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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001979
Title: Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of new-[2-amino-4- (4-chloro-/4-bromophenyl)-1,3-thiazole derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The goal of this work is to synthesize new derivatives, derived from the parent nucleus: [2-amino-4-(4- chlorophenyl) 1,3-thiazole] 1 and [2-amino-4-(4-bromophenyl) 1,3-thiazole] 2, and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity. Materials and Methods: The treatment of each p-chlorophenacyl-and p-bromophenacyl bromides with thiourea in absolute methanol afforded 1 and 2, respectively. The reaction of each of 1 and 2 with chloroacetyl chloride afforded 3 and 4, respectively. 3 is treated with each urea, thiourea, and p-nitrobenzoic acid to afford 5, 6, and 7, respectively, while 4 was refluxed with thiourea in methanol and afforded 8. The characterization of the titled compounds was done by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 HNMR), celemental microanalysis (CHNS), and mass spectroscopy (MS). The synthesized compounds had been screened for their in vitro preliminary antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, and Bacillus subtilis) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis) and two fungi species (Candida albicans and Candida glabrata), using well diffusion technique. Results: All the tested compounds 5-8 have no antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria while exhibited distinguished antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata. Compounds 7 and 8 showed moderate antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis. Conclusion: We used the conventional method for the preparation of different substituted thiazole derivatives and showed remarkable antifungal activity; we need further investigation to study their mechanism of actions at the molecular level.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Ay-00001978
Title: Acute toxicity and physicochemical study of Rakta Gunja (Abrus precatorius) kernels
Category: Ayurvedic
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Botanically Gunja is Abrus precatorius Linn, (Fabaceae) is used widely in different Ayurvedic formulations with enormous therapeutic importance. In the classical texts of Ayurveda, administration of Gunja is advised only after Shodhana. Shodhana is processed in Rasa Shastra by which a drug can be purified and a toxic drug can be detoxified. The present study was carried out to establish the effective Shodhana process and acute toxicity study in red (Rakta) Gunja kernels. Methods: Ashodhita red Gunja kernels (ARk) were subjected to Shodhana (Swedana-boiling) in Kanji (sour gruel) (RkK) for three hours. The acute toxicity study was carried out as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines 423. In acute toxicity study, the intraperitoneal dose (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) of Ashodhita (unpurified) and Shodhita (purified) kernels of Gunja was administered to in a single dose and general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were determined up to 72 h. Results: It was found that by the Shodhana process decreased in weight as compared to Ashodhita Gunja kernels. The color was also changed from red to yellow in Kanji. There is considerable variations were observed in the CNS activity and autonomic responses for Shodhita and Ashodhita red Gunja. Conclusion: The result indicates that the intraperitoneal administration of Shodhita red Gunja kernels did not produce any significant toxic effect in mice. The study showed that Shodhana process is effective to reduce the toxicity of red Gunja kernel.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001972
Title: Evaluation of fungal antagonists for controlling sugarcane (Var. CoC. 671) red rot disease
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Sugarcane Var. CoC.671, is early maturing high sugar content variety, but highly susceptible to red rot disease, caused by fungus Colletotrichum falcatum Went. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological control potential of Trichoderma viride, Tricoderma harzianum, and Aspergillus flavus against C. falcatum by examining the in vitro antagonism. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using local isolates of fungal antagonists such as T. viride, T. harzianum, and A. flavus. In vitro antagonism of inhibition of mycelia growth and mycoparasitism against C. falcatum was examined. Inhibition of antagonistic fungi against C. falcatum was studied by producing volatile and nonvolatile substances by agar plate and dip plate method and also in field condition. Results and Discussion: Red rot fungus and other antagonistic fungus were cocultured in PDA medium. T. harzianum inhibited to maximum extent (48.20 ± 0.950 mm) after 4 days of incubation, followed by T. viride (38.35 ± 1.085 mm) and A. flavus (18.35 ± 0.950 mm) through the production of volatile substances. The in vivo study has also showed that biological control of C. falcatum (Went) could be made effective using a different mixture of fungal antagonistic inoculants. T. viride along with T. harzianum inoculants mixture showed more effective for controlling Sugarcane (Var. CoC.671) red rot in field condition. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that these biocontrols may have one or more mechanism responsible for antagonistic activity, including the induction of resistance, capsidiol, although seeming to participate in protection more probably combines with other factors responsible for the defence. These antagonists probably use a combination of biocontrol mechanism against C. falcatum among which the induction of the resistance in plants plays an important role.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001964
