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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00002039
Title: The determination of qualitative composition and quantitative content of steroidal compounds in Hosta plantaginea and Hosta lancifolia plant raw material
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Hosta species are used as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents in Far East countries. Many studies conducted by Chinese scientists testify about 50 steroid compounds in these plants composition. These compounds, according to the researchers’ opinion, show anti-inflammatory and cytostatic activity. Materials and Methods: Qualitative composition and quantitative content of steroidal compounds in Hosta plantaginea and Hosta lancifolia rhizomes with roots, leaves, and flowers were determined by gas chromatography technique. Results and Discussions: As the result of the study, 13 compounds of steroidal structure were found in H. plantaginea rhizomes with roots at a total amount of 103 mg/kg. Only five compounds were detected in leaves and six compounds in flowers. The total amount of the analyzed compounds equaled 312 mg/kg and 114 mg/kg, respectively, for the plant raw material listed above. Six compounds of steroidal structure were founds in both rhizomes with roots and flowers of H. lancifolia. Their total amount equaled 39 mg/kg and 32 mg/kg for rhizomes with roots and flowers, respectively. H. lancifolia leaves contain five identified steroids at the amount of 55 mg/kg. All the analyzed types of plant raw material contained campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol at a high amount. The highest content of these compounds was determined in H. plantaginea leaves. It equaled 27 mg/kg, 124 mg/kg, and 131 mg/kg, respectively, for each compound mentioned above. Gitogenin was detected only in H. plantaginea rhizomes with roots at the amount of 36 mg/kg. Conclusions: The obtained data can be used for the development of plant raw material quality control procedures as well as for the development of new drugs on its basis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002040
Title: Phase zero clinical trials: A new era in regulatory approach
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Microdosing or phase zero clinical trial is a breakthrough in drug development, where subtherapeutic dosage of various investigational products is administered under necessary safety condition to minimal number of volunteers to obtain an early pharmacokinetic profile of the product. It is an important bioanlaytical tool which benefits the patients as well as the pharmaceutical industry by bringing out new effective molecules faster and reducing the attrition rates at later clinical trial phase. Microdosing appears as a new concept in the toolbox of the drug development activity. It appears that microdosing strategy could complete standard animal to human scaling redefining the exiting concept of phase one clinical research. In future, when research methods and technology involved in phase zero studies become more sophisticated, human microdosing may be applied to a number of drugs developed subsequently. The drug and dose of the trial too small and reliable biomarkers are too thin on the ground despite great sum of money being spent to find and validate them. Phase zero clinical trials can decrease the cost and time and could improve the process of drug development in future. This review emphasis the development and impact of phase zero trial in clinical research.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002022
Title: Nanomedicine and type 2 diabetes: A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Nanotechnology has brought a range of new possibilities into biological discovery and clinical practice. Nanomedicine, the application of nanotechnology to medicine involves measurement and therapy at the level of 1–100 nm. In particular, nano- scaled carriers have revolutionized drug delivery, allowing therapeutic agents to be selectively targeted on an organ, tissue, and cell-specific level, also minimizing exposure of healthy tissue to drugs. Although the science is still in its infancy, it has major potential applications in diabetes. Banting and Best-discovered insulin 85 years ago, so thousands of lives have been saved. The manifestations of diabetes cause considerable human suffering and enormous economic costs. Both acute and late diabetic complications are commonly encountered. Nanotechnology can now offer new implantable and/or wearable sensing technologies that provide continuous and extremely accurate medical information. Nanotechnology offers some new solutions in treating diabetes mellitus. Boxes with nanopores that protect transplanted beta cells from the immune system attack, artificial pancreas and artificial beta cell instead of pancreas transplantation, nanoparticles or nanospheres as biodegradable polymeric carriers for oral delivery of insulin are just some of them. The abilities of nanomedicine are huge, and nanotechnology could give medicine an entirely new outlook. The main objective of this review aims to bring more light on the recent advances and impact of nanotechnology on pharmaceutical sciences to cure diabetes.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-QA-00002021
