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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002201
Title: Review on preparation, characterization, and pharmaceutical application of nanosuspension as an approach of solubility and dissolution enhancement
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Although a large number of new drug molecules with varied therapeutic potentials have been discovered in the recent decade, most of them are still in developmental process. This can be attributed to the limited aqueous solubility which governs the bioavailability of such drug molecules. Hence, there is a requisite for a technology-based product (formulation) to overcome such issues without compromising on the therapeutic response. The drugs belong to Biopharmaceutical Classification System Class II and Class IV characterized by a low solubility, and to overcome the solubility problem, nanotechnology is most useful technique. The reduction of drug particles into submicron range leads to a significant increase in dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions can be delivered by oral and non-oral route of administration. The purpose of this review is to focus on various methods of preparation, characterization properties, and applications of nanosuspension.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-00002212
Title: In vitro antibacterial activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Moringa stenopetala leaves
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The extensive and multiple antibiotics resistant to microbial strains are due to reduced susceptibility to antibiotics, hypersensitivity, and immune suppression. These conditions are forced scientists to search for new antimicrobial agents from medicinal plants. The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of methanolic and aqueous leave extract of Moringa stenopetala, from Shire Endaslassie (SE) and Abi-Addi (AA) from Tigray region, Ethiopia. Methods: About 50 g of the plant powder was subjected to maceration and decoction extractions using methanol and aqueous as solvent, respectively, and the extracts were filtered and it was kept in refrigerator at 4°C until analysis. The in vitro antibacterial activity of methanolic and aqueous leaves extract of M. stenopetala was evaluated against three Gram- negative bacteria and two Gram-positive bacteria by agar well diffusion method. Results: The results of the present study was indicated that methanolic extract of M. stenopetala from SE and AA showed the most promising broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by exhibiting maximum inhibition zone diameters, while aqueous leave extract of M. stenopetala shown moderate and no activity on all the tested organisms. Conclusion: The potent antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of M. stenopetala has the presence of broad-spectrum antibiotic compound in the extracts. The medicinal plant M. stenopetala is a potential candidate for the development of plant-derived antibacterial compounds for the treatment of bacterial infections.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-BGSA-00002211
Title: Reverse vaccinology approach in search of potent epitopes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
Category: Bioinformatics (Genome & Sequence Analysis )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is recognized as a human pathogen and still not been controlled with vaccine preparation. In the present study, an attempt has been made to report the conserved and best-scored cell surface antigen and their epitopes to be useful in vaccine preparation by involving reverse vaccinology approach. Materials and Methods: Proteome of the Y. pseudotuberculosis has been gathered from KEGG database. Further, all proteins considered as cell surface antigen were screened for localization using four web servers: TMHMM, SignalP, LipoP, and PSORTB. These proteins were then checked for conserved nature by involving basic local alignment search tool (BLASTP) with linked proteome belonged to genus Yersinia taken as a standard. After filtering the best and conserved proteins from BLASTP; proteins were searched for epitope by involving HLAPRED server and epitopes were also calculated for binding energy with concerned major histocompatibility complex molecule in T cell epitope designer server. Finally, promising epitopes were recorded as vaccine candidates. Result: In the study, of 3976 protein encoded by the Y. pseudotuberculosis only 16 proteins and their epitopes were considered as promising antigens and reported for further research. Conclusion: By involving reverse vaccinology approach now it is possible to filter number of cell surface antigen easily and to check them in vivo. Study successfully recorded 16 antigens with the epitopic region and those could be tested in vivo in a rat model to ascertain their success.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-00002146
Title: Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidants activities of ethanolic extract of Acokanthera schimperi leaves
