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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001823
Title: Ethanol extract of the leaves of Carica papaya affords protection against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The dependence on plants and plant-originated products for the treatment of a good number of ailments has been persistent through much of human history and such treatment, however, traditional is still widely in use today such as the application of the leaves of C. papaya in the cure of gastric ulcer. The aim of this work was thus, to find out whether the ethanol extract of the leaves of C. papaya affords protection against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats or not. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity, and lethality and effects of the extract on ulcer index, gastric juice volume, and gastric juice pH were assessed using standard methods. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that the extract contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, steroids, terpenoids, and fats and oil but resins, reducing sugars and acidic compounds were not detected in the extract. The extract at a dose up to 5000 mg/kg body weight (b.w) was safe for administration. At the tested doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w), the extract caused significant (P < 0.05) and dose-related decreases in ulcer indices (gastric lesions) and gastric juice volumes of the rats in the test groups compared to the values obtained for the rats in the positive control group (Group 2). Significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent increases in gastric juice pH of the rats in the test groups compared to that of the rats in the positive control group was also brought about by the extract. The effects of the 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract were similar to those of the standard antiulcer drug, ranitidine at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: These observations show that the ethanol extract of the leaves of C. papaya possesses notable antiulcer effect and contains some pharmacologically active constituents that might herald the future synthesis of standard antiulcer drug(s) from the plant
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001810
Title: In vitro antioxidant activity and gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis of solvent extracts of Kigelia africana stem bark
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Kigelia africanais widely used, traditionally, in Africa in the treatment of many conditions and complaints like kidney and stomach disorders, malaria, wounds, venereal diseases etc. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigatethe antioxidant activity of  extracted fractions of the stem bark and analyze the non-polar fractions for thepresence of various components that may be responsible for theirantioxidant properties. Methods: The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation (ABTS•+) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging models.Analysis of the chemical components of the solvent extracts was carried out by GC-MS. Results: Strong activity (71-89 % inhibition) was found for the ethyl acetate fraction, while the non-polar chloroform fraction exhibited a relatively weak activity (24-48 %) inhibition, at 25 μg/mL concentration.GC–MS analysis of the non-polar extracted fractions identified 21 and 12 compounds for the hexane and chloroform fractions, respectively, of which α-terpineol (2) (39.21%) was the main component identified for the hexane extract and α-amyrin (9) (32.54 %)was the main component identified for the chloroform extract. Conclusion: This study shows thatthe non-polar extracted fractions of K. africana stem bark may be a potential source of natural antioxidants or bioactive agents

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001802
Title: Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of some novel 1,3,4-oxadiazoles for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Heterocyclic compounds have occupied a prominent place among various classes of organic compounds by virtue of their diverse biological activities and chemistry. Oxadiazoles are important pharmacophores in modern drug discovery. Among oxadiazoles, 1,3,4-oxadiazoles skeleton occupies a significant place in numerous bioactive molecules with a wide range of activities such as antimicrobial, anticancer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anticonvulsant. The aim is to synthesize a drug with better efficacy, less toxicity, and fewer side effects. In view of the important biological activities in the present work, an attempt has been made to synthesize some novel oxadiazole derivatives and evaluate the biological profile of these compounds. The proposed molecules have been synthesized by reacting methyl salicylate and hydrazine hydrate which further reaction in the presence of carbon disulfide and potassium hydroxide yields 5-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives of oxadiazoles were successfully obtained by condensation of mercapto oxadiazoles with different substituted aromatic carboxylic acids. The purity of the compounds was ascertained by melting point and thin-layer chromatography. The structures of the synthesized compounds have been characterized by the extensive use of Fourier transform infrared, H nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectral analysis. The title compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities by the cup-plate method and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. All the test compounds exhibited pronounced antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against the standards.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001803
Title: In vitro α-glucosidase and in vivo of anti-hyperglycemia activity extract of alginate from the brown marine algae Sargassum hystrix
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background:Carbohydrate metabolism disorder can cause diabetes mellitus indicated by hyperglycemic.The carbohydrate in the intestine metabolizes into simple glucose, then it is absorbed into blood circulation, and it influences the glucose level in the blood. Brown algae (Sargassum hystrix) contains alginate as the anti-hyperglycemic agent. Methods:Alginate extract of Sargassum hystrix were tested for their ability to inhibit carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes α-glucosidase by in vitro methods. Oral glucose tolerance test in which the measurement was done in the minute of 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 after giving the sucrose by in vivo methods. Results: The result showed that Sargassum hystrix had the ability of lowering the blood glucose level in which the most influential was the alginat II 125 mg.Kg-1 rather than alginate I 62.5mg.Kg-1 (P<0.05). Conclusion: The carbohydrate metabolism resistance could lower the glucose level in the blood and indicate as the agent that was potential enough in overcoming the hyperglycemia.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001804
Title: Assessment of Suboptimal Health status (SHS) and their associated risks in university students: a cross sectional study, UAE.
