Journal Menu

Issues

Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000467
Title: Cytotoxicity of Thymoquinone (TQ) from Nigella sativa Towards Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells (HeLa)
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Thymoquinone (TQ), the bioactive constituent of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-neoplastic effects both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the cytotoxicity of TQ was evaluated on human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa). Results showed that TQ exhibited cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities towards the cells with IC50 value of 2.80±0.10mg/ml and 5.37±0.12mg/ml after 72 hours incubation time as being detected by trypan blue dye exclusion test and MTT assay, respectively. Significant decrease in the percentage of cell viability was observed after the treatment with 1.0, 3.0, 10 and 30mg/ml (p<0.05) indicating that TQ induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 values determined by the trypan blue dye exclusion test were significantly decreased from 5.93±0.81mg/ml (24 hours) to 2.80±0.10mg/ml (72 hours) suggesting that TQ induced cytotoxicity in a timedependent manner. HeLa cells treated with TQ for 72 hours showed a significant decrease in cell population at G0/G1 phase and significant increase of cell population at sub-G1 phase at 6.0, 10 and 30mg/ml (p<0.05), suggesting that TQ inhibited cell proliferation by induction of apoptosis in the cells. Expression of p53 detected by using the Human p53 ELISA showed that HeLa cells incubated with 10mg/ml of TQ for 72 hours resulted in significant up-regulation of the expression of the protein (p<0.05) compared to the control untreated sample. It is concluded that TQ was cytotoxic towards HeLa cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis via p53-dependent pathway.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000469
Title: Phytoconstituents from the genus Polyalthia – a review
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

A review of the phytoconstituents of the genus Polyalthia (Annonaceae) so far reported, has been presented considering that the genus comprises of 70 species and distributed all around the world. Keeping in view of the potential of the genus, an attempt is made to present a review of phytoconstituents of the genus Polyalthia which still remains as a source of lead molecules.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000478
Title: A validated UV spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous estimation of Lamivudine, Nevirapine and zidovudine in combined tablet dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

A simple, accurate, precise, economical and reproducible UV spectrophotometric method is being developed for the simultaneous estimation of lamivudine, nevirapine and zidovudine in pure bulk drug and in tablet dosage form. The stock solutions were prepared in 0.5M HCl followed by the further required dilutions with distilled water. The lmax for lamivudine, nevirapine and zidovudine were 280.2nm, 312nm and 266.8nm respectively. Linearity in concentration range of 5-25 mg/ mL, 5-50mg/ mL and 5-40mg/mL was shown respectively by the three drugs. The proposed method has estimated lamivudine 97.56%, nevirapine 98.03% and zidovudine 98.2% in marketed tablets. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and also by recovery studies. Thus the present study gives an excellent method for the determination of all the three drugs in combined dosage formulation without their prior separation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000477
Title: Formulation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system of carvedilol
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Carvedilol, a nonselective b-adrenergic blocker frequently used in hypertension, congestive cardiac failure and angina. Transdermal drug delivery can be efficiently used for the active agents which undergoes first pass metabolism, with this objectives, the transdermal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using combination of polyvinyl alcohol (PVP) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K30) along with glycerin, polyethylene glycol 400 and propylene glycol as a plasticizers. The prepared formulations were evaluated for thickness, drug content uniformity, folding endurance, percent elongation at break, tensile strength, in-vitro permeation studies. It was observed that the system with PVA:PVP in the ratio 8:6 along with used plasticizers was a promising controlled release transdermal drug delivery system for carvedilol. Formulated transdermal patches of carvedilol, exhibits zero-order release kinetics.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000479
Title: Liquisolid granulation technique for tablet manufacturing: an overview
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
View Article