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Acokanthera schimperi belonging to the family Apocynaceae is well known in Ethiopia to treat skin diseases, tonsillitis, and snake bites for its antimicrobial, antiseptic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and it has a long history of being used as an herbal remedy. The present study was aimed to analyze the phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activities of the organic leaf extracts, to find out novel antioxidants in a pharmaceutical formulation to treat oxidative stress- related diseases without side effects. Methods: Leaves of A. schimperi were subjected to successive solvent extraction using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, to obtain the respective extracts, these extracts were used for phytochemical screening using standard qualitative phytochemical methods, then ethanolic extracts were tested for antioxidant activity using various in vitro antioxidant methods such as 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl (OH), superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging, and reducing power activity. Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of leaves of A. schimperi organic extracts revealed that the maximum presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponins, glycosides, and phytosterol. Further in vitro, antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract from leaves of A. schimperi, among various antioxidant assays performed the maximum inhibition observed for DPPH for 80% with IC50 of 53±12μg/ml, followed by NO for 73% with IC50 53.48 μg/ml, superoxide radical for 60% with IC50 of 91.08μg/ml. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that ethanolic leaf extract of A. schimperi possess significant bioactive secondary metabolites with potential antioxidant activity, so these leaves of the plant used as a viable source of natural antioxidants for industrial and pharmaceutical preparations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00002147
Title: Inherent immunological activity of chicken antibodies toward Anopheles punctipennis salivary gland antigens as early biomarkers for low-level infestation of malaria
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Malaria is a major public health concern in most of the Asian and Sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya, with Anopheles punctipennis, Anopheles dirus, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus as the principal vectors. Flocks that receive high mosquito exposure will be most effective for surveillance purposes. However, mosquito population indices at the flock sites may only provide an indirect measure of potential exposure. Aim: In this study, we have examined the applicability for IgY obtained from the screening of different kinds of hen eggs, for its capability to interact towards a mosquito antigenic protein. Methods: The growing diffusion of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in immunotherapy and immuno-diagnostics and the strict standards for animal care have led to a renewed interest in the use of chickens for antibody production, as opposed to mammals. Egg yolk represents an economical source of polyclonal antibodies since the concentration of IgY is similar or higher than in the serum of chickens or rabbits or humans reaching levels ranging from 15 to 25 mg IgY per ml of yolk in the case of hyperimmunized hen. Results: Soluble proteins were separated from the lipidic fraction of egg yolk by various methods and loaded onto polyethylene glycol-column. High recovery and purity of IgY were obtained for Guinea fowl eggs by charcoal and sodium alginate methods and for Polish hen eggs by charcoal method. Conclusion: Although the difference in egg sources for the IgY is significant and shown extreme interaction towards the antigen, development of antimalarial agents represents technical challenges and immense opportunities for improvement of global health.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00002148
Title: Exploring the function in the hypothetical junction of Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. palearctica Y11 - A bioinformatics approach
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. palearctica Y11 is a bacterium known for spreading human gastroenteritis and in relation study investigated functional features in the hypothetical proteins encoded by Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica Y11 by conserved domain search and protein structure prediction. Materials and Methods: Five conserved domain analysis web tools used to perform the search as conserved domain database BLAST, INTERPROSCAN, Pfam, Uniprot, and CATH along with PS2 protein structure prediction server for structure modeling. Results and Conclusion: These web tools successfully predicted the function in 13 hypothetical proteins. Overall, results of Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica Y11 hypothetical proteins were documented for coding enzymes and other functions. Further, investigation is suggested to understand the role of these hypothetical proteins in metabolic pathway which will be useful for organism bio-controlling.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00002149
Title: Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of azithromycin and levofloxacin from solid dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Simple, precise, and economical spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the simultaneous estimation of azithromycin (AZI) and levofloxacin (LFI) in tablet formulations. Methods: The first method is based on the use of multicomponent mode analysis, the second method is based on the absorbance ratio of the components, that is, absorbance ratio method, and the third is partial least squares calibration method. Results: The proposed methods do not require any prior chemical separation for their estimation from the dosage form. The Beer’s law range was varying from 20–100 µg/ml in Methods I and II and 2–10 µg/ml for method III for both the drugs AZI and LFI. Conclusion: All three proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of AZI and LFI in several synthetic and real sample matrices.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DE-00002150
