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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-QA-0000985
Title: Development and Validation of Extractive spectrophotometric method for determination of Rosuvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical dosage forms
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A sensitive and rapid extractive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the assay of Rosuvastatin calcium ( RSVC) in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the formation of a chloroform soluble ion-pair complex between Rosuvastatin and Safranin ( SFN ) in phosphate buffer medium at pH 7.2. The complex shows absorption maximum at 518 nm and it obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range of 5-25 µg/ml. The average recovery of Rosuvastatin calcium was found to be 100.94 %. The %CV for repeatability of measurement for Rosuvastatin calcium was found to be 1.956. The intra and inter day precision in term of %CV was found to be 0.481-3.866 % and 1.481-4.139 % respectively. Limit of detection and Limit of quantification for Rosuvastatin calcium were found to be 1.5µg/ml and 2.5µg/ml respectively. A market formulation of Rosuvastatin calcium was analyzed with the proposed method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the labeled amount of Rosuvastatin calcium (98.67-103.33 %) in various dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-QA-0000978
Title: Simultaneous Estimation of Etoricoxib and Paracetamol in the Synthetic Mixtures and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms by Derivative Spectrophotometry
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A derivative spectrophotometric procedure has been established for the simultaneous determination of etoricoxib and paracetamol in combined synthetic mixtures and pharmaceutical formulations. The method consists of the utilization of second derivative absorption spectra of synthetic mixture in sodium hydroxide solution (0.1N) and determining zero crossing point (null point) of analyte concentration in mixture by second derivative method. The concept of zero crossing point was also utilized to estimate the amounts of etoricoxib at 294.0nm and paracetamol at 263.0nm in the bulk powder mixtures and pharmaceutical formulations. The linearity of etoricoxib and paracetamol were in range of 1-4 µg/ml and 5-20 µg/ml respectively. Percentage recoveries obtained for both drugs were 98.50-100.38% and 98.64-101.00% for etoricoxib and paracetamol respectively. The results were found to be precise and free from interferences.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000974
Title: In vitro antioxidant activity of leaves of Mentha Arvensis linn.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the study is to investigate the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of leaves of Mentha arvensis through TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance), hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical) radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay and phosphomolybdonum method. Ethanol extract of leaves of Mentha arvensis showed significant dose dependent antioxidant activity, with a direct relationship between activity and concentration of extract. The extract showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the lipid peroxidation inhibition, hydroxyl radical, DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide radicals, with IC50 values of 64,52, 46, 36 and 38 µg/mL respectively. Total antioxidant capacity was found to be 50 and 100 µg/mL of Mentha arvensis extract and was equivalent to 24.72 and 68.53 µg/mL of á-Tocopherol. At 100µg/mL lipid peroxidation inhibition, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, DPPH radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay showed maximum inhibition 76, 85, 82, 86 and 74% respectively. The extract showed significant activity in all the assay when compared to the standard antioxidants. These results clearly indicate that leaves of Mentha arvensis is effective in scavenging free radicals and has potential to be a powerful antioxidant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000846
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Nifedipine Transdermal Patches
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Transdermal patches of nifedipine with different composition of PVP and PVA polymers were prepared by moulding technique. The physicochemical parameters such as appearance, thickness, weight, folding endurance, moisture absorption, percentage elongation and tensile strength were evaluated. Patches containing 3:2 ratio of PVA: PVP were found to be yellow in color, homogenous and flexible compared to others. The thickness and weight of all patches were in the range of 0.12 to 0.28 mm and 17.26 to 38.60 mg/cm2 respectively. Moisture absorption was increased as the concentration of PVP was increased. All the patches exhibited adequate folding endurance and good drug content uniformity. In vitro release profiles of the drug from different patches were studied using abdominal skin of albino rats and modified Keshary Chein diffusion cell. In vitro drug release studies were extended up to 24 hrs and it was found that, as the concentration of PVP increased the drug release was also increased. Polymers and their combination influenced the film properties as well as the release characteristics. Effect of penetration enhancers on the in- vitro permeation of nifedipine across rat abdominal skin was carried out for patches with 3 different types of penetration enhancers showed all the patches with permeation enhancer increased the permeation of the drug from the membrane.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000849