The technique of liquisolid preparation is used to formulate drug solution in solid dosage forms. Drug solution is generally, prepared by dissolving the drug in non-volatile water-miscible solvent. The prepared tablet of liquisolid formulation contains the drug held in solution. Accordingly, the dissolution step, a pre-requiste for drug absorption, may be bypassed and better bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs achieved. Liquisolid system refers to formulations formed by conversion of liquid drugs, drug suspensions or drug solution in non-volatile solvents into dry, nonadherent, free-flowing and compressible powder mixtures by blending the suspension or solution with selected carriers and coating materials. In this technique the drug might be in a solid dosage form, which is held within the powder substrate in solution, or in a solubilized, almost molecularly dispersed state. Therefore, due to their significantly increased wetting properties and surface of drug available for dissolution. Liquisolid compacts of water-insoluble substances may be expected to display enhanced drug release properties and consequently improved bioavailability. Liquisolid technique is a new and promising method that can change the dissolution rate of drugs. It is claimed that if hydrophobic carriers such as Eudragit RL and RS are used instead of hydrophilic carries in liquisolid systems, sustained release systems can be obtained.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000473
Title: In-vitro anti-arthritic activity of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Rheumatoid arthritis is a major ailment among rheumatic disorders. A large number of herbal extracts are in vogue used for treatment of various types of rheumatic disorders. Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet, an Indian herb was reported to have anti-inflammatory as well as analgesic activity, in-vitro as well as in-vivo. The present study deals with anti-arthritic activity in-vitro. Various in-vitro anti-arthritic pharmacological models were studied, such as, inhibition of protein denaturation, effect of membrane stabilization, and proteinase inhibitory action.Herbal extract (aq.) with two different concentrations (100mcg/ml and 250mcg/ml.) was used and results were compared with acetyl salicylic acid (250mcg/ml.). The herbal extract showed dose dependent activity which was found to be better than that of acetyl salicylic acid.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000476
Title: Hepatoprotective effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves against alcohol induced liver injury in albino rats
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Herbal drugs are traditional used in various parts of the world to cure different diseases. The Ayurvedic and Siddha medical systems are very famous medical practices in Indian traditional medicines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of A . indica using a ethyl alcohol induced liver injury in rats and probe into its mechanism of action. Liver damage was induced in Wistar rats (150-200g) by administrating 30% ethyl alcohol (1ml/100g b.wt.) once daily for 14 days. A. indica (1g/kg b. wt.) was given for 14 days. Silymarin (0.1g/ kg b. wt.) was given as a reference drug once daily for 14 days. Levels of serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) were significantly (p<0.05) increased in ethyl alcohol treated rats. Simultaneously, A. indica leaf powder and silymarin, standard drug significantly (p<0.05) suppressed mainly the increase in plasma activities of AST, ALT and ALP concentration, which are considered as markers of liver functional state. The significant (p<0.05) decrease in the liver total protein (TP) and albumin (Alb) levels after ethyl alcohol treatment, which were reversed with A. indica. These effects were comparable to silymarin. In order to probe the possible mechanism by which A. indica prevents hepatic damage caused by ethyl alcohol, investigation on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) was found to be elevated and significant (p<0.05) decrease in glutathione reductase (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) content of liver after treatment with ethyl alcohol, which were significantly (p<0.05) reversed by A. indica. The effects of A. indica were comparable to that of silymarin. The results of this study confirmed the hepatoprotective activity effect of the A. indica leaf powder.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000475
Title: Role of Thuja occidentalis Linn. in prevention of congestive heart disease
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The present study was carried out to evaluate the Lipid peroxidation activity and related hypolipidaemic activity of an (EFTO) ethanol fraction of extract of aerial part of Thuja occidentalis Linn. (Cupressaceae). Lipid peroxidation activity was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential, and hypolipidaemic activity on cholesterol fed rats. The antioxidant activity of ethanol fraction was increased in a concentration dependent manner. About 100, 150, 200, 250 & 300 μg EFTO (ethanol fraction of extract of aerial part of Thuja occidentalis) inhibited the FeSO4 induced lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner and showed IC50 value 195.60μg/ml. in hypolipidaemic activity EFTO at the dose of 200 mg and 400mg/kg body weight significantly reduced serum cholesterol (77 and 92%), LDL (53 and 84%), triglycerides (27 and 46%). The increase in HDL to total cholesterol ratio and reduction in atherogenic index in EFTO treated groups strongly supports antiatherosclerotic property of Thuja occidentalis.The results obtained in this study indicate that EFTO can be a potential source of natural antioxidant and activities related to this.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000495
Title: Diuretic Activity of Grains of Eleusine coracana Linn