Title: Oral health care during pregnancy: A strategies and considerations
Category: Dentistry and Endodontics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Pregnancy is a unique period during a woman’s life. It is characterized by physiological and hormonal changes, which may adversely affect oral health. Oral health care during pregnancy cannot be dissociated from systemic health. It represents a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach aiming to empower women’s wellness, then allowing people to understand the importance of caring for their oral and systemic health, from educational measures to pain control and oral disease treatment. Preventive, diagnostic, and restorative dental treatment is safe throughout pregnancy and is effective in improving and maintaining oral health. However, these patients are not medically compromised and should not be denied dental treatment because they are pregnant. This review discusses the possible dental complications of pregnancy and their management.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-00002189
Title: Phytochemical investigation and in vitro antimalarial activities of stem barks of Campylospermum zenkeri and roots of Campylospermum vogelii
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this study is to isolate phytochemicals and to determine the antimalarial activities of methanol extracts of the roots of Campylospermum vogelii and stem bark of Campylospermum zenkeri. Materials and Methods: The present study was performed to reveal phytochemical profile of C. vogelii and C. Zenkeri using various chromatographic as well as spectroscopic techniques. The antimalarial activity of the isolated compounds and extracts was evaluated using CQR, 7G8 and Dd2 strains of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in a parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay and Sybr green I-based assay. Results: From the phytochemical study of methanol extract of C. zenkeri, a new procyanidin B3 derivative named dihydrozenkerinol was isolated along with four known biflavonoids. Meanwhile, from the methanol extract of roots of C. vogelii, eight known compounds were isolated. The in vitro antimalarial activity of methanol extract of C. zenkeri showed significant activity compared to C. vogelii with inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) = 50 µg/mL against Dd2 strain of P. falciparum. The most potent phytochemicals were campylospermine (10) an amide alkaloid, which had an IC50 of 5.91 µg/mL against CQR, 7G8. Moreover, at a concentration of 100 μg/mL, in vitro, 3 tested compounds (zenkerinol, ß-D-fructofuranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside, and stigmasterol) inhibited 70% or more of the parasite growth of Dd2 strain. Conclusion: The species from Campylospermum genus are mainly a promising potential source of antiplasmodial compounds, specifically through its phytoconstituents belonging to alkaloid and biflavonoid classes. These results emphasize the role of traditional medicinal plants in the research and development of antimalarial phytopharmaceuticals.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-SDNS-00002190
Title: In vitro antifungal activity of Pterocarpus marsupium used among tribal communities of Western Ghats, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Category: Screening of drugs from Natural & Synthetic origin
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: To investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of Pterocarpus marsupium leaf extracts used in folklore treatments among tribal community in the Western Ghats of Coimbatore district. Methods: The crude aqueous and organic solvent leaf extracts extracted by cold maceration method were subjected to antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus by agar plate dilution method. Results: The methanol and ethanol leaf extracts of P. marsupium showed significant (P < 0.01) antifungal activity against A. flavus at an minimum inhibitory concentration of 31 µg/mL with IC50 values 114.04 and 169 µg/mL, respectively. Similar antifungal activity of 100% inhibition was exhibited by alcoholic leaf extracts against A. fumigatus. Besides, the chloroform leaf extracts showed 82.94% and 80.58% fungistatic activity against A. fumigatus and A. flavus, respectively. Comparable antifungal activity was also observed in other concentrations of alcoholic and chloroform extracts of P. marsupium against A. flavus and A. fumigatus. The aqueous leaf extract did not show demonstrable antifungal activity against the two fungal strains used in the assay which was not up to the score. Conclusion: The methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts of selected plants were more active against tested fungal strains when compared to the chloroform and aqueous extracts. Further investigations are mandatory to identify the antifungal compounds present in the chosen herb.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002191
Title: Design and in vitro characterization of bisacodyl as a hollow-type suppositories
