Journal Menu

Issues

Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000808
Title: Development of modified Spectrophotometric and HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol hydrochloride and Cetirizine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

A high-performance liquid chromatographic and an UV Spectrophotometric method were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of two drugs, Ambroxol hydrochloride and Cetirizine hydrochloride in tablets. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, have been used to estimate the drugs by using water as a solvent at 20oC. Simultaneous equation method developed by UV spectrum measurements indicates the concentration of Ambroxol hydrochloride and Cetirizine hydrochloride in tablets. A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol hydrochloride and Cetirizine hydrochloride in dosage forms (tablets) by using acetonitrile, methanol and water in the ratio 10:20:70 as a solvent system. The method was carried out on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 (25 cm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 ì) column, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 244,230 nm.The retention time of Ambroxol hydrochloride and Cetirizine hydrochloride was -4.2 and 9.3 min, respectively. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and solution stability. The proposed method can be used for the estimation of these drugs in combined Pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-0000806
Title: Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Nutritional Analysis of Leaves of Ehretia laevis
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Ehretia laevis Roxb, a medicinally important plant, belongs to family Boraginaceae. The parts of the plant like bark, leaves and fruits are used in Ayurvedic system of medicines. The phytoconstituents using various cold solvent extracts of different solvent polarities ranging from non polar to polar are acknowledged. The nutritional quantitative analysis is carried out to evaluate the nutritive factors like fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamin- C, E, A, riboflavin and thiamine. It has been proved as a good source of nutritional supplement. The quantitative determination of trace elements such as calcium, iron, potassium, phosphorus present in the leaves is carried out .The vital role of trace elements in the human body has been established.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000805
Title: Pharmacological evaluation of ethanolic extracts of the plant Alternanthera sessilis against temperature regulation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Purpose: The antipyretic activity of the 90 % ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Alternanthera sessilis. (Amaranthaceae) was investigated in other to verify its claimed ethno medicinal use in the treatment of fever.Method: The antipyretic activity of Alternanthera sessilis extract (ASE) was investigated for its, potential on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rats. Results: The ASE at doses of 200, and 400 mg/kgBW p.o., showed significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature in a dose-dependent manner. The effect also extended upto 4 h after the drug administration. The anti-pyretic effect of ASE was comparable to that of paracetamol (150 mg/kg p.o.,), a standard anti-pyretic agent. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study it can be concluded that the extract of A. sessilis has potential antipyretic activity. The activity is in dose dependent manner.Consequently our present study gives a scientific ground to the traditional uses of the plant A.sessilis

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000803
Title: Preparation and Characterization of Aspirin-Chitosan Complex: An Attempt for Its Solubility and Stability Improvement
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

A lyophilized aspirin-chitosan HCl complex was prepared as attempted to enhance its solubility and consequently reduce its GI side effects. Aspirin-chitosan complex was been investigated using several techniques, namely phase solubility diagrams, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results showed clearly that formation of aspirin-chitosan complex that has different characteristics from the starting materials. The phase solubility diagram of the complex at 25° C indicated a typical AP-type (positively deviating isotherms) solubility curve. Complex solubility was highly significant (P<0.01) enhanced in 0.1N HCl and significantly increased in distilled water and phosphate buffer pH 6.8, comparing to aspirin alone. Also aspirin stability in accelerated conditions (40± 2º C and 75± 5% RH) and its rate of dissolution in the acidic media were considerably improved when complexed to chitosan. Higuchi model was the most suitable one to describe the dissolution kinetics of aspirin and the complex which indicating diffusion-controlled dissolution kinetics.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000801
Title: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of some Pyrazolines Derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

A new series of chalcones (C1-7) were synthesized by condensation of substituted aldehydes with substituted acetophenones in presence of alkali. The resulted chalcones (1mmol) and phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride in ethanol and pyridine was added as a catalyst. The mixture was refluxed for 4-6 hr’s and the solvent was evaporated completely. Then the reaction mixture was poured into crushed ice and the solid mass that separated out was filtered, dried and recrystalised from alcohol will yields the title compounds (PY 1-7). The newly synthesized compounds were assigned on the basis of IR, 1H NMR spectral data. All the final compounds were evaluated for their anthelmintic and antimicrobial activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000804
Title: Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of Rhododendron arboreum
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

