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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00002084
Title: Identification and characterization of secondary metabolite isolated from the stem bark of Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) Druce and their in vitro anticancer activity against A549 human lung cancer cel
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The extracts from the stem bark of Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) Druce, “The King of Desert” (Family: Leguminosae and Subfamily: Mimosidae) have been used traditionally as a dietary supplement and as a folk medicine. Its antihyperlipidemic, antioxidative, antimicrobial, anticancer, antihelmintic, analgesic, antitumor, antipyretic, antihypercholesterolemic, nootropic, anticonvulsant activities, and toxicity studies have been reported so far. Materials and Methods: The present study of P. cineraria was evaluated for their extracts, phytochemical screening, and isolation of phytochemicals by column chromatography. The structure of isolated compound (A) was confirmed by spectral studies such as infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. The extracts and the isolated compounds were evaluated for their anticancer activity against A549 human lung cancer cell line using Sulforhodamine B-based assay. Results: The phytochemicals screening showed that 50% ethanol extract of the stem bark of P. cineraria contains alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, phenols, terpenoids, and flavonoids. In contrast, aqueous extract of the bark of P. cineraria contains flavonoids only. The 50% ethanolic and aqueous extracts of P. cineraria showed 93.6 µg/ml and 138.6 µg/ml anticancer activities, respectively, against A549 human lung cancer cell line. The isolated compound showed 28.2 µg/ml anticancer activities. Conclusion: It can be concluded that compound isolated from stem bark of P. cineraria had significant anticancer property. The extracts from the stem bark of P. cineraria showed the presences of secondary metabolites which are responsible for the therapeutic effects. Thus, aiming to discover new alternative P. cineraria may be a new hope for the prevention of lung cancer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002042
Title: The role of solvent dielectric constant in modeling of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from silybum marianum l. Fruits
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this work was to study the influence of solvent physicochemical properties on qualitative and quantitative content of extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for substantiation of a rational technology of silibinin extraction from Silybum marianum l. fruits. Methods: For experiments, we used ground plant raw material with 0.1–0.5 mm particle size, distilled water, ethanol, n-hexane, methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate. Qualitative analyses of substances were carried out by reversed-phase HPLC on a chromatograph of Agilent technologies 1200 infinity type. Results: Flavonolignans dominated among the phenolic compounds detected in the extracts. In this study, it was found that a ketone functional group in the solvent’s molecule has a stronger influence on the extraction of flavonolignans from the plant raw material matrix into the solvent than a hydroxyl group, and a linear structure of hydrophobic part of molecules was preferred to a non-linear one. An optimal range of the dielectric constant of the solvent for maximum extraction of silibinin from the plant raw material was determined, and it equals ε = 40 ± 4 units. Conclusion: It has been shown that dependence between the natural logarithm of silibinin concentration and the reverse dielectric constant value of the ethanol–water solution approximates well by a quadric equation. The following sequence of preferred solvents as for their extraction properties for silibinin was arranged: Acetone ≥ethanol 70% v/v ≥ methanol 86% v/v ≥ methanol ≥ 2-propanol 68% v/v ≥ acetone 68% v/v ≥ 1-propanol ≥ ethyl acetate ≥2-propanol.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00002043
Title: Four validated spectrophotometric methods for determination of ambroxol, guaifenesin, and theophylline in their ternary mixture in bulk powder and dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of a ternary mixture of ambroxol HCl (AMB), guaifenesin (GUA) and theophylline (THEO) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. (a) Direct spectrophotometry (DS), (b) dual wavelength (DW), (c) first derivative of ratio spectra ( 1 DD), and (d) absorption correction (AC). DS method was applied to determine AMB at its λmax (309.0 nm) without any interference of THEO and GUA. Both THEO and GUA were determined as a binary mixture after removal of AMB contribution from the ternary mixture by ratio subtraction technique. DW method was applied to determine GUA by measuring the difference in absorbance at 224.5 nm and 255.0 nm. 1 DD was used to determine THEO at 295.4 nm and GUA at 236.5 nm using 14.0 μg/mL GUA and 14.5 μg/mL THEO as divisors, respectively. AC was applied after the second derivative for determination of GUA at 239.5 nm and THEO at 239.5 nm and 266.0 nm. The methods were accurate, specific, and successfully applied for the determination of the three drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and their combined dosage form.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00002044
Title: Phytochemical evaluation, cytotoxicity screening, and in vitro free radical scavenging activity of the leaf petiole of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Family: Moraceae)
