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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-0000718
Title: Cassia tora Linn:A review on its ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological profile
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Cassia tora Linn is a small annual herbs or undershrub growing as common weed in Asian countries. It is found as a weed throught India. The plant which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. This weed has been known to possess antiproliferative, hypolipidemic, immunostimulatory, anticancerous, antimutagenic and hepatoprotective activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including anthraquinones, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, euphol, basseol, palmatic, isostearic, behenic acid etc. have been isolated from this plant. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activity and toxicity of the Cassia tora plant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000706
Title: Hypoglycemic activity of saraca indica Linn barks.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of the methanolic bark extracts of Saraca indica Linn in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Saraca indica Linn belongs to the family Leguminosae is traditionally used for the treatment of menstrual disorders, piles, ulcers and many other disorders including diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single dose intraperitoneal injection of 50mg/kg of streptozotocin in overnight fasted rats. The blood glucose levels of Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were estimated on days 0th , 4th , 7th 10th and 15th after oral administration of the extract. In normal rats the blood glucose levels were estimated at 0th , 1st , 2nd , 3rd and 4th hours. In both of these models at 400mg/kg through oral route the extract has shown a very good hypoglycemic activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000715
Title: Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Euphorbia hirta l. Leaves: A comparative study.
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a potent medicinal plant in the traditional Indian medicinal systems. Traditionally the leaves are used in the treatment of cough, coryza, hay asthma, bronchial infections, bowel complaints, worm infestations, wound, kidney stones and boils. In the present study leaves of E. hirta L. were collected during different time periods. The ethanol extract of the leaves of E. hirta L. was analyzed for their antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against bacteria species namely aureus (MTCC 2940), Bacillus ceresus, Salmonella typhi (MTCC 733), Klebsiella Pneumoniae (MTCC139), Pseudomonas aeuroginosa (MTCC 741), and fungus species namely Aspergillus niger (MTCC 277), Aspergillus fumigatus (MTCC 343), Aspergillus flavus (MTCC 418), Rhizopus oryzae (MTCC 262). It was observed that the leaves collected during mid August to December end showed significant antimicrobial effect compared to other extracts.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000709
Title: Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Calotropis gigantea Latex Extract on Selected Pathogenic Bacteria.
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The search for novel antibiotics like compounds from medicinal plants continues to be of extreme importance in recent research programs around the world because of the increase of multidrug resistance and toxicity of some used antibiotics. One such medicinal plant used since ancient times is Calotropis gigantea. The plant produces large quantity of latex with various medicinal properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effect of partially purified C.gigantea latex extract on some human pathogenic bacteria. The antibacterial activity was tested against three Gram positive and three Gram negative bacteria. The inhibitory effect was assessed by well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also determined by serial dilution method. The ethanolic extract was subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening for the presence of bioactive ingredients. The ethanolic extract shows the presence of many biologically active molecules such as flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins and glycosides. The latex extract shows significant zone of inhibition in dose dependent manner. The MIC and MBC values of latex extract against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains varies from 1mg to 5mg and the results are comparable with chloramphenicol. From this study, we conclude that the latex extract possesses potent bactericidal activity which may be due to the presence of biologically active ingredients with antimicrobial activity in the ethanolic extract of C.gigantea. The present study would also contribute to the acceptance of C.gigantea latex in traditional medicine and to the solution of growing problems of drug resistance by microorganisms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000708
Title: Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel ciprofloxacin analogues
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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From the cyclisation of potassium dithiocarbazinate with hydrazine hydrate in water, 4-(amino)-5-phenyl - 4H-1, 2, 4-triazole- 3- thiol belonging to the 1,2,4- triazole derivative have been prepared. The different aromatic aldehydes such as benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dichloro benzaldehyde, 3-methoxy 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde, 4-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde and furfuraldehyde have been attached to the triazole through the Schiff reaction to give different Schiff bases. Ciprofloxacin have been incorporated to the new series of Schiff bases of 1,2,4- triazole via Mannich reaction. The new compounds have been evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against B.subtilis, K.Pneumoniae, and P.aeruginosa. All the compounds showed in vitro gram positive and gram negative activity generally comparable or superior to that of reference ciprofloxacin.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000725