Title: Trismus: A review
Category: Periodontics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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One of the most common problems encountered by dental practitioners is restricted mouth opening, otherwise called trismus. The word trismus is derived from the Greek word “Trismos” meaning grinding/rasping. Trismus means a limitation of mouth opening due to reduced mobility of the mandible. A number of potential factors may cause trismus and its treatment will depend on the cause. The causes of this problem are usually of infectious, traumatic, pathological origin, or a combination of these. Trismus is not considered as a disease or injury; it is, in fact, a result or can also be said as concluding sequelae which follows the active healing stages. A thorough knowledge of this decreased mobility is very much essential to deliver proper treatment and also post-operative care to the patients to avoid permanent disability in function. The primary causes of this condition and the various possible treatments available have been discussed in this review.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001963
Title: In silico identification of newer potential spleen tyrosine kinase and protein arginine deiminase 4 inhibitors as potent antirheumatoid arthritic agents
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Over the past few decades, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has become a major global health problem which accentuates the need for newer drugs. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a cytoplasmic, non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in signal transduction in a variety of cell types and plays an important role in uncontrolled growth of tumor cells and protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), a calcium-dependent enzyme, mainly expressed in granulocytes and the only isoform localized in the cell nucleus which catalyzes the conversion of peptidyl-arginine to peptidyl-citrulline. Aim: This Prompted us to design newer YK and PAD4 inhibitors as efficient therapeutic drugs for the treatment of rheumatic arthritis. Materials and Methods: Based on the common pharmacophoric features for the inhibition of SYK and PAD4, a series of leads were designed using computational methods. A virtual library consisting of newly designed 60 molecules as SYK and PAD4 inhibitors of 30 each, has been constructed using features such as hydrogen bond acceptor, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrophobic features. The binding mechanism of newly designed ligands with target enzyme SYK and PAD4 was studied using Arguslab 4.1 and AutoDock tools 1.5.6. Conculsion: The designed compounds were subjected and filtered by applying ADMET properties, Lipinski rule of five, molecular docking and found to be more effective SYK and PAD4inhibitors for treatment of RA.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001962
Title: Preparation of intranasal pregabalin microspheres: In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Objective: Although, pregabalin shows high oral absorption, greater intrinsic efficacy to prevent seizure activity, its delayed transport across the blood-brain barrier limits the use in emergency epileptic seizures. Due to the particular anatomical features of the nasal cavity, intranasal (IN) administration has been explored as a means of preferential drug delivery to the brain. The objective of the present study was to improve therapeutic efficacy through IN administration of pregabalin- loaded mucoadhesive microspheres. Materials and Methods: Chitosan-based mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. Effect of chitosan concentration, glutaraldehyde concentration, and the stirring speed was investigated for the formation of microspheres. The physicochemical properties of microspheres, including particle size, zeta potential, drug content, entrapment efficiency, swelling index, and morphology were examined using suitable tools. Ex vivo bioadhesion, biocompatibility, and drug permeation were determined using sheep nasal mucosa. Anticonvulsant effect of pregabalin-loaded microspheres was investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures in mice through IN administration. Results: Pregabalin-loaded chitosan microspheres were spherical shape 18.2–24.35 µm mean diameter, positive zeta potential, 80% entrapment efficiency, and 87.29% ex vivo drug permeation. The results of in vivo studies clearly indicated the greater anticonvulsant effect pregabalin in PTZ-induced seizures by IN route as compared to its peripheral administration. Conclusion: Thus, IN administration of pregabalin via mucoadhesive microspheres may be appropriate and valuable drug delivery system for the chronic and acute attacks of epileptic seizures.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001960