Title: Neuroprotective Effect of Bacopa monnieri leaf extract targeted at Adenosine Receptor In Diabetic Neuropathic Pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The neuroprotective effect of Bacopa monnieri, Linn. (Brahmi, BM) targeted at adenosine receptor was studied in a model of diabetic neuropathic pain. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, ip) in male Sprague Dawley rats and subjected to thermal (cold and hot) and chemical (formalin) stimuli. Diabetic rats developed hyperalgesia by the end of six weeks in thermal and chemical stimuli test. Aqueous extract of Bacopa monnieri leaf (AEBM) (200 mg/kg, ip) produced significant reversal of responses to thermal and chemical stimuli in diabetic rats. The results indicate that AEBM is an effective analgesic in a model of diabetic neuropathy, and the protection produced by AEBM is via stimulation of adenosine A1-receptors.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000836
Title: Determination of emtricitabine in human plasma by RP-HPLC with UV-detection
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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An accurate, sensitive and rapid reverse phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for determination of emtricitabine (FTC) in human blood plasma is described. The protein precipitation method results in high extraction efficiency for FTC (>85 %) with 100 µL of drug free plasma. A Phenomenex Luna C18, 150 x 4.6 mm, 5 µ column with methanol/10 mmoL phosphate buffer, pH 3.2 (15: 85, v/v) were used to provide sharper peaks for FTC and lamivudine (internal standard, IS) at 280 nm. The method was validated over the range from 100-2000 ng/mL for FTC, and is accurate with average accuracies of three concentrations ranged from 78.55 to 85.21 %. The intra-day and inter-day precision ranged from 5.07 to 11.42 % and 2.06 to 5.71 %, respectively. This assay method should have application in therapeutic drug monitoring of emtricitabine.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000837
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Immediate Release Tablet of Paroxetine Hydrochloride
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used in treatment of depression. Paroxetine immediate release tablet have been prepared by direct compression method. Effect of various fillers and disintegrants were also explored. Microcrystalline cellulose, Galen IQ and Dicalcium phosphate were used as directly compressible fillers. In order to obtain acceptable product several trials were conducted. Various pharmacopoeial evaluations of the formulations were conducted including weight variation, hardness, disintegration time, friability and in-vitro dissolution. Final selection of formulation was done based on pharmaceutical equivalence of development formulation to that of marketed one.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000838
Title: Toxic effects of Deltamethrin on the levels of biochemical changes in the snail Lymnaea acuminata
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Effect of sublethal treatment (40% and 60% of 48h LC50) of deltamethrin on protein, amino acid and nucleic acids levels in gonadal, nervous and foot tissue of Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Maximum reduction in protein (15.90% of control), DNA (39.50% of control) and RNA (32.99% of control) levels were observed in nervous tissue of snail exposed to 60% of 48h LC50 of deltamethrin for 96h. Amino acid levels were simultaneously increased (220.0% of control) in the nervous tissue of the same snails. Among all the three tissue, treatment of 60% of 48h LC50 of deltamethrin for 96h caused maximum alternation were observed in RNA, DNA, amino acids in gonadal tissue. Alternations in the levels of protein, amino acid, DNA and RNA in gonadal, nervous and foot tissue were time and concentration dependent. Withdrawal experiment demonstrate that their was a significant recovery in protein, DNA, RNA and amino acid levels in all the three tissue of snail withdrawn for 7 days from 60% of 48h LC50 treatment for 96h.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000839
Title: Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems : An Overview
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Today, a pharmaceutical scientist is well versed with the fact that the overall action of a drug molecule is not merely dependent on its inherent therapeutic activity, rather on the efficiency of its delivery at the site of action. Many drug delivery systems (DDS) are aimed to sustain drug blood concentration and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target tissue, but mucoadhesion is one of the most prominent and latest systems in the design of gastro retentive drug delivery systems. It prolongs the residence time of the dosage form at the site of application or absorption and facilitates an intimate contact of the dosage form with the underline absorption surface and thus contributes to improved and / or better therapeutic performance of the drug. In recent years many such mucoadhesive drug delivery systems have been developed for oral, buccal, nasal, gastrointestinal, rectal and vaginal routes for both systemic and local effects.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000840
Title: Nanotechnology: A promising Drug Delivery for Poorly Water Soluble Drugs