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The present study aims to analyze the phytochemical constitution, cytotoxic screening, and in vitro free radical scavenging activity of hexane (AHH), ethyl acetate (AHE), and methanol (AHM) extracts of petiole part of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Conventionally, the plant was used to treat liver diseases. The hot water extract of mature leaf petiole is used for various ailments. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out on the hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extract of the leaf petiole of A. heterophyllus for the identification of the phytocompounds. In vitro cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) and on L929 cell lines by MTT assay. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. Result: Phytochemical screening showed a higher concentration of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, phenols, flavonoids, quinones, steroids, and terpenoids in methanol extract than other two extracts. Lethal concentration 50 value of the extracts for BSLA was >1000 µg/ml which suggests the non-toxicity of the extracts. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values of AHH, AHE, and AHM by MTT assay on L929 cell lines were 75.06 µg/ml, 84.69 µg/ml, and 111.32 µg/ml, respectively. The IC50 value of AHH, AHE, and AHM for scavenging DPPH and nitric oxide was 724.95 ± 3.3 µg/ml, 127.23 ± 12.26 µg/ml and 162.4 ± 11.95 µg/ml and 482.56 ± 0.3 µg/ml, 268.92 ± 1.7 µg/ml and 184.11 ± 7.6 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The present study confirms the presence of therapeutically potent compounds in the various extracts of leaf petiole of A. heterophyllus.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00002046
Title: Development and validation of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for quantitative estimation of riociguat in tablet dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, precise, and rapid reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for quantitative determination of antihypertensive drug riociguat in bulk as well as in tablet dosage form. Materials and Methods: In this method, an Inertsil ODS-3 C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 µm) column with mobile phase consisting of 0.2% v/v trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40 v/v was used. The detection was carried out at 254 nm, 20 µL injection volume was selected with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Findings: The linearity range of riociguat shows concentration between 5 and 150 µg/mL. The regression coefficient was found to be 0.9998. Retention time of riociguat was found to be 5.26 min. The method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. It is simple, fast, accurate, and precise and can be applied for routine quality control analysis of riociguat in bulk and its formulation. Originality: There is no usage of buffer in the mobile phase, which increases the life span of the column. The system suitability test result showed that the method is robust and rugged. Attempts were made to develop a simple, rapid, precise, and accurate reverse-phase chromatographic method to estimate riociguat in tablet dosage form.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00002047
Title: Development and validation of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for quantitative estimation of ceritinib in capsule dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to develop a simple, accurate, precise, and reproducible reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of ceritinib in capsule dosage forms. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was achieved on Inertsil C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) at 40°C, the mobile phase used was 25 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (pH 2.5) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 45:55. Acetonitrile and water in the ratio of 3:1 was used as diluent. Flow rate was kept at 1.0 mL/min with the injection volume 20 µL and detection was carried out at 275 nm. Findings: The retention time was found to be 5.96 min. Method was linear over the range of 5–60 µg/mL with regression coefficient 0.999. The developed method can be applied for routine quality control analysis of ceritinib in capsule formulation. The method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline (ICH, Q2 [R1]). Originality: The developed method is better than earlier published articles [4,5] with respect to superior system suitability parameter such as theoretical plates and tailing factor. The ceritinib peak was found to be at 2.5 min, which is equivalent to void of the column. Hence, attempts were made to develop a simple, rapid, precise, and accurate reverse-phase chromatographic method to estimate ceritinib in capsule dosage form.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002048
Title: Ant nest plant ethanol extract (Myrmecodia pendens Merr. and L.M Perry) against Microsporum gypseum as antidermatophyte natural agent
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antidermatophyte activity of ethanol extracts from ant nest plant against Microsporum gypseum. Methods: In this experimental study, the ant nest plants were taken and extractions were made in ethanol and were tested against M. gypseum. The screening of secondary metabolite in the extract was done using standard methods. The antifungal activity of the extract was conducted using the agar diffusion method. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was determined using the broth macrodilution method. Result and Discussion: The secondary metabolites screening of ant nest plant ethanol extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. The extract under review showed antifungal activity against M. gypseum with MFC values ranging from 1.5% to 1.7% w/v using the broth dilution method. Conclusion: The ant nest plants have pharmacological value as a natural product, and it is necessary for further investigation as a potential useful agent for the treatment of dermatophytosis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00002049
Title: Ash value and extractive value comparison between pet ether and ethanolic extracts of Bacopa monnieri, Evolvulus alsinoides, and Tinospora cordifolia
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Bacopa monnieri, Evolvulus alsinoides and Tinospora cordifolia are the important ayurvedic medicine belonging to family Scrophulariaceae, Convolvulaceae and Menipermaceae. These are the traditionally used medicine and possess important medicinal properties. The physicochemical standardization is very important for the valuable relevance of the plant parts in recent medicine system. Methods: Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate ash value and extractive value comparison between pet ether and ethanolic extracts of Bacopa monnieri (BME), Evolvulus alsinoides (EAE), and Tinospora cordifolia (TCE). Results: Physicochemical standardization showed the presence of ash value and extractive value in Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of BME, EAE, and TCE. In present investigation, when comparison between Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of BME, EAE, and TCE; Ethanolic extracts of these plants showed more ash value and extractive value as compared to Pet ether extracts of these plants.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-DE-00002050