Title: Chemical hazards and safety management in pharmaceutical industry
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Chemical hazards are a major occupational health and safety (OHS) issue in Pharma industry. Management of chemical hazards requires the combined efforts of OHS specialists, including generalist OHS professionals, occupational hygienists, and occupational health practitioners. This paper is about industrial chemicals, the manner in which their toxicity is assessed and the use of such assessments in regulatory decision-making. It begins with general points concerning toxicological data availability and hazard identification, then moves on to risk assessment and occupational exposure limits, and finally looks briefly at three specific toxicological issues, asthma, chronic toxic encephalopathy, and ‘‘low toxicity’’ dust effects on the lung, where the science is far from resolved after brief consideration of the historical context of chemical reactivity and toxicity issues, acute and chronic exposure, chemical hazard classification systems, and the identification, risk assessment, and control of chemical hazards. Preventing exposure to toxic chemicals is a primary concern at hazardous waste sites. Most sites contain a variety of chemical substances in gaseous, liquid, or solid form. These substances can enter the unprotected body by inhalation, skin absorption, ingestion, or through a puncture wound (injection). Emphasis is placed on the importance of working with a range of OHS specialists to ensure a range of skills is directed at preventing fatality, injury, disease, and ill health arising from this complex area of OHS.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002002
Title: Chemical constituent and antioxidant activity of methanol extract from Indonesian Curcuma aeruginosa roxb. rhizome
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Herbal plants are widely used to promote and rehabilitate health and to prevent and cure disease. One of the herbal plants that have been used is Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. (Zingiberaceae), which is commonly called “Temu hitam” in Indonesia.  The rhizome of C. aeruginosa has been reported to possess many interesting pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antiandrogenic, antimicrobial, antiviral for dengue fever and HIV-1, anti-inflammation, and anticancer.Methods: This study aimed to isolate the secondary metabolite from the polar fraction of the rhizome extract and evaluate its antioxidant activity. Results: The secondary metabolite was isolated using vacuum liquid, radial, column, and preparative thin-layer chromatography. Identification of the purified fraction using liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy showed two dominant peaks on retention time of 8.19 and 12.29 min, suspected a sesquiterpene derivative and an isoflavone (chromene) derivative, respectively. Conclusion: Thus, these purified fractions had very weak antioxidant activity toward 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay with half maximal inhibitory concentration >1000 ppm.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002000
Title: Microbiological researches of rectal suppositories for the treatment of benign diseases of the prostate gland
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Prostatitis is one of the most common and difficult to diagnose and treat conditions in urological practice. Nowadays, the most common types of prostatitis are bacterial and infectious, characterized by acute and chronic cyclic flow with phases of exacerbations and remissions, where particular importance is the involvement of microorganisms, fungi, and protozoa in the pathological process. For the treatment and prevention of benign prostatic diseases, we developed the rectal suppositories with indole-3-carbinol and meloxicam. The aim of this work was to conduct microbiological studies of developed suppositories. Methods: To study the antimicrobial action, six experimental compositions were made. As test cultures, reference strains of bacteria and fungi were used, obtained in the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms of the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of D.K. Zabolotny (Kyiv, Ukraine): Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The study of the specific antimicrobial action of the medicinal product was conducted in vitro by diffusion in nutrient agar in the modification of “wells.” To determine antibacterial activity, Muller-Hinton agar was used, while studying antifungal action used Saburo dextrose agar. Results: Studies have shown that the presence of meloxicam and excipient Montanox 80 in the composition of suppositories does not significantly affect the degree of the antibacterial and antifungal effects. Suppositories with indole-3-carbinol and the combination of indole-3-carbinol and meloxicam have a pronounced antibacterial effect in relation to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and antifungal action. Conclusion: The conducted microbiological research has established the possibility and feasibility of using developed rectal suppositories with indole-3-carbinol and meloxicam in the treatment of bacterial and infectious prostatitis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00002001