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Suboptimal health status (SHS) is an intermediate stage between disease and health and is regarded as a subclinical characterized by a decline in vitality, in physiological function and in the capacity for adaptation.  The objectives of this study were to assess the SHS and  to investigate a variety of factors associated with SHS in university students. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted  over three months from  January  2017 to March 2017 among Ajman University (AU) students. A random sample of medical students was recruited from both first and  final study years. Results: The results of this study showed that half of the students (52.5%) gave higher SHS score and (47.5%) of them gave lower score. Moreover, age between (15-19) and first years students were found to be significantly associated with higher SHS score (P=0.002), (P =0.000) respectively. Conclusion: The results of the study emphasized the importance of introducing a health promotion and counseling program that begin early in the medical colleges to screen early-stage illness.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001805
Title: A comprehensive report on Cancer and Cytotoxic activity of plants on cancer cell lines
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Cancer is a life-threatening destructive phenomenon or malignant tumor arises in human beings because of chewing tobacco or viral infections or genetic factors etc. The disease is known to humans since 400 BC and now turned in to a second leading cause of death worldwide. In the present review, history of cancer and progressive developments in cancer epidemiology were discussed. The era of chemotherapy has begun in cancer treatment during World War II. In search of novel anticancer drugs with no side effects till date over 60% of anticancer agents were extracted from natural sources including plants, marine organisms and microorganisms. Among them, drugs derived from medicinal plants, for example Ellipticine, Taxol and Podophyllotoxin-gained prominence in the market. MTT assay is a standard and most widely used technique in scientific research to screen cytotoxicity of plant extracts against cancer cell lines. The present study mainly focused on in vitro cytotoxic investigations carried on cancer cell lines using plant extracts during the past two decades as well as current decade.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001806
Title: Exploiting the potential of nanotechnological applications in Rural areasto effectively eliminate pollutants from water bodies
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Purpose: Water is quintessential for existence of life on earth. Human society is facing the ultimate crisis of portable water across the globe, primarily due to uncontrolled explosion of human population leading to water pollution and impacts increased demands of various industries causing further contamination. Rural areas are severely hit by shortage of drinking water as 70% of Indian population still dwell in the villages. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement to develop and innovate novel unconventional technologies to ensure safe drinking water. Nanotechnology holds great potential to remove pollutants from water bodies. Approach: Nanomaterials such as nanoadsorbants, nanomembranes, carbon nanotubes and nanocatalysts including filters utilizing photocatalytic or electrocatalytic systems using nanotechnology exploit water purification methods have been reviewed here. Finding: Recent developments for nanotechnology based water and wastewater management system limitations to further capitalize on these unique properties for water management are being discussed. Conclusion: Under this review, we discuss a novel integrated nano-based filter coupled with other non organic materials to explore the potential for water purification and their antimicrobial activities.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001807
Title: Occupational Risk of Hepatitis B among Dental Professionals by Estimation of the Anti-HBs.