In the present study the ethyl acetate extract of Rhododendron arboreum (Family: Ericaceae) was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential in animal models.Oral administration of Rhododendron arboreum extract (EERA) (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited dose dependent and significant anti-inflammatory activity in arachidonic induced hind paw edema (p<0.01), cotton pellet granuloma model of inflammation (p<0.01) and Freund’s adjuvant-induced paw arthritis (p<0.01). A significant (p<0.05) anti-nociceptive activity was evidenced in mice, protection in acetic acid-induced writhing. EERA at the dose levels of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited significant (p<0.001) resistance against analgesymeter induced pain in mice. The hot plate reaction time was increased at a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly (p<0.001).The present study justifies the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential of Rhododendron arboreum.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-MPDI-0000788
Title: Oceans: A Store house Of Drugs - a review
Category: Marine Pharmacy Drug Investigation
Section: Review Article
Country: India
View Article

The biodiversity of ocean living resources provide an ample scope for the extraction of drugs and chemicals for therapeutic purposes. The oceans are the source of a large group of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in invertebrates such as sponges, corals, bryozoans, mollusks, tunicate, shark, sea hare etc. Pharmacological activities has been seen in several of these compounds, which are helpful for the invention and discovery of biologically active compounds, required primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, or in treating inflammation etc. The potential of the oceans as medicinal storehouse depends largely in the realm of survey and experimentation. Marine products, many of which are unknown to mankind are the key to the development of new types of drugs and secondary metabolites, which will be helpful for public health and to environmental issues for treatment in the next century. Men must adhere to limitations for unearthing the living resources from the sea in order to ensure pathogen free environs. Modern technologies have revealed out vast areas of research for the extracting biomedical compounds from marine ecosystem. The objective of this review is to emphasize on some of the recent developments and conclusion in the area of marine biology with special reference to the biomedical / pharmaceutical potential of marine natural products.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000785
Title: Effect of Eugenia Jambolana on Plasma Glucose, Insulin Sensitivity and HDL-C Levels: Preliminary Results of A Randomized Clinical Trial
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

To validate scientifically a household remedy of Eugenia jambolana seed based drug Madhuhara churna [AVA Trust Regd] in diabetes mellitus, a use based on ethnic preferences. A 6 month parallel designed open labeled randomized, controlled trial was conducted in 30 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were enrolled to: Group 1 (n = 15) received Madhuhara churna [AVA Trust Regd]; Group 2 (n= 5) received metformin and Group 3 (n=10) were on diet restriction and exercise therapy only. They were followed up each month for 6 months with detailed clinical examination; assessment of compliance to drug intake, diet adherence and exercise; a complete history of adverse events; different parameters to measure the efficacy were done. There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics of patients in each of the three groups enrolled for study. The results showed a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose at 3rd (152.0 mg/dl± 22.5 to 140.7 mg/dl± 26.6, P=0.016) and 6th (152.0 mg/dl± 22.5 to 134.0 ± 21.3, P=0.043) month, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance at 3rd (10.3 ± 4.7 to 6.5 ± 4.1, P=0.027) month and a highly significant rise in high density lipoprotein value at 3rd (39.7 ± 9.6 to 47.3 ± 6.8, P= 0.001) month was seen in group 1 when compared to baseline values. Madhuhara churna [AVA Trust Regd] treatment in type 2 diabetic patients for 6 months has a beneficial effect in improving the glycemic profile in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000789
Title: Role of Natural Polymers in the Development of Floating Drug Delivery Systems
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
View Article