Title: Evaluation of wound healing property of Parmelia sp. against diabetic foot ulcer-causing pathogens
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present study was focussed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Parmelia sp., specifically targeted toward the pathogens that are responsible for causing diabetic foot ulcers. Materials and Methods: The crude extracts of Parmelia sp. were obtained by cold extraction process, and the volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of ethanolic and chloroform extracts of Parmelia sp. against the foot ulcer-causing pathogens was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Results: Two pathogens were isolated from the swab sample and were identified as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus based on microscopy and phenotypic characteristics. The ethanolic extract of Parmelia sp. was more effective as compared to chloroform extract and maximum inhibition was observed at a concentration of 200 µl of lichen extract. Conclusion: Diabetic foot ulcers are predominantly polymicrobial and multidrug- resistant and are the major reason for non-traumatic lower limb amputation. In this study, the potential of Parmelia sp. extract against foot ulcer-causing pathogens has been evaluated. The results from the study prove that Parmelia sp. which has been used as a spice possesses constituents with antibacterial activity and can be used in wound healing treatment.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00002003
Title: Botanical study and DNA fingerprinting of Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche cultivated in Egypt
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study was designed to through light on botanical study as well as DNA fingerprinting for Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche cultivated in Egypt for the aim of plant authentication. Methods: This authentication included macro-morphological description for the plant as well as micro-morphological study of transverse sections from leaf, stem and petiole of the plant under study by light microscope and identifying isolated elements present in these three organs of the plant. In addition DNA fingerprinting was carried out for the plant applying randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique using five primers for the analysis. Results and Discussion: 16 different RAPD fragments were recorded in DNA fingerprinting study. Macro-morphological study included description of the plant (Figures 2 and 3). Micro-morphological study showed the different layers of tissues in leaf, stem and petiole of the plant as well as the isolated elements, and are illustrated in (Figures 4-9). Conclusion: At the end of the study it can be concluded that botanical study and RAPD analysis under the experimental conditions used, may be helpful for identification and authentication of the plant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-Pe-00002005
Title: Dental management of patients receiving anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment
Category: Periodontics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Arterial and venous thromboembolism and stroke have always been managed and prevented by administration of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs. These drugs tend to dilute the blood and prevent clotting of blood, thereby increasing the bleeding time and the possibility of post-operative hemorrhage. Due to this, a few dentists still prefer to stop the anticoagulant therapy for at least 3 days before any surgical procedures. On the other hand, stopping these drugs can lead to thrombosis which is more fatal than post-operative bleeding. This article is a review of the main antiplatelet and anticoagulated drugs and the dental management of anticoagulated patients before and after oral surgical procedures.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00002006
Title: Characterization of cellulose from jackfruit (Artocarpus integer) peel
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Jackfruit peel is one among the under-utilized waste materials. Materials and Methods: In the present study, cellulose was extracted from the depectinated peel. The peel was treated with alkali followed by a chemical process treatment. The morphological characterization of cellulose was done using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Result and Conclusion: The yield of jackfruit cellulose (JC) was 27 g/100 g of dry matter. Derivative thermogravimetric curve exhibit peak of water-soluble compounds and three main overlapped peak attributed to hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Elementary derivative X-ray spectroscopy of JC contains mainly in calcium carbonate and silica. AFM analysis showed homogeneous structures with typical granular morphology.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00002007
Title: Isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing Bacillus sp.