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Hollow-type suppositories were found to be less influenced by kinds of the base material than were the conventional types, they also carry either powdered or solution forms of drugs. The purpose of the present study was to prepare and optimize the best formula for rectal hollow-type suppositories of bisacodyl. Methods: Nine formulas of hollow suppositories were prepared and the influence of different hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) and lipophilic (Cocoa butter and Witepsol H 35) based on in vitro drug release, and the physical properties were evaluated. The selected formula was compared to the marketed (Bisacodyl ® 10 mg) conventional suppository for release profile. Results and Conclusions: The selected formula (F5 PEG 400:4000 at ratio 70:30) showed the maximum release rate of the drug (89% drug release within 5 min), also the result indicated there is increasing in drug released for the selected formula in comparison with the marketed one. We can conclude that the preparation of bisacodyl as hollow-type suppositories was successfully prepared for rapid release process of drug.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DS-00002192
Title: Prevalence of dental fear and its causes using two measurement scales among children in Chennai - A survey
Category: Dental Science
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental fear and its causes using two measurement scales among children in Chennai. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 100 children aged between 5 and 14 years who reported to the Department of Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire and was given to the children by the dentist. All the healthy children who visited the clinic seeking for dental care along with a parent were included in the survey. The patients with mental disabilities and sensory impairment and whose parents did not wish to participate in the study were excluded from the study. Results: In this study, children between the age group of 12 and 14 years showed a maximum response. This may be due to the fact that the cognitive ability develops with increasing age, the fear levels tend to reduce; hence, the older age group children were less. The most frightening object used by the dentists was “injections,” followed by “dentist” and then by “doctors.” Thus, it can be concluded that the injections are the most feared item by the children. Conclusion: Assessment of dental fear and its causes is an extremely important tool for the dental practitioner to handle the anxious child on the dental chair. This helps the dentist to customize the behavior of the child patient and manage them efficiently in the dental office.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-00002193
Title: Phylogenetic position of three Sumatran medicinal plants predicted with anticancer activity and their relations to Withania somnifera based on internal transcribed species region
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aims: Many naturally occurring molecules have shown promising anticancer activity; however, common drug-resistant issues and undesirable side effects have constrained those applications. Thus, new anticancer drugs and drug combination strategies from nature are highly required. Molecular phylogenetic analysis has been considered as a first step of discovering new natural bioactive compounds. Materials and Methods: Phylogenetic tree reconstruction based on DNA sequence of internal transcribed species (ITS) of three medicinal plants from Sumatra which are Tetracera, Rhodamnia, and Flemingia was performed in the current study. Some ITS sequences of other species, especially anticancer plant Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) collected from GenBank were included in the analysis. Results: Parsimony tree showed that Rhodamnia and Flemingia species are closely related to Ashwagandha, indicating the potencies of Rhodamnia and Flemingia from Sumatra as anticancer agents. Conclusion: Further, investigations in relation with in vitro, in silico, and in vivo analyses are highly required. Mechanism of action of those plants, especially as anticancer is described.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00002194
Title: Phytochemical constituents and thin-layer chromatography evaluation of the ethanolic extract of jackfruit (Artocarpus integer) peel
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate phytochemicals present in the fruit peel extract of jackfruit (Artocarpus integer) and the development of new solvent system for thin-layer chromatography of ethanolic (fruit peel) extract of jackfruit peel. Methodology: For thin-layer chromatography - using ethyl acetate: Acetic acid in the ratio of 95:5. Results: The results showed that the peels contain a maximum amount of carbohydrates, flavonoid, and also present some phenolic compounds.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PSPA-00002195
Title: Phytochemical screening and evaluation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging of some selected edible fruits of Nekemte town in Ethiopia