Title: Antidiabetic activity of insulin plant (Costus igneus) leaf extract in diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this research was to investigate antidiabetic activity of Costus igneus (also known as insulin plant) leaves extracts in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. A comparison was made between the action of Costus igneus extract and a known antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (600 µg/kg body wt.). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in experimental diabetic rats. Ethanolic extracts of Costus igneus were obtained by simple maceration method & were subjected to standardization by phytochemical screening methods. Preliminary phytochemical investigations showed the presence of alkaloids and steroids in ethanolic extract. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50mg to 5000 mg/kg body weight) as per OECD guidelines. Costus igneus ethanolic extract showed significant (P<0.001) antidiabetic activity. These extracts also prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. We are the first to report Costus igneus leaves pharmacognostic, phytochemical investigations and its antidiabetic activity in OGTT and alloxan induced model.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000721
Title: Microwave assisted organic reaction as new tool in organic synthesis
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS) has emerged as a new “lead” in organic synthesis. The technique offers simple, clean, fast, efficient, and economic for the synthesis of a large number of organic molecules. In the recent year microwave assisted organic reaction has emerged as new tool in organic synthesis. Important advantage of this technology include highly accelerated rate of the reaction, Reduction in reaction time with an improvement in the yield and quality of the product. Now day’s technique is considered as an important approach toward green chemistry, because this technique is more environmentally friendly. This technology is still under-used in the laboratory and has the potential to have a large impact on the fields of screening, combinatorial chemistry, medicinal chemistry and drug development. Conventional method of organic synthesis usually need longer heating time, tedious apparatus setup, which result in higher cost of process and the excessive use of solvents/ reagents lead to environmental pollution. This growth of green chemistry holds significant potential for a reduction of the by product, a reduction in waste production and a lowering of the energy costs. Due to its ability to couple directly with the reaction molecule and by passing thermal conductivity leading to a rapid rise in the temperature, microwave irradiation has been used to improve many organic syntheses.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000774
Title: Ethno-potential of medicinal herbs in skin diseases:An overview
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The acceptance and recognition of herbal medicine is increasing day by day. One of the important reasons in increasing this interest is the awareness of natural remedies being more efficacious and less harmful than synthetic drugs. Skin health is important aspect of primary health care among many communities, because of the increase challenge of HIV-AIDS, skin conditions being among the common opportunistic diseases in immuno-compromised individuals. India has a rich folklore of medicinal plant on healthcare. A large number of formulations have been used in India for treatment of cuts, wounds, burns and various skin diseases. The present review attempts to analyze the ethno botanical knowledge base for treatment of various skin diseases. The medicinal plants used in this review are arranged alphabetically followed by family name, parts used, traditional uses and references.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000717
Title: Estimation of Tannins in different parts of Memecylon Umbellatum Burm
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Tannins are complex moieties produced by majority of plants as protective substances having wide pharmacological activities. They have been used since past as tanning agents and reported for astringent, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Because of their chemical complexity and difficulty in isolation due to their close association with other compounds, it is necessary to estimate the total tannins. In the present work we have tried to estimate the total tannins in different parts of the plant by simple spectrophotometric method. Gallic acid was used to obtain standard curve and 30min refluxed extracts of all parts with suitable dilutions (beer limit 10-22 µg) were analyzed at 700nm. Calibration curve shows coefficient of variance (r2) = 0.9994 and tannin content was found to be highest in bark (2.4125 ± 0.124) then in leaves (1.7586 ± 0.18), roots (1.3318 ± 0.16) and Stem bark (1.0538 ± 0.16), all collected in the month of Feb-March. Inflorescence showed minimum amount of tannins (0.08639 ± 0.064). Also estimations were made repeatedly with fresh and stored samples (up to 3 years) and found no significant difference in tannin content. Maximum average variation was found in bark (0.0037%) and minimum (0.0011%) in stem wood compare to fresh sample. The method was found good and reproducible. This study revels that all the parts tested contains tannin and no significant variation was found in fresh and stored samples indicates tannins are stable up to three years if stored properly.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-0000770
Title: In vitro anti-Candida activity of Calotropis gigantea.
