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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-Ay-00002513
Title: Chromatographic assessment of a marketed ayurvedic formulation Pushyanuga churna: A modern approach
Category: Ayurvedic
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Pushyanuga churna (PC) is an Ayurvedic formulation composed of twenty-five plant ingredients and one mineral described in AFI for its use in various female reproductive disorders. Owing to its therapeutic efficacy, it is prepared and marketed by different manufacturers. But, as there is paucity of scientific data on its standardization and quality control parameters which may lead to undesired quality and variation in its consistency, standardization of this formulation using modern bioanalytical techniques is required. Material and Methods: Pushyanuga churna (PC) was purchased from the market, manufactured by different companies subjected to quality control parameters. HPTLC-fingerprint for different marketed of PC was developed. Further, a simple, rapid, accurate and sensitive HPTLC method was developed for the estimation of two therapeutically potent biomarkers viz. gallic acid and bergenin simultaneously using a toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid as mobile phase. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Results and Discussion: Preliminary phytochemical, physicochemical analysis and chromatographic fingerprint for different manufacturers of Pushyanuga churna were established. It was observed that all the marketed samples did not show uniformity in results. Quantitation of two bioactive markers were evaluated and the maximum content of gallic acid and bergenin were found in marketed Pushyanuga churna 2 (2.346 ± 0.026 mg/g) and marketed Pushyanuga churna 4 (2.283 ± 0.175 mg/g) respectively. Conclusion: The data obtained from scientific evaluation of PC can be adapted to lay down new pharmacopoeial standards for batch-to-batch consistency.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00002261
Title: A systematic review on pharmacology of serotonergic receptors including their agonist and antagonist
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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For the past 5 years, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) receptors were recognized in terms of its complementary DNA sequence. With the detailed knowledge of various types of 5-HT receptors, the synthesis of a number of compounds as agonists (that selectively interact with individual 5-HT receptor subtype) and antagonists was possible. Some 5-HT receptor still lacks any selective ligand (e.g., 5HTE, 5-HTA, and 5-HTB receptor); the present review provides information and data for each 5-HT receptor, subtype, and subsequently details of functional responses attributed to each receptor subtype in the brain. In recent years, the progress is likely to continue at the level of interest in 5-HT receptor activity. The interest is developing by the belief that pharmacological manipulation of the central 5-HT system will have therapeutic potential in various behavioral disorders. In support of which, a number of 5-HT receptor ligands are currently utilized as potential therapeutic remedies for the treatment of several behavioral disorders.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002262
Title: A new pectin from Cissampelos pareira leaves for diclofenac gel formulations
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aims: The aims of this research were to extract pectin from Cissampelos pareira leaves and the characterized physicochemical properties. In addition, the extracted pectin was used for the gel-forming agent in the diclofenac gel preparation. Methods: The pectin from Cissampelos pareira leaves was extracted by three different solvents; HCl, the mixture of HCl/ sodium hexametaphosphate, and water and then was precipitated by ethanol. The obtained pectin was identified by degree of esterification (DE), galacturonic acid content, and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy which used in gel preparation of diclofenac as the model drug. Drug content was determined by spectrophotometry and in vitro diffusion studies of diclofenac were performed by Franz cell method. Results: The extracted pectin from the mixture of HCl/sodium hexametaphosphate and precipitated by ethanol provided the highest yield of 35.40 ± 6.77%. DE of low methoxy pectin was found in a range of 39.74–39.87%. The dominant structure of the pectin ((1-4)–α–D–galacturonic acid) was interpretated by FT–IR spectroscopy. The diclofenac gel forming, the percentage accumulative drug release was 30–60% for 4 h. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study were a new pectin which can be used for pharmaceutical gel-forming production.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002263
Title: Pharmacoeconomic analysis of antipsychotic drugs: A hospital perspective
Category: Pharmaceutical Sciences