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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AIM: To determine the levels of Hepatitis B antibody or anti-HBV from blood samples among a cohort of dental professionals using quantitative sero-analysis. OBJECTIVE:  To determine the HBV antibody titre levels from blood samples from among dental professionals and consequently determine the prevalence of those infected by the HBV virus. BACKGROUND: Dental health-care workers have an occupational risk hazard of acquiring blood-borne viral pathogens such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The risk is maximized due to the constant contact of blood from performing dental procedures on patients who may in turn be carrying the virus via needle-stick injuries and open wounds. HBV can be prevented by strict adherence to standard microbiological practices and techniques, and the routine use of appropriate barrier precautions to prevent skin and mucous membrane exposure when handling blood and other body fluids of all patients in healthcare settings. Therefore, we propose to conduct this study among dental professionals in Saveetha Dental College, to assess the prevalence of HBV antibody in their blood samples. A sero-analysis will then be performed on these samples using ELISA to assess HBV antibody levels. REASON: Dental professionals and surgeons are more susceptible to HBV than other health care professionals by way of performing invasive and non-invasive dental treatment on patients.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001808
Title: In vitro investigation of some alternative therapeutic agents for antiurolithiatic activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Atherogenic hyperlipidemia, characterized by abnormal elevation in the circulatory lipoprotein levels, especially low density lipoproteins, continues to be the primary etiologic factor implicated in occlusive vascular diseases. Objectives: In the present investigation, lipid lowering effect of Calotropis procera root bark methanol extract (CPRME) and its different solvent fractions viz n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous fraction was studied.  Methods: Hyperlipidemia was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of Poloxamer-407 at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight in male rats. Drug treatments were done by oral gavage at 24 h and 1 h prior to i.p. injection of P-407 and blood samples were collected at 3, 6 and 24 h intervals. The serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured while very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were calculated by Friedwald formula and modified Friedwald formula respectively.  Results: From the present study, it was observed that methanolic CPRME and its ethyl acetate fraction have shown significant reduction in serum cholesterol and lipoprotein levels in P-407 induced hyperlipidemia when compared with vehicle treated positive control group. The efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction was found to be comparable to that of standard drugs- atorvastatin and fenofibrate. Conclusion: It is concluded that CPRME and its ethyl acetate fraction have shown remarkable ability to reduce serum lipids and observed effect could be attributed to the presence of vast array of phytochemicals, notably, β-sitosterol, lupeol, α- and β- amyrin in the root bark.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001809
Title: In vivo antianxiety and antidepressant activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Different parts of H. sabdariffa have been used traditionally for treating several ailments including mental disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the antianxiety and antidepressant potential of H. sabdariffa calyces using Elevated plus maze model and Forced swim test respectively. Material and Method: Petroleum ether (60-80 °C), chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts were evaluated for antianxiety and antidepressant activity. Results: Among all the extracts, ethanol extract showed significant antianxiety and antidepressant activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the bioactive ethanol extract demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, anthocyanins, and glycosides.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001811
Title: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activity of Fraxinus floribunda bark and the influence of extraction process on their bioactivity
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To observe the influence of extraction processes on the bioactivity of Fraxinus floribunda (FF) bark on the basis of antioxidant activity and assess the in vivo anti-inflammatory with hepatoprotective activity in the extracts which has showed better antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity on the basis of phytochemical estimation, free radical scavenging, and antilipid peroxidation activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was observed through carrageenan induced paw edema, and hepatoprotective effect was studied using carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in Wister albino rats. Results: Autoclave boiled extract showed highest antioxidant activity in assays of total phenol content (26.98 ± 11.22 mg gallic acid equivalent/g fresh weight tissue), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (0.24 ± 3.65 mg/ml), etc. The same extract inhibited mice paw edema by 55% which was significant after 2 h (P < 0.05) showing anti-inflammatory activity. Lowering of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, anti-lipid peroxidation, and bilirubin levels showed hepatoprotective activity against standard formulation Liv-52. Conclusion: The bark of FF is a potential source of antioxidants with anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity. Further research should be done to explore and validate its bioactivity

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001812
Title: Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and antioxidant activity of leaves extract of Tinospora cordifolia
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the leaves extract of traditional medicinal plant T. cordifolia for qualitative estimation of phytoconsituents and subsequently determine its antibacterial and antioxidant activity to authenticate its use in traditional medicines. Materials and Methods: Leaves samples were air-dried and coarsely powdered samples were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using diverse solvents (diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, methanol, and water). Freshly prepared extracts were exposed to standard phytochemical analysis for qualitative estimation of phytoconsituents. The antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts of T. cordifolia was determined by agar well diffusion method and antioxidant activity by 1, 1–diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl scavenging method. Results and Discussion: The leaf extracts of T. cordifolia expressed the presence of several phytochemicals viz., alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins and sugars. The methanolic extract displayed the presence of highest phytochemical compounds. It may be due to the higher solubility of active components in this solvent as compared to other solvents. Results suggest that the methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extract have substantial antibacterial activity against tested bacterial species. Methanolic extract showed noteworthy antioxidant potential compared to other solvents. Conclusion: The studies justify the use of T. cordifolia in traditional medicines. The investigation further propose that the metabolites present in leaf tissue of T. cordifolia can be potential source of novel natural antibacterial and antioxidant agents and has prospective applications in food industry as an antioxidant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001813
Title: A new approach of ofloxacin analysis method in human blood plasma using solid-phase extraction - highperformance liquid chromatography - ultra violet