Title: Application of rotary endodontics in pediatric dentistry - A review of literature
Category: Dentistry and Endodontics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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There is a continuous evolution in the field of endodontics in pediatric dentistry, resulting in a paradigm shift from using conventional hand files to rotary files for canal preparation in primary teeth. Biomechanical preparation plays an important role on the success of the root canal treatment. On literature search, there is various instrumentation techniques for performing root mechanical preparation in primary teeth. The present article highlights on the use of different rotary file systems for root canal preparation in the primary teeth.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00002051
Title: β (1-3) glucan production from Agrobacterium fabrum
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study was focused on the production of β (1-3)-glucan from Agrobacterium sp. Among the 50 isolates, 1 was selected for the production after the screening. The production media were optimized with different carbon and nitrogen sources. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) was used for the characterization of the product. Materials and Methods: Root nodule samples were obtained from Coimbatore and Palakkad for the isolation of Agrobacterium sp. Aniline blue method was used as the screening test for the production of β (1-3) glucan. The positive isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The minimal salt medium with carbon and nitrogen source was used as the production medium. The crude β (1-3) glucan was obtained by sodium hydroxide and acetic acid precipitation method. Characterization was done by FT-IR analysis. Result and Discussion: The organism was confirmed as Agrobacterium fabrum by 16S rRNA. The GenBank accession number for isolate is MF521602. 0.12 g/100 mL of β (1-3) glucan was recovered from the medium. The transmission spectrum of FT-IR indicated the presence of β (1-3) glucan. Conclusion: The conducted study showed that sucrose and ammonium chloride were the best sources for the production of β (1-3) glucan.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-QA-00002052
Title: Good practices in quality control in pharmaceutical industry - Overview of regulatory guidelines
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Good practices in quality control (QC) department need to monitor the analytical process at least daily for normal and abnormal controls in tests. Along with the submitted sample, there should be a state of reason why the analysis has been requested for testing. How to maintain records of each performed tests along with raw data for quick reference. Good practices in QC, controlling of starting, bulk and finished product materials, batch record view and requirements of testing of starting, packing materials, and stability tests were some of the topics discussed in this article. The main aim of this article was to give an overview of good practices in the QC department in pharmaceutical industry as per the different regulatory guidelines, namely, World Health Organization, Schedule M, United State Food and Drug Administration, Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Authority, Therapeutic Goods Administration, and Pharmaceutical Inspection Cooperation Scheme. Good practices help in the production of accurate results with the knowledge of sample preparation techniques.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-QA-00002053
Title: Resource management with respect to buildings and facilities in pharmaceutical and biotech industry - An overview of regulatory guidelines
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present times, due to the improper guidelines and lack of regulations, pharmaceutical and biotech industries are facing many challenges to stay in the competition. Building a pharmaceutical and biotech industry is a tedious process where several criteria such as quality and regulatory requirements should meet. There are several examples of plants which failed in meeting the requirements and have trouble passing inspection, this is due to not meeting regulatory requirements and not understanding the current design practices. The main aim of this article was to give an overview of facilities and equipment in pharmaceutical and biotech industry as per the different regulatory guidelines, namely, the World Health Organization, Schedule M of Drugs and Cosmetics Act, the United States Food and Drug Administration, Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency, and Therapeutic Goods Administration.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00002054
Title: Public health risks and bacterial safety of fruit juices prepared in Axum town, north Ethiopia
Category: Microbiology
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Objective: Improperly prepared fresh fruit juices are recognized as one of the major causes of food-borne illnesses. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the public health risks and microbial safety of fruit juices prepared in Axum town, North Ethiopia and their hygienic conditions of preparations. Materials and Methods: Eighty fruit juices samples were collected from 20 cafés and juice houses of Aksum town and analyzed for fecal coliform count (FCC), using most probable number (MPN) method and the total colony count of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Escherichia coli was done by spread plate method using plate count agar for bacteria, and further the bacterial isolates were tested for their sensitivity to common antibiotics using the disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton Agar. Results: Results shown that the mean FCC of mango, Avocado, papaya, and Guava were 68, 80, 58, and 65 cfu/ml, respectively. The bacterial isolates were identified as S. aureus, E. coli, Shigella spp., and Salmonella spp. All the juice samples tested were contained all the four isolated bacteria, except Avocado and mango which were negative for Salmonella. These bacterial isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol, and resistance to erythromycin, and resistance to ciprofloxacin, amox-clavul acid, ceftriaxone, and tetracycline. The results also showed that the microbial loads of most of the fruit juices were higher than the specifications set for fruit juices sold in the Gulf region and other parts of the world. Conclusion: Most venders obtained fruit from the open market, and all juice makers lacked special training in food hygiene and safety. Therefore, regular training and health education on food hygiene and safety are recommended for juice handlers to improve the quality of fresh fruit juices in the study area.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00002055