Title: Effect of antiretroviral therapy on hemoglobin level in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Kadapa: A retrospective study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is responsible for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a combination of different antireteroviral drugs used for the treatment of HIV infection. It has been reported in HIV-infected patients, anemia occurs due to decrease in CD4 cells, and ART increases the number of CD4 cells. Thus, the aim of this study was to find blood hemoglobin (Hb) level in HIV-infected patients . Methods: Retrospective observational study was conducted in Rajiv Gandhi Institute of medical sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, in 200 HIV-infected patients. Data were collected from patient data collection forms of HIV-infected patients to analyze the effect of ART on Hb level. Results: Data from the records of 200 HIV-infected patients revealed a significant decrease in Hb level due to AZT+3TC+ nevirapine (NVP) regimen. Increase in the length of the ART treatment significantly decreased Hb level. However, ART showed more prominent effect on female patients. In case of young patients, age ranges from 20 to 30 years also showed a significant decrease in Hb level.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001959
Title: Effects of tooth brushing on wear, surface roughness, and color stability of composite resins-A review
Category: Periodontics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The need for enhancing esthetics has led to the evolution of various restorative materials with superior properties in terms of appearance and to create a natural smile. Composite resins are the most commonly used materials that fulfill this need among other restorative materials. Maintaining and safeguarding the properties of the material largely influences the life span and longevity of the restoration against the oral environment and external factors. Toothbrushing serves dual roles of maintaining oral hygiene and causing subsequent wear of the restorative material. There are multiple influencing factors that cause this wear, that include brushing time and force used, dentifrice constituents and its abrasive properties, filler particle size and content of the resins, the light-curing methods employed for the resins. Multiple studies have evaluated the possible ill effects of tooth brushing on wear, increased surface roughness, and loss of gloss of composite resins deteriorating their properties over a period of time. These effects promote plaque accumulation, in efficient cleansing of the oral cavity causing further periodontal problems compromising oral hygiene. This brings the requirement of methods reducing such effects to improve the quality, prolong the shelf life, also promoting and preserve the composite resin restorations, especially in the anterior esthetic zone.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001958
Title: Phytochemical investigation and antihelmintic activity of Operculina turpethum roots
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study was aimed at the investigation of the roots of the traditional Indian medicinal plant Operculina turpethum for pharmacologically active chemical constituents and in vitro evaluation of the fraction (or) extracts that shown to contain maximum constituents for anthelmintic activity against adult Indian earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) using albendazole as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: The collected and authenticated roots were dried under shade and extracted with water, ethanol, and ethyl acetate by maceration. The obtained extracts were investigated for the presence of various biologically active ingredients by qualitative methods. Ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts that were shown to possess maximum constituents were tested for anthelmintic activity by measuring parameters such as time taken for paralysis and death of the worms. Results: Results were compared with that were obtained with albendazole. From the results, it was found that the ethanolic extract of the roots taken for the study possesses significant activity at the concentrations of 150 mg/ml. However, more study is recommended for further investigation in this regard.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-00001956
Title: Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Chenopodium album of Bundelkhand region
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Chenopodium album L. is a vegetable plant commonly known as Bathua belongs to the family Chenopodiaceae, which is an important medicinal plant in Ayurveda that cures leukoderma, biliousness, epilepsy, salivation, fever, cough, and abdominal pain. Keeping in view of the above beneficial effects of C. album, we sought to analyze the phytochemicals present in the methanolic as well as in aqueous extracts. Materials and Methods: Aqueous and methanolic extraction of C. album was done for screening of different kinds of bioactive compounds, namely: Saponins, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, cardiac glycosides, protein and amino acid, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and steroids using standard phytochemical screening methods. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and antioxidant activity were also evaluated. Results: There were variable results for alkaloid test with different methods. Molisch and Barfoed’s test for carbohydrate shows a negative result for all the extract. Fehling test and Keller–Killani test are negative in the quath and methanolic extract. Conclusions: Mostly, tests for flavonoids, glycosides, tannin, and phenolics showed the presence of these secondary metabolites in all the extract. Saponin test showed very impressive results. Biuret test is negative in all the extracts. Terpenoids and steroids are present in quath as well as in aqueous extraction, while these metabolites are absent in methanolic extraction. All the extraction procedures show five bioactive components. Further, the antioxidant activity was observed in all the extracts. Mostly, all the phytochemicals are present in the leaves extract of Bathua. Further, five bioactive components were observed by TLC. Antioxidant activity observed in the leaves extract is may be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic components.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001973