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The rationale for the present study is explained by the increase of antipsychotic drugs (APD) indication rate in the hospital segment of Moscow Region. The purpose of the study is to develop a tool that would allow the specialists (in complex with anatomical therapeutic chemical/defined daily dose [DDD] methodology) to perform pharmacoeconomic analysis of the APDs influence on the budget of in-patient psychiatric facilities. Method: The present study was based on the WHO methodology on drug statistics (DDD-analysis). The authors proposed the tool of cost calculation through the cost of 1 DDD, which can be used at planning hospital budget on drugs. Results: The results of the study showed that fluphenazine, solution for injections of prolonged effect, had lower cost of therapy, calculated per DDD dose, and were more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenic patients in comparison with chlorpromazine (odds ratio 0.31, confidence intervals [CI] 95% 0.11–0.88). Conclusion: The share of patient’s increase, who receives fluphenazine solution for injections of prolonged effect, by 10% and decrease of chlorpromazine utilization, can cut the cost of annual budget, intended for the purchase of drugs for schizophrenic patients, by 1%. The proposed approach can be used for budget impact pharmacoeconomic analysis during budget planning at in-patient psychiatric facilities.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002264
Title: Novel co-processed superdisintegrants in the development of fast dissolving tablet of venlafaxine hydrochloride
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The purpose of this research is to formulate fast dissolving tablets of venlafaxine hydrochloride, a novel antidepressant. Materials and Methods: To improve the compressibility and rapid disintegration of tablet, co-processing of superdisintegrants was done. Drug-excipients compatibility was assessed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fast dissolving tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Mannitol and microcrystalline cellulose were used as directly compressible fillers, whereas sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone were used as superdisintegrants. In a total of six batches of formulations, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5 and F6 were prepared. Formulation F1 to F5 prepared by solvent evaporation method using different concentrations of co-processed superdisintegrants and formulation F6 was prepared as physical mixture. Results: The results of interpretation of FT-IR spectrum revealed that there is no interaction between the drug venlafaxine hydrochloride and superdisintegrants, sodium starch glycolate, and crospovidone. Prepared tablets were evaluated and the results revealed that the thickness of all the tablets range from 2.48 mm to 2.53 mm, hardness ranges from 2.6 kg/cm2 to 3.0 kg/cm², and the friability ranges from 0.80% to 0.92%. The percent drug content uniformity was found in the range of 98.63%–99.80%. The wetting time of the tablets was found as 38–70 s, disintegration time observed 30–58 s, and in vitro drug release determined as 71.75–98.45%. Conclusion: Formulation F5 containing 3:1 ratio (sodium starch glycolate:crospovidone) found to be most optimized formulation as evident by results observed.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002265
Title: Preparation and evaluation of sublingual tablet of valsartan for the treatment of hypertension
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this research is to prepare sublingual tablets of valsartan with the aim to increase its solubility and thus improving its oral bioavailability. Materials and Methods: Pure drug, polymer, and other excipients were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The solid dispersion of valsartan was prepared using beta- cyclodextrin in the proportion of (1:0.5). The solubility of valsartan was increased by formulating as solid dispersion by kneading techniques. The prepared solid dispersion was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetrym and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further used in the formulation of sublingual tablets. Sublingual tablets were formulated using superdisintegrants such as crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate. Results: In a total of seven batches of formulations from F1 to F7 were prepared by varying superdisintegrants concentration. Results of evaluation parameters revealed that formulation F3 containing 4% sodium starch glycolate found to be most optimized formulation in terms of flow properties, hardness, quick wetting, and disintegration time. Results of percent drug release analysis also conferred F3 as a most optimized formulation with the evidence of maximum percent drug release calculated as 96.41% in 30 min as compared with all the other formulations. Conclusion: All the seven formulations were successfully prepared and evaluated. However, results of parameters evaluated conclude that among all prepared formulations, F3 was observed as most optimized formulation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00002266
Title: Phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant activities of methanol leave extract of Alternanthera basiliana.