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this study is to screen leaves of Calotropis gigantea for the anti-Candida properties against four clinical isolates of Candida. Aqueous, methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of the leaves of Calotropis gigantea were screened against clinical isolate of Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The in vitro anti-Candida assay was performed by agar well diffusion method in potato dextrose agar (PDA). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test was performed by modified agar well diffusion assay in PDA. The inhibitory effect of aqueous extract on all four tested Candida species was significantly higher than the methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts. Aqueous extract showed low MIC values against C. tropicalis (125 μg/ml), C. krusei (250 μg/ml) and C. albicans (500 ìg/ml), followed by the methanol extract against C. tropicalis, C. krusei (500 μg/ml) and petroleum ether extract against C. tropicalis (500 μg/ml). The results prove Calotropis gigantea as a potent source of natural anti-Candida compounds.

Cite this article :Gaurav Kumar, Loganathan Karthik and Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao,In vitro anti-Candida activity of Calotropis gigantea,Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010, 3(3),539-542.

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Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010, 3(3),539-542
Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000716
Title: A preliminary study on antidepressant activity of NR-ANX-C (a polyherbal product) in mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Depression is one of the common psychiatric disorders. Though the modern medicine provides large number of antidepressants, each of them has one or the other draw backs. Thus the search for new antidepressants with minimum or without side effects is deemed important. NR-ANX-C, a polyherbal product composed of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctam, Camellia sinensis, Triphala and Shilajit have been shown to have antistressor, antianxiety and anticataleptic activity. With this back ground, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidepressant activity of this polyherbal preparation by employing two experimental models, forced swim test and tail suspension test in mice. Imipramine (5.0 & 10.0 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. NR-ANX-C (5, 10, & 20 mg/kg) was given orally. Antidepressant effect was studied both on acute and chronic administration. NR-ANX-C significantly reduced the duration of immobility on single and repeated administration. These findings were comparable to that produced by standard drug, imipramine. Our study suggests that, NR-ANX-C has antidepressant like activity in mice.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000697
Title: Spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of meloxicam and sodium amoxicillin in combined dosage forms
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A first-derivative spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Meloxicam (MLX) and sodium amoxicillin (AMX) is described. Measurements are made at the zero-crossing wavelengths at 361 for MLX and 246.2 nm for AMX. The calibration graphs were linear from 1 to 10 µg/ml for MLX and from 5 to 50 µg/ml for AMX, the limits of quantitation were 0.4 ìg/ml and 1.5 ìg/ml for MLX and AMX respectively. The possible interfering effects of other substances were studied. The method was applied for the simultaneous determination of MLX and sodium AMX in combined dosage forms for parenteral administration.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000698
Title: Microscopical and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies on Aerial Parts (Leaves and Stem) of Ageratum conyzoides Linn.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The plant Ageratum conyzoides Linn. (Asteraceae), is an annual herbaceous plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in several countries of the world. The present study deals with pharmacognostic examination of morphological and microscopical characters of Ageratum conyzoides including leaf constant, ash values, extractive values and phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed that the plant contains alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, chromenes, essential oils, terpenes, phenolic compounds, steroids.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000699
Title: Simple titrimetric method to estimate ketoprofen in bulk using mixed hydrotropy
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation illustrates the application of mixed hydrotropy. The enhancement in the solubility of ketoprofen in a mixed hydrotropoic solution containing 30% urea and 30% sodium citrate was more than 700 fold (as compared to the solubility in distilled water). “The prescription order is important therapeutic transaction between the clinician and the patient” [1] . Mixed hydrotropic solution was employed to solubilize a poorly water soluble drug ketoprofen, ketoprofen, in bulk to carry out titrimetric analysis precluding the use of organic solvents. The bulk containing ketoprofen was analyzed successfully. Statistical data proved accuracy, reproducibility and the precision of the proposed method. The presence of hydrotropic agents (urea and sodium citrate) did not interfere in the analysis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-HPh-0000700
Title: Pharmacist: a crucial part of clinical Research
Category: Hospital Pharmacy