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The study was to isolate biosurfactant producing organisms from petroleum contaminated soil. Two isolates were selected based on the positive results obtained for the screening tests. The production was carried out using them in a combined ratio, and the product was characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from Palakkad and Ernakulam regions. Screening tests selected to identify biosurfactant are drop collapse test, oil spreading technique, foaming activity, emulsification index, and blood hemolysis. 16S rRNA sequencing was carried out to confirm the species. The MSM medium with 2% engine oil as carbon source was used as the production medium. The crude biosurfactant was obtained by acid precipitation followed by Chloroform: Methanol extraction. The dry cell weight was measured. FT-IR analysis of the extract was performed. Results and Discussion: The positive organisms were found to be Bacillus subtilis (B50) and Bacillus cereus (B55). The GenBank accession number for isolates is MF521625 and MF684782, respectively. The biosurfactant yield was found to be approximately 0.24 gm/100 ml of the medium which was considerably more than individual production. FTIR spectrum indicates the presence of lipopeptide. Conclusion: The crude biosurfactant was determined to be lipopeptide which has properties similar to that of surfactants. Thus, microbially produced surfactants are eco-friendly, non-toxic, and biodegradable which can be used for different applications.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002008
Title: Preparation and characterization of lacidipine as an oral fast dissolving film
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Fast dissolving oral drug delivery system is solid dosage form which disintegrates or dissolves within second when placed in the mouth without need of water or chewing. In present investigation, an attempt has been made to develop oral fast dissolving film of calcium channel blocker lacidipine. Method: Five formulas were prepared by solvent casting method using HPMC (METOLOSE) ® as a film forming polymer and evaluated for their physical characteristics such as thickness, weight variation, folding endurance, drug content, disintegration time and in vitro drug release. The compatibility of the drug in the formulation was confirmed by FTIR and DSC studies. Result and Conclusion: The optimized formula F1 showed minimum in vitro disintegration time of 25 second and highest dissolution rate 97.3% in 10 minutes with good mechanical properties. Based on overall results, the conclusion that lacidipine was successfully prepared as oral fast dissolving film with accepted properties.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002009
Title: Design, synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of some novel antitubercular agents targeting thymidylate synthetase x, enoyl-ACP reductase, and l, d-transpeptidase-2
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common deadly infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium TB (MTB) in humans. Drugs used for TB are inadequate to address emerging challenge of treatment due to drug resistance toward the mycobacteria. The rise in clinical significance of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens has directed us to synthesize some novel antitubercular agents targeting various target enzymes such as thymidylate synthetase-x, enoyl-ACP reductase, and L,D-transpeptidase-2. Thiazolidinone derivatives and isatin derivatives possess a broad range of biological and pharmacological properties including antitubercular, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-HIV activities. Materials and Methods: A series of Schiff bases of isatin derivatives were synthesized and reported. Another thiazolidinone derivative was synthesized using Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Lipinski rule and toxicity prediction was applied to the proposed molecules before the synthesis was taken up. The molecules were designed and docked using ArgusLab 4.0® and toxicity prediction using Osiris®. Results and Discussion: Docking studies showed the important interactions of lead molecules at the active site residues. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity against MTB H37Rv strain by Microplate Alamar Blue Assay method. Conclusion: The research study concludes that the MIC of the synthesised compounds (a-s) ranges from 6. 25 mcg/ml to 50 mcg/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis when compared to standard antitubercular drugs like Pyrazinamide and streptomycin.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002010
Title: A simple liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of aceclofenac, methyl salicylate, and benzyl alcohol in pharmaceuticals
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, accurate, and precise method developed and validated for simultaneous determination of aceclofenac, methyl salicylate, and benzyl alcohol in cream formulations. 0.01 molar potassium dihydrogen phosphate adjusted pH 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid is used as a buffer with acetonitrile in the ratio of 70:30 V/V as mobile phase. Resolution between aceclofenac, methyl salicylate, and benzyl alcohol achieved within 10 min using Inertsil C18 column of 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µ dimension using flow gradient, and detector wavelength 215 nm. Method was validated as per ICH guideline for parameters such as specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, solution stability, filter compatibility, and robustness. Accuracy for aceclofenac, methyl salicylate, and benzyl alcohol lies between 98.0% and 102.0%. The correlation coefficient for aceclofenac, methyl salicylate, and benzyl alcohol is passing and all other validation parameters found well within limits. The literature survey revealed that there is no method reported for simultaneous determination of aceclofenac, methyl salicylate, and benzyl alcohol in cream formulations using liquid chromatography. The proposed method is very simple, accurate, and precise, so can be easily adopted for routine analysis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-NTTM-00002011