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Today the world is really facing a huge problem of poorly water soluble drugs. Many methods are there for increasing the solubility, but nanotechnology is one of the most prominent and latest technology. It deals with the nanoparticles (having high surface area) which are useful for increasing the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. So the main objective is to increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs by various various techniques related to nanotechnology. The study methodology includes different processes for production of nanoparticles which are as follows: Wet milling, high pressure homogenization, emulsification, Precipitation with a compressed fluid antisolvent (PCA), Rapid expansion from a liquefied-gas solution (RESS), Spray freezing into liquid (SFL), Evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS).Commercialized nanotechnology for the better solubility of poorly water soluble drugs: 1) Dissocubes 2) Nanocrystal tech 3) Nanomorph tech 4) Nanoedge tech 5) Nanopure tech 6) Crititech tech 7) Nanochelate tech.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000841
Title: Optimization of spray drying parameters for preparation of chitosan microspheres of oxidizing pharmaceutical active
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The purpose of the present study was to prepare a stable microsphere containing oxidizing pharmaceutical active L-dopa as model drug by optimization techniques. The microspheres were prepared by spray drying techniques using chitosan as the polymer. A 23 full factorial design was employed in formulating the microspheres with inlet temperature (A), liquid feed flow rate (B), and drug to polymer concentration (C) as independent variables. Two dependent variable were considered: production yield and stability (in terms of moisture content). The main effect and interaction were quantitatively evaluated using a mathematical model. The results indicate that main effect of factor (A) alone has significant effect on yield and moisture content whereas AB interaction had effect on yield and AC had effect on moisture content. Microspheres containing moisture below 11% were found to be stable. SEM results reveled the formation of microsphere with smooth surface and drug content was within range of 54 to 69%. Numerical optimization was performed to maximize yield with optimized moisture content (below 11%) to identify the stable formulation. The predicted values agreed well with experimental values, and results demonstrated the feasibility of model in development of microsphere of oxidizing pharmaceutical active.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000842
Title: Antioxidant Activity of Polyherbal Formulation
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Reactive oxygen Species (ROS) is a metabolic side product of oxidative stress process which causes several diseases like atherosclerosis, cancer, etc. In defense of ROS, anti-oxidants play a key role in combatting them. As the process of aging increases the level of anti-oxidant in our body decreases and thereby needs utmost attention for its repair process which is generally administered externally. Plant products serve a best source for controlling these activities by its own metabolic pathway. Thus in this aspect three plants namely Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Trigonella foenum (Methi) and Tribulus terrestris (Gokhru) were taken up for the study. Total phenolic content was determined to find out the phenolic reactive groups present in different extracts. Antioxidant activity was determined by two different models, Nitric oxide scavenging activity and DPPH scavenging activity. When all three extracts were mixed together in equal proportion, in same concentration it gives synergistic effect in percentage inhibition with respect to antioxidant property.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000843
Title: Hepatoprotective Effect of Indian Medicinal plant Psidium Guajava Linn. leaf extract on paracetamol induced liver toxicity in albino rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Psidium guajava (PGJ) in acute experimental liver injury induced by paracetamol (PCM). The effects observed were compared with a known hepatoprotective agent, Silymarin. In the acute liver damage induced by paracetamol, P. guajava leaf extracts (500mg/kg, po) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, protein and bilirubin, some antioxidant enzymes, Reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities, were also evaluated in the rats liver homogenate. The higher dose of the extract (500mg/kg, po) prevented and showed increase in liver weight when compared to hepatoxin treated control, while the lower dose was ineffective in the paracetamol induced liver damage. In the acute liver injury induced by paracetamol the higher dose (500mg/kg, po) of P. guajava leaf extract was found to be more effective than the lower dose (250mg/kg, po). Histological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. It is concluded that the aqueous extract of leaves of guava plant possesses good hepatoprotective activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000844
Title: Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of chloroform extract of roots of Saussurea lappa Clarke
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Anti-inflammatory activity of chloroform extract of the roots of Saussurea lappa was evaluated on RAW mouse macrophase cells by monitoring the TNF-a and Nitric Oxide levels. Cytotoxicity studies of the extract were carried out on three cancer cell lines - HT-29 (Colon cancer), A549 (Lung cancer) and MDA-MB (Breast Cancer). Cytotoxic activity on breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB) was nearly comparable to that of the standard compound, doxorubicin. However, it was not significant on the other two cell lines (HT-29 and A549) studied. The test compound exhibited significant effect on TNF-a levels. Impact on nitric oxide was on par with Rolipram.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-ND-0000845