Category: Phytochemical Study and Pharmacological Activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Edible plants are the valuable medicinal sources such as flavonoids, terpenoid, and tannins which are used in the treatment of several diseases such as inflammation, cancer, and microbial infections. Objective: The present study was undertaken to screen the phytochemical analysis and evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of the five selected edible plants in Nekemte town, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: The powdered edible plant materials (50 g) were taken and subjected to soaked with 250 mL of diethyl ether, methanol, and water, agitated periodically for 12 days, respectively. Then, solution was filtered with the help of filter paper, and the filtered extract of the selected plant samples was dried rotator vapor and used for further phytochemical analysis using standard qualitative phytochemical methods and in vitro antioxidants activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of both methanol and aqueous edible plant extracts revealed that the presence of the maximum number of secondary metabolites includes flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, and saponins. Further, both methanolic and aqueous edible plant extracts exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activities. Conclusion: Edible plants or their extracts of papaya (leaf), ancootee (root), and papaya (seed) are good source of natural antioxidant for medical application in antioxidant therapy. These edible plant extracts have been extensively selected for the development of natural bioactive antioxidant drugs. Further studies are in progress to isolate the active principles from the extract and to elucidate the exact mechanism of action of the free radical scavenging effect.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00002196
Title: Response of antioxidant enzymes in Cajanus cajan seedlings to cadmium stress
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The main objective of this present investigation was to asses different cadmium (Cd) concentrations representing 0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mM were used in three pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh) cultivars (LRG30, LRG41, and ICPL85063) on various antioxidative enzymes such as ascorbic acid oxidase, glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities. Methods: Ascorbic acid oxidase activity was assayed by Gopalachari, GR was carried out according to Smith et al., SOD was assayed by Beauchamp and Fridovich, CAT activity was estimated by Gopalachari, and POD activity was estimated by Kar and Mishra. Result: The ascorbic acid oxidase and GR activity of the roots, shoots, and cotyledons of the three pigeon pea cultivars increased with increasing concentrations of externally supplied Cd. However, the ascorbic acid oxidase activity of the cotyledons decreased with increasing concentrations of Cd when compared to their respective controls. The SOD activity of the roots, shoots, and cotyledons of Cd-treated germinating seeds registered higher values at all stages of seedling growth when compared to their appropriate controls. The CAT activity of the roots, shoots, and cotyledons of the pigeon pea cultivars registered lower values when compared to their respective controls. The POD activity of the roots, shoots, and cotyledons of the three pigeon pea cultivars increased with increasing age of the seedling as well as with increasing concentrations of Cd. Conclusion: The pigeon pea cultivar, LRG30 registered lower values of ascorbic acid oxidase activity than LRG41 and ICPL85063 in response to Cd treatment. Of the three cultivars of pigeon pea, LRG30 registered higher values of GR activity in response to Cd treatment than the LRG41 and ICPL85063. The SOD activity was lower and the CAT and POD activities were higher in cv.LRG30 when compared to LRG41 and ICPL85063 in response to Cd stress.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00002197
Title: Qualitative phytochemical screening and development of high-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprint profile of Andrographis paniculata (Leaf)
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: To develop HPTLC method for the determination of Andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata (Leaf). Materials and Methods: A simple, rapid, selective, and quantitative high-performance thin layer chromatography (TLC) method has been developed for the determination of Andrographolide in A. paniculata (Leaf). The alcoholic extract of A. paniculata samples was applied on TLC aluminum plate pre-coated with Silica gel60 F 254 and developed using chloroform:methanol:formic acid (7:2:0.5) v/v/v as a mobile phase. The plate was sprayed (derivatized) with sulfuric acid reagent followed by heating at 1100C for 3 min, and detection and quantification were carried out densitometrically using an ultraviolet detector at a wavelength of 235 nm. Conclusion: A simple, rapid, selective, and quantitative high-performance thin layer chromatography (TLC) method has been developed for the determination of Andrographolide in A. paniculata (Leaf).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002198
Title: Tetrazoles-ciprofloxacin hybrids as antibacterial and antifungal agents
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A set of seven hybrid molecules that covalently link ciprofloxacin and 5-aryl tetrazoles were synthesized, and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were screening against both bacterial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and fungal strains. The hybrid molecules were synthesized by coupling ciprofloxacin in 1-aryl tetrazoles by COCH2 linker in a four- step reaction. The molecular docking studies of hybrid compounds revealed that they effectively inhibits 2GFP (Escherichia coli protein) and 1GAL (Aspergillus niger protein) proteins. The in vitro antibacterial screening showed that the synthesized hybrid molecules are active against both bacterial and fungal strains.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002199