Title: Essential oil extraction, characterization, and antimicrobial study of Blumea lacera DC. from Konkan region
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study of essential oil of Blumea lacera DC. was designed to evaluate essential oil extraction, phytochemical composition, and antimicrobial study of essential oil from B. lacera DC. Materials and Methods: Collected from Bhramhanwadi, Murud, in Konkan region. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation using Clevenger-type apparatus and characterization of essential oil was done by infrared (IR), gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC–MS), and antimicrobial activity. Results: A total of 39 compounds were identified using GC–MS. The main components of essential oil are bicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene,4,11,11-trimethyl-8-methylene[1R-(1R*,4Z,9S*)] (18.3%), α-caryophyllene (27.8%), azulene,1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,4-dimethyl-7-1(1-methylethenyl),[1S-(1α,7α,8αβ)] (8.26%), cedran-diol,8S,14 (17.6%), etc. IR confirms the identification of components. Chemical investigation was done to determine its molecular formula and structure.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001955
Title: Dental jewellery - A review
Category: Periodontics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Today, people are becoming increasingly self-conscious about their appearance and smile. Intraoral jewellery has nowadays gained popularity and is slowly becoming a trend, but this fashion tagline is also associated with some serious health risks. The different jewellery in use today are lip studs, lip rings, tooth rings, grill jewellery, dazzlers and twinkles, veneer jewellery cheek studs, etc. There is an age-old history for dental jewellery as it was considered as a symbol of religion, tribe, culture, and sex. These accessories though are said to enhance beauty cause problems such as increase in plaque levels, inflammation of the gingiva and/or recession, decay, defective occlusion, and metal allergy. There are also some life-threatening complications such as airway obstruction due to aspiration, bleeding, erythema, and endocarditis. If there is a usage of unsterile instruments, it can act as a vector in the transmission of communicable diseases such as hepatitis, tetanus, and tuberculosis in susceptible patients. This review highlights the prevalence, complications, and side effects of dental jewellery.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001953
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward resin bonded cements among undergraduate dental students: A questionnaire-based survey
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Introduction: Resin bonded cements are increasingly used in prosthetic replacement of teeth as luting agents. Dental luting agents provide a bridge between the restoration and prepared tooth, bonding them together through mechanical, micromechanical, chemical, or combination. Very few studies are reported in the literature assessing the knowledge and practice regarding the usage of resin bonded cements among dental students. This article is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude, and practice of resin bonded cements among dental undergraduates. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was formulated with demographics and was objective oriented. These questions were distributed among 480 undergraduate dental
students in Chennai. Of 480 students, 400 students responded. The exclusion criteria included postgraduates and specialists, and the inclusion criteria included undergraduate dental students and students in their internship phase. Results: The results showed that 45% of subjects knew of resin bonded cements, whereas 24% of the students were unaware of the term. 42% of students believed resin bonded cements to have high scope in prosthetic rehabilitation. 43% of the students correctly answered that resin bonded cements to be based on bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate and 50% of the students correctly answered that setting reaction of resin-based cements is based on polymerization. Conclusion: This study showed that the knowledge and awareness regarding the usage and clinical applications of resin bonded agents was inadequate among the population. As awareness on resin bonded cements among dental undergraduates has been found to be inadequate, it was concluded that increased importance should be given to education in this aspect of dental cements.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001952