Title: Study on efficacy of herbal and copper nanoparticle ointment against wound pathogen isolated from diabetic foot ulcer
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to check the antibacterial activity of ointment produced with herbs such as Siriyanangai, Kandankathiri, and naval seed, and copper nanoparticles against diabetic foot ulcer pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Materials and Methods: The foot ulcer sample was collected from diabetic patients by swab method. In this current research, screening of herbal plant extractions which are supposed to be having antimicrobial property has been analyzed. The screened herbal extract was incorporated into prepared copper nanoparticles by the method of nanoencapsulation. The herbal composite was optimized by varying the concentration of herb and nanoparticles. The characterizations of the prepared composite were achieved by instrumentation analysis. Further, the composite was prepared into an ointment using petroleum jelly as a base and its antibacterial activity was analyzed against diabetic foot pathogens. Result and Discussion: About 10 µL of the ointment showed a zone of inhibition of 14 mm and 15 mm for S. aureus and E. coli, respectively. This shows that the prepared herbal ointment has antibacterial activity against foot ulcer pathogens. Conclusion: The findings of this research may provide an economically viable method for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00002056
Title: Food biotechnology applications in dairy and dairy products
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to develop quality attributes of livestock products include dairy and dairy-based products. Biotechnology has applied to food processing in most developing countries makes use of microbial inoculants to enhance properties such as the taste, aroma, shelf-life, consistency, and nutritional value of foods/dairy products. Probiotic food products are a rapidly growing area of functional food, as found to be robustly accepted by the consumers. However, the food industry is looking for to produce diverse varieties of probiotic foods other than dairy products with prospective health benefits. In this review, the broad array of available dairy foods, by-product waste utilization of dairy and dairy processing challenges the microbiologist, engineer and technologist to find the best ways to prevent the entry of microorganisms, destroy those that do get in along with their enzymes and prevent the growth and activities of those that escape processing treatments. Various food matrices, dairy, and non-dairy, have been used with probiotics, by-product wastes utilization and were briefly acknowledged.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002057
Title: Anticancer activity of the tropical fern, Pyrrosia heterophylla (L.) M.G. Price on human breast cancer cell line through p53-p21 mediated cell cycle arrest and downregulation of anti-apoptotic gene
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Pyrrosia heterophylla (L.) M.G. Price is a tropical epiphytic fern used in Indian traditional and tribal medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study evaluated the apoptotic potential of hexane (PHH), ethyl acetate (PHE), and methanolic (PHM) extracts of the plant. Methods: Cytotoxicity screening of the extracts was done using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and acridine orange-ethidium bromide staining on three human cancer cell lines (MCF7, HT-29, and HeLa). Based on this, PHE was selected for further studies on the mechanism of apoptotic induction in MCF7 cells. Ability to induce DNA fragmentation was assessed by comet assay. Flow cytometric analysis helped to quantify the apoptotic cells and to study the effects of PHE on cell cycle. Expression analysis of pro- and anti- apoptotic genes was done to elucidate the mechanism of action of the selected extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the selected extract was done to identify the phytocompounds present in it. Results: PHE was found to be the most effective extract with an IC50 of 49.99 ± 0.61 µg/ml on MCF7 cells. At IC50 concentration, PHE could effectively induce apoptosis in about 51.24% of the treated cells. It was capable of inducing DNA fragmentation in MCF7 cells as revealed by the characteristic “hedgehog” tails in the comet assay. PHE significantly upregulated p53 and p21 which resulted in the suspension of the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl by p53 also helped in inducing apoptosis. Many bioactive phytochemicals including eugenol and phytol were identified in PHE. Conclusion: The study could identify the anticancer potential of P. heterophylla and elucidate the mechanisms of its apoptotic activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PER-00002058
Title: Developing communication skill in a rural pharmacy college
