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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001613
Title: Natural Mucoadhesive Material Based Buccal Tablets of Nitrendipine-Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In present investigation an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate oral buccoadhesive tablets of Nitrendipine using some natural mucoadhesive material like Zizyphus maurtiana(Jujube), Tamarind seed polysaccharide(TSP),also synthetic polymers like sodium CMC and HPMCK15M was tried .Prepared buccal tablets were comparatively evaluated for their physicochemical parameters like weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity test. The surface pH,swelling index,bioadheive strength ,in-vitro residence time ,ex-vivo permeation test also carried out which has been important  aspect for success of mucoadhesive buccal tablets all these parameters were evaluated shows comparatively better results in formulation containing natural mucoadhesive material than synthetic polymers. In vitro drug release rate of Nitrendipine prepared from this material was studied in isotonic phosphate buffers solution of pH 6.6 at 37 ± 0.50c from this it was found that mucoadhesive buccal tablets prepared from natural mucoadhesive material exhibited extended drug (85%) release up to 10 hrs compared to tablets prepared from synthetic material like sodium CMC and HPMCK15M.Drug release from tablets followed non-fickian diffusion controlled and zero order kinetics pattern up to 10 hrs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000776
Title: Antimicrobial activity of two Indian medicinal plants Tinospora cordifolia (Family: Menispermaceae) and Cassia fistula (Family: Caesalpinaceae) against human pathogenic bacteria
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present investigation antimicrobial activity of two Indian medicinal plants i.e. Tinospora cordifolia and Cassia fistula were evaluated against seven human pathogenic bacterial strains. Both were tested by serial micro-dilution method. Antimicrobial susceptibility of aqueous and solvent extracts was assessed. For this purpose, both positive and negative controls were set to determine MIC and MBC values. After bioassays, aqueous and solvent extracts of Tinospora cordifolia and Cassia fistula exhibited significant antimicrobial susceptibility against bacteria both Gram negative and Gram positive i.e. Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 15380), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341), Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 12755), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778) and Lactobacilus acidophilus (ATCC 53103) at a very low concentration. More specifically, higher percent growth inhibition was obtained in presence of aqueous extracts in comparison to solvent extracts, which was much higher than synthetic antibiotics. Further, different extracts have shown very low MIC value, which was obtained in a range of 0.0078-0.125 mg/ml. It was much lower than the MIC values (0.223-0.892 mg/ml) obtained in presence of standard antibiotics i.e. tetracycline, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. More specifically, aqueous extracts of both plants have shown lower MIC (0.00975 mg/ml in E. coli and K. pneumoniae) and MBC values (0.078 mg/ml in E. coli and K. pneumoniae) than broad-spectrum antibiotics (0.223-0.892 mg/ml). Further, aqueous extracts of both plant species have shown significantly much higher inhibition zone diameters (20-30mm) against all seven bacterial strains than the synthetic antibiotics (6-18). Certainly, above antimicrobial effects are attributed due to presence of certain chemical substances in the leaves and legumes of above plant species.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-B&NPS-0000684
Title: Evaluation of rhaphidophoral pertusa, schott (araceae) for antibacterial activities
Category: Botany/ Herbal/ Natural Pharmacological Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Phytochemical screening and antibacterial investigation was made in stem extracts of Rhaphidophora pertusa schott., The plant materials were collected and shade dried. The Petroleum ether and ethanol extracts were prepared using soxhlet apparatus. Petroleum ether and ethanol extracts revealed the presence of Alkaloids. Glycosides, Carbohydrates, Flavonoids. Phenols, Saponins and Tannins. The antibacterial activity was studied by usin agar – disc diffusion method. The results showed that petroleum ether and ethanol extracts inhibit the growth in all organisms. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed in Excherichia coli (12.5 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (13.4) ethanolic stem extract of Rhaphidophora pertusa. Staphylococcus aureus and klebsilla pneumonia indicate moderate activity in both extracts.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001355
Title: Microbial Production of gama-Linolenic Acid : An Overview
Category: Microbiology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) is an essential fatty acid of w-6 series. This high value fatty acid has been used in pharmaceutical, neutraceutical, cosmetic and feed sectors. Growing interest in GLA has drawn attention on the provision of suitable sources of these compounds. Higher plants, fungi and microalgae are important source of GLA. Biotechnological strategies such as mutation, metabolic engineering and biotransformation can be used to regulate microbial GLA production with optimum yield. Here, we review the current status of microbial GLA production highlighting the sources and molecular techniques used to enhance its production.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001368
Title: Colorimetric Determination of Alfuzosin HCl in Pharmaceutical Formulations