Title: Antihyperlipidemic activity of solvent fractions of Calotropis procera root bark extract in poloxamer-407 induced hyperlipidemic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Atherogenic hyperlipidemia, characterized by an abnormal elevation in the circulatory lipoprotein levels, especially low-density lipoproteins (LDL), continues to be the primary etiologic factor implicated in occlusive vascular diseases. Objectives: In the present investigation, lipid-lowering effect of Calotropis procera root bark methanol extract (CPRME) and its different solvent fractions, namely, n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous fraction were studied. Methods: Hyperlipidemia was induced by single intraperitoneal (i. p) injection of poloxamer-407 (P-407) at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight in male rats. Drug treatments were done by oral gavage at 24 h and 1 h before i. p. injection of P-407 and blood samples were collected at 3, 6, and 24 h intervals. The serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, and high-LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured while very LDL-C (VLDL-C) and LDL-C were calculated by Friedewald formula and modified Friedewald formula, respectively. Results: From the present study, it was observed that methanolic CPRME and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) have shown significant reduction in serum cholesterol and lipoprotein levels in P-407 induced hyperlipidemia when compared with vehicle-treated positive control group. The efficacy of EAF was found to be comparable to that of standard drugs-atorvastatin and fenofibrate. Conclusion: It is concluded that CPRME and its EAF have shown remarkable ability to reduce serum lipids and observed effect could be attributed to the presence of vast array of phytochemicals, notably, β-sitosterol, lupeol, α- and β-amyrin in the root bark.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001950
Title: Degree of conversion of two different resin cements at various levels of post space using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Fiber reinforced posts have been used with the aim of improving the retention of core buildup material in endodontically treated teeth when remaining crown dentin is scarce. Post-fabrication and placement are part of endodontic treatment not only in the retentive contribution to the core but also to the filling and sealing of root canal space and there is a direct relationship between the polymerization shrinkage and degree of conversion. Aim: This study evaluates the degree of conversion of two different resin luting resin cements at various levels of post space using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: Forty freshly extracted, non carious, single rooted human teeth were used in this study. Following root canal treatment post space preparation was done and the samples were divided randomly into two groups of twenty each - Group I; Relyx U200, Group II: Luxacore Z Dual. DT light posts were luted with resin cements, roots were sectioned at three different levels of post space. Degree of conversion was evaluated using fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that Luxacore Z Dual had a higher degree of conversion at all levels of post space compared to RelyX U200 (p value <0.05) and also there was a decrease in the degree of conversion from cervical to apical third of root canal space for both the resin cements(p value <0.05). Conclusion: Luxacore Z Dual had a higher degree of conversion at all levels of post space compared to RelyX U200.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001947
Title: Assessment of parental oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavior
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this survey is to assess the parental oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between the oral health knowledge, attitude, and behaviors of the parents aimed at reducing caries exposure among their children. Background: A survey is to be conducted among 100 parents of children ages 0–14. Parents are asked to fill the questionnaire regarding the oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Reason: This survey is done to assess the knowledge of parents regarding oral health and to educate regarding prevention of caries and to maintain good oral hygiene. Results: In this study, 54.3% of the parents exhibited poor knowledge, 75.7% showed fair attitude, and 64.2% were following poor practices toward their children oral health. Conclusion: This study showed that parents had partial knowledge and attitude toward oral health, which reflected in their poor oral health practices toward their children.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001941
Title: Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of indole-substituted indole-fused keto hydrazide–hydrazones
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: A new type of indole and substituted indole-linked keto hydrazide–hydrazones were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their cytotoxicity against eight human cancer cell lines HeLa, A549, MCF-7, K562, HEK293, HT29, SF295, and HL60. Materials and Methods: The antitumor activity of the compounds was determined using MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) reduction assay. Results and Discussion: The compound 10 exhibited potent antitumor activity on four cancer cell lines MCF-7, A549, K562, and HL60 with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 8.81 μM, 14.11 μM, 14.75 μM, and 15.631 μM, whereas compound 13 shows on five cancer cell lines A549, MCF-7, K562, SF295, and HL60 with IC50 value of 16.319 μM, 9.44 μM, 18.38 μM, 13.513 μM, and 19.31 μM than the standard drug cisplatin, respectively. Conclusion: The compounds 10 and 13 may be act as potent antitumor agents in cancer chemotherapy.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001929
Title: Oral manifestation and management of systemic lupus erythematosus - A short review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease of unknown origin that can affect organs and cause severe damage. Lupus is diagnosed through biopsies and laboratory examinations; however, certain clinical characteristics and the presence of lesions can help with early diagnosis and improve the disease prognosis. SLE patients generally receive immune suppressants that may cause systemic implications - such as suture dehiscence, increased risk of infection, and delayedhealing - that deserve specific attention during dental treatment. This review presents studies done on SLE patient with oral manifestations: Ulcerative lesions in the mouth and brief about the treatment modality.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-HM-00001928