Category: Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The importance of communication skill in pharmaceutical environment cannot be overemphasized. Many of the students from urban areas having good communication skills are getting good job opportunities easily. However, the category which is the rural students is just having the dream of getting an employment due to lack of communication skills. Hard skills and experience are not at all enough for the competitive and escalation in the global world. The rural students also should get employment; otherwise, it will become very serious and critical. The paper describes an experiment to measure and develop the skill at a rural pharmacy college with the help of 45 h communication skill course. We found that there was statistically significant improvement in the course students in overall communication skill, sentence construction, and vocabulary as per self- and peer-assessment. The volume and enunciation, as per the peer assessment, also underwent statistically significant improvement. The group discussion seems to have contributed the most and brainstorming the least in the improvement. We concluded that rural students who are studying pharmaceutical education should be given opportunities to learn and practice interpersonal communication skills during their educational curriculum. The study can be extended to more institutes to validate the findings and can include written communication skill.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00002059
Title: In vivo antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants used in pyrexia among ethnic communities of Western Ghats, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Four folklore medicinal plants Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Myristica fragrans, and Pterocarpus marsupium leaf extracts were investigated for their antiplasmodial activity in Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss albino mice model. Methods: The in vivo antiplasmodial activity was carried out adopting classical Peter’s 4-day suppressive test, and Rane’s Curative assay. Results: Peter’s four day test confirmed the significant parasite suppression 97.72% (P˂0.001) in chloroquine (CQ) control prolonging the mean survival time of animals for 32 days. In Peter’s four day test the extracts PMMLE, AMMLE and AMCLE exhibited a leading parasite suppression of 81%, 76.13%, and 73.86% respectively. The antiplasmodial extracts AMMLE, AMCLE, AAMLE, PMMLE and PMCLE screened from the suppressive test subjected in the curative assay revealed notably significant parasite suppression of 74.2% Peter’s four day test (P<0.001) in PMMLE at 400 mg/kg b.wt, whereas the extracts PMCLE and AMMLE at 400 mg/kg b.wt disclosed dose dependent suppressive effect of 60.8%, and 55.43% respectively compared to all other extracts subjected. Three extracts PMMLE, PMCLE and AMMLE screened from curative assay were subjected in prophylactic test, where PMMLE was found to be potential in defeating parasites >50% at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.wt with 57.23% and 77.23% achieving a statistical significance P<0.01. The other extract PMCLE exposed 59.21% parasite suppression at 400 mg/kg b.wt with a significance P<0.05, whereas the AMMLE did not express significant parasite suppression compared to other extracts subjected in the assay. Conclusion: The present investigation establishes, the selected plant species were effective in assorted range of antiplasmodial activity and could be a potential source in antimalarial drug discovery.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002060
Title: Hepatotoxicity associated with piroxicam therapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The purpose of this study is to estimate the hepatic risk associated with the use of piroxicam, in patients suffering from primary form of osteoarthritis (OA). Materials and Methods: We investigated 32 patients with primary form of OA, and the patients were divided into 2 categories according to stages of OA (II and III stages) and medicated orally by 10 and 20 mg/d piroxicam, respectively, in a period of 2 months and patients’ follow-up for 6 months. Complete blood count and hepatic tests including bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase were done before, during, and after treatment, in both categories to determine the onset of possible hepatotoxic effect of piroxicam. Ultrasonography and liver biopsy were also provided only for certain patients of II category, in whom hepatotoxicity has occurred due to piroxicam management. Results: Orally prescribed piroxicam, 10 and 20 mg/d in both categories, is a good medicament for the management of OA with a small average percentage of ulcerogenicity (19%). Piroxicam was expected to decrease nocturnal pain and spasticity of OA in the II category. Piroxicam 10 mg/d produces no hepatotoxic effect in the first category but on the other hand (piroxicam 20 m/d) causes a mixed hepatocellular-cholestatic reversible injury in about 75% of OA patients in the second category, predominantly in female gender, at the end of the 8th week of treatment. The hepatic injury is unknown but strongly believed to be idiosyncratic. Conclusion: Piroxicam therapy should be evaluated clinically and laboratory in the first 3–12 weeks to decrease its possible hepatotoxic effect.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002061
Title: Lipid-based self-microemulsifying drug delivery system: A novel approach for lipophilic drugs
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Solubility of orally administered drug is major challenge of pharmaceutical industry as nearly 35–40% of newly launched drugs possess low aqueous solubility which leads to their poor dissolution and low bioavailability, resulting in high intra- and inter-subject variability and lack of dose proportionality. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system is gaining popularity for improving the solubility of lipophilic drugs. One of the greatest advantages of incorporating the poorly soluble drug into such formulation products is their spontaneous emulsion and or microemulsion/nanoemulsion formation in aqueous media. The performance and ongoing advances in manufacturing technologies have rapidly introduced lipid-based drug formulations as commercial products into the marketplace with several others in clinical development. The present review provides an updated account of advancements in self-emulsifying drug delivery (SEDDS) with regard to its composition, evaluation, different dosage forms and newer techniques to convert liquid SEDDS to solid and also various applications.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002062
Title: In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Garcinia hanburyi extract