Title: Phytochemicals and cytotoxicity of sausage fruit (Kigelia africana) extract against breast cancer cells MCF-7 in vitro
Category: Natural Treatment of Traditional Medicine
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: This study aimed to determine phytochemical constituents; active compounds of sausage fruit (Kigelia africana) extract and evaluate its cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells MCF-7 under in vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: The fruit samples were macerated in methanol. The methanol extract was separated and purified by column and thin-layer chromatography preparative method. The isolated compound was identified using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Inhibition of proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7 was tested for the purified fraction using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: Phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenols were presented in the sausage fruit extract. Purification of fruit extract of sausage resulted three fractions and indicated strong activity in inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7 with IC50 of 1.89; 1´10−2 , 3.2´10−7 , and 2.52 μg/ml for A, B2 , C fractions, and EtOAc extract, respectively. Identification of B2 gives 5.7-dimethoxy-4-methyl coumarin, 3-hydroxy- beta-lapachone, 7H, 8H-dipenalen-9,2-b:2,1-difuran-7.8-dione, and 3’,6-dimethyl flavone, respectively. Conclusion: The isolated B2 fraction is predominated by phenolics. Four identified compounds demonstrated strong potential in inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PRGS-00002012
Title: The potential activity of ethanolic extract from ant- nest plant (Myrmecodia pendens Merr. and L.M Perry) against hyaluronic acid and essential oils of plant-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Category: Pharmaceutical and Related General Science
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ant-nest plant ethanol extract against Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates and determined its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Materials and Methods: The simplisia of ant-nest plant was extracted using a maceration method. The phytochemical screening was conducted using standard methods. The antibacterial activity was done by the agar diffusion method using chlorhexidine gluconate as comparative drug. The MIC test was done by a macrodilution method and following by subculturing the overnight result onto the surface of agar media. Results and Discussion: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. Antibacterial activity of ant-nest extract exhibited the anticaries activity against S. aureus clinical isolates in terms of inhibitory zone formation. The chlorhexidine gluconate in a concentration of 0.025 %w/v had given inhibition effect to all S. aureus isolates. The MIC value of ant-nest extract was ranging at concentrations of 0.825–1.75% w/v. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of ant-nest plant potent for S. aureus that had been resistant against hyaluronic acid and essential oils of plant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002013
Title: Anti-obesity activity of Vitis vinifera by butter and progesterone induced models
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The prevalence of obesity-associated comorbidities, enhance the risk for predominant health problems such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, and certain cancers. Natural product based intervention has been one of the crucial strategies for management of obesity ailments. The study was intended to investigate the anti-obesity activity of ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera in butter and progesterone induced obese rats. Materials and Methods: Leaves of V. vinifera were subjected to Soxhlet extraction with alcohol. Obtained alcoholic extract was subjected to phytochemical screening and acute toxicity studies. In progesterone induced obesity model progesterone (10 mg/kg), standard drug, sibutramine (10 mg/kg), and V. vinifera (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) were administered for 28 days. On the 29th day, blood samples were isolated for assessing biochemical parameters such as glucose, triglyceride (TG), high- density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). Liver was isolated for histopathological studies. In Butter induced obesity model, 400 mg/kg butter, standard drug, atorvastatin (10 mg/kg), and V. vinifera (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) were administered for 21 days. After 21 days blood was withdrawn for estimating LDL, VLDL, HDL, cholesterol, and TG. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and tannins. By acute toxicity studies, V. vinifera was found to be safe up to 1500 mg/kg. In progesterone induced obesity model, sibutramine and V. vinifera significantly (P < 0.01) decreased glucose, TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, SGOT, and SGPT along with an increase in HDL. In butter induced obesity model, atorvastatin and V. vinifera significantly (P < 0.01) decreased glucose, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL level long with significant increase in HDL. Histopathological studies revealed reduced necrosis and fatty changes of liver in sibutramine (10 mg/kg), and V. vinifera (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) treated group compared to progesterone- treated group. Conclusion: Results of the study reveal anti-obesity activity of V. vinifera.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002014