Title: Chemical characterization and antimicrobial screening of volatile components of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng- An Indian aromatic tree
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Essential oils from leaves of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Rutaceae) was extracted by hydro-distillation method in a Clevenger type apparatus. The essential oil thus obtained was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography – mass spectroscopy. Thirty components were identified in the oil. The major constituents of oil identified were á-pinene (32.4%), â-pinene (11.4%), â-caryophyllene (12.4%), sabinene (10.2%) and limonene (6.2%). The antimicrobial screening of the isolated essential oil of plant was also performed against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 25922), Pseudomans aeruginosa (ATCC 6538), Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404), Candida albicans (ATCC 5027), C. glabrata (ATCC 66032) and Trichophyton rubrum (ATCC 2327). The essential oil was found to be more or less active against almost all tested pathogenic strains with varied spectrum of inhibition zone (7.0±0.06 to 14.0±0.01mm). The significant inhibitory effect was observed against Bacillus subtilis (12.0±0.0 mm) and T. ruburam (14.0±0.01 mm). The pronounced antimicrobial potential of Murraya koenigii oil against tested pathogens concludes that it may serve as a source of antimicrobial agents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000847
Title: An ornamental mucoadhesive particulate drug delivery system for nasal route: a review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Nasal drug delivery system offers lucrative way of drug delivery of both topical and systemic therapies. The high permeability, high vasculature and low enzymatic environment of nasal cavity are well suitable for systemic delivery of drug molecules via nose. The noninvasiveness and self administrative nature of nasal delivery also attracts the formulation scientists to deliver protein and peptide compounds. When administering drugs to mucosal tissues, such as in the nasal cavity, it is helpful if the formulation stays in the right place long enough for the drug to be absorbed across the mucosa. It may, therefore, be beneficial to use a mucoadhesive agent in the formulation to achieve sufficient residence time and ultimately bioavailability will increase. This review will focus on the various bioavailability barriers in nasal drug delivery and the type of polymer which can improve the bioavailability of nasal dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000848
Title: Pharmacological interventions of some potential herbal extracts targeted at adenosine receptors in Diabetic Neuropathic Pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Diabetic neuropathic pain is generally considered to be one of the most troublesome complications affecting diabetic patients and current therapy provides inadequate pain relief. In the present study, the effect of aqueous extract of Butea monosperma flower (Fabaceae, AEBuM) and ethanolic extract of Sapindus trifoliatus Linn. fruit (Sapindaceae EEST) targeted at adenosine receptor was studied in a model of diabetic neuropathic pain. This is the first study of this kind. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, ip) in male Sprague Dawley rats and subjected to thermal (cold and hot) and chemical (formalin) stimuli. Diabetic rats developed hyperalgesia by the end of six weeks in thermal and chemical stimuli test. AEBuM and EEST (200 mg/kg, ip) produced significant reversal of responses to thermal and chemical stimuli in diabetic rats. The results indicate that AEBuM & EEST were effective analgesic in a model of diabetic neuropathy, and the protection produced by them is via stimulation of adenosine A1-receptors.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000850
Title: Profile of Drug Utilization Among Elderly Patients Attending A Cardiology Clinic In Mangalore, India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Geriatric population in India is on the rise. Cost of pharmacological treatment and drug interactions due to polypharmacy is a concern in elderly population. The study of prescribing pattern helps to make medical care rational and cost effective. Objective of the study was to describe and analyze the profile of prescriptions among geriatric patients attending a cardiology clinic. Two hundred and twelve prescriptions of geriatric patients, during January to December 2007 in a cardiology clinic, were analyzed. Those aged 70-74 years formed the largest group. Polypharmacy of 4 or more drugs was found in 71.77% of prescriptions. Diabetes mellitus was associated with 29% of 178 prescriptions for ischemic heart disease with hypertension. Large number of drugs prescribed were not found in essential drug list. Anti-platelets were the most often prescribed drug followed by beta blockers and nitrates. Average cost of medications /day was Indian rupees 21.64. Cost of diabetic medications/day was Indian rupees 6.03. Study represents current prescribing trend in cardiovascular drugs among elderly patients.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000851
Title: Analysis of Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of some Southern India medicinal plants