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, rapid, sensitive and reproducible visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Alfuzosin hydrochloride (AFZ) in bulk and in its dosage forms. The method is based on the reaction of AFZ with gold (III) chloride in the pH range 1.0 – 5.0 forming red color complex solution, showing absorption maxima at 510 nm. The linear plot indicates that Beer’s law is obeyed in the range of 10 – 110 μg/ml of alfuzosin hydrochloride. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity are 5.62 x 103 l mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0758 μg/cm2 respectively. The standard deviation of the method for ten determinations of 20 μg/ml of alfuzosin hydrochloride is 0.0123. The correlation coefficient (g) of the experimental data of the calibration plot is 0.9991. The effective range of concentration for accurate determination of alfuzosin hydrochloride as ascertained from Ringbom’s plot and it is 20 – 100 μg/ml. Interferences of the other ingredients and excipients were not observed. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of AFZ in pharmaceutical formulations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001604
Title: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some Novel Formazans
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of novel 1-substituted phenyl-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-[benzamido-(2-methyl-3-quinazolin)-4-one] formazans (6a-h) have been synthesized from corresponding Schiff base (5) which was coupled with various aryl diazonium chloride in pyridine produced 1-substituted phenyl-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-[benzamido-(2-methyl-3-quinazolin)-4-one] formazans (6a-h). The structures of the synthesized compounds were determined by IR, 1HNMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis. The compounds synthesized were screened for antimicrobial and analgesic activity. Some of the synthesized compounds exhibited prominent antimicrobial and analgesic activities. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001606
Title: Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Extended Spectrum beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Semiurban Area
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: A constant rise in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, producing extended spectrum ß- lactamases, poses a new problem to health care professionals worldwide, which complicates and limits therapeutic options. Materials and methods: Ninety Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from various clinical specimens from different wards of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalainagar, India. Isolation and identification of isolates were performed using standard procedures. Detection of virulence factors such as hemolysin, slime production and cell surface hydrophobicity were investigated for thirty representative Escherichia coli isolates. Antibiotic resistances profile by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, ESBL detection by standard phenotypic methods and serogrouping were performed for all ninety isolates. Molecular confirmation of ESBL types were performed for thirty representative Escherichia coli using multiplex PCR. Results: Among the thirty representative Escherichia coli isolates, 27(90%) were hydrophobic, 23(76.6%) were slime producers, 4(13.3%) were hemolysin producers, and 22(73.3%) had multiple virulence factors. Of the ninety Escherichia coli isolates 75.5%, 73.3% and 68.8% were resistance to cephataxime, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone respectively. Double disk approximation test and combined disc diffusion method showed 68(75.5%) isolates to be ESBL producers. Predictor disc approximation test revealed 10(11.1%) isolates to be ESBL producers, 58(64.4%) isolates to be both ESBL and AmpC producers. Molecular analysis of thirty representative isolates revealed CTX-M gene present in 30(100%) isolates followed by TEM in 28(93.3%), SHV in 9(30%) and OXA in 8(26.6%) respectively. Conclusion: This present investigation revealed, a high prevalence of plasmid mediated multidrug resistance, which indicates a dire need for effective ESBL surveillance and control and need for urgent search for newer cost effective antimicrobials, especially in rural and semiurban areas of developing nations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001607
Title: Protective Effect of Curcumin in behavioral impairment induced by Pentylenetetrazol in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Hyperexcitability of brain neurons due to repetitive firing may initiate a complex pattern of neurophysiologiocal changes associated with cognitive impairment in epilepsy. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of curcumin in cognitive impairment and behavioral manifestations induced by Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) in rats. PTZ was repeatedly injected on alternate days in a subconvulsive dose of 40mg/kg i.p of rats for a period of 30 days. We used Piperine orally as an bioavailability enhancer of curcumin. Carbamazepine (CBZ), a promising anticonvulsant was also used in the study to compare the anticonvulsant efficacy of curcumin.The seizure responses and mortality rate were observed in rats and behavioral activities were analyzed using active avoidance, passive avoidance and behavior despair test after administration of PTZ during the treatment period. The chronic administration of PTZ caused alterations in brain functions characterized by seizures and behavioral impairments. Curcumin treatment reduced the seizures, mortality rate and improved the learning and memory in a significant manner. The treatment with antiepileptic drug CBZ showed a marked reduction in seizure activity, mortality rate and memory impairment. A combined treatment of CBZ and curcumin significantly reduced the seizure scoring at all intervals and was found to revert the behavioral manifestations induced by PTZ. The present study clearly indicates that curcumin not only modulates the seizures but also improves the memory and learning ability by exerting its neuroprotective effect against PTZ induced kindling in rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001608