Floating drug delivery systems are the gastroretentive forms that precisely control the release rate of target drug to a specific site which facilitate an enormous impact on health care. This can be achieved by use of various polymeric substances including natural polymers. These polymers are inexpensive, safe and available in a variety of structures with versatile characteristics. Large number of derivatizable groups, wide range of molecular weights, varying chemical composition and gel forming nature of these polymers also provide an exciting opportunities in the fascinating arena of applied polymer science and drug delivery technology. All these characteristics make them suitable candidate for design and fabrication of novel gastroretentive drug delivery systems. Various natural polymers have been investigated worldwide by scientific community for their potential as floating drug delivery systems. The present article highlights various recent efforts and advanced approaches exploiting several natural polymers in this technology.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000810
Title: Development of UV Spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous estimation of Piroxicam and Paracetamol in tablet by simultaneous Equation, Absorbance ratio and Absorbance Correction method.
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

A simple, specific, accurate, precise and reproducible method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of piroxicam and paracetamol in combined dosage form by UV Spectrophotometric method. UV Spectrophotometric method includes Simultaneous Equation method (Method I), Absorbance Ratio method (Method II) and correction method (Method III), For development of Method I, wavelengths selected were 252.4 nm and 257.4 nm for estimation of piroxicam (PIR) and paracetamol (PAR) respectively while for Method II, 252.4 nm ëmax for paracetamol, 296.4 nm Isoabsorptive point of PAR and PIR and 357.4.0 nm for correction method. The two drugs follow Beer-Lambert’s law over the concentration range of 1-5 µg/mL for PIR and 9.37-46.87 µg/mL for PAR. The % estimation of the drugs was found near to 100 % representing the accuracy of the three methods. The recovery of the PIR and PAR were found near to 100 %. Validation of the proposed methods was carried out for its accuracy, precision, specificity and ruggedness according to ICH guidelines. The proposed methods can be successfully applied in routine work for the determination of Piroxicam and paracetamol in combined dosage form.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000782
Title: Preliminary phytochemical screening of Eichhornia crassipes: the world’s worst aquatic weed
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Eichhornia crassipes is so called menace and nuisance is considered as the world’s worst aquatic plant but a highly productive aquatic weed that causes a serious hindrance to nation’s development activities. The present investigation was planned to explore the potential of Eichhornia crassipes in a way that, its positive attributes outweigh the negative ones. The present paper deals with the phytochemical screening of any therapeutic importance from Eichhornia crassipes. Qualitative analysis of the plant parts have revealed the presence of various components of medical importance including tannins, phlobatanin, steroid, terpenoid, alkaloid, flavonoid, phenolic contents, quinone, anthraquinone and cardiac glycosides. Because of the rich diversity of this aquatic plant it is expected that screening and scientific evaluation of plant extracts may prove beneficial for the mankind along with the management of the weed. The result obtained indicates that though the plant is an aquatic weed is good services of phytochemicals needed for maintenance of good health and can also be exploited in the manufacture of drugs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-0000696
Title: Quantification and identification of alkaloids of Eichhornia crassipes: the world’s worst aquatic plant
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The recent revival of interest in plant medicines across the globe and consequent pressure on precious herbal resources, calls for the use of plants through scientific screening and validation. The world’s worst aquatic weed water hyacinth usually ranges from tropical desert to subtropical or warm temperate desert to rainforest zones. The present investigation was planned to detect the presence of secondary metabolite alkaloids in the shoot and rhizome part of the plant by preliminary screening, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) technique trailed by quantitative estimation. Alkaloids are bio-active compounds having therapeutic importance. Plant species examined contained six alkaloids isolated by TLC. Because of the rich diversity of this aquatic plant it is expected that screening and scientific evaluation of plant extracts may prove beneficial for the mankind along with the management of the weed. The result obtained indicates that though the plant is an aquatic weed is good services of phytochemical needed for maintenance of good health and can also be exploited in the manufacture of drugs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000780
Title: Evaluation of wound healing and antimicrobial activity of Lannea coromandelica (Houtt) Merr
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Ethanol and acetone extracts of Lannea coromandelica (Houtt) merr (Anacardiaceae) barks in the form of simple ointments screened for wound-healing activity by incision and excision wound on male Wister rats. In excision wound model, more than 95% wound healing was recorded in treated groups by 16 days of post surgery, whereas only 85.40% was observed in control group. Significant (P<0.01) epithelialization was observed in the groups treated with both ethanol and acetone extract ointments. In incision wound model higher breaking strength were observed 82.43%, 63.77% in ethanol and acetone extracts treated groups respectively suggested higher collagen re-deposition than the control group. Framycetin sulphate (1%) was used as standard in both incision and excision wound models. Finally, histopathological studies confirmed the wound healing properties. The results shown that Lannea coromandelica extract has potent wound healing activity by in terms of significant wound contraction and increased tensile strength. Since wound healing is severely influenced by microbial infection, this study was extended to evaluate antimicrobial activity apart from wound healing activity. The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method.