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, phlobatannin, flavonoids and cardic glycoside distribution in five medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants were investigated such as Acalypha fruticosa, Achyranthes aspera, Adhatoda vasica, Aloe vera and Solanum surattense. All plants were found to alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and cardic glycoside, except for the absence of tannins in A. aspera. Steroid and phlobatannin found only in A.aspera and S. surattense respectively. The results of antimicrobial activity investigation showed that all the plant extracts had inhibitory effect on the growth of the human pathogenic organisms. Among this bacterial species Gram-negative bacteria were more susceptible to the crude extracts compared to gram-positive bacteria. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discoursed with respect to the role of these plants in ethno medicine in Southern India.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000852
Title: Sunscreen: An introductory review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Sunscreens are the agents which are used to prevent the skin from the harmful ultraviolet radiation of sun. These agents act as a barrier for the sun rays. Sunscreen can be physical, chemical or natural sunscreen. The effectiveness of sunscreen agents can be measured in terms of Sun Protection Factor (SPF). A sunscreen having SPF value 15 have enough efficacy and products having SPF 15 are widely used. The application of sunscreens also has some harmful effects. Most important is deficiency of vitamin D in the body due to less exposure of the body to sun rays. So sunscreens should be applied in such a manner so that their harmful effects are minimized. The following discussion covers various aspects of sunscreen agents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000972
Title: Studies on mucilage of Basella alba Linn.
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Mucilages are the byproduct of metabolism, originated and stored in the plant as a part of the plant cell. Thereof mucilage is produced either as an “auscheiding” from the protoplasm or it may possibly arise in some cases as a disorganization product of the primary cell wall.Mucilages are storage material as an intercellular substance or of the subsequent lamellae making up the pith, medullary rays, parenchyma, other cell content and cell membrane. Recent trends toward the use of the vegetable and nontoxic products demand the replacement of synthetic excipients with natural ones. Like other natural products application of mucilage is increasing in industry due to non toxic character, low cost, easily availability and appropriate quality.Now, it has necessary to explore the newer source of plant mucilage for industrial demand. The aim of present research work was to isolate the mucilage and evaluation of physicochemical characterization for as a standardization purpose. The dried leaves of Basella alba Linn var. alba were used for this research work. The mucilage was isolated with solvent precipitation method (SPM) and confirmed by chemical tests (CT). Physicochemical characters of isolated mucilage were studied using IR spectrum, melting point estimation, assay of uronic acid, anthrone assay, ash value, loss on drying, pH, viscosity, particle size, element analysis etc. The dried leaves were reported to contain 14.8% w/w of mucilage.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000973
Title: Review on the therapeutic potential of Vitex negundo Linn.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Medicinal plants have been widely used to treat a variety of infectious and non-infectious ailments. According to one estimate, 25% of the commonly used medicines contain compounds isolated from plants. Vitex negundo Linn. (VN), belonging to family Verbenaceae, is a small aromatic plant that flourishes abundantly in wastelands and is widely distributed in tropical to temperate regions, being a native of South Asia, China, Indonesia, and the Philippines. It contains many polyphenolic compounds, terpenoids, glycosidic iridoids and alkaloids. In the ayurvedic system of medicine it is used as a drug of choice to manage pain, inflammation and other related diseases. The review highlights the various potential therapeutic feature of Vitex negundo which can be used in the drug designing process to find solution for the unsolved infectious and non-infectious deformities without side effects.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000975
Title: Formulation and evaluation of Bisoprolol fumarate transdermal patches
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the present work is to investigate the formulation of bisoprolol fumarate transdermal patches for controlled release medication in order to treat the blood pressure and cardiac diseases. Studies disclosed that Bisoprolol is more effective than Propanolol, Atenolol and Metoprolol. In the present study we have developed the bisoprolol transdermal patches by using Poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) using glycerin as plasticizer. After optimizing the polymer ratio the best patches were selected based on the physical evaluation. Then physical evaluation and in vitro studies were performed by using Franz diffusion cell employing porcine ear skin as the membrane. From the above results F2 formulation was found to have good controlled release over the formulation F1. Further in order to find the effect of plasticizer in the drug release for the F2 formulation, glycerin was replaced with Tri ethyl citrate (TEC). Thus the prepared film shows good release of about 98.3% with TEC as plasticizer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PB-0000976
Title: A Comparative study of antibacterial potential and phytochemical analysis between field grown and tissue cultured plant - Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl.
