis by sequence and structural homology search. Materials and Methods: All hypothetical proteins were retrieved from the KEGG database with organism code PLU and further checked for their homology with enzyme conserved domain/s using CDDBLAST, INTERPROSCAN, PFAM and CATH program. High scored enzyme coding proteins further analyzed for the homology modeling by PS2 protein structure prediction server. Observation and Results: P. luminescens genome encoding total 353 hypothetical proteins and when they have been searched for enzyme functions, 144 hypothetical proteins engaged with enzyme domains however, only 17 of them posses more than 75% confidence level and further only 15 proteins were able to find the structural homolog. Conclusion: 15 hypothetical proteins of  P. luminescens harbors enzyme conserved domains and even show defined sequence and structural homology with known enzymatic protein family and hence reported 15 hypothetical proteins of P. luminescens needs further investigation in wet lab analysis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001697
Title: Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Terbinafine hydrochloride and Mometasone Furoate in Combined Dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To develop a validated analytical RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of containing terbinafine hydrochloride and mometasone furoate for pharmaceutical formulation. Method: The sample was estimated using acetonitrile and 0.1% ortho phosphoric acid PH 3 in the ratio 67:33 as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection at 242 nm. The retention time for terbinafine hydrochloride and mometasone furoate was found to be 2.2 min and 3.5 min respectively. Results and Discussion: The linearity of the developed method was tested in the range of 0.5µg/mL for terbinafine hydrochloride and 1-32µg/mL for mometasone furoate. The limit of detection was 0.0189µg/mL for terbinafine hydrochloride and 0.327µg/mL for mometasone furoate, the % recoveries Was found in the range of 99.98-100.07%. Conclusion: A simple, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method has been developed for the determination of terbinafine hydrochloride and mometasone furoate in pharmaceutical formulations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001696
Title: Anti-Diabatic Activity of Herbal Extract Mixture
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Indian system of medicine, Siddha has mentioned numerous plants for the treatment of diabetes.  In folk medicine they are effective either single (or) combinational therapy.  Based on ethnopharmacological sources, the potent hypoglycemic herbs of Indian origin Solanum xanthocarpum and Terminalia belerica were selected for the present work. The plants were extracted with solvents of increasing polarity.  Further all the extracts were screened for antioxidant property by in vitro nitric oxide assay to determine its potential to scavenging  the free radical. From that aqueous extract of the both plants was selected and prepared in different combination ratio from 10:90, 20:80 30:70, 40:60, 50:50,60:40,70:30,80:20,90:10 (Terminalia belerica: Solanum xanthocarpum). The safety profile of the herbal extract mixture was studied by acute toxicity. The selected bio active herbal extract was subjected into antidiabetic activity by STZ induced medthod. Antidiabetic activity of herbal extract mixture showed that blood glucose level was significantly decreased in diabetic rats at both the tested dose levels. Herbal extract mixture significantly lower the biochemical parameter SGOT, SGPT, Total cholesterol and Serum triglyceride as compared to diabetic rat. Extract mixture has shown significant reduction of SOD and GPX in diabetic rats. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001695
Title: A review on quality by design approach for analytical method development
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Quality by Design (QbD) is a concept first outlined by well known quality expert Joseph M. Juran and it is a systematic approach to development that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product, process understanding and process control based on Echo knowledge and quality risk management. A conventional method may fail to meet the intended purpose during method development and validation.In a QbD approach, the impact and interactions between critical method variables are understood using a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach, which incorporates statistical multi-variate analysis and modeling leading to consistent quality of drug product. QbD tools like  risk assessment and design of experiments, enable better quality to be incorporated into the analytical method, facilitate prior understanding and identification of variables affecting method performance.  The main objective of the present review article to describe different steps involved in method development by QbD approach for an analytical method development. The QbD Approach for method development comprises of the following steps which include defining method intent, performing  experimental design,  evaluating  experimental results and selecting final method conditions and performing  risk assessment with robustness and ruggedness evaluation. The purpose of analytical QbD is to attain quality in measurement. The objective of this review article is therefore to provide a comprehensive understanding on various aspects of QbD, along with addressing the concerns related to its implementation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001694
Title: Evaluation of Probiotic Characteristics of Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Foods
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Probiotics have beneficial effects on the host’s health and can be isolated from many food sources. Fermented foods are rich source of lactic acid bacteria that are beneficial microorganisms which help to decrease the levels of potentially pathogenic microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract. These lactic acid bacteria should possess certain characteristics to be used as a probiotic. The objectives of the study were to isolate, screen and evaluate the probiotic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria from fermented foods (Idli, Dosa, Dhokla, Jalebi, Kanji, and Shrikhand). Twenty one isolates were obtained out of which fourteen of them were gram positive and Catalase negative that are the characteristics of lactic acid bacteria which were selected for further probiotic evaluation. Five isolates showed tolerance to acidic conditions at pH 2, 3 and 4, such as prevailing in the stomach. Bile tolerance test disclosed that eleven isolates were able to tolerate 0.3% mean intestinal bile concentration. NaCl tolerance test revealed that four isolates tolerated NaCl concentrations (ranging from 4%,6%,8%,10%,12%). Five isolates were able to adhere to mucosal surface indicated by the hydrophobicity test.  All isolates were able to produce lactic acid which was confirmed by the lactic acid estimation test.  Three isolates were sensitive to tetracycline and kanamycin but resistant to ampicillin and rest others were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and kanamycin. DO4 which is a bacterial isolate obtained from batter of dosa was able to qualify all the above tests and can be used as a suitable probiotic candidate in future applications related to health.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001693
Title: New RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Rosuvastatin Calcium in Bulk Drugs and Formulations
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the estimation of Rosuvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was done on   Agilent zorbax reversed phase C18 (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing HPLC grade methanol:orthophaspaharic acid at pH 3.1 (35:65, v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1 ml / min and effluents were monitored at 282 nm. Chromatogram showed a main peak of Rosuvastatin calcium at retention time was 1.323 min. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 0.5-16 ìg/ml with correlation coefficient 0.9997. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, robustness and ruggedness. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for estimation of Rosuvastatin calcium was found to be 0.056 µg / ml and 0.133 µg / ml, respectively. Recovery of Rosuvastatin calcium was founds in the range of 98.6-101.2%. Proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of Rosuvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical dosage forms. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00001777
Title: Structural Insights into Warfarin Resistance due to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Complex I
Category: Pharmacy practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Warfarin, a coumarin derivativeexerts its anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity by inhibiting an enzyme Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide reductase complex, subunit1 (VKORC1). Warfarin resistance is a condition in which individuals have a high tolerance for the drug warfarin.This study was designed to provide structural insights of warfarin resistance due to presence of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1. Methods: Three dimensional structure of the human VKORC1 protein was modeled using the SWISS-MODEL server. Active site of the modeled target was predicted using FT Site server. Three dimensional structures of the polymorphic variants of VKORC1 were modeled using the Rotamer Explorer tool of Molecular Operating Environment. Confirmation and stability of the modeled targets were determined by using Ramachandran Plot. Autodock 4.2 tool was used for molecular docking analysis. Results and Discussion: Difference in the position of the amino acids in terms of their dihedral angles suggests that the SNPs are non-synonymous and hence alter the conformation of the drug binding domain of the protein. SNPs in the exonic sequences of VKORC1 gene are a significant cause of warfarin resistance. Conclusion: Resistance due to SNPs in VKORC1 was found to be the direct result of net change in conformation of the drug binding domain.  Further studies should develop novel drugs against mutated VKORC1 protein. Such pharmacogenetic approaches could possibly decrease incidence of resistance and idiosyncratic responses.