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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There are more than 80,000 clinical trials conducted across the globe, with a multibillion dollar investment and profits. With India becoming a growing business hub for clinical trials due to number of favourable factors supporting its growth, it becomes essential to understand the concept of clinical trial. There are various people from different field who co- operatively work together to successfully conduct a clinical trial say for example: physicians, pharmacists, nurses, laboratory technicians, dieticians, social workers and many others. The role of pharmacy as a profession in the clinical research field needs to be understood well. Pharmacist as a drug expert has very crucial role to play in clinical trials conduct and management. Pharmacist is the right person to deal with all the activities related to drugs in a clinical trial like investigational product (IP) receipt, IP handling, IP storage, IP dispensing, IP return, IP destruction and IP accountability. Pharmacists also play an important role in ensuring the safety of the subjects by identifying and reporting adverse drug events from the site or by working in pharmacovigilance team. Pharmacists can also play a varied role by working as clinical research co-ordinators or clinical research associates and thus streamline all the activities of the clinical trial, ensuring that all the trial procedures are followed according to ICH GCP guidelines and regulatory requirements. Thus we can see that pharmacists constitute a crucial part of the clinical research team.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000701
Title: Study of Hibiscus Cannabinus seed mucilage : Extraction & Evaluation as a Suspending Agent.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Plant products serve as an alternative to synthetic because of local availability, eco friendly nature and are economical as compared to synthetic products. Wide variety of plant products are being explored as pharmaceutical excipients for example, mucilages and gums.The present study was undertaken to separate and evaluate the mucilage from seeds of plant Hibiscus cannabinus Linn (Malvaceae) and further its potential as a suspending agent has been evaluated. In present study the yield of mucilage was 9% by new developed method of extraction. After evaluation of mucilage for various parameters as per I.P., the Loss on Drying, ash value, extractive value were found to be well within the official limit. Mucilage has shown good suspending action in 2% concentration. The formulation containing H. cannabinus mucilage as a suspending agent shows comparable results to that of standard marketed formulation i.e. Calcimax (Suspension). The results of present study shows that the mucilage obtained from the seeds may be used as a pharmaceutical excipient.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000702
Title: Report on pharmaceutical approaches to colon targeted drug delivery systems
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Colonic drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also for its potential for the delivery of proteins and therapeutic peptides. The various strategies for targeting orally administered drugs to the colon include covalent linkage of a drug with a carrier, coating with pH-sensitive polymers, formulation of timed released systems, exploitation of carriers that are degraded specifically by colonic bacteria, bioadhesive systems and osmotic controlled drug delivery systems. The approach that is based on the formation of prodrug involves covalent linkage between drug and carrier. The presence of azo reductase enzymes play pivotal role in the release of drug from azo bond prodrugs while glycosidase activity of the colonic microflora is responsible for liberation of drugs from glycosidic prodrugs. Natural polysaccharides have been used as tools to deliver the drugs specifically to the colon. Formulation coated with enteric polymers releases drug when pH move towards alkaline range while as the multicoated formulation passes the stomach, the drug is released after a lag time of 3-5 h that is equivalent to small intestinal transit time. Drug coated with a bioadhesive polymer that selectively provides adhesion to the colonic mucosa may release drug in the colon. The review is aimed at understanding pharmaceutical approaches to colon targeted drug delivery systems for better therapeutic action without compromising on drug degradation or its low bioavailability.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000705
Title: Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of Zidovudine loaded calcium alginate microparticles containing copolymer
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objective of study is to encapsulate drugs in polymers of varying solubility in an aqueous environment. The Microparticles were prepared using ionotropic gelation technique, where gelation of anionic sodium alginate, the primary polymer, was achieved with oppositely charged counter ion to form Microparticles which were further made sustained by using different polymer namely Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose, Ethyl Cellulose and mixture of both the polymer. Zidovudine an anti-retroviral drug was selected as novel drug for the experiment. Nine sets of formulation were prepared using HPMC(H1,H2,H3), Ethyl Cellulose (E1,E2,E3), mixture of both EC and HPMC (M1,M2,M3) at concentrations of 1%, 2% ,4%. The final formulations were subjected to several characterization studies. Batches with ethyl cellulose and mixture shows Higuchi model and while HPMC shows zero order release. All the batches with copolymer shows sustained the release more than 9 hours. Batches with HPMC show maximum encapsulation efficiency.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000710
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Different Concentration Chitosan based Periodontal Film of Ofloxacin