Title: Design and synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazole incorporated indole derivatives as anticancer agents
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to synthesize new derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole incorporated indoles and evaluation of their anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: A series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole incorporated indole derivatives have been synthesized (12a-j) and its structures were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques such as 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13 CNMR and EI-MS, and screened for their anticancer activity against four human cancer cell lines including A549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), A375 (melanoma), and HT-29 (colon). Here combretastatin-A4 used as positive control. Results and Discussion: The newly synthesized compounds 12a-j were subjected to in vitro biological assessment against four human cancer cell lines such as A549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), A375 (melanoma), and HT-29 (colon) by MTT assay. All derivatives were showed a variable degree of anticancer activity with IC50 values ranging between 0.010 ± 0.004 and 18.50 ± 0.86 µM. Among them, compounds 12a, 12b, 12f, 12g, 12h, and 12j were exhibited more potent activity than control drug. Conclusion: A series of 10 1,3,4-oxadiazole incorporated indole derivatives (12a-j) were synthesized in an efficient manner and screened for their anticancer activity, in which some compounds exhibited more potent activity than control drug.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002200
Title: Pulsatile drug delivery system - A review article
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS) are developed to deliver drug according to circadian behavior of diseases. They deliver the drug at the right time, action and in the right amount, which provides more benefit than conventional dosages and increased patient compliance. The drug is released rapidly and completely as a pulse after a lag time. These systems are beneficial for drugs with chrono-pharmacological behavior, where nighttime dosing is required and for the drugs having a high first-pass effect and having specific site of absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. This article covers methods and marketed technologies that have been developed to achieve pulsatile delivery. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcers, cardiovascular, arthritis and attention deficit syndrome in children and hypercholesterolemia.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002210
Title: Investigation of antiparkinsonian effect of Terminalia chebula Retz. on haloperidol-induced experimental animal model
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the antiparkinsonian activity of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) fruit extracts by haloperidol-induced catatonia model in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methodology: Parkinson’s disease was induced by administering haloperidol (4 mg/kg p.o) daily for a week. The SD rats were divided into four groups with five animals in each group. Group I - inducing group - haloperidol (4 mg/kg P.O), Group II - standard group - Syndopa Plus (10 mg/kg P.O), Group III - Test-1 (aqueous fruit extract of T. chebula [TCAE] - 100 mg kg P.O), and Group-IV - Test-2 (Ethanolic fruit extract of T. chebula [TCEE] - 100 mg/kg P.O). All the treatment group animals received respective inducing, standard, and test treatment 30 min before the haloperidol administration. Antiparkinsonian effect was evaluated using block method and locomotor activity. Results: Haloperidol induced a time-dependent increase in cataleptic score in rats, as compared to other groups. All the groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower scores of catalepsy at all time periods as compared to haloperidol-inducing group. Discussion: Fruit extracts of T. chebula exhibited a significant antiparkinson’s activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002213
Title: Review on natural polymers: A carrier for colon-targeted drug delivery approach
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Colon-targeted drug delivery contains numerous implications in the field of pharmacotherapy. Selection of drug for colon targeting through oral route safeguards the drug from degradation and makes it release within the abdomen and small intestine. It conjointly makes sure immediate or else controlled the release of the medication within the proximal colon. Varied drug delivery systems are planned to deliver the medication to the colon and then initiate the discharge of drug. In this review, different kinds of polymers are being discussed which are employed in the formulation of colon-targeted drug delivery systems.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002214
Title: Transdermal drug delivery system: A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. Transdermal therapeutic systems have been designed to provide controlled continuous delivery of drugs through the skin to the systemic circulation. A transdermal patch is an adhesive patch that has a coating of drug; the patch is placed on the skin to deliver particular amount of drug into the systemic circulation over a period of time. The transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) review articles provide information regarding the transdermal drug delivery systems and its evaluation process as a ready reference for the research scientist who is involved in TDDS.