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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001479
Title: In-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of different fractions of Heliotropium indicum L.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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 In this study we investigated the In-vitro Antioxidant (DPPH radical) and Antibacterial activity of different fractions (hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Heliotropium indicum was carried out against nine selected pathogenic bacteria. In preliminary phytochemical investigation of the plant extracts, quantified the total phenolic content by taking Gallic acid as a standard,  In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts by using cup plate method and In-vitro antioxidant activity by using DPPH free radical. In preliminary phytochemical investigation the plant extracts possesses Steroids, terpenoids, Saponins, Flavonoids, Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Amino acids and oils .Among the selected extracts ethyl acetate fraction of H.indicum showed high phenolic content and same fraction was showed more DPPH radical scavenging activity . For antibacterial activity, Ethyl acetate fraction showed good antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria except Priteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhimurium. The antibacterial activity was may be due to phenolic compounds present in the extracts. In the present study we found that the different fractions of Heliotropium indicum showed good Antioxidant and Antibacterial activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001476
Title: Crystal Modification of Aceclofenac by Spherical Crystallization to Improve Solubility Dissolution Rate and Micromeritic Properties
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aceclofenac a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The poor water solubility and poor micromeritic properties of aceclofenac lead to low dissolution rate and poor flow during tableting. The aim of present study was to improve dissolution rate and micromeritic properties of aceclofenac by spherical agglomeration techniques. The spherical agglomerate of aceclofenac was carried out by solvent change method in the presence of hydrophilic polymer in different concentration. The solvent system used was acetone, water and dichloromethane as good solvent, anti-solvent and bridging liquid respectively. The spherical agglomerates were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Also the agglomerates were evaluated for dissolution rate and micromeritic properties. The FTIR and DSC study showed no interaction between drug and polymer. XRD studies showed a slight decrease in crystallinity in agglomerates. The agglomerate showed significantly improved dissolution rate as well as micromeritic properties compared to pure drug. The SEM also showed that the agglomerate possess a good spherical shape.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001458
Title: Formulation and evaluation of Isoniazid loaded -∑-polycaprolactone nanoparticles
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was aimed at developing a sustained release formulation of Isoniazid (INH) nanoparticles using the biodegradable polymers, poly-∑-caprolactone (PCL) as carrier. The PCL nanoparticles (NP) of hydrophilic dug isoniazid (INH), a first line antitubercular drug are developed and the entrapment efficiency of drug in the NPs has been improved. The PCL NPs were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation with ultrasonication technique. 32 factorial designs employed to optimized formula. Two independent variables like ultrasonication time and PCL Concentration were selected for factorial design for its significant effect on particle size, entrapment efficiency of NPs. The prepared PCL NPs were characterized by SEM analysis, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, FTIR, DSC, in-vitro diffusion studies. These results indicate that INH loaded PCL nanoparticles could be effective in sustaining its release for a prolonged period. The PCL NPs could be alternate method for delivery for INH with prolonged drug release profiles and better therapeutic effect can be achieved for the treatment of tuberculosis. However, further studies are needed to confirm its performance in vivo.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001078
Title: Screening of antibacterial potential of leaves and leaf derived callus extracts of Solanum trilobatum L. an important medicinal plant
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of present investigation was deals with the antibacterial activity of leaves and leaf derived callus extracts (ethyl acetate, ethanol, chloroform, and acetone) from the S. trilobatum L. were tested against nine human pathogenic bacteria using agar well diffusion technique. A better inhibition zone was recorded in chloroform extract than other solvents of both extracts. Based on the results, it clearly indicates that most of the extracts were effective against S. aureus, S. typhi, S. dysentriea, S. sonii, C. diptheriea and S. boydii. The other solvent extracts (such as ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate) showed moderate to least inhibitory effect against these organisms. The results from our findings indicated that S. trilobatum is one of the potential medicinal plant used for therapeutic purpose. Among the two extracts tested, callus extracts was found to be superior to field grown plants.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00001077
Title: Evaluation of Self-Medication Antibiotics Use Pattern Among Patients Attending Community Pharmacies in Rural India, Uttar Pradesh
Category: Pharmacy practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Many studies have investigated the prevalence and nature of self medication. It is a common type of self care behavior among the population of various Countries. The Government of India was proposed to develop a policy to control the misuse of antibiotics. The policy calls for making of a new schedule under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 called as Schedule HX.The reason to take up the present study was to carry out head to head comparison of demographic variables with self antibiotic medication. It is a cross section study with a pretested questionnaire and conducted at Sahaswan, Utter Pradesh, India, with 600 study subjects during the period between November and December 2011. It was observed that the antibiotics were extensive supplied medicines without prescription including those used for serious illness conditions. The percentage of patients who were seeking self antibiotic medication was approximately 54%. Most patients were seeking self antibiotic medication for respiratory tract infection (16.83%); wound infection, cough and cold (14.5%); fever and GIT infection (13.66%); eye/ear infection (7%) were commonly noted aligminets. The antibiotics highly dispensed or purchased on a self medication were cephalosporins groups (24.15%) and minimum was tetracyclines groups (12.83%). Patient health awareness programs and pharmacist continuing education are necessary.These findings highlight the need for planning interventions to promote the judicious use of antibiotics, create awareness regarding the problems of antimicrobial resistance.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001075