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Garcinia hanburyi belongs to the family Clusiaceae. In the present study, G. hanburyi has been selected to test for the anti-inflammatory activity by proteinase inhibitory activity, membrane stabilization, and albumin denaturation assay at various concentrations. Materials and Methods: The whole plant was dried, extracted to obtain Xanthone rich extract. Phytochemical studies of extract showed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, steroids, resins, and saponins. The natural sources such as plants are an abundant source having various medicinal properties. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the extract from G. hanburyi at a concentration from 100 to 500 µg/ml protects protein denaturation. Significant proteinase inhibitory activity was seen at the concentration of 400 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml. Heat-induced hemolysis of erythrocyte was considerably inhibited at the concentrations of 400 µg/ml. Conclusion: The results which are obtained from the present study shows that the extract of G. hanburyi can be a promising resource of anti-inflammatory agents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002063
Title: Inhibition profile of antibiotic combination against bacteria Escherichia coli
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Use of a combination of antibiotics of two or more is not recommended as it may provide antagonistic effects such as in a combination of penicillin or aminoglycoside antibiotics with chloramphenicol or tetracycline. However, some antibiotic combinations may be useful such as potentiation effects and synergistic effects. Objective: This study aims to determine inhibition profile of antibiotic combination against Escherichia coli. Methods: Determination of minimum 15 antibiotic inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was done by mixing nutrients in order to be sterile with antibiotics with various concentrations of dilution in Petri dishes. The Petri dish was shaken until the mixture became homogeneous, allowed to solidify, the test microbe was scratched using ose wire, then incubated at 37°C for 18-24 hours. For antagonistic and synergistic effects test, two antibiotics from the results of the MICs were selected and applied to Whatman paper and affixed to the nutrient surface to be horizontally and vertically. The Petri dish was then incubated. Results: The MICs of tetracycline antibiotics were 26 μg, chloramphenicol 15 μg, amoxicillin 1000 μg, ampicillin 950 μg, polymyxin B sulfate 1500 μg, 610 μg neomycin sulfate, and 800 μg streptomycin sulfate. Examination of inhibitory power profiles resulted in several combinations of antibiotics. Conclusion: Combination of antibiotics, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin; chloramphenicol and ampicillin; tetracycline and amoxicillin; and tetracycline and ampicillin exhibits antagonistic effects, whereas in chloramphenicol and tetracycline; amoxicillin and ampicillin; amoxicillin and streptomycin; neomycin and polymyxin; ampicillin and streptomycin; amoxicillin and neomycin; ampicillin and neomycin; and streptomycin and polymyxin shows a synergistic effect. Depending on which combination is often used in each region, it is recommended to analyze the combination with the method proposed in this article.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002069
Title: Antibacterial activity of Ageratum conyzoides L. Extract in gel dosage forms against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium Acne
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting approximately 80% of young adults that are caused by bacteria. Antibiotics are always used for the treatment of acne, but the resistance to antibiotics can affect the success rate of acne cure. One of the natural herbs that act as an antibacterial agent is Ageratum conyzoides L. The aims of this research are to develop gel dosage form from A. conyzoides L. extracts, which have antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes. A. conyzoides L. was extracted with the maceration method using ethanol (90%). Methods: The antibacterial activity of the extract was determined by the disc-diffusion method, while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the microdilution method. The extract was formulated into the base of gel containing variations in concentration of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose. The formulations of gel were evaluated for their physical properties, including organoleptic, pH, viscosity, and antibacterial activity of gel. Result: The results showed that extract of A. conyzoides L. extract as an antibacterial activity with a MIC value of 2.5% against both S. epidermidis and P. acnes. The best results following physical evaluation were obtained from the formula containing 4% Sodium CMC and 2.5% A. conyzoides L. extract. The antibacterial activity of the gel formulation from A. conyzoides L. extract occurs and produces inhibition in a zone of 14.7 ± 2.3 mm against S. epidermidis and 15.43 ± 1.6 mm against P. acnes. Conclusion: The formula of gel containing 4% Sodium CMC and 2.5% A. conyzoides L. extract has antibacterial activity against both S. epidermidis and P. acnes.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002077
Title: Functionalized nanoliposomes for the synergistic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: Monotherapy with quadrilateral approach
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, immune-mediated disease characterized by severe progressive inflammation followed by destruction of joints and related structures. It is an autoimmune disease of unknown causes and a number of information regarding the pathogenesis are still unexplored, thus at present prevention of disease progression is very challenging. Although the treatment has evolved from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, yet single therapy of any of these drugs is not effective to totally cure the disease and also associated with severe adverse effects. Therefore, to avoid side effects and to make the single therapy more effective and patient friendly, we proposed a hypothesis based on targeted delivery of ligand-appended nanoliposomes of teriflunomide by intravenous route. The proposed nanoliposomes will follow four-pronged synergistic treatment approaches that are targeting through synovial macrophage system uptake, chondroitin sulfate-coated long-circulating effect, CD44 receptor-mediated cellular internalization, and chondroitin sulfate-oriented articular structure regeneration.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002078