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A study was conducted to screen the efficacy of various solvents covering polar, non polar and neutral such as ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol, acetone and aqueous extracts of in vitro raised leaves was compared with field grown leaves of S. xanthocarpum for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion technique. The diameter of zone of inhibition was taken as an indicator of antibacterial effect. The result showed that except aqueous leaf extract, extracts prepared from various organic solvents showed effective antibacterial activity against the test organisms. A strong inhibition zone was recorded in ethyl acetate and methanol extract of in vitro and field grown leaves against the test organism. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of field grown and tissue cultured plants aqueous leaf extract of S. xanthocarpum showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, amino acids, and reducing sugars. The investigation indicated that S. xanthocarpum is one of the potential medicinal plant for therapeutic purpose. Among the two extracts tested for phytochemical analysis as well as antibacterial activity, extracts prepared from tissue cultured plants was found to be superior than field grown plants.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000977
Title: In vitro and in vivo evaluations of Theophylline Gastroretentive Mucoadhesive tablets prepared by using natural gums
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The purpose of the current study was to design gastroretentive mucoadhesive theophylline tablets and to optimize with naturals gums and their combinations. Tablets of theophylline were prepared using direct compression method and were evaluated for parameters such as Weight variation, Hardness, Friability, Drug content, Swelling index, in vitro drug release study, in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesive strength study. Different types of natural gums such as locustbean gum, Carrageenan gum, natural polymer like Chitosan, their combinations and synthetic polymer Carbopol were used to formulate the mucoadhesive theophylline tablets. Out of which the formulation with the combination of locust bean gum and Chitosan (4.5:3) showed greater mucoadhesive strength, good swelling and in vitro drug release than using a single gum, other gum combinations and synthetic polymer. So, the formulation was selected as optimized batch and was further subjected to in vivo studies for retention time in rabbit by X-ray technique by Barium sulphate (instead of Theophylline) matrix tablets to X-ray studies in rabbits, and was found to be mucoadhesive even after 10 hrs and do not discharge from the mucous membrane and were only dissolved in the gastric fluid. The in vitro mucoadhesive strength evaluated by shear stress measurement, Wilhelmy plate method, detachment force measurement and in vivo mucoadhesion by X-ray photography of the rabbit gastrointestinal tract and compared with synthetic polymer and natural polymer of Chitosan and combination of natural gum with natural polymer for developing mucoadhesive drug delivery system. Further Stability studies revealed that there was no significant change in physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PA-0000979
Title: Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Estimation of Nimesulide and Paracetamol in Liquid Dosage Form
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Two highly sensitive and accurate methods have been developed for the estimation of Nimesulide and Paracetamol in liquid dosage form. First method is the simultaneous equation method by selecting the wave length maxima of 295 nm and 246 nm for Nimesulide and Paracetamol respectively. Second method is the Q- absorbance ratio method by selecting the wave length maxima 295 nm for Nimesulide and 273 nm,the iso-bestic point.There was no interference of the excipients. The methods have been validated for linearity, accuracy and precision and found to be rapid, precise and economical.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000980
Title: Pharmacognostical studies on Whole plant of Lygodium flexuosum Linn.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Lygodium flexuosum Linn. (Schizaeaceae) is commonly known as “Bhut raj” or “Maiden hair creeper”, is used in various system of traditional medicines. The whole plant is widely used in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis, cough, rheumatism, sprains, scabies, eczema and wounds. In present study the pharmacognostic studies have been investigated in terms of physical constant values involving moisture content, ash and extractive values, TLC profiles, fluorescence as well as qualitative analysis of various phytochemicals have been studied. The presence of tannin, alkaloid, phenol, steroid, flavonoid, and some other chemical constituents are recorded, so as to establish the authenticity of L.flexuosum and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PA-0000981
Title: Development and validation of a HPTLC method for simultaneous Densitometric analysis of Ranitidine hydrochloride and Dicyclomine hydrochloride as the bulk drugs and in the tablet dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A new simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for simultaneous determination of Ranitidine Hydrochloride and Dicyclomine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form has been developed and validated. The separation was carried out on Merck aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254, using Methanol: Water: Acetic acid 8:2:0.1 (v/v/v) as mobile phase. The separated spots were stained with Iodine vapors and scanned at 410 nm. The retention factor for Ranitidine Hydrochloride and Dicyclomine Hydrochloride were found to be 0.27 ± 0.01 and 0.67 ± 0.01. The method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, specificity, precision, specificity, robustness, in accordance with ICH guidelines. The calibration curve was found to be linear over a range of 0.4–2.4 μg per spot for Dicyclomine Hydrochloride and 0.150-0.9 μg per spot for Ranitidine Hydrochloride. The method has been successfully applied for the analysis of drugs in pharmaceutical formulation. The % assay (Mean ± S.D.) was found to be 98.80± 0.546 for Ranitidine Hydrochloride and 99.1± 0. 847 for Dicyclomine Hydrochloride..