Title: Antioxidants and cancer prevention - A review
Category: Herbal medicine
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Antioxidant therapy and free radicals have attracted in a lot of consideration in recent years. Antioxidants are compounds that destroy the free radicals in the body, thereby preventing harmful oxidation-reduction reactions. Antioxidants are important for maintaining good health. The best sources of antioxidants are fruits and vegetables, which provide a variety of antioxidants such as Vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids. Data that are presently available are compatible with the notion that these vitamins act as chemopreventives against some important cancers such as carotenoids for lung cancer, ascorbic acid for salivary gland cancer, and tocopherols for head-and-neck cancers. Hence, a greater consumption of fruits and vegetables should be encouraged as they are the natural sources of these chemopreventive antioxidants along with other protective factors packaged by nature

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001927
Title: Vertical root fracture
Category: Periodontics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Prompt diagnosis of vertical fracture in teeth could cause difficulties to practitioner but with various specific clinical and radiographic signs that are present during diagnosis could alert clinicians to the existence of such fractures. Hence, this review describes diagnosis of a vertical root fractures with its clinical and radiographic signs and presents treatment strategies for the same.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001925
Title: Role of essential plant oils in the treatment of periodontal and oral diseases
Category: Periodontics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Essential oils (EO) have been used as an adjuvant modality of treatment in the management of several orofacial diseases. They are primarily herbal extracts composed of complex organic hydrocarbons. The EO are extracted through a strenuous process of filtration and distillation from the naturally available botanical sources. They exhibit various therapeutic properties including antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. They also possess anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties. EO are relatively free of harmful side effects and allergic reactions. This review describes the potential applications of various EO in the management of periodontal and other oral diseases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001924
Title: Incidence of golden proportion among a target South Indian population
Category: Periodontics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: There are certain esthetic algorithms in nature like the Fibonacci sequence and the closely related golden proportion. In dentistry, the golden proportion has been suggested as one possible mathematical approach to the development of ideal size and shape relationships for maxillary teeth. Although several studies are available regarding the measurement of golden proportion in Caucasian populations, we do not have enough data regarding golden proportion measurements in the South Indian population. This survey is a small step toward addressing this gap in the literature. Aim: This study aims to survey the incidence of golden proportion between the widths of the maxillary anterior teeth among a target South Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study included 100 patients, 50 male and 50 female patients of age group of 20–30 years. Digital camera was used to measure the widths of the maxillary anterior teeth: Central incisor, lateral incisor, and canine. Standard frontal image of subject’s smile was taken using Canon 550 AF Lens 18–55mm. The image was downloaded to a personal computer and measurements of maxillary and mandibular anteriors were measured using a software called image measurement. Results: In the present study male South Indian population, the central incisor is smaller when compared to the ideal golden proportion, whereas canine is larger. The ratio of 1.2 was more commonly observed in 89% of individuals than 1.618 and 1.3 only in 11% of samples. Conclusion: The proportion between the maxillary central incisor, lateral incisor, and canine is consistent in both males and females. The central incisor is slightly smaller and canine is larger than the ideal golden proportion.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001923
Title: Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanolic gel extract of Aloe adigratana Reynolds