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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An objective of periodontal treatment is to suppress or eliminate sub gingival periodontal pathogens. This is generally achieved through sub gingival debridement, resulting in the reduction of the total bacterial load. However, some patients may experience continued periodontal attachment loss, and this may be due to some periodontal pathogens that are inaccessible during mechanical periodontal therapy. Chitosan films of different concentrations containing ofloxacin were prepared by solvent casting method. Some of the drug-loaded films were crosslinked with 2% gluteraldehyde for 1,2 and3 hrs, respectively. The films were then evaluated for their physicochemical properties including weight variation, thickness, moisture loss, Tensile strength, Elongation, in vitro anti bacterial activity and in vitro release. Mean weight and thickness data showed that the different films were uniform. In vitro drug release data indicate that the films showed an initial burst release followed by sustained release of the drug. The drug-loaded films that were not crosslinked had effect on for up to 9 days and the films which are crosslinked for different duration shows release depended on concentration of chitosan in different films (1%, 2%, 3%). The study suggests that crosslinked chitosan film containing ofloxacin is a potential drug delivery device for the topical treatment of periodontitis. All films prepared have good physicochemical properties and possess consistent sustained release of films.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000711
Title: Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Properties of Coccinia grandis Aqueous Leaf Extract on Ethanol Induced Liver Toxicity in Albino Rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The liver protective and antioxidant effect of Coccinia grandis were investigated in male albino rats. Aqueous extracts of C.grandis had higher superoxide radical scavenging activity. The ethanol was administrated to the animals (7.9g/kg body wt.,) for 45 days. The aqueous extract at 250 mg/kg body wt., showed significant hepatoprotective activity when compared with that of ethanol induced control groups. The liver marker were significantly (P<0.001) increased in ethanol induced animals after administration of plant extract of C. grandis. (250mg/kg body wt., for 45 days) the elevated levels of liver marker enzymes were significantly reduced (P<0.001) when compared to the levels in control groups. The antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in ethanol treated groups. Administration of plant extract the decreased levels were significantly increased (P<0.001). Histopathological changes also observed in control as well as plant extract treated groups. Results shows that C.grandis leaf extract could protect the liver against ethanol induced oxidative damage by possibly reducing the rate of lipid peroxidation and increasing the antioxidant defense mechanism in rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000713
Title: Wound healing properties of Pterospermum acerifolium Wild
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Wound healing activity of ethanolic (50% v/v) bark extract and the leaf of Pterospermum acerifolium were evaluated by using both excision and incision wound models in rats. The studies significant wound healing model reveals significant would healing activity of the extract and the leaves that is compariable with providines iodine. In the incision model, the tensile strength of the extract treated group is found to be higher than the later treated gourp of animals on 12th post wounding day. The results of the present study justify the would healing properties of the bark as suggestd by locality.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000714
Title: Platform technologies for colon targeted drug delivery system : A Review Article
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Colon specific drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also as potential site for the systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides. To achieve successful colon targeted drug delivery, a drug needs to be protected from degradation, release and/or absorption in the upper portion of the GI tract and then ensure abrupt or controlled release in the proximal colon. Drug modifications through covalent linkages with carrier or prodrug approach and formulation based approaches can be used for colonic delivery. Report suggests that drug carrier systems larger than 200mm possess very low gastric transit time due to physiological condition of the bowel in colitis. And for this reason and considering the selective uptake of micron or sub-micron particles by cancerous and inflamed cells/tissues a multiparticulate approach based on pellets, granules, microspheres or nanoparticles type formulation is expected to have better pharmacological effect in the colon. The review is aimed at understanding recent advancements made in technologies for colon specific delivery of medicaments so as to release the drug in colon for better therapeutic action without compromising on drug degradation or its low bioavailability.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000719
Title: Formulation, physicochemical characterisations and in Vitro evaluation of Flurbiprofen Sodium suppositories