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PB-0000982
Title: Isolation of a novel bioactive compound from Rhizophora mucronata for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and compound toxicity assessment in Zebra fish embryos
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from the pus samples of Colachal hospitals, Kanyakumari District, TN,India. The MRSA was confirmed by amplification of Mec A gene and by using traditional biochemical tests, including catalase, coagulase, slide agglutination and phosphatase test. Bioactive compound from methanolic extract of Rhizophora mucronata showed antagonistic activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The Bioactive compound was purified by TLC with the Rf value of 0.53 only showed the antimicrobial activity and the UV absorbance maximum was identified at 290 nm. The purity of the molecule was confirmed in RP-HPLC with the retention time was 2.7 minutes. The growth of the MRSA was entirely inhibited in 22 µg/mL of MRSA culture broth and the 18 µg/mL was considered as the Minimal Inhibitory concentration of the purified molecule M1 in the MRSA broth. The 30 µg/mL of Methicillin was the inhibitory concentration of MSSA (Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus). The effect of the compound toxicity was analyzed and studied in Zebra fish embryos. The LC50 mean value of the purified compound M1 is 38 µg. The inhibitory concentration of the MRSA in the infected embryo was 32 µg for the purified compound. Zebra fish toxicity was assessed in 50 µg by observing the phenotypic deformities in 3 dpf (day post fertilization) embryos. The heart beat rates (HBR) were counted in the Purified Molecule M1 treated embryos it was recorded as the mean of 48 HBR for 15 seconds and the control mean value was 47.5 for 15 seconds in the 32 µg concentration of the purified compound.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000983
Title: Anti-inflammatory activity and brine shrimps leathality test of Saraca Indica Linn leaves extract
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Leaves of Saraca indica L. were extracted with ethanol and water to determine the anti- inflammatory activity and brine shrimps leathality test. The anti-inflammatory activity was estimated volumetrically by measuring the mean increase in hind paw volume of rat with the help of plethysmometer. Diclofenac in the dose of 10 mg/kg was used as standard drug for anti-inflammatory activity. The extracts were also evaluated for brine shrimps cytotoxicity and hatchability assay. This test is used for the preliminary assessment of the cytotoxicity. It is based on the ability to kill laboratory-cultured Artemia nauplii brine shrimp. The ethanolic extract showed more anti-inflammatory activity than aqueous extract. Also only ethanolic extract was showing cytotoxic activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000984
Title: Formulation and evaluation of Timolol maleate buccal mucoadhesive patches
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic blocker, and having short biological half-life, approximate 4.1 h, and low oral bioavailability. Therefore, the present investigation is concerned with the development of the buccal mucoadhesive patches, which were designed to prolong the residence time and thus to improve the bioavailability of the drug and its half life. Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) is one the polymers which is having good mucoadhesive property so therefore various formulations were developed by using release rate controlling and gel forming polymers like HPMC K 100M, Eudragit RL100 and Ethyl cellulose by solvent casting method. In addition to this glycerol and tween 80 was used as plasticizer and permeation enhancer respectively. All the formulations had good physical appearance and physicochemical properties. From among all the developed formations, since formulation F9 retarded the drug release in a controlled manner for prolonged period of more than 7 h, gave satisfactory bioadhesion for maximum duration of 6.9 h and drug diffused up to the 80%, so it was selected as the best formulation. Swelling studies indicated significant water uptake and contributed in drug release. The drug release data of all the formulations were analyzed for zero order, first order, Higuchi’s and peppas equation, all the formulations followed case-I and anomalous release mechanism. The most satisfactory formulation had showed no significant (p<0.05) change in physicochemical properties, drug content, bioadhesion properties, in vitro dissolution pattern or ex vivo diffusion pattern after storage at 30 ± 2ºC (65% RH) and at 40 ± 2ºC (75% RH) during stability studies for 2 months as per ICH guidelines. Thus, best formulation satisfied physicochemical parameters, in vitro bioadhesion strength, in vitro drug release and in vivo drug diffusion profile requirements for a buccal mucoadhesive drug delivery system.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000986
Title: In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Polyherbal Manasamitra vatakam (MMV) drug