Title: Anti-inflammatory activity of bioactive flavonoid mesuaferrin-A from Mesua ferrea L. on Lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in raw 264.7 cells
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Mesuaferrin-A is a bioactive flavonoid isolated from the bark of ethyl extract of Mesua ferrea. L exhibited significant in vitro cyclooxygenase -2/5-LOX dual inhibitory activity. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Mesuaferrin-A on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of isolated bioactive flavonoid Mesuaferrin-A on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the RAW264.7 macrophages by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The Mesuaferrin-A exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) in LPS-stimulated RAW264 macrophages. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the isolated bioactive flavonoid Mesuaferrin-A act as potent anti- inflammatory agents, it can be used for the treatment of inflammatory related diseases without having any side effects.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00002079
Title: Use of various screening methods for isolation of potential biosurfactant producing microorganism from oil-contaminated soil samples
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Biosurfactant molecules are low molecular weight surface active compounds produced by microorganisms which reduce the surface and interfacial tension of aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. Aim: The present study involved different screening tests to select potent bacterial biosurfactant producer from oil-contaminated soil samples. Materials and Methods: Number of tests such as hemolytic activity, lipase test, drop collapse test, and oil spreading test was adopted initially for mass screening and also to filter promising isolates. In a second phase, more precise penetration assay, bath test, reduction in surface tension, and emulsification index measurement were used to finalize and score each isolate as per scoring index. In the last step, bacteria were identified as per the 16SrRNA gene sequencing to identify them up to species level. Result: Out of 150 isolates collected after enrichment by the 1st phase study, effective 21 isolates were recovered as biosurfactant producer, and by second phase analysis, bacterium Serratia rubidaea strain KAP (Accession number: LC2017792) was recognized as best biosurfactant producer by involving scoring system earn points in every test by the organism. Conclusion: Studied methodology put forward the success of combination-based screening tests for selection of potent biosurfactant producers under in vitro conditions.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00002080
Title: Determination and identification of chemical compounds from ethyl acetate fraction of the stem bark of sintok (Cinnamomum sintoc Bl.)
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: This study aims to isolate and identify the chemical compounds contained in Sintok (Cinnamomum sintoc Bl.) stem bark. Methods: The extraction was performed by maceration method using 70% ethanol solvent and followed by fractionation using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water solvent. Ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract was further purified using preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC), using toluene developer:ethyl acetate:Glacial acetic acid (20:40:3) yielded isolate I-P3. Identification was performed on I-P3 using ultraviolet, infrared (IR) spectrophotometers, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) methods. Results: The ultraviolet I-P3 spectrum shows the maximum wavelength at 207 nm and 281 nm. The IR spectrum of I-P3 shows the presence of O-H, C-H aliphatic, and C=C aromatic groups. The results of GC–MS show that I-P3 has a retention time of 14 min and has a molecular weight of 220. Conclusion: Based on the data analysis, it is assumed that I-P3 was di-tert-butyl-p-methylphenol.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002085
Title: Saponin extraction from Sapindus emarginatus by ultrasonic technique
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aims: This study aims to apply the ultrasonic technique for extraction of saponin from Sapindus emarginatus fruit, to compare total saponin and antimicroorganism activity to conventional extraction method. Methods: In experimental process, effects of input power, time, and temperature on the % yield of extractions, amount of total saponin, and efficacy of antimicroorganism activity are considered. The obtained results from the optimized condition of ultrasonic technique are compared with those from the conventional extraction method. Results: The obtained % yield of extractions and amount of total saponin from the ultrasonic technique at 200 Watts, 30°C and 6 h, is closely to those from the conventional extraction method. For the efficacy of antimicroorganism activity, in addition, the Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum are inhibited by the saponin from S. emarginatus fruit. Conclusion: The ultrasonic technique is the alternative of herbal extraction, especially some substance that degraded by thermal. In addition, the ultrasonic technique offers great potential in the extraction process to reduce extraction time, temperature, and low degradation of the herb.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00002086
Title: Chitosan effect on the survival of microbial isolates from selected fresh fruits and vegetables in Indonesia
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial effectivity of chitosan against microbial isolates that obtained from fresh fruits and vegetables. Methods: The isolation of bacteria and fungi on fruit and vegetable samples was conducted by soaking the samples in sterile physiological saline for 10 min. The antimicrobial activity test was done using the pour plate method followed by determining the killing time contact. Results and Discussion: The chitosan showed antimicrobial activity against both the bacterial and fungal isolates obtained from fruit and vegetable samples. The chitosan concentration of 4% w/v was the effective concentration because it showed the reduction percentage in bacterial and fungal isolates colonies number until 99%. At a concentration of 0.2% w/v, the chitosan produces the same antimicrobial effect as triclosan. Interestingly, the activity of chitosan was higher than commercial sanitizer products that contain of nectarol and lime. The triclosan as the control test has taken less time for 2.5 min in killing time contact as compared with chitosan at the same concentration. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the chitosan has proven as natural sanitizer candidates in the future.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BGSA-00002087