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: Plant-derived antioxidants can play a role in the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases. Alternanthera brasiliana has been reported to have many pharmacological properties and thus the need to evaluate its antioxidant and possible mode of actions. The study evaluated the antioxidant properties of methanol extract prepared from A. brasiliana leaves in vitro. Methods: This was done using various in vitro antioxidant assay protocols which includes diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, metal chelating, reducing ability, hydroxyl radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant properties assay. The different antioxidant potentials were compared with suitable standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, quercetin, Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Phytochemical screening of the extract was done qualitatively. Results: The phytochemical results showed the presence of flavonoids, saponin, steroids, and tannin. While the extract elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition (%), its antioxidant activities were significantly less than the standard antioxidants (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results obtained in this study provide evidence that A.brasiliana scavenges free radicals and can serve as a good source of natural antioxidant and justifies its potential use in the management or prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00002267
Title: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using stem extract of Berberis aristata and to study its characterization and antimicrobial activity
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has been an emerging research area worldwide for its inherent features such as rapidity, simplicity, environment-friendly, and cost-effectiveness. The rapid and simple approach was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) (AgNO3 ) using stem of Berberis aristata (Daruharidra) by biologically reducing AgNO3 with the aqueous extract of plant. The formation of AgNPs was indicated by the color change from slightly yellowish to yellowish- brown. Various techniques were used to characterize biosynthesized NPs by ultraviolet-visible, Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The biosynthesized AgNPs were also tested for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002307
Title: Development and evaluation of gastroretentive floating drug delivery system of ranitidine hydrochloride in the treatment of peptic ulcer
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study was carried out with an objective of the development of gastroretentive floating drug delivery system in which ranitidine hydrochloride used as model drug. Development of ranitidine floating tablet was to increase its bioavailability by increasing residence time so that it releases in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract for longer therapeutic effect. Materials and Methods: The tablets of ranitidine hydrochloride were prepared by direct compression method, using polymers such as Carbopol934, xanthan gum, and guar gum. The floating tablets were characterized for lag time, floating time, weight variation, drug content, and dissolution profile. The effect of polymer concentration on floating time and drug release was observed from all formulation from F0 (without polymer) to F6. Result: On investigating various parameters, it has been found that F3 and F6 formulations have shown longer buoyant property and prolonged drug release. Conclusion: On the basis of parameter studied above, F3 and F6 formulations could be an advantage in the enhancement of pharmacokinetic profile of drug and increased bioavailability, and hence, drug release of formulation could be sustained for longer time by increasing the concentration of polymer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00002440
Title: Review on prevalence and community-based health-care interventions for the prevention and management of obesity among diabetic patients
Category: Pharmacy practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI), a person’s weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in meters). A person with a BMI of 30 or more is generally considered obese. A person with a BMI equal to or more than 25 is considered overweight. Etiology for obesity includes genes, hormones, and social and environmental factors. The higher BMI levels show future risk of developing diabetes, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal diseases, and coupled with more health- care expenditure. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and prevalence has been rising all over the world, which can contribute the macrovascular and microvascular complications. The excessive release of inflammatory adipokines may contribute to immune dysfunction which may accelerate the obesity. Obesity can cause deregulation of cellular metabolism and may develop the insulin resistance in diabetic patients. Initiating community-based health-care interventions include medication adherence and weight loss and maintaining the controlled levels of diabetes, blood pressure and cholesterol levels and promoting regular medication adherence can reduce the obesity complications in diabetic patients. The prevention and management of obesity through early identification of risk category, regular health screening awareness programme and promoting lifestyle modifications can promote the best outcomes.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00002441