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Since plants possess many medicinal properties. MMV drug was prepared with using deionised water for studying in vitro total antioxidant activity, for scavenging of nitric oxide and DPPH, Current research is directed towards finding naturally occurring antioxidants and its evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activities of formulated drug Manasamitra vatakam (MMV). The in vitro antimicrobial activity was performed by agar disc diffusion method against bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli. The aqueous extracts of fresh MMV drug showed maximum activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E.coli. MMV were observed to have antimicrobial activity and can be used for medicinal purposes. The drug showed total antioxidant activity The IC50 values for scavenging of free radicals were 23.68 ± 0.49 ìg/ml, 23.41 ± 1.18 ìg/ml for DPPH and nitric oxide, respectively. The IC50 for Nitric oxide scavenging was 23.41 ± 1.18 ìg/ml respectively. The aqueous solution of Manasamitra vatakam (MMV) was found to be a potent an DPPH and nitric oxide IC50 = 23.68 ± 0.49 ìg/ml. The reducing power was increased with increasing amounts of extract. The formulated drug 23.41 ± 1.18 ìg/ml equivalent phenolic content and 36.41 ± 1.47 ìg/ml vitamin C content. The present study provides evidence that double deionized water dissolved with Manasamitra vatakam is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000987
Title: Photostability of new anticancer agents
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The photostability of new daunorubicin derivatives containing piperidine, morpholine, pyrrolidine or hexahydroazepine substituents at postion C-3’ of daunosamine was investigated. The solution samples were exposed to UV-A and VIS radiation and the photodegradation process was monitored by using a spectrophotometric method. All derivatives analyzed were shown to be photolabile and their photodegradation was a first-order reaction. The quantum yields of each photodegradation process were also calculated.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PA-0000988
Title: Estimation of Olmesartan Medoxomil, an angiotensin receptor blocker in pharmaceutical dosage form by U.V.Spectrophotometric method
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, rapid, economical, accurate and precise method has been developed for estimation of Olmesartan medoxomil from tablet dosage form. The absorption maxima in THF solvent was found to be 265nm and Beer’s law was obeyed in a concentration range of 5-30mcg/ml and coefficient of correlation for Olmesartan was found to be 0.9997.The precisional accuracy of the developed method were confirmed by repeatability and recovery studies are validated statistically. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of Olmesartan were found to be 0.23mcg/ml and 0.77mcg/ml respectively. The percentage recovery was found to be 99.37% for Olmesartan. The method showed good repeatability and recovery with relative standard deviation less than 2.So, this developed method can be used for the routine analysis of Olmesartan medoximil from formulations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000989
Title: Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia bark
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the bark of Madhuca longifolia was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH), reducing power assay and superoxide scavenging activity. The results of the assay were then compared with a natural antioxidant ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and gallic acid. The ethanolic extract of the bark of Madhuca longifolia is a good source of compounds with antioxidant properties while the extract also exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity, reducing power activity and superoxide scavenging activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 3, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000990
Title: A brief description of diabetes in India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevalence of diabetes is on rise in India and it may reflect changes in lifestyle. This review article gives a brief overview of diabetes, different factors leading to the increase in diabetic prevalence and subsequent complications therein and particularly localizes southern parts of India. Major complications of diabetes are neuropathy, nephropathy, coronary artery disease and retinopathy. Improper diets, immigration effects, modification in life style, inter-population differences and obesity are the principal reasons for the augmentation of the diabetic prevalence. Diabetic prevalence in Chennai, Andhra and Kerala are 15.5%, 13.2% and 12.4% respectively. It has been estimated that India may have 80 million diabetic people in the year of 2030. Therefore, providing safe and effective measures are the need of the hour to control the explosion of the disease in India particularly its southern parts.