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Aloe adigratana Reynolds is an herb that belongs to the Xanthorrhoeaceae family. It is native species to Tigray region in Northern Ethiopia and locally known as ere, it is called the healing plant because of its wound and burn healing properties. The present study was carried out to perform the phytochemical screening with different organic solvents and evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of A. adigratana Reynolds gel. Methods: The present study was to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidants potential of ethanolic extract of A. adigratana Reynolds gel by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, reducing power assay, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, and superoxide radical scavenging activities using standard methods. Results: Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that ethanolic extract of A. adigratana Reynolds gel contained a maximum number of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, and terpenoid then other solvent extracts; further, the in vitro antioxidant activity of A. adigratana Reynolds ethanolic gel extract showed significant superoxide radical and nitric oxide scavenging activity with 76.67% and 65.39% inhibition with half maximal inhibitory concentration = 36.94 µg/ml and 62.35 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of A. adigratana Reynolds gel had significant antioxidant properties, due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, and could serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants, for the development of therapeutic antioxidant drugs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-GS-00001920
Title: Modeling fetal morphologic patterns through cardiotocography data: Decision tree-based approach
Category: General Sciences
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present research aims at decision tree (DT) modeling of fetal morphologic patterns by exploring cardiotocography (CTG). CTG consists of fetal heart rate and topographic measurements and is used for the verification of fetal health. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we have carried out DT modeling for CTGs data classification based on fetal morphologic patterns. Decision tree model is the most commonly used data mining technique for classification and prediction. The dataset employed in the present study comprises ten classes of morphologic patterns with a sample size of 2126 records. The optimum decision tree model is derived by tuning parameters such as min split, min bucket, max depth, and complexity. This model entails recursive partitioning approach implemented in the “rpart” package of R. The performance of the model is evaluated in terms of mean square error estimate of error rate. Results: Thus, derived decision tree model leads to values for tuning parameters such as min split, min bucket, max depth, and complexity are 20, 7, 30, and 0.01, respectively. The 1488 observations from the inputted dataset are considered for the construction of the tree. Root node error is 0.7211. Thus, derived DT model efficiently classifies validation data with very less error. Conclusion: The result suggests that the DT modeling has the potential to exhibit as the best tool for modeling of CTG data.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-HM-00001918
Title: Aloe vera - Nature’s healer
Category: Herbal medicine
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Aloe vera is a plant that belongs to “Xanthorrhoeacea” family. It is used in herbal medicine since 1st century AD. Clinical evaluations revealed that the pharmacologically active ingredient is present in the gel and leaves. More than the 300 varieties of A. vera exists exhibiting its unique property. The use of herbal products shows minimal side effect but highly effective treatment. Even though there are various advances in fields of medicine, oral infections are considered as a serious public health problem. A. vera is said to be as “Portable Nature’s First Aid Kit” and has also been used in dentistry for its beneficial properties in various conditions. This review summarizes the various therapeutic application and clinical uses of A. vera in dentistry. However, further research should be carried out to unfold the various potential uses of A. vera plant in dentistry.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00001919
Title: Evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice about usage along with awareness on first aid measures among secondary school and intermediate students
Category: Pharmacy practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The main aim of the first aid is to save the life, prevent degradation of the situation and to promote the recovery. The adequate knowledge on first aid can promote the chances of survival of the injured person. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of secondary school and intermediate students toward the first aid. Methods: It is a prospective study conducted in randomly selected secondary schools and intermediate colleges of Piler Mandal, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, for a period of 3 months using a validated questionnaire which consists of 28 questions to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practice about first aid. All statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and GraphPad Prism 7.0 software. Results and Discussion: The goal of first aid is to preserve life, prevent further injury and promote recovery. Statistically significant difference was not found in the knowledge (P = 0.6204), attitude (P = 0.2351), and practice (P = 0.9508) among secondary school and intermediate students about first aid measures. Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude, and practice of secondary school and intermediate students on first aid were found to be adequate, but still, it is the responsibility of each and every school to provide training on first aid measures and also to have fire extinguisher in their school campus.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-HM-00001926
Title: Plant remedies for peptic ulcer – A review
Category: Herbal medicine