Title: Development and validation of stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for the determination of acebrophylline and doxofylline in bulk and combined dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Context: A simple, selective, and precise stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method of analysis of acebrophylline (ACEBRO) and doxofylline (DOXO) both in bulk drug and in their combined formulation has been developed. Method: The aim of this study is to develop a method that separates both the drugs by HPTLC. The separation was obtained on TLC aluminum sheets of silica gel 60F 254 using toluene:methanol:glacial acetic acid (6:2:2 v/v/v) as a mobile phase. Stability of ACEBRO and DOXO was carried out by forced degradation study. Result: ACEBRO and DOXO shows distinct and well-defined peak at Rf 0.29 and 0.64, respectively. Calibration curve is linear in range of 100–600 and 400–2400 ng/spot for ACEBRO and DOXO, respectively. Method was successively applied to tablet formulation. Stability study shows that the chromatograms of samples degraded with acid, base, hydrogen peroxide, light, and dry heat showed well-separated spots of pure ACEBRO and DOXO as well as some additional peaks at different Rf values. Conclusion: The HPTLC method was able to selectively quantitate ACEBRO and DOXO in the presence of their degradation products obtained in forced degradation study. Hence, the method can be used as stability-indicating method. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and it is applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical dosage form containing these two drugs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002019
Title: Three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship studies of amino pyrazolines and their Schiff base derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study highlights the three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies of some novel amino pyrazolines and their Schiff base derivatives. Materials and Methods: The QSAR studies were performed using PHASE module of Schrödinger PHASE-4.6, 2016, Schrödinger, LLC. Results and Discussion: The results obtained from AAHRRR.57 hypothesis were found to be statistically significant with r2 = 0.8609 and q2 = 0.8156 with three partial least square factors. Conclusions: The statistical significance of the model was confirmed by a low root-mean-square error value of 0.791. The ‘‘Pearson-R’’ value of 0.9703 suggests a good predictive ability of the hypothesis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00002020
Title: Study on antibiotic sensitivity of chromium tolerant bacteria isolated from chromite mine area
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study was conducted to determine the antibiotic sensitivity and heavy metal tolerance profile of bacteria isolated from chromite mine area in Pauni and Taka from Bhandara and Nagpur Districts, Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: The Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method was used to obtain antibiotic sensitivity patterns of these isolates. 14 different isolates were screened out on the basis of their higher chromium tolerance capacity. Out of 14, one strain belongs to the genus Acinetobacter. Results: These species are noted for their resistance to antibiotics and their ability to acquire genes encoding resistance determinants. In antibiotic sensitivity test, Acinetobacter pittii was found to be resistance against ampicillin, augmentin, cefuroxime, fusidic acid, linezolid, and vancomycin and was susceptible to amikacin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, meropenem, piperacillin, and tetracycline and has low susceptibility to aztreonam, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and rifampicin. Conclusion: Therefore, the drug of choice was found to be amikacin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, meropenem, piperacillin, and tetracycline.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-QA-00002023
Title: A single method for the determination of drug content in diversified drug substance and dosage forms by reverse- phase high-pressure liquid chromatography
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study was conducted to determine the drug content in various drug substance and dosage forms using a single method. Methods: It was achieved with a simple, specific and precise reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatographic method. Results and Discussion: The results of linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity, proved to be within the limits. The method provides selective quantification of active component without interference from diluent and placebo. The developed method is very advantageous for analysis of different bulk and dosage forms and their in process samples continuously in view of single method for all impurities, which reduces the time and consumption of chemicals, occupancy of HPLC systems. Conclusion: Therefore, for the established method the drug of choice was found to be Amlodipine, Atorvastatin, Benazepril, Clopidogrel, Fexofenadine, Glimepiride, Lansoprazole, Ciprofloxacin, Omeprazole, Omeprazole Mg, Simvastatin andTizanidineinorder to estimate the amount of drug substances in bulk and in dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00002024
Title: Diverse pharmacological potentials of an indigenous climber Tylophora indica (Burm. F.) Merr.: A review
Category: Microbiology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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In the present day scenario, changes in the natural cycle and its effects over the health in all forms of life have generated an alarming sign all over the world. Attempts are being made to minimize these deleterious effects by creating awareness in general population to implement the maximum use of plant drugs in the daily life. Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merr. (T. indica) is one of the medicinal plants, which have been renowned in the Ayurvedic System of Medicine for the treatment of asthma. The plant possesses various phytoconstituents, of which phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids (tylophorine, tylophorinine, tylophorinidine, etc.) form the main components. The present review has been focused to scan the ethnomedical data available for T. indica, analyze against the investigated experimental findings for its multiple pharmacological actions, and discuss the future prospective of the climber. Ethnobotanical surveys have attributed this plant to be antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antivenom, contraceptive, diuretic, antidysenteric and so on. Some of these potentials (antiasthmatic and antidysenteric) have been supported by the different investigations such as animal model and clinical trials, but still its conventional uses such as contraceptive and anti-venom need further scrutiny. Based on the animal research findings, T. indica seems to be a prospective agent as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, myocardial protective, and wound healer when used in the recommended dose of maximum 20mg/kg in humans. This can further be explored by the pharmaceutical industry for newer and effective preparation. The plant and its parts such as leaves stem and root have been studied for the biological activities and found effective against different pathogenic organisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, influenza virus, and so on, but their discussion is beyond the limit of this article. Based on the present review, it may be concluded that T. indica may be considered a potential for pharmaceutical and food industry.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00002025
Title: The effect of acetic acid on total anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav)
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: This study was aimed to determine the effect of acetic acid on total anthocyanin contents in flesh and seeds and to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav) seeds. Materials and Methods: Total anthocyanin contents were determined by pH differential method and antioxidant activity was determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The total anthocyanin contents were 0.030–0.052 mg/g for flesh and 0.691–0.822 mg/g for seeds. The phytochemical screening showed that the tamarillo seeds contain alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, monoterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoids. The IC50 value was 96.54 ppm for extract, 171.69 ppm for water fraction, and 36.85 ppm for ethyl acetate fraction. Conclusions: Acetic acid gives effect to total extracted anthocyanins. The highest total anthocyanin contents were in the seeds, with ethyl acetate fraction as the highest antioxidant activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002035
Title: Rice bran oil consumption: Cardiovascular disease and obesity risk reduction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), accounting for 17.5 million deaths annually at present, is the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. To address this global public health challenge, various risk factors have been identified and measures have been taken to reduce the chance of occurrence of the risk factors. Lowering serum cholesterol, which can be achieved by dietary modification and drug therapy, has been found to have significant beneficial impacts on CVD occurrence. As dietary modification is less likely to cause undesirable consequences compared with drug therapy, it is an acceptable an achievable option. The quantity and quality of dietary fat play a crucial role in the regulation of plasma cholesterol and lipid levels, and hence, regular consumption of cooking oil is a potential contributing factor. An attempt, in this context, has been made to review the impact of consumption of rice bran oil (RBO), a growing choice of edible oil, on CVD risk factors. Relevant research papers have been searched using the key terms. It has been found that the main difference between other edible vegetable oils and RBO is the high content of unsaponified fraction in RBO compared to other cooking oils; the unsaponified fraction in RBO is rich in phytosterols, gamma oryzanol, and tocopherol having beneficial impacts in lowering serum cholesterol both in animal and human model. From the present review, it may be concluded that RBO has several beneficial health impacts and can be used routinely as cooking oil. Extensive research and appropriate measures need to be undertaken to enhance the usage of RBO as principal cooking oil.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: March
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00002041
Title: A review on ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological significance of Terminalia sericea Burch. Ex DC.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Terminalia sericea is an eminent medicinal plant endemic to Africa distributed across the Northern, Northwest, and Southern parts of the continent. As a multipurpose species, uses of T. sericea range from land improvements to medicine. The plant has been ascribed for its varied medicinal applications and holds a rich history in African traditional medicine. This article aims to provide an updated and comprehensive review on the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects of T. sericea. A thorough bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing worldwide accepted scientific database (PubMed, SciFinder, Scopus, Google, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and accessible literature including thesis, books, and journals. The present review covers the literature available up to 2017. A critical review of the literature showed that T. sericea has been phytochemically investigated for its chemical constituents, and a diverse group of phytochemicals, namely, pentacyclic triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, steroids, and alkaloids has been reported from different parts of the plant. Pharmacological studies of the plants revealed a wide variety of pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-neurodegenerative, anticancer, antioxidant, and other biological activities. Based on the investigative report, it is concluded that T. sericea can a promising candidate in pharmaceutical biology for the development of new drugs and future clinical uses. Its usefulness as a medicinal plant with current widespread traditional use warrants further research, clinical trials, and product development to fully exploit its medicinal value. The review summarizing comprehensive information on T. sericea and possible scope for future research might be helpful for researchers for further research to find new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses and discover further therapeutic efficacies.