Title: Analgesic, Antioxidant Potential of Alcoholic (AL) Stem Bark Extract of Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth. is a medicinal plant. The plant is considered a most potent alexipharmic and every part of it is prescribed for the treatment of bites and stings from venomous animals.  AL stem bark extract of Albizia lebbek was screened to evaluate the analgesic and free-radical scavenging effect. The stem bark extract exhibited significant analgesic activity, reducing power and free radical scavenging effect on DPPH free radical, superoxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide. The analgesic activity of AL extract showed significant evaluation in pain threshold in comparison of control at dose of 250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg (p<0.01) at 90 min after extract administration. In addition to this, the antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHA and ascorbic acid. The highest free radical scavenging of the stem bark extract was observed at concentration of 2500ìg/ml.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001609
Title: synthesis and characterization of novel Pulegone derivatives as substitutes of 4-(1,1 dimethylethyl) cyclohexan-1-ol acetate
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of novel pulegone derivatives were synthesized employing 1,4-addition of Gringard reagent followed by sodium borohydride reduction and esterification with optimum yields. The structures of synthesized esters were characterized by means of GC-MS, 1H and 13C NMR. The synthesized compounds GRP1, GRP2, GRP3 and GRP4 possesses woody fruity smell which can be used as good substitute of 4-(1, 1-dimethylethyl) cyclohexan-1-ol acetate.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001610
Title: Hemorrhagic colitis and its public health implications: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Hemorrhagic colitis also known as Hamburger’s disease is a type of food poisoning caused by a specific strain of Escherichia coli: E. coli 0157:H7. The causative agent produces toxins known as shiga-like toxins and also produces lesions causing hemorrhagic colitis with severe abdominal pains and cramps followed by bloody diarrhea. This strain of Escherichia coli infects the large intestine and produces toxins which kill the vascular endothelial cells with consequent epithelial necrosis. The disease is generally associated with ingestion of enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) in undercooked ground beef, unpasteurized fruit juices and milk. The pathogen is spread by the feacal-oral route, and an infectious dose appears to be only 500bacteria.Hemorrhagic colitis which is one of the worldwide diarrheal diseases is often misdiagnosed and causes 70,000 deaths annually. Several chemicals, toxins, drugs and infections can also cause hemorrhagic colitis. Oral administration of antibiotics, oseltamivir, sennoside- a laxative used for cleansing and treatment of constipation has been associated with hemorrhagic colitis. This tends to lead to certain complications such as high blood pressure. Early laboratory diagnosis (using Sorbitol MacConkey agar and other serological diagnosis) and a high sense of hygiene must be monitored carefully in slaughterhouses where contact of meat with faecal material can occur, and at homes where contaminated hands and utensils can aid the spread of the disease. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001611
Title: Selective and Validated Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Acyclovir and Valacyclovir using N-Bromosuccinimide
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Simple, sensitive spectrophotometric methods are presented for the assay of acyclovir and valacyclovir in bulk drug and in tablets. The methods employ N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as the oxidimetric reagent and dye, methyl orange used as a spectrophotometric reagent. The method involves adding a measured excess of NBS to acyclovir and valacyclovir in acid medium followed by determination of residual NBS by reacting with a fixed amount of methyl orange and measuring the absorbance at 508 nm. The methods developed were applied to the assay of acyclovir and valacyclovir in commercial tablet formulations and the results were compared statistically with those of a reference method. Acyclovir and valacyclovir showed maximum absorbance at 508 nm with linearity was observed in the concentration range of 1-5 µg mL-1 and 5-10 µg mL-1 respectively. The relative standard deviations of 0.024 % for acyclovir and 0.018 % valacyclovir were obtained. The accuracy and reliability of the methods were further ascertained by performing recovery tests via standard-addition method. The recoveries of acyclovir and valacyclovir tablets are in the range 99.26 ±0.52, 99.47±0.96 respectively. The proposed method is simple, rapid, precise and convenient for the assay of acyclovir and valacyclovir in commercial tablet preparations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001612
Title: Phytochemical investigation & evaluation for antidiabetic activity of leafy extracts of various Ocimum (Tulsi) species by alloxan induced diabetic model
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The various species of Ocimum (Lamiaceae) i.e. Ocimum gratissimum linn., Ocimum americanum linn., Ocimum sanctum linn. and Ocimum basilicum linn. are widely distributed in tribal areas of south eastern Odisha and extensively used traditionally by the tribal people for common colds, headaches, stomach disorders, inflammation, heart diseases, antidiabetic, treatment of various forms of poisoning, malaria and as anthelmintic. The present study is an attempt to preliminary investigation of phytochemical constituents and to explore the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of various Ocimum species including the comparison of their activity. The Ocimum extracts were screened for phytochemical constituents and evaluated for their antidiabetic activities by alloxan induced diabetic model in Wister rats. All the tests for phytochemical constituents of methanolic extract of Ocimum species were found to be positive except anthraquinone glycosides and thiol group. All extracts were able to show antidiabetic activity at 0.5 mg/Kg concentration. The activities are well comparable with the standard drug, glibenclamide. The methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum linn showed better antidiabetic activity in comparison with other species of Ocimum and standard drug. The data were verified as statistically significant by using one way ANOVA at 5 % level of significance (p < 0.05).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001617