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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An ulcer is an erosion in the lining of the stomach or duodenum. An ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer and that ulcer in the duodenum is called a duodenal ulcer. Together, ulcers of the stomach and duodenum are referred to as peptic ulcers. Peptic ulcer disease, encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers, is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. Generation of free radicals, decrease in mucosal defensive factor or increase in mucosal injurious factors causes peptic ulcer. Hence, through this review, we explore the possibility about some plants and their constituents that may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcer, usually occurs due to poor recreation, little rest, and lack of physical exercise, due to the consumption of chocolates, candies, coffee, cigarettes, alcohol, stress causing segregation of acid in the stomach, due to the consumption of antacid medications, and due to side effects that can cause constipation such as baking soda, white soda, alkalizing products, magnesium, and aluminum hydroxide. The present study was aimed to elaborate on various herbs such as Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya Linn., Allium sativum, and Mangifera indica which are used in treating peptic ulcer in various parts of the world.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001945
Title: Modern approaches to the study of erythrocytes of pre-eclampsia in the mother-placenta-fetus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The study of red blood cells of placenta, umbilical cord, endometrium, myometrium, and maternal blood against the background of pre-eclampsia was conducted using innovative research methods (scanning probe and electron scanning microscopy based on micro - and macronutrient analysis). Materials and Methods: The examination of 85 pregnant women with pre-eclampsia has been performed. The control group comprised 30 women. Result and Discussion: It is shown that the number of normocytes in the disease has been reduced almost twice. Altered cells in the majority cannot perform the most important function of red blood cells in full the oxygen-transport and are functionally defective. This is confirmed by the presence of a statistically significant reduction in oxygen content in respect of a comparative aspect between the erythrocytes of control and main groups. Conclusion: The component starts of disseminated intravascular coagulation with subsequent disordered vital functions of the mother and fetus may be the disturbed circulation in the structural components of the studied tissues and organs, as well as the change in cytoarchitectonics and functional properties of erythrocytes.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00001954
Title: Dental management of patients receiving anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment
Category: Periodontics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Arterial and venous thromboembolism and stroke have always been managed and prevented by administration of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs. These drugs tend to dilute the blood and prevent clotting of blood thereby increasing the bleeding time and the possibility of post-operative hemorrhage. Due to this, a few dentists still prefer to stop the anticoagulant therapy for at least 3 days before any surgical procedures. On the other hand, stopping these drugs can lead to thrombosis which is more fatal than post-operative bleeding. This article is a review of the main antiplatelet and anticoagulated drugs and the dental management of anticoagulated patients before and after oral surgical procedures.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-NTTM-00001957
Title: Anticariogenic property of mushroom - Review
Category: Natural Treatment of Traditional Medicine
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Dental caries is one of the most common dental lesions seen in the oral cavity. It is an infectious disease which results from the acidic demineralization of the tooth. When left untreated it may progress to pulpal and periodontal problems. While there are preventive measures that can be performed to prevent caries by a dentist, there are also natural methods in the form of diet to manage and prevent dental caries. This literature reviews the effects of components in mushroom that has anticarious action.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001961
Title: Antihypertensive activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia nilotica
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and objective: The present study aims to investigate its qualitative phytochemical analysis and antihypertension activity of pods of Acacia nilotica. Materials and Methods: The plant materials such as pods of A. nilotica were freshly collected from Talakona forest and nearby villages of Andhra Pradesh state. The dried materials were coarsely powdered, and the powder 120 gms was packed in Soxhlet apparatus and successively extracted with ethanol. Results and Discussion: By performing phytochemical studies using chemical tests, it was revealed that tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and alkaloids are present. The ethanolic extract of A. nilotica pod was screened for antihypertensive activity using chick model, and the results are showed that it possesses activity against hypertension. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study were proved that the efficacy of ethanolic extract has antihypertensive activity. A. nilotica showed significant antihypertensive activity when compared to standard isoprenaline, and it is a dose-dependent activity which may be due to the presence of tannins and flavonoids and other chemical constituents which are present in it.