Cite this article as: Sathish R, Mohd HA, Natarajan K, Lalitha KG. Evaluation of wound healing and antimicrobial activity of Lannea coromandelica (Houtt) Merrill. J Pharm Res 2010;3:1225-1228.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000693
Title: Fast dissolving Drug delivery system : Review Article
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
View Article

Swallowing a pill is a major difficulty encountered in case of geriatric and pediatric patient which leads to poor patient compliance due to unpalatable taste of drug. To troubleshoot these problems a new dosage form known as fast-dissolving tablet (FDT), has been developed which rapidly disintegrate and dissolve in saliva. FDT are intended and designed to disintegrate and dissolve in saliva and then easily swallowed without need of water which is a major benefit over conventional dosage form. These dosage forms are also used to attain instant a higher concentration of drug in body for immediate actions. Fast dissolving tablets can be prepared by various conventional methods like direct compression, wet granulation, moulding, spray drying, freeze drying, and sublimation. In 1986, the first lyophilized fast-dissolving technology Zydis® was introduced by Cardinal formerly R. P. Scherer and after that there was a continuous growth in names , technologies & patented technology by different companies. Now a number of fast-dissolving formulations are in market like Claritin Reditab (Manufacturer R.P.Scherr,Inc.), Risperdal M-Tab (Manufacturer Janseen pharmaceutics.), Tempra Quicklets (Manufacturer Cima Labs,inc) and the technology is still improving. Present review focuses on the need of FDTs, pros and cons, drugs/marketed preparations, manufacturing process involved, evaluation of products and future trend.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000784
Title: Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of five wild plants against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of methanol and hexane leaf extracts of Datura stramonium, Ricinus communis, Calotropis gigantean, Malva verticillata and Malvastrum coromandelium was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis by agar well diffusion method. The maximum antimicrobial activity expressed in terms of zone of inhibition was shown by methanol and hexane leaf extracts of Datura stramonium (29 to 35mm) followed by Ricinus communis (15 to 24mm), Calotropis gigantean (12 to 25mm) and Malva verticillata (12 to 16mm) against all the test organisms. The present study also revealed that methanolic leaf extracts exhibited more effective antibacterial activity as compared to hexane extracts. Phytochemical screening of leaf extracts of five wild plants revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides as active components in both methanol and hexane extracts. Tannins were found to be absent in both the extracts. This study scientifically validates the use of plants as a potent antibacterial agents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000766
Title: Anticancer activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum on Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma in Mus musculus system
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality worldwide and the failure of conventional chemotherapy to effect major reduction in the mortality indicates that alternative approaches towards chemoprevention are critically needed. In this regard, plant based medicine has definitely found a role in cancer treatment. Several plants used in the Indian ethnomedicine play an important role as a source of effective anticancer agents. In the present study, anticancer activity of Trigonella foenum graecum L, a widely used medicinal and dietary herb was evaluated in Swiss albino mice Mus musculus. Mice inoculated with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells were treated with three doses of the ethanolic extract of Trigonella foenum graecum leaves viz., 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight per oral for ten consecutive days. The anticancer activity of the extract was assessed based on Mean Survival Time and increase in life span in experimental animal models. In addition, hematological parameters of tumor bearing and extract treated mice were assessed. Increase in the life span was observed in the case of extract treated mice in comparison with the tumor control. Extract treatment also restored the hematological parameters in EAC inoculated mice. Thus, the present study revealed that fenugreek leaf extract showed anticancer activity in the tested animal models.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000767
Title: In Vitro Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Medicago sativa Linn.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radicals scavenging potential of methanol extract of Medicago sativa using different antioxidant tests including 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating activities. The methanol extract of M. sativa showed significant (p < 0.01) DPPH free radical scavenging (71.05%), superoxide anion radical scavenging (72.59%), hydrogen peroxide scavenging (64.38%) and metal ion chelating (68.98%) activities. These various antioxidant abilities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and alpha -tocopherol. The results indicated that M. sativa possess antioxidant property. The results observed were comparable to antioxidant properties of BHA, BHT and a-tocopherol