Title: Phytochemical screening and antioxidant potential of different extracts of Bunium persicum (Boiss) B.Fetdtsch seeds assayed by different methodologies
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Oxidative stress is one of the most common causes in the development and progression of various intimidating diseases including cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and autoimmune diseases. Aim: The present study was undertaken to screen various solvent extracts of Bunium persicum (Boiss) B.Fedtsch seeds to display potential antioxidant activity. Methods: The antioxidant potential of different extracts of B. persicum (Boiss) B.Fedtsch seeds was carried out using standard procedures such as DPPH assay, reducing power and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid content was also estimated. B. persicum (Boiss) B.Fedtsch seed extracts were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening tests for various phytoconstituents. Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid content was observed to be maximum for methanolic extract among all the three extracts tested, it was 968.78 mg GAE/g and 964.24 mg GAE/g. The IC50 value of methanolic extract of DPPH radical scavenging assay is 112.377 µg/ml which is comparatively significant than aqueous (IC50 255.4 µg/ml) and chloroform (IC50 353.73 µg/ml) extracts when compared to standard (IC50 192.09µg/ml). Methanolic, aqueous, and chloroform extracts showed a good reducing power activity, however, reducing the ability of methanolic extract is comparatively better than that of aqueous and chloroform extracts as well as standard ascorbic acid. The NO radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract (IC50 224.51 µg/ml) was comparatively higher than aqueous (IC50 339.71 µg/ml) and chloroform extracts (IC50 350µg/ml) as well as standard Ascorbic acid(147.03 µg/ml).Conclusion: B. persicum (Boiss) B.Fedtsch seeds showed high amount of phenolics and flavonoids which corresponds to its excellent antioxidant activity as determined by DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, and NO scavenging assays. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various bioactive components such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, terpenoids, and tannins. The potential pharmacological activity might be due to the presence of phytochemicals present in the seeds.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002442
Title: Developing the formula of a potential medicinal agent for treating candidiasis
Category: Pharmaceutical Sciences
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Infections caused by fungi of the genus Candida are certainly actual and growing problem for modern medicine. At present, there has been a substantial increase in cases of candidiasis, which most authors associate with the adverse effects of the external environment on the human body, the expansion of health technologies, the use of new therapeutic approaches, the high rate of the development of immunodeficiency, both habitual and acquired, as well as with an undue drug administration that reduce immunity, including broad-spectrum antibiotics. According to WHO, there is an increase in the incidence of mycoses, among which candidiasis is the leading cause. In more than 75% of cases in the treatment of patients, administration of the antibiotics has been deemed to be unsound. Aim and objective: The aim of our study was to develop the original antimicrobial and antifungal agents of the different nature, with new properties and another mechanism of action, which today is the most promising area. The paper addresses the issue of developing similar preparation containing herbal medicines with antimicrobial, antifungal, immunomodulating, keratolytic and immunogenic properties in a combination with a synthetic antimycotic of the non-antibiotic nature. Materials and methods: As an opportunity, there should be considered pharmaceutical preparation containing in the complex not bacterial antimycotics, but substances having a specific keratolytic effect, some of organic acids, herbal medicines with antimicrobial, antifungal, immunomodulating and immunogenic properties. Result and conclusion: There has been developed the formula of a new type of cream for the treatment of candidiasis. It contains therapeutic plant substances in combination with non-antibiotic synthetic substances. The cream’s formula was prepared on a highly-adsorptive base that we developed. The results of their primary study allow us for considering them as potential antimicrobial remedies for the local treatment of candidiasis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00002443
Title: Preliminary phytochemical screening and anthelmintic activity of leaves of Indigofera mysorensis Rottler ex DC.