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of this research was to develop a method for analyzing ofloxacin (OFX) assay in human plasma using solid-phase extraction (SPE)- high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/ultra violet (UV) detector. In this work, SPE was employed in preparing for the analysis of OFX using HPLC-UV detector. Materials and Methods: Hydrophilic and lipophilic balance cartridge (100 mg, particle size 10 µm) of SPE was used in preparing a sample to determine further method of analysis using HPLC with phosphate buffer 0.025 M (pH 2.5) and acetonitrile (85.5:14.5) as mobile phase and a flow rate of 1.2 m l/min. UV detector was adjusted at 295 nm using internal standard ciprofloxacin. Results: Calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-6 µg/ml with correlation coefficient (r) = 0.9998-0.9999. The resolution was (Rs) > 1.5, and repeatability (% CV) <10%. Based on peak area and the peak height ratio of chromatogram, limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.023 µg/ml and 0.076 µg/ml, respectively, and recovery of spiked OFX in human plasma was 94.32-100.45%. Conclusion: Based on the results of analysis, the analysis method was concluded as sensitive and valid for analysis of OFX in human plasma.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001814
Title: A comparative study of common technical document in different regulated market
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Drug regulation is a practice carried out to control the sale and distribution of drugs by international regulatory authorities such as the Food and Drug Administration or nationally by office of Drug Controller General of India. Need for regulation of medicines in modern era was first realized in the 19th century due to death of 100 people because of consumption of diethylene glycol in the form of sulfanilamide elixir in the USA. Thalidomide disaster proved to be a turning point in the history of drug regulation. This made the regulatory bodies to prepare and implement guidelines related to quality, safety, and efficacy of drug substances and drug products. It was also made mandatory for the industries that while filing any application for approval for new drug substances or products, they need to prove quality, safety, and efficacy of products through proper documentation. Most of the regulatory agencies have their own format for filing an application for seeking approval for marketing a drug product. A  common format was adopted by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) on industry recommendation. This is known as common technical document (CTD). CTD was agreed on as the “well-structured common format” for the organization of the technical requirements to be submitted to regulatory agencies. Methods: In this review, various aspects of CTD have been discussed including its different modules and structure. Moreover, a comparative study of contents and formats of different regulatory agencies have also been reported. Results: CTD is organized into five modules. Since Module 1 is region specific, its content is specified by regional agencies so as to customize it according to the regional requirements. However, modules 2-5 are common for all ICH countries. Conclusion: CTD is widely accepted by various countries across the globe irrespective of their ICH membership. It has proven to be a breakthrough documentation system in drug approval process. This not only reduces the unnecessary efforts of both regulators and pharmaceutical companies but also reduces the time frame in which drug becomes available to patients.
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-00001815
Title: Cross-sectional study exploring knowledge, attitude, and barriers toward menstruation among pharmacists in Ajman, UAE
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of this study is to assess pharmacists’ knowledge and attitude about menstruation and barriers that prevent them from providing menstruation counseling/services in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was planned to approach potential respondents for the study. A self-administered questionnaire was delivered to pharmacists in public or private pharmacies (n = 50) practising in Ajman, UAE. Results: This study showed that 58% of the pharmacists had shown a good level of knowledge toward menstruation; however, confusion between the types of dysmenorrhea was observed among respondent pharmacists and 70% of them had not participated in menstrual disorder educational program. About 94% of pharmacists responded that they would like more education on menstrual disorders. The present study illustrated also that lack of time of the patients (76%) and patient health beliefs (76%) were the most common barriers that impact the pharmacist ability to provide menstrual counseling services. Conclusion: There is an essential need for educational interventions among the pharmacists to improve and update their knowledge about menstrual disorder.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001824
Title: Roles of Carica papaya ethanol leaf extract on some oxidative stress markers of aspirin-ulcerated rats
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Researches into medicinal plants with potent antioxidant activity will continue to receive the attention of researchers due to the role of oxidative stress in many disease conditions and hence, this study was aimed at investigating the roles of C. papaya ethanol leaf extract on some oxidative stress markers of aspirin-ulcerated rats. Materials and Methods: The effects of the ethanol extract of the leaves of C. papaya on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined using standard methods. Results: At the administered doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w), the extract caused significant (P < 0.05) and dose-related increases in the activities and amounts of SOD and GSH, respectively, in the rats of the test groups compared to those of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group. The extract treatment also led to significant (P < 0.05) reductions in the concentrations of MDA in the rats of the test groups compared to that of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group. The 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract exerted the greatest effects which were analogs to those of the standard antiulcer drug, ranitidine at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: The ethanol extract of the leaves of C. papaya remarkably ameliorated the gastric ulcer-associated indices in the ulcerated rats and these findings thus support the local application of the leaves of the plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001825
Title: Haematological indices of aspirin-ulcerated rats pre-administered the ethanol extract of the leaves of Carica papaya
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The ability of gastric ulceration (in severe cases) to cause bleeding is known. Some haematologic abnormalities such as anaemia among others could result from extreme bleeding. This study was, therefore, aimed at investigating the haematological indices of aspirin-ulcerated rats pre-administered the ethanol extract of the leaves of C. papaya. Materials and Methods: The effects of the ethanol extract of the leaves of C. papaya on red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb), and total white blood cell (tWBC) count were evaluated with the aids of standard methods. Results: The extract at the tested doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight [b.w]) significantly (P < 0.05) and dose-dependently increased the RBC counts, PCV values, Hb concentrations and tWBC counts of the rats in the test groups compared to the values obtained for the rats in the positive control group (Group 2). The effects of the 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract were similar to those of the standard antiulcer drug, ranitidine at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: The ethanol extract of the leaves of C. papaya remarkably improved the haematological parameters in the ulcerated rats and hence may raise the desirability of the plant above some other plants for the treatment of gastric ulcer especially when the ulcer is bleeding-associated.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001829
Title: Do the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in aspirin-ulcerated rats rise after being challenged with the ethanol extract of the leaves of Carica papaya?