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000768
Title: Validated Method for Determination of Tinidazole using Direct Colorimetry, UV-visible Spectrophotometry and difference Spectrophotometry in pure and tablet dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Three new, simple, rapid, selective, precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Tinidazole in tablet formulation have been developed. The First method is based on the direct colorimetric measurements of Tinidazole (in 0.5 N NaOH). It Show lmax at 368.6 nm and linearity range is 20 – 150 µg/ml. The second method is based on direct measurement at 279.2 nm (lmax) for Tinidazole (in 0.5 N HCl) and linearity range is 50-150 µg/ml. The third method is based on difference spectra between Tinidazole in 0.5 N NaOH and Tinidazole in 0.5 HCl. It shows maxima at 368.8 nm and minima at 276 nm. The linearity range is 20 – 120 µg/ml. The methods are validated by determining accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and performing recovery studies. The proposed methods were found to be accurate, reproducible, and consistent. It was successfully applied for the analysis of marketed formulation and could be effectively used for the routine analysis of formulations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-0000777
Title: Citric acid production from cane molasses using submerged fermentation by Aspergillus niger ATCC9142
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Citric acid, C3H4OH (COOH)3, was first isolated from lemon juice by a Swedish chemist, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in 1784. Citric acid is manufactured by fermentation of cane sugar or molasses in the presence of a fungus, Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142. Fermentation of sugar by the mold Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142 is the chief commercial source of the acid. Fermentation results in the breakdown of complex organic substances into simpler ones through the action of catalysis. This project involves the production of citric acid from fungal strain of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, using various sources like cane molasses, beet molasses, sweet potato and grape sugar by employing various methods such as submerged and surface fermentation. The recovery of citric acid from fermented broth is generally performed through three procedures – precipitation, extraction and adsorption (mainly using ion-exchange resins). The main aim of the project is to achieve a cost reduction in citric acid production by using less expensive substrates.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000778
Title: An antidiabetic study of Momordica Charantia Fruit
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Many plants have been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional systems of medicine throughout the world. Indeed, along with dietary measures, plant preparation formed the basis of the treatment of the disease until the introduction of insulin in 1922. A number of review article have been published on the traditional use of plants in diabetes, and on plants and phytochemicals whose reputed hypoglycaemic effects have been scientifically investigated.Unripe fruits, seeds and aerial parts of Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) have been used in various parts of the world to treat diabetes. Oral administration of the fruit juice or seed powder causes a reduction in fasting blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance in normal and diabetic animals and in humans. Animal study and in vitro data support both insulin secretagogue and insulin mimetic activity of the fruit A polypeptide, p-insulin, produces hypoglycemic effects in humans and animals on subcutaneous injection, but oral activity are questionable. Other reported hypoglycemic principles from Momordica charantia include the sterol glucoside mixture charatin (fruit) and the pyrimidine nucleoside vicine in seeds. Chronic administration of hydro alcoholic Karela fruit extracts along with seeds in crude form (100mg/kg) for 14 days significantly reduces the blood glucose level .