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Eleusine coracana Linn (Poaceae) is used in the traditional medicine as diuretic. In the present study ethanolic and aqueous extracts of grains of E. coracana (300 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.) were tested for diuretic activity. The activity was compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, i.p.) as standard drug. Results revealed that both the extracts exhibited significant diuretic activity as evidenced by increased total volume of urine and the urine concentrations of Na+, K+ and Cl-. The result thus supports the use of E. coracana as diuretic agent.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000494
Title: Studies on solid dispersion of Felodipine
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Literature reveals the utility of solid dispersions in improving the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. Felodipine, a calcium channel blocking agent widely used to treat hypertension. Although felodipine is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, it is critical to improve the dissolution rate to enhance the bioavailability, due to its low water solubility. Solid dispersions of felodipine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30) and HPMC K4M were prepared by using solvent evaporation method. The prepared solid dispersions were free flowing and showed good percentage of drug content (87%w/w). The FTIR study reveals no chemical interaction between felodipine and carriers used. The XRPD and DSC studies confirm transformation of crystalline form of felodipine into the amorphous form. The in vitro dissolution studies of formulated solid dispersions and tablets of solid dispersions showed that the solid dispersion of felodipine:PVP K30 with the ratio 1:3 enhances the solubility of felodipine.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000493
Title: Phytochemical investigation and effect of various extracts of Argemonemexicana (Papaveraceae) leaves onclonidine and haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Preliminary phytochemical investigation of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and aqueous extract of leaves of Argemone mexicana Linn. shows the presence of sterols, flavanoids, tannins, glycosides and alkaloids. These extracts were evaluated for anticataleptic activity. Leaves of A. mexicana were traditionally used as antiasthamatic. For induction of catalapsy, clonidine and haloperidol were used. All extracts at 50 mg/kg, i.p. showed significant activity. Amongst all the extracts and standard drug pheniramine maleate at 10 mg/ kg, i.p. aqueous extract of leaves significantly inhibit clonidine-induced catalepsy but do not inhibit haloperidol induced-catalepsy. It may be concluded that antihistaminic activity may be due to polar constituents of Argemone mexicana.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-0000492
Title: Larvicidal activity of essential oils from Indian medicinal plants against Aedes aegypti L.
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Volatile oils from Curcuma longa leaf, seeds of Leucas aspera and Allium cepa were evaluated for static larvicidal bioassay test against Aedes aegypti larvae, in searching of biocontrol agents for mosquito. The resulted mean of LC50 values placed the plants volatile oils as good larvicidal agents in the order of Curcuma longa (3.942 μl/l) > Leucas aspera (4.159 μl/l) > Allium cepa (5.909 ml/l)

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000491
Title: Novel Coating Techniques For Pharmaceutical Dosage Form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
View Article

Coatings are an essential part in the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage form to achieve superior aesthetic quality (e.g., color, texture, mouth feel, and taste masking), physical and chemical protection for the drugs in the dosage forms, and modification of drug release characteristics. Most film coatings are applied as aqueous- or organic-based polymer solutions. Both organic and aqueous film coating bring their own disadvantages. Novel coating technologies (Compression coating, Hot-melt coating, Photocurable coating, Supercritical fluid coating, Dry powder coating ) can overcome many of the disadvantages associated with the use of solvents (e.g., solvent exposure, solvent disposal, and residual solvent in product) in conventional pharmaceutical coating technologies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000490
Title: Phytochemical investigations and in vitro evaluation of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaf extracts for antioxidant property
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The decoction of the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of sciatica, arthritis, fevers and various painful conditions.The leaf was studied for Pharmacognostic evaluations, including examination of morphological and microscopic characters, determination of leaf constants, ash values and extractive values. The dried leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis were subjected to prilimiary phytochemical screening by extracting exhaustively the crude drug with alcohol in a Soxhlet extractor. The extract was concentrated using a rotary flash evaporator, residue was dried in a dessicator over sodium sulfite to give a semisolid mass. This alcoholic extract was further fractionated in to Pet ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions. Preliminary Phytochemical investigations showed the presence of Flavonoids, Carbohydrates, Alkaloids, Phytosterols, Phenolic Compounds and Glycosides. Free radical scavenging potential of the different extracts of leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, was evaluated in vitro by using diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl( DPPH) assay. In this method the antioxidants present in the plant extracts reacted with DPPH, which is a stable free radical and converted it to 1,1-diphenyl-1,2-picryl, hydrazine which is measured at 517 nm. The scavenging effect of plant extracts and standard (ascorbic acid and BHT) on the DPPH radical decreases in the following order: ascorbic acid > Butanol > Ethyl acetate >BHT > Pet ether and ascorbic acid was found to be 93.88% at concentration of 10 mg, BHT, Butanol, Ethyl acetate and Pet ether was found to be 97.42%, 95.22% 84.63% and 82.04% at concentration of 100 mg respectively. In the present study, different extracts of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaves showed concentration dependent free radical scavenging activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000489