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Helminthic infections are among the most widespread infections in humans, distressing a huge population of the world. The aim of the present study is to investigate the anthelmintic activity of leaves of Indigofera mysorensis using Indian earth worms. Materials and Methods: In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelmintic effects of crude acetone, alcohol, aqueous, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of leaves of I. mysorensis using Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/ml of all extracts were tested, and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time of death of worms. Results and Discussion: The acetone extracts (4.06 ± 0.30 min) were more effective followed by ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and almost all the extracts showed better activity than the standard drug Albendazole (10 mg/ml) in taking less time for the paralysis and death of the worms. The preliminary phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and saponins in alcohol, aqueous, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts. Conclusion: The results suggest that different extracts from leaves of I. mysorensis have promising anthelmintic activity and that broadly, this plant extracts are a potential rich source of anthelmintics to cure helminthic diseases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00002444
Title: Anthelmintic evaluation of Randia dumetorum fruit extracts
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Randia dumetorum., (Rubiaceae) is used in folklore medicine for the treatment of various ailments including helminthiasis. Methodology: The anthelmintic potential of different extracts prepared from the fruits of Randia dumetorum, were tested on adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma). Two concentrations (100 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL) of each extract were used in the experiment, which involved the determination of the time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Albendazole (10 mg/mL) and distilled water were included in the study as standard reference drug and control, respectively. Results: Among all the extracts tested, the ethanol extract of fruit extracts under investigation showed better anthelmintic activity. Conclusion: The results of the present investigation support the traditional use of the Randia dumetorum as an anthelmintic agent.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00002445
Title: Review on monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme which is responsible for oxidative deamination of monoamines. MAO-B inhibitors are used for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease effectively and also in Alzheimer’s disease to some extent. MAO-A inhibitors are used as antidepressants. A study on MAO inhibitors is crucial in present day situation since an ultimate cure for many of the neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease is not yet accomplished. MAO inhibitors and cholinesterase inhibitors can represent a right choice for the design of novel drugs for many of the neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. The current paper is a review of various substituted MAO inhibitors which can act as a lead molecule for the design of novel drugs for neurodegenerative disorders.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00002511
Title: Developing the formulas of the toothpastes containing thermal waters of Georgia
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the possibility of using mineral waters in the compositions of the toothpastes containing bioactive substances of plant origin. Materials and Methods: As a model system, there was used the formula of the toothpaste LUGELA containing the similarly-named mineral water with calcium chloride concentration at the level of 4,5%. There has been developed the formulas of the toothpastes with the use of mineral thermal waters and plant resources of Georgia. As the thermal waters, there have been applied waters with varying degrees of salinity, such as Sulori (salinity – 182, 6 mg/l), Tskhaltubo (salinity – 0,8 g/l), Borjomi (salinity - 5-7 g/l). As biologically active components, the compositions of the pastes contain: oak bark extract with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties; dry extract with flavonoids of flowers of pot marigold contain having the antimicrobial, disinfectant, healing, anti-inflammatory and capillary strength boosting action, possessing a wide range of antibacterial activities towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida monosa; essential oils of eucalyptus and geranium, exhibiting an integrated antiviral, bactericidal, bacteriostatic and wound-healing actions helping to combat the proliferation and spread of microbes and viruses. Results: On the basis of experimental data, the formula of toothpaste has been developed. The toothpastes obtained by the developed formula are stable in appearance, consistency and the content of biologically active components, and is pleasant by organoleptic characteristics. Conclusion: Obtained data allow for predicting the possibility of using thermal waters of Georgia with varying degrees of salinity in the toothpastes.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 12, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002512
Title: Formulation and evaluation of chitosan microspheres for the topical delivery of itraconazole
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The purpose of the present research work is to formulate and characterize the microspheres of itraconazole and incorporation of microspheres in gel for topical drug delivery. Materials: Itraconazole, chitosan, liquid paraffin, Tween-20, gluteraldehyde, carbopol-450, triethanolamine. Methods: The chitosan microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method. The drug-excipient compatibility study of active drug (itraconazole) and polymer (chitosan) performed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry confirmed that there was no interaction. The resulting microspheres were evaluated for partial size, surface morphology, zeta potential, and microscopy of itraconazole microspheres. Formulation ICM-2 showed the maximum entrapment efficiency. Formulation ICM-2 was further used for the preparation of topical gel. Results: The formulation ICM-2 showed percent entrapment efficiency of 85.69 ± 0.64. Percent yield value was found to be 72% and drug loading efficiency 70%. The particle size was found 1.2113 µm and degree of swelling was found to be 45%. Conclusion: A sustained release pattern was obtained from the microsphere-based gel and the drug’s bioavailability was found to be enhanced. In vitro release study showed that itraconazole release from both kinds of microspheres was slow followed by an increase to reach a maximum of 96.332%.