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000781
Title: Photostability of Ascorbic Acid in Aqueous and Organic Solvents
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The present work involves a study of the photolysis of ascorbic acid in aqueous and organic solvents on UV irradiation. The rate of photolysis is influenced by solvent parameters such as the dielectric constant and viscosity of the medium. The apparent first-order rate constants (kobs) for the photolysis of ascorbic acid are a linear function of the solvent dielectric constant or reciprocal of solvent viscosity indicating that an increase in the solvent dielectric constant or a decrease in the solvent viscosity results in an increase in the rate of photolysis of ascorbic acid. The solvent behavior on the rate of photolysis suggests the invovlement of a polar intermediate in the reaction The formation of dehydroascorbic acid as a photoproduct of ascorbic acid has been confirmed by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000783
Title: Nutraceutical: New Era’s safe pharmaceuticals
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
View Article

Nutraceuticals hold promise in clinical therapy as they have the potential to significantly reduce the risk of side effects associated with therapy along with reducing the health care cost. Nutraceuticals are medicinal foods that play a role in maintaining well being, enhancing health, modulating immunity and thereby preventing as well as treating specific diseases. The ability of nutraceuticals to positively influence cardiovascular risk factors should be recognized as an enormous opportunity in the treatment of a highly prevalent disease. They do not easily fall into the legal category of food and drug and often inhabit a grey area between the two. Risk of toxicity or adverse effect of drugs led us to consider safer nutraceuticals and functional food based approaches for the health management. Recent improvements in the identification and standardization of botanical materials, coupled with screening by human cell line and gene expression-directed fractionation, are expected to expedite the development of new nutraceuticals and drugs. These will afford an immediate benefit to the rapidly emerging alternative, complementary, and integrated healthcare practices. It is also hoped that the nutraceuticals industries and regulatory agencies will work together to prevent the ultimate cost of new drug development from becoming prohibitive.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000786
Title: Floating drug delivery systems: An overview
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
View Article