Title: A Novel Approach For Ocular Delivery of Acyclovir Via Niosomes Entrapped In Situ Hydrogel System
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic solutions due to rapid pre-corneal elimination of the drug may be overcome by the use of niosomes entrapped in in situ gel-forming systems that are instilled as drops into the eye and then undergo a sol–gel transition in the cul-de-sac. The treatment of herpes simplex type1 keratitis with conventional system of acyclovir available in market (ointment and tablets) is typically cumbersome due to some treatment problems like blurring of vision, repeated administration of doses and patient non-compliances. Aqueous suspensions of niosomes have already been investigated as drug delivery systems for different therapeutic purposes but are associated with certain limitations like nasolachrymal drainage and rapid pre-corneal drainage so one of the possible way of using niosomes for ocular drug delivery system is by entrapping them in in-situ hydrogels which will provide controlled release and avoidance of precorneal and nasolacrimal drainage.The delivery of drug through ocular route for the treatment of herpes simplex keratitis offers the advantages of delivering the drug in controlled manner directly to the site of action that is the cornea which will reduce the toxic complications and limitations of conventional and oral therapies. These results demonstrate that the combined system can be used as an efficient vehicle to enhance ocular bioavailability and patient compliance.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-0000488
Title: Inhibitory Effect of Extracts of Eucalyptus citriodara Leaf Part Against Human Cancer Cell Lines
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The leaf part of Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae) was sequentially extracted by chloroform (CHL), methanol (ME), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-Hexane (Hex), 50% ethanol (50% EtOH) and hot water and were evaluated for cytotoxicity against the three human cancer cell lines viz., ovary (OVCAR-5), cervix (HeLa) and central nervous system (SNB-78) using Sulforhadamine B dye. The extracts had shown activity against ovary and cervix human cancer cell line but no activity was observed against CNS cancer cell line. For ovary cancer cell line all the extracts except methanolic extract showed significant and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the tumor cells. For cervix cancer cell line ethyl acetate, n-hexane and chloroform extract had shown dose-dependent inhibitory effect against tumor cells proliferation. The EtOAc extract, in particular, had the most potent effect on both the cancer cell lines followed by 50 % ethanolic extract. Our results suggest that the ethyl acetate extract of E. citriodora had strong cytotoxic effect on ovary and cervix cancer cell lines and can be a potential source of natural anti-tumor product.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000487
Title: Comparative study of Liv.Compound syrup and herbal formulations for hepatoprotective activity
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Traditional system of medicine recommends various crude drugs for the treatment of hepatic disorders. Liv.Compound is such proprietary polyherbal formulation which is recommended in various liver diseases. Polyherbal formulations Hep-I and Hep- II were developed for treatment of liver disorders and evaluated along with Liv. Compound syrup for hepatoprotective activity. Liver necrosis was produced by administering carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) (1:1 CCl4 in olive oil 2ml/kg subcutaneously on 2nd and 3rd day). The liver damage was evidenced by increased levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum bilirubin. Liv.Compound syrup, Hep-I and Hep-II syrups showed significant hepatoprotective activity at dose of 500mg/kg which was compared with standard Liv-52 syrup. From the biochemical parameters it was found that Hep-I formulation shows excellent hepatoprotective activity followed by Liv.Compound and Hep-II formulation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000486
Title: Anti-pyretic activity of the ethanolic extract of the powdered leaves of Murraya Koenigii (L.) Spreng
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The extracts of dried powdered of leaves of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng were investigated for anti-pyretic activity in rats using yeast induce pyrexia model. The leaves of Murraya koenigii were collected from region of north Gujarat and shade dried. The dried powdered leaves of Murraya koenigii (500 gm) were extracted with ethanol (90%) and water by hot extraction and dried in desiccators. The dried ethanolic and water extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis. Rats weighing 150-200 gm were taken for experiment. Both the ethanol and water extracts were evaluated for anti-pyretic activity at dose 300 mg/kg of body weight. Administration of ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng at the single dose of 300 mg/kg produce significant antipyretic activity (p<0.01) in albino rats with respect to the paracetamol as a standard drug. The present study shows that the ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii has significant anti-pyretic property.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000485