Title: Spectrophotometric Determination of Mesalamine by Pdac and Nqs Reagents in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Two simple and sensitive visible spectrophotometric methods for the assay of mesalamine in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations have been carried out. Method A (λmax, 475nm) is based on the reaction of mesalamine with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Method B (lmax, 524nm) based on a condensation reaction between mesalamine and acidic solution of p-dimethyl amino cinnamaldehyde (PDAC) to form instant reddish brown colored product. All variables have been optimized and the reaction mechanisms are presented. Regression analysis of the Beer’s plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges 1.0-16.0 mg/ m3 and 5.0-25.0 mg/m3 for methods A and B respectively. Recovery studies for mesalamine were found to be 96.6% and 98.0%. The %RSD values were found to be 0.447% and 0.395% when reacted with NQS and PDAC respectively. No interference is observed from excipients and the proposed method was statistically validated.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001618
Title: Psidium guajava Linn: Current Research and Future Prospects
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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In recent times, the use of herbal products has increased tremendously in the Western world as well as in developing countries. Psidium guajava L. is a medium sized tree, belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. It is popular in an indigenous system of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy. Traditionally guava is used for the treatment of various ailments like diarrhoea, wounds, rheumatism, lung problems, ulcers etc. Psidium guajava L. contains a number of major bioactive constituents like flavonoids, guayavolic acid, guavanoic acid, guajadial, guajaverin and so many others. The present review summarises our current knowledge of major phytoconstituents, clinical studies with major emphasis on traditional and pharmacological activities. This plant reported to display various biological activities like antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antitussive, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant, anticancer and antistress activity. In view of its wide pharmacological and biological activities, it seems to be having a great therapeutic potential.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001619
Title: Challenges and Implications of Dental Caries: A Review
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Dental Caries is an infectious disease caused by cariogenic microorganisms affecting humans. It is the decay of teeth caused by the action of acid-forming bacteria. A review of public health implication was done to re-emphasize the implications of Dental Caries and the need to build a strong strategy of control and management. The principal causative agents are a group of Streptococci species collectively referred to as the mutans Streptococci of which streptococci mutans are most important agents of human caries. Streptococcus mutans increased 6-24 months before the clinical appearance of dental caries. An essential step in caries production appears to be the formation of plaque on the hard, smooth enamel surface and this plaque consist mainly of gelatinous deposits of high- molecular weight glucans in which acid-producing bacteria adhere to the enamel. Dental Caries occurs depending on the genetic, humoral, nutritional, and many other factors. There ia a link between caries and weight. Abnormal dietary intake has been linked to the development of obesity and this is common among young people. Obesity is caused by frequent intake of all fermentable carbohydrate foods and drinks whether cooked starches or sugar. Young people are more susceptible to this infectious disease than older ones because children consume more of sucrose than the older people. Worldwide, most children and an estimated 90% of adults have experienced carries with the disease most prevalent in Asia and Latin American countries and least prevalent in African countries. Dental Caries can be controlled by restricting sucrose and other dietary carbohydrates and regular brushing of the teeth, thereby reducing Streptococcus mutans and regular check-up with a dental clinic will help for early diagnosis and treatment.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001620
Title: Simultaneous estimation of citalopram hydrobromide and dothiepin hydrochloride in human plasma by HPLC method
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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 This was a study to develop a rapid, precise, accurate and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous estimation of citalopram hydrobromide and dothiepin hydrochloride in spiked human plasma. The chromatographic method was standardized using a Phenomenex C-18 column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) with UV detection at 234 nm and flow rate of 1 ml/min. Salbutamol was spiked in plasma as internal standard (IS). The mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:water (35:65 v/v) containing of 0.01% orthophosphoric acid and 0.01% sodium chloride. The regression equation for citalopram hydrobromide and dothiepin hydrochloride were Y = 0.0282X +0.0750 and Y= 0.0312 X + 0.1187 respectively. LOD and LOQ were found to be 7.978 and 26.595 ng/mlrespectively for citalopram and 11.413 and 38.044 ng/ml respectively for dothiepin. The method was validated and produced accurate and precise results for estimation of the two drugs in human plasma.