Title: Bioinformatics approach in speciation of oil degrading uncultured bacterium and its frequency recording
Category: Bioinformatics (Genome & Sequence Analysis )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: As per NCBI database search, number of oil degrading uncultured bacterial species reported to be targeted for their 16S rRNA region worldwide, but no systematic approach was made till date to relate all these isolates with sequence-based homology for a particular genus and species to which probably they belongs to as the data is so discrete. Materials and Methods: The present study put forward the frequency-based classification of the several oil-degrading bacteria into particular genus and species as per 16S rRNA homology and phylogenetic analysis by involving, BLASTN, CLUSTALW, and MAGA6 software in together and finally reported the major species dominated by the set of uncultured bacteria related with oil degradation studied. Result: In a result when 1123 uncultured bacteria related with oil degradation were sequence homolog for 16S rRNA with public database; isolates were majorly been identified as 320 bacterial species which were further grouped into 15 clades as per phylogenetic analysis. Conclusion: Adopted methodology certainly been useful to classify the set of oil- degrading uncultured bacteria with their close homolog as they grouped only into 320 species out of which few shares majorly percentage as recorded.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00002088
Title: Chancroid vaccine: Solving the puzzle within a proteome of Haemophilus ducreyi to reach the target vaccine leads by reverse vaccinology approach
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Haemophilus ducreyi - a causative agent of chancroid disease in human - has been studied for vaccine lead search by reverse vaccinology approach to record the cell surface antigens and their epitopes for the high scored values as per conserved nature and ability to span plasma membrane and cell wall. Materials and Methods: With the combined use of the TMHMM, LipoP1.0, SignalP4.1, PSORTB, BLASTP, HLA Pred, and T-cell epitope designer servers, most conserved and promising epitopes available in the proteome of the H. ducreyi have been recorded. Result: The study highlighted that of 1717 protein encoded by the H. ducreyi, only 12 proteins available as cell surface proteins found to be qualifying as per the protocol and we reported their epitopes as best scored peptides possibly been the most useful in vaccine designing and in vitro studies. Conclusion: Using the reverse vaccinology approach, 12 most conserved epitopes and their binding energy with HLA molecule have been reported for the H. ducreyi and considered as vaccine leads for future studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002090
Title: Isolation, characterization, and memory enhancing activity of charantin using zebrafish model
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study deals with the utilization of zebrafish model to study the memory enhancing property of charantin, a compound isolated from Momordica charantia Linn. (Bitter gourd). The constituents obtained from different species of Momordica were proved to possess hypolipidemic and antioxidant roles; hence, proved in several researches to be well employed in the treatment of diabetes and even in Ayurveda formulations as well. Here, we have made an attempt to study the memory enhancing role of Charantin isolated from M. charantia due to its antioxidant nature. Methodology: Acute toxicity study was performed to design the dose of charantin in zebrafish. For the experimental procedures regarding memory enhancing role of charantin, 30 zebrafish of 0.7–1 g weight were selected and divided into five groups that were induced scopolamine (except Group-I) to attain Alzheimer’s disease. Further, they were treated with 2 doses of charantin (Group -IV and V) and a standard drug Rivastigmine (Group-III) and the effect of charantin on memory- enhancing was studied by performing acetylcholine esterase assay, inhibitory avoidance task, and T-maze test. Anti-oxidant property was also assessed by performing certain biochemical estimations. Results and Discussion: The results obtained in the behavioral tasks proved that memory-enhancing effect was pronounced more in case of a high dose of charantin is almost equal to the effect of Rivastigmine (Standard). Acetylcholinesterase enzyme level was also successively improved by 0.8 g of charantin. Conclusion: Charantin can be employed as a memory enhancer in Alzheimer’s related dementias; further to be evaluated clinically by formulating charantin.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002091
Title: Anticonvulsant effect of propronolol in maximum electro shock method induced convulsions in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of propranolol using maximum electroshock method in rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 adult male albino rats were randomly grouped into 3 groups each containing 6 animals. On the day of experiment, the control group received water for injection, the standard group received phenobarbitone at the dose of 30 mg/kg, and the test group received propranolol at a dose of 15 mg/kg. All the drugs were given intraperitoneally. After 2 h of drug treatment, convulsions were induced and the four phases of convulsions were recorded in seconds and analyzed. The phases of convulsions, namely, latent phase, tonic flexion, tonic extension, clonus, and postictal depression were recorded. Results: Propranolol significantly (P < 0.01) decreases the duration of tonic extension and postictal depression as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Propranolol has an anticonvulsant effect against electric shock-induced convulsions in rats. It may be advantageous in the treatment of epilepsy by improving their seizure control.