Title: Hypoglycemic Activity of Tinospora sinensis (Linn) leaves
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Tinospora sinensis (Linn) belongs to Family Menispermeace is traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice, liver diseases, and skin diseases. Apart from traditional use plant is also used for the treatment of diabetes. Ethyl acetate extract of the leaves were studied for hypoglycemic activity on wistar rats using alloxan induced method. Glibenclamide was used as reference standard. The present studies indicate that ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Tinospora sinensis Linn. Possess significant activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000484
Title: Novel Sustained Release Gastroretentive Floating Matrix Tablets of Acyclovir: Formulation and in vitro Evaluation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Acyclovir is a potent antiviral drug with low toxicity used in treatment of herpes simplex infection & varicella zoster infection. It has maximum absorption in stomach and upper part of small intestine. Due to low gastric retention time, the bioavailability of drug is low as large portion of drug misses the absorption window. In the present investigation it was thought worthwhile to develop a gastric floating drug delivery system of acyclovir to improve the efficacy of dosage form. Gastric floating drug delivery system of acyclovir was prepared using swellable polymers HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M and Sod. Alginate with NaHCO3 as effervescent agent. The effects of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid on drug release profile and floating properties were investigated. Different formulations of varying concentrations of HPMC K4M, HPMC 15M and Sod. Alginate were prepared by wet granulation using iso propyl alcohol as solvent on a single punch tableting machine. All the tablets passed the compendial tests and other tests like weight variation, drug content, hardness, friability. The floating time was found to be more than 12 hrs. All the tablets showed the floating lag time of less than 1 minute. The dissolution study was carried out in SGF pH 1.2 using USP type II apparatus. The linear regression analysis and model fitting showed the optimized formulation followed Korsmeyer and Peppas model. One way ANOVA was applied on the release data of all batches and no significant difference was found. It can thus be concluded that FDDS of acyclovir using HPMCK4M, HPMCK15M and Sod. Alginate would be an ideal approach for sustaining drug release by gastro retention and improved bioavailability.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000483
Title: Development and statistical validation of spectrophatometry method for estimation of Montelukast in bulk and tablet dosage form
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Three simple, precise and economical UV methods have been developed for the estimation of Montelukast in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. Montelukast has the absorbance maxima at 359nm (Method A), and in the first order derivative spectra, showed zero crossing at 359nm, with a sharp peak at 340.5nm when n=1 (Method B), Method C applied was Area Under Curve (AUC). For analysis of Montelukast the wavelength range selected was 350-370 nm. Drug followed the Beer’s Lamberts range of 5-40 μg/ml for the Method A, B C. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies and were found to be satisfactory.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000482
Title: Antiulcerogenic activity of Commiphora caudata bark extract against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The ethanolic extract of Commiphora caudata bark extract was evaluated for their cytoprotective activity against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. Four groups of male Sprague Dawley rats each consist of 6 animals. Group I animals were pretreated with phosphate buffer saline 5 ml/kg, p.o. as a control, whereas Group II and Group III rats were pretreated with 200 mg/kg, p.o. and 400 mg/kg p.o. of Commiphora caudata bark extracts respectively. Group IV rats were pretreated with cimetidine 50 mg/kg p.o. as reference. After 30 minutes, all animals were administered orally with 1 ml of absolute ethanol. After 15 minutes, all rats were sacrificed. Macroscopically, oral administration of absolute ethanol to rats pretreated with PBS significantly produced extensive hemorrhagic lesions of gastric mucosa, whereas animals pretreated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg ethanolic extract or cimetidine significantly reduced the formation of gastric lesions, when compared to control group. These results strongly document the beneficial cytoprotective effects of plant extract against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000481
Title: Design and evaluation of Glipizide floating tablets