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Increased needs for proteins and antioxidants are required to promote wound healing, and thus, this study was originated to ascertain whether or not the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in aspirin-ulcerated rats rise after being challenged with the ethanol extract of the leaves of C. papaya. Materials and Methods: The effects of the ethanol extract of the leaves of C. papaya on the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase were determined and assayed, respectively, using standard methods. Results: The extract at the administered doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight [b.w]) caused significant (P < 0.05) and dose-related increases in the concentration of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in the rats of the test groups compared to those of the rats in the ulcer-untreated group (group 2). The 400 mg/kg b.w of the extract exerted the greatest effects in a manner similar to those of the standard anti-ulcer drug, ranitidine at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. Conclusion: The remarkable amelioration of the amount of total proteins and specific activity of catalase in the ulcerated rats by the ethanol extract of the leaves of C. papaya encourages the local utilisation of the leaves of the plant in the cure of gastric ulcer.
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001851
Title: Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background Information: Plectranthus L’Hér. is an economically important genus with horticultural, medicinal and fooduses. Most Plectranthus species are used in traditional medicine and have attracted the interest of researchers who have studiedthem in attempt to explore the bioactivities of their phytoconstituents. Materials and Methods: The current study investigatedthe antimicrobial activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species through disc diffusion and broth dilution method. Results: Results indicated that, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) total leaf extracts from Plectranthus barbatus displayed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to the other nine Plectranthus species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) valuesof 25, 40, 100, 50, and 100 mg/ml against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger, respectively. At a concentration of 200 mg/ml, the antibacterial activity of total leaf extracts of P. barbatus (MIC value = 25 mg/ml) and Plectranthus lanuginosus (MIC value = 40 mg/ml) against MRSA was not significantly different from positive control drug; amoxicillin. Similarity, at a concentration of 200 mg/ml, total leaf extracts from Plectranthus ornatus (MIC value= 50 mg/ml) and P. barbatus (MIC value = 50 mg/ml) exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans which was not significantly different from that of the positive control; ketoconazole.
Conclusion: The study reports for the first time, the antimicrobial activity of Plectranthus pseudomarrubioides, Plectranthus edulis, Plectranthus aegyptiacus, Plectranthus Otostegioides, and Plectranthus lanuginosus. The study has demonstratedbroad bacteriostatic activity of P. barbatus and thus recommends further studies on this plant aimed at discovery of novelantimicrobial agents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 11, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001917
Title: Analytical method development and validation for the estimation of ambroxol HCL in its tablet dosage form by UV-spectrophotometry
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To develop and validate simple, accurate, rapid, precise, reproducible, and cost-effective spectrophotometric method for the quantitative estimation of ambroxol hydrochloride in its tablet dosage form. Materials and Methods: The developed ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for the quantitative estimation of ambroxol hydrochloride is based on measurement of absorption at maximum wavelength of 305 nm using methanolic water (1:9) as a solvent. The stock solution of ambroxol hydrochloride was prepared, and subsequent suitable dilution was made using distilled water to obtain calibration curve. The standard solution of ambroxol hydrochloride shows absorption maxima at 305 nm. Results: The drug obeyed beer lambert’s law in the concentration range of 20-100 µg/ml with regression 0.999 at 305 nm. The overall % recovery was found to be present in between 100.17% and 100.38% which reflects that the method was free from the interference of the impurities and other excipients used in the formulation. The low value of % relative standard deviation (RSD) was indicative of accuracy and reproducibility of the method. The % RSD for interday and intraday precision was found to be 0.1179 and 0.1177, respectively, which is <2% hence proved that method is precise. Conclusion: The results of analysis have been validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The developed method can be adopted in routine analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride in tablet dosage form as well bulk dosage form.