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Currently, there is a vast interest in the scientific community and drug industry to exploit various mucosal routes of delivering drugs, which are poorly absorbed after oral administration. Human rectum remains to be a relatively unexplored route of drug delivery despite its potential as a non- invasive route of drug administration. The presence of dense network of blood vessels has made the rectum an excellent route of drug delivery for both systemic and local effect. The present investigation was aimed to evaluating the possibility of using different suppository bases i.e. cocoa butter & different polymeric grades of PEG (4000 & 6000) and effect of SLS on the release rate of formulation for the development of rectal drug delivery system of flurbiprofen sodium, an NSAIDs, to minimize the gastric irritation of the drug upon oral administration. Suppositories were formulated by fusion method & evaluated for their physicochemical characterization followed by in vitro evaluation through spectrophotometrically. Suppositories containing PEG 4000 containing SLS showed a better permeation of drug with faster dissolution rate in vitro than other formulations. The formulations were designed to overcome the gastric irritation of flurbiprofen and to prevent hepatic first-pass metabolism after oral administration. Suppositories are dosage forms for use in the unavoidable circumstances such as comatose, nauseous or vomiting.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000720
Title: Development and validation of derivative spectrophotometry method for simultaneous estimation of Drotaverine hydrochloride and Mefenamic acid in their combined dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A new simple, accurate and precise second-order-derivative spectorophotometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneously determination of Drotaverine hydrochloride (DRO) and Mefenamic acid (MEF) in combined tablet dosage forms. The procedure does not require prior separation of components from the sample. DRO was determined at a wavelength of 232.94 nm (zero-crossing wavelength point of MEF). Similarly, MEF was measured at 312.24 nm (zero-crossing wavelength point of DRO). Calibration graphs were constructed over the concentration range of 4-24 µg/mL for DRO and MEF. Detection and quantitation limit were 0.4348 and 1.3176 µg/mL for DRO and 0.6141 and 1.8611 µg/mL for MEF, respectively. The proposed method has also been validated. The method was found to be accurate (recovery was in the range 99.16 – 102.50 % for DRO and 99.57 – 101.20 % for MEF). Thus, the method was successfully applied to the estimation of DRO and MEF in combined tablet formulation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000722
Title: Preparation and Evaluation of Sustained Release Nimesulide Microspheres Using Response Surface Methodology
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A sustained release microparticulate dosage form was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method by taking Nimesulide as a model drug using Eudragit RS100 (low water permeable) and RL100 together in a single matrix. 32 full factorial experiment was designed to study the effect of Eudragit RS100 (X1) and Eudragit RL100 (X2) combination on the % cumulative release in first hour (Y1), time to achieve 60% drug release (Y3), time to achieve 90%drug release (Y2). % yield, % Drug entrapment and particle size were also found. In vitro drug release profiles showed that a suitable combination of Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit RL100 can exhibit sustained release profile for of a drug. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis showed no interaction of drug with the polymers. Model dependent method was used to decide the release mechanism of optimized batch.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000723
Title: Pharmaceutical and medicinal applications of Olibanum gum and its constituents : A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Various species of boswellia plant contains mainly olibanum gum resin, resin acid, and volatile oils. The ether extracted gum resin as it is obtained from natural origin considered as non toxic, biocompatible, cheaper, and reported to have a large pharmaceutical applications. The other constituents of this plant possess numerous medicinal applications. The ether extracted resin fraction is reported as one of the best microencapsulating and release retardant material in the design of controlled release formulations. In addition, this gum and its constituents also have anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic properties and also used in the treatment of rheumatism, gastrointestinal problems and in the relive of depressions. This aromatic resin specially used in incense as well as in perfumes. This gum-resin has been widely used for thousands of years in many parts of the world for burning as incense in religious ceremonies. In this present review, an attempt was made to discuss the versatile applications of olibanum gum-resin, special attention was given on its pharmaceutical and medicinal uses.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-0000724
Title: Thermal analysis of interactions between an oxime and excipients in some binary mixtures by differential scanning calorimetry and thermagravimetric analysis
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Thermal analysis methods are widely used in all fields of pharmaceutical sciences but especially in preformulation studies. These techniques are unique for the characterization of single compounds and mixtures. The information correlated with the thermodynamic phase diagrams is extremely helpful for rational preformulation studies and development of novel drug delivery systems. Excipients found compatible can be chosed for formulation developement. Different excipients were checked and evaluated with obidoxime chloride by using thermal analytical techniques. All the binary mixtures represent the characteristic Obidoxime chloride peak. All the excipients found compatible compatible with Obidoxime chloride.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000726