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The purpose of this investigation was to prepare a gastro retentive drug delivery system of Glipizide. Floating tablets of Glipizide were prepared employing two different grades of HPMCK4 and HPMC K15 polymers by effervescent technique; these grades of polymers were evaluated for their gel forming properties. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent. The Floating tablets were evaluated for uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, drug content, in vitro buoyancy and dissolution studies. The drug release profile and floating properties was investigated. The prepared tablets exhibited satisfactory physico-chemical characteristics. All the prepared batches showed good in vitro buoyancy. The tablet swelled radially and axially during in vitro buoyancy studies. It was observed that the tablet remained buoyant for 12-20 hours. The tablets with HPMCK15M were found to float for longer duration as compared with formulations containing HPMCK4 M.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000480
Title: Pharmacological activities of Areca catechu Linn. – A Review
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Areca catechu Linn. is a commonly used herb in Ayurvedic medicine. This review supports all updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, traditional uses and scientific approach. The plant extracts and its chemical marker or target molecule Arecoline, have been widely used for the treatment of a large number of human ailments. The chemical entities of this plant has been used as an antidiabetic, blood pressure regulating activity, antiulceogenic, antioxidant activity, anticonvulsant activity, C.N.S. stimulant activity, oxytocic activity, antifertility, anthelmintic and antiviral activity etc. Scientifically proved activities are related with traditional concept. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. Areca catechu Linn. is one of the most important controversial and effective natural origin that has a tremendous future for research. The novelty and applicability of Areca catechu Linn. are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concept.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000474
Title: Formulation of fast dissolving tablets of Meloxicam
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Meloxicam, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent mainly used for the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The major drawback of meloxicam is its very low water solubility, which results in poor bioavailability after oral administration. Hence, an attempt was made to formulate fast dissolving tablets of meloxicam. The solid dispersions of meloxicam were prepared with PEG-4000 and PVP K30 by solvent evaporation method. The characterization of prepared solid dispersions by FTIR, XRPD and DSC, which reveals lack of interaction with carriers and dictates amorphous state of solid dispersions. Solid dispersion of meloxicam with PVP K30 (1:6) showed maximum dissolution, therefore compressed into tablets by using microcrystalline cellulose, lactose and crosspovidone. The dissolution profile of developed fast dissolving tablets containing solid dispersion of meloxicam (1:6) was studied. The formulated formulations showed optimum dissolution efficiency.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000472
Title: Formulation and evaluation of topical dosage form of Pandanus fascicularis Lamk. and their wound healing activity
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Topical application of ointments and gels prepared from the chloroform extract of Pandanus fascicularis Lamk. were formulated and evaluated for its efficacy and safety. Ointments and gels were prepared at different concentrations i.e. 5%, 7.5% and 10% (w/w) by fusion method using different excipients.These topical formulations were tested for pH, viscosity, spreadability, drug contents uniformity, in vitro diffusion. The stability study was carried out at 4, 25 and 37 0C. The drug content uniformity of ointments and gels were found with in the range of 98.17 to 98.91% and 97.43% to 98.46% respectively. The formulations of O-III and G-III showed maximum drug release of 75% and 92% over a period of 8 h. All the formulations were evaluated for its acute skin irritancy, wound healing activity in Swiss Albino rats. These formulations did not produce any skin irritation for about a week when applied over the skin. Comparative studies showed that the viscosity of the formulations increases, spreadability decreases and vice versa. From the stability studies, Ointments and gels showed no changes in pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability, drug contents, consistency, and phase separation after keeping at different temperatures for 90 days. All the formulations and the normal chloroform extracts of P. fascicularis showed significant (P< 0.001) wound healing activity by excision wound model and comparable with that of the reference standards and control bases. The measurement of the wound areas were taken on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th days and the percentages of wound closures were calculated.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000471