A lot of scientific and technological advancements have been made in the drug delivery research in the recent years. Physiological problems like short Gastric Residence Time (GRT) and the unpredictable Gastric Emptying Time (GET) were overcome with the use of floating dosage forms which provide opportunity for both local and systemic drug action. Several approaches are currently being used in the prolongation of GRT, which includes the Floating Drug Delivery Systems (FDDS), also known as Hydrodynamically Balanced System (HBS). The purpose of this overview is to compile the recent advancements with special emphasis on the mechanism of floatation. In this overview we have discussed the variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single unit and multiple unit floating systems and the applications of such system with future trends.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000787
Title: Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of aqueous rhizome extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa on CCl4 induced liver toxicity in albino rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The aqueous rhizome extract of Picrorhiza kurroa (Scrophulariaceae) was investigated for its hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in wistar albino rats. Different group of animals were administered with 30% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in olive oil (1.0 ml/kg body wt., i.p) every 72 hrs for 3 doses. After the 3 doses the aqueous rhizome extract at a dose of 250mg/ kg body wt., was administered orally by intragastric tube for 10 days. Animal was sacrificed blood and liver tissue were collected for the biochemical estimation. Biochemical marker enzymes such as Aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), Alkaline aminotransaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin were measured. Further, the antioxidant defense enzymes like Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were also estimated. The rhizome extract showed significant (P<0.05) hepatoprotective effect by decreased the biochemical marker enzymes level in serum and the antioxidant enzymes were significantly (P<0.05) increased when compared to the CCl4 induced control groups.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000791
Title: Formulation and pharmaceutical evaluation of a W/O emulsion of Hippophae rhamniodes fruit extract
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate a new formulation of organic fruit extract of Hippophae rhmanoides. 25 formulas of w/o emulsions consisting of varuios concentration of oily phase, emulsifyer and aquaous phase were first formulated and then evaluated for various parameters such as colour, smell, type of emulsion, viscosity, electrical conductivity, centrifugation at 5000 rpm, liquefaction and pH using appropriate equipments. The stable formulation consisted of 1% Fruit extract of Hippophae rhmanoides, 16% mineral oil, 5% ABIL EM90, 1% lemon oil and 77% distilled water. All the results derived from this study showed good stability over the 4 week study period.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000809
Title: Comparative study on the yield ratio and bioactive compounds of Terminalia arjuna bark and core-wood
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Terminalia arjuna, an indigenous plant of India found on the sides of river banks is a very promising medicinal plant used traditionally for curing cardiac ailments, dysentery, wound healing, etc. Based on the polarity bark and core-wood of T. arjuna were subjected to successive solvent extraction. Core-wood yields two and half times higher than that of bark when extracted with hexane and ethyl acetate. Where as in methanol, bark showed three times higher yield than the core wood. Water extract had the same amount of yield in both bark and core-wood. The extracts obtained were examined for various phytochemical compounds. Alkaloids, carbohydrate, proteins, phytosterols, phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, coumarins, and saponins were present. Among these phytosterols, flavonoids, triterpenoids, terpenes and saponins were more in core-wood than that of bark. In case of anti-microbial activity both bark and core-wood showed similar results. The IR results for the crude samples were done to find the presence of functional group.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000811
Title: Formulation and in vitro evaluation of lecithin (soya and egg) based aceclofenac organogels
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The purpose of this research is to give an insight into the considerable potential of Aceclofenac lecithin organogels (LOs) in the applications meant for topical drug delivery. LOs are clear, thermodynamically stable, viscoelastic and biocompatible jelly-like phases, chiefly comprised of hydrated phospholipids and appropriate organic liquid. A number of therapeutic agents have been formulated as LOs for their facilitated transport through topical route (for dermal or transdermal effect), Aceclofenac is a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug, used in the treatment of inflammation and degenerative disorder of the musculoskeletal system. It is widely prescribed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, dysmenorrheal, acute lumbago, musculoskeletal trauma and gonalgia (Knee pain). Aceclofenac is well tolerated, with most adverse events being minor and reversible and affecting mainly the gastrointestinal system. Most common events include dyspepsia, abdominal pain, nausea, ulcerative stomatis and pancreatitis. The aim of this present study to develop and evaluate the suitability of Soy and Egg lecithin organogels containing aceclofenac for topical application. Aceclofenac organogels is evaluated by In vitro skin permeation ability of aceclofenac from ethyl oleate based lecithin organogels [EO/lecithin organogel], was investigated. The Photo microscopy characterization of ethyl oleate based organogel was studied. Viscosity and micellar size of the organogel sample were estimated. Drug content of lecithin based organogel was estimated.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000812
Title: Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Gastric Floating Tablets of Atenolol
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The aim of the study was to formulate controlled release floating tablets of Atenolol using karaya gum and HPMC as matrix polymers. Atenolol floating tablets based on gas formation technique was developed in order to prolong the gastric residence time and to increase the overall bioavailability of the dosage form. It was assumed that this form should reside in the stomach floating for several hours and gradually release the drug in a controlled way. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent. The floating tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablet formulations of Atenolol were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, thickness, swelling index, in vitro floating capabilities, floating lag time, drug content uniformity, compatibility studies and in vitro drug release. The results showed the formulations had good floating capability, shorter floating lag time, and sustained drug release for 12 h. The release kinetics of the drug showed good release pattern. The results showed that swelling increased with increase in the concentration of karaya gum. The amount of sodium bicarbonate present in the tablet affected the floating lag time. The in vitro drug release followed different models like korsmeyer-peppas, and huguchi. The diffusion exponent ranges from 0.3771 to 0.6997 indicating the fickian and anomalous transport. The effervescent gastric floating drug delivery system was a promising approach to achieve in vitro buoyancy and to improve the absorption of Atenolol.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001391
Title: Formulation and pharmaceutical evaluation of a W/O emulsion of Hippophae rhamniodes fruit extract
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate a new formulation of organic fruit extract of Hippophae rhmanoides. 25 formulas of w/o emulsions consisting of varuios concentration of oily phase, emulsifyer and aquaous phase were first formulated and then evaluated for various parameters such as colour, smell, type of emulsion, viscosity, electrical conductivity, centrifugation at 5000 rpm, liquefaction and pH using appropriate equipments. The stable formulation consisted of 1% Fruit extract of Hippophae rhmanoides, 16% mineral oil, 5% ABIL EM90, 1% lemon oil and 77% distilled water. All the results derived from this study showed good stability over the 4 week study period.