Title: Antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum in mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Depression is a widespread psychiatric disorder affecting around 5% of the population. Furthermore, it is difficult to predict which patient will respond to any given treatment. In the traditional systems of medicine, many plants and formulations have been used to treat depression for thousands of years. Ocimum sanctum(OS), popularly known as Tulsi in Hindi and ‘Holy Basil’ in English is one of the sacred herbs for Hindus in the Indian subcontinent. It has a versatile role in traditional medicine. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidepressant potential of acute and chronic administration of OS in forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Inbred adult male Swiss Albino mice weighing 25-30g were used in the study. Standard drug (imipramine) and test drug (OS) were suspended in 1% gum acacia. The vehicle (10ml/kg, p.o), imipramine (10mg/kg, p.o) and OS (1.75mg/kg, 4.25mg/kg, 8.5mg/kg, p.o. respectively) were administered 1hour prior to acute study. In chronic study, all drugs were given once a day for 10 days and the last dose was given 1hour before the experiment. Duration of immobility was noted in both the models. In our study, both imipramine and OS significantly reduced the duration of immobility in both experimental models as compared to the animals in the control group. The antidepressant activity of OS was comparable to that of standard drug imipramine. The results of the present study indicate the potential for use of OS as an adjuvant in the treatment of depression.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000727
Title: Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE): A novel extraction technique for extraction of neutraceuticals from plants
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Extraction is an important step in studies involving the discovery and isolation of active compounds of plant materials. There is an increasing demand for new extraction techniques with shortened extraction time, reduced organic solvent consumption, and increased pollution prevention. UAE is an inexpensive, simple and efficient alternative to conventional extraction techniques. As compared with other novel extraction techniques such as microwave-assisted extraction & supercritical fluid extraction techniques, the ultrasound apparatus is cheaper and its operation is easier. Ultrasound assisted extraction has risen rapidly in the latest decade, and for most applications it has proven to be effective compared to traditional extraction techniques.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000728
Title: Chitosan based mucoadhesive tablets of metronidazole: As novel oral hygiene product
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Plaque is a main etiological agent for conditions like Gingivitis and periodontitis. Chronic nature of these diseases requires longer duration of therapy. As plaque is not supplied with systemic blood circulation, drug should be given in local sustained therapy. Metronidazole is a drug of choice for most of oro-dental diseases. Long term use of Metronidazole in the conventional oral dose leads to patient noncompliance due to intense metallic taste and multiple frequency of dosing. That’s why it was developed in mucoadhesive dosage form.Natural bioactive materials have recently been investigated as promising agents to prevent oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis. Chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable material. It is positively charged and combines with the bacterial cell wall and membrane with bacteriostatic and bactericidal results. Chitosan was used as a mouth rinse reagent, and it displayed an antibacterial and plaque-reducing action. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that chitosan effectively inhibited the growth of cariogenic bacteria, total Streptococci, S.mutans and P. gingivalis an etiological agent of gingivitis. Mucoadhesive controlled release devices like tablets can improve the effectiveness of the drug by maintaining its concentration between minimum effective concentration and maximum safe concentration. The aim of study was to develop chitosan based sustained release mucoadhesive tablet of Metronidazole which maintains minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged period of time.Results of study showed that a significant difference in mucoadhesive strength, swelling study and drug release was observed in formulations containing Metro + CHN + SCMC and formulation containing Metro + CHN + SA. The results of study showed that more water absorbing nature of SCMC, leads to significant increase in swelling index, mucoadhesive strength and also drug releases than formulation containing Metro + CHN + SA.Amongst all the formulations, formulation ‘G’ containing Metro + CHN + SCMC found to posses good mucoadhesive strength (10.40 gms) and sustaining drug release. In-vivo drug release study of formulation ‘G’ found to maintains Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for more than ‘8’ hrs in 15 fold reduced dose. This overall effect results in increased patient compliance and decreased dose and cost of therapy.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000729
Title: Antioxidant properties and stability of Raphanus sativus extracts