Title: Protective Effect of Polyherbal Formulation on Isoniazid Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Objective: To evaluate effect of Polyherbal Formulation (PHF) on isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in rats and assessment of any possibility of co administration of PHF along with such hepatotoxic drug.Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity in rat was induced by Isoniazid (INH) (200mg/kg/p.o. for 24 days) and protective effect of PHF (0.25ml/kg/p.o. and 0.5ml/kg/p.o. either along with hepatotoxic drugs or followed by inducing hepatotoxicity) was measured by estimating marker enzymes for liver function like Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase and g glutamic transpeptidase. Oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, super oxide dismutase and catalase. Protein profile likes Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, Total albumin and Total protein. Histopathological study was carried out to confirm hepatotoxicity. Results and Discussions: Isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity characterized by significant increase in marker enzymes for liver function and oxidative stress along with depletion of proteins. Administration of PHF either along with Isoniazid or followed by inducing hepatotoxicity significantly improved the level of marker enzymes for liver function, oxidative stress and depleted proteins profile. Conclusion: The study suggest protective role of PHF and it can be utilized to treat the hepatotoxicity with long-term clinically useful drugs, which are at the risk of developing hepatotoxicity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000470
Title: Formulation Development and Evaluation of Taste Masked ORO-dispersible tablets of anti emetic drug
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Ondansetron hydrochloride is commonly used as anti emetic. But it is a very bitter drug and slightly soluble in water. So in the work under taken an attempt was made to mask the taste and to formulate into a dispersible tablet by complexation with ion exchange resins, which also acts as super disintegrating agents. Since, these tablets can be swallowed in the form of dispersion, it is suitable dosage form for pediatric and geriatric patients. Cationic exchange resins like Indion-204 , Indion-234 and Tulsion-335 were utilized for the sorption of drug. Drug- resinates were prepared in drug to resin ratio of 1:6, 1:5 and 1:6.The prepared tablets were evaluated for general appearance, content uniformity, hardness, friability, taste evaluation, mouth feel, wetting time, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution studies. Tablets with all the resins have shown quick disintegrating features, i.e., within 20 seconds, which is very characteristic of oro-dispersible tablets. Also, the dispersion not showing any bitter taste, indicate the capability of ion exchange resins used, both as taste masking and super disintegrating agents. Almost more than 90% of drug was released from the formulations within 1 hour. Further formulations were subjected to stability testing for '3 month' at temperatures 25 ºC/60±5%RH& 40±5ºC/75±5%RH.All tablet formulations show no appreciable changes with respect to taste, disintegration and dissolution profiles.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000468
Title: Production of prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens and its Cytotoxicity activity
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The Cytotoxicity activity of prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens (MTCC 97*) were tested under in vitro conditions against cancer cell line. The anticancer activity of prodigiosin against HeLa cell was also showed satisfying results. The test was carried at different concentration 0, 10, 20, 30, 40μg/ml and the percentage of cell viability was recorded at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The percentage of cell death was 54% after 96 hours. The IC50 value was 35μg/ml for 48 hours. This paper communicates cytotoxicity activity of prodigiosin. However further research are required to study the mechanism of cancer cell line inhibition.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000466
Title: Hypolipidemic effect of Methanolic extract of Mussaenda frondosa linn. Leaves in high fat diet fed rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

High fat diet fed rats showed significant Increased levels of plasma and total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids plasma LDL cholesterol and decreased level of plasma HDL cholesterol. Methanolic extract of M.frondosa administration to high fat diet fed rats showed near normal levels of the above lipids in plasma and tissues. When higher dose of the extract (400-450 mg/kg body weight) showed prominent results with the standard drug atorvastatin (1.2mg/kg). Results obtained from this study suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of Methanolic extract of Mussaenda frondosa may be due to the inhibition of hepatic cholesterogenesis and may have slight antioxidant activity. It is therefore concluded that the methanolic extract of M.frondosa possesses hypolipidemic activity in high fat diet fed rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000465
Title: Nardostachys jatamansi: cardioprotective and hypolipidemic herb
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Nardostachys jatamansi belongs to the family Valerianaceae. It is commonly used as a folk medicine for hypolipidemic activity. This made us to evaluate the hypolipidemic and cardioprotective activity in isoproterenol and triton WR 1339 administered diseased animals. Pretreatment of isoproterenol administered animals with 50 mg/kg b.wt, of Nardostachys jatamansi was found to exhibit a better antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity. Mild changes in cardiac markers reveal that the dose of Nardostachys jatamansi should be increased. In triton WR 1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats, administration of 1000 mg/kg b.wt. of extract for seven days showed the hypolipidemic activity.