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation was planned to analyze the antioxidant components, activity and stability of Raphanus sativus leaves. The antioxidant activity of methanol (ME), ethanol (EE) and water (WE) extracts was determined by DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and in vitro inhibition of lipid oxidation. Temperature and pH stability of extracts was also studied. The extracts showed a dose dependent scavenging of the free radical; DPPH. EE showed higher activity than ME and WE. The extracts also showed varying degree of reducing capacity. Further, all the extracts inhibited the formation of lipid peroxides and their efficacy was in the order of alpha-tocopherol (80%)>EE (69%)>WE (70%)>ME (65%). The activity of WE was increased by 3% after heat treatment. The antioxidant activity of EE at both pH 4 and 7 was higher than WE and ME. At pH 7 all the extracts were stable and at pH 9 no activity was shown. Data indicates the potentiality of the Raphanus sativus leaves to utilize as a natural antioxidant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000730
Title: Novel approach to formulate â-cyclodextrin complexed mouth dissolving tablet of Metronidazole and its in-vitro evaluation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Patients with oro-dental diseases like gingivitis, periodontal disease, bleeding gums and oral infections are at increased risk of dysphasia and leads to patient noncompliance. In such conditions it is also necessary to give rapid action and avoidance of first pass metabolism which is made possible by formulating Mouth dissolving tablets of Metronidazole. The mouth dissolving tablets of metronidazole was prepared by direct compression technique. Bitter taste of drug is successfully masked by b-cyclodextrin (b-CD) complex and is also useful to enhance the solubility which was confirm by phase solubility analysis with constant value 107.52 M-1 .FT-IR spectroscopy study confirm the formation of inclusion complex , and compatibility of polymers Metronidazole was also confirmed by FTIR Spectroscopy studies. The tablets showed good weight uniformity (RSD< 1%), The Drug content uniformity of the Tablet was found to comply with the official specification, tablet Hardness varied from 3.5 ±0.1 to 4.0 ± 0.4 and tablets passed the friability test. The tablet formulation which contain SSG alone and combination of SSG- Bamboomanna showed good result for wetting time, in-vitro dispersion Time, disintegration time, mouth feel and dissolution studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000731
Title: In vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils of selected herbals against isolates from HIV/AIDS patients
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Opportunistic infections are common and in the cases of HIV/ AIDS, they are very harmful. Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Shigella dysenteriae, and Proteus mirabilis isolated from HIV positive patients were tested for their sensitivity to essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martinii, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Mentha piperita, Pelarogonium graveolens, and Vitex negundo. In agar well diffusion method the selected essential oils were effective against both gram positive as well as gram negative organisms. For e.g, C. citratus was highly active against S.pneumoniae and least against S. aureus. C. martinii was highly active against S.typhi and least against .S. aureus. C.zeylanicum was highly active against S.pneumoniae and least against P.mirabilis. R..officinalis was highly active against P.mirabilis and least against P.aeruginosa. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil of C.zeylanicum against all test organisms was best (0.25 mg/ml) and it was quite comparable with the reference drug Chloramphenicol (0.25 mg/ml). The results for all other essential oils were moderate, when compared with the reference drug. The results for minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were similar to minimal inhibitory concentration results. As no organism was found to be resistant to the tested essential oil, the results indicated that those essential oils could be used (aromatherapy) in different forms for the prevention, control and treatment of opportunistic bacterial infections caused by those organisms, particularly in HIV/ AIDS cases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000732
Title: Mycosporicidal activity of essential oils from selected herbals against isolates from HIV/AIDS patients
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Spores are said to be more resistant to adverse conditions of both physical and chemical nature. Fungal spores are ubiquitous and are highly problematic that are involved in various opportunistic diseases, in safety food preparation, and microbial culture work etc. Essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martinii, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Mentha piperita, Pelarogonium graveolens, Vitex negundo were used to study their sporicidal activity against spores of fungal isolates such as Aspergillus niger, A.flavus, A.fumigatus, Mucor Spp, and Rhizopus Sp from HIV positive individuals. Different dilutions of those preparations were made and tested for their sporicidal activity against fungal spores from opportunistic pathogens. C. zeylanicum was highly effective in lower concentration (1:250) against all fungus. C..citratus, C. martini, R. officinalis, were effective at 1:500 concentration P.graveolens and V.negundo was at 1:1000. M. piperita was ineffective against all the test fungal spores even in higher concentration. The mycosporicidal activity is attributed to the components of essential oils, which mostly interferes with enzyme system of spores, which are needed for their viability. According to the results of this study, the essential oil may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antimicrobial for the prevention, treatment and control of sporogenous fungal diseases in various patients, particularly, for HIV/AIDS patients.