Title: Phytochemical and pharmacognostical evaluation of Acacia leucophloea flowers (Roxb) Willd
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Acacia leucophloea (Roxb) Willd (Mimosaceae) is a moderate sized deciduous tree, found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout plains of India. In the present investigation an attempt has been made for the pharmacognostical standardization and phytochemical evaluation of A.leucophloea flowers. The pharmacognostical evaluation comprises of detailed macroscopy, microscopy, powdered microscopy and physical constant such as ash and extractive values. The flower extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. The data obtained in present study will serve as valuable tool for identification, authentication and detection of adulterants, standardization and quality control of the drug. The developed technique will be useful for the standardization of formulation containing A. leucophloea.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001383
Title: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coleus amboinicus lour, antioxitant activity and invitro cytotoxicity against Ehrlich’s Ascite carcinoma
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the study was to synthesize silver nanoparticles by using aqueous extract of Coleus amboinicus lour. For the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, 50 ml extract filtrate was mixed with equal volume of 1mM silver nitrate [AgNO3 (1 mM)] and agitated at room temperature in dark. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Results indicate the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture. Obtained silver nanoparticle showed the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against the Ehrlich’s ascite carcinoma (EAC) cell line.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001076
Title: Formulation and evaluation of voglibose mouth dissolving tablets by direct compression method
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present work was carried out to design and evaluate mouth dissolving tablets of Voglibose. The mouth dissolving tablets were prepared different formulation by direct compression technique using Microcrystalline cellulose, Pregelatinised starch (Starch 1500), Starlac as diluent combined with three superdisintegrants like Crospovidone (Polyplasdone XL10), Sodium starch glycollate (Primojel) and Croscarmellose sodium (Primellose). All the formulations were evaluated for physical characteristics, disintegration, in vitro dissolution and stability. The in vitro dissolution studies were performed for the F5, F6, F8, F9 formulations. The formulations F5, F6, F8 and F9 released 68.5, 99.4%, 68.4%, and 88.5% respectively at the end of 30 mins. Formulation F6 showed the maximum cumulative percentage drug release (99.4%). The accelerated stability studies were conducted for 3 months under 400C/75%RH condition as per ICH guidelines in blisters. Finally after the duration, the product was analyzed for physical appearance, loss on drying, disintegration, dissolution and assay. The results obtained were found to be within the specification limits. Mouth dissolving tablets of Voglibose formulated by using direct compression technique were found to be stable.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001447
Title: Antihyperlipidemic effect of biochanin A on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with the highest rates of prevalence and mortality worldwide and hyperlipidemia has been ranked as one of the greatest risk factors contributing to coronary heart disease. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antiatherogenic and antihyperlipidemic effect of biochanin A on streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (40 mg/kg BW) and biochanin A was administered post orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg BW for 45 days. The result showed an increase in plasma glucose, atherogenic index and also showed an elevation in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and decrease in the level of plasma insulin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in diabetic rats, whereas, diabetic rats treated with biochanin A shifted all these parameters towards normality. The effect of biochanin A was comparable with glibenclamide, a well known hypoglycemic drug. These findings suggest that biochanin A treatment has a therapeutic property by showing antiatherogenic and antihyperlipidemic effect on STZ-diabetic rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001455
Title: In vitro radical scavenging activity and phytochemical screening for evaluation of the antioxidant potential of Operculina turpethum root extract
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Cellular damage or oxidative injury arising from free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) now appears the fundamental mechanism underlying a number of human neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, inflammation, viral infections, autoimmune pathologies and digestive system disorders. Naturally occurring antioxidant supplements from plants are vital to counter the oxidative damage in cells. We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of ethanolic extract of Operculina turpethum using tests involving inhibition of H2O2, superoxide anions, reducing power and FRAP . The phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of the extract were also determined using standard phytochemical reaction methods. The results of the assay were then compared with natural antioxidants Quercitin, rutin and BHA. On the basis of present investigation the extract showed high significance (p<0.001) as compared to standards. Operculina turpethum extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. A positive correlation between the antioxidant activities and physiochemical assays was observed and the highest scavenging activity of extract was noticed at concentration of 1mg/ml.. These finding suggest that this plant is a potential source of natural antioxidant that could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenger, could have great importance as therapeutic agents, anti-inflammatory, anti-analgesic, anti-anaemic, in preventing or slowing the progress of ageing and age associated oxidative stress related degenerative diseases such as cancer and various other human ailments.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001456
Title: A study on the gastroprotective effect of Andrographis paniculata and andrographolide in rats subjected to pylorus ligation
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The study investigated the anti ulcer effect of Andrographis paniculata (AP) (Acanthacea) and andrographoide (AGL), a chief compound present in the leaves of AP in male albino Wistar rats. Rats pretreated with hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg b.wt) or AGL (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg b. wt) orally for a period of 30 days were subjected to pylorus ligation (PL). We have found that HAEAP (200 mg/kg b.wt) or AGL (3 mg/kg b.wt) markedly decreased the incidence of ulcer. The test drugs were found to reduce the activities of pepsin, H+K+ATPase and myeloperoxidase when compared to PL rats without drug treatment. HAEAP or AGL was found to maintain the level of GSH, micin and enzymatic antioxidants. The results indicate that the gastroprotective activity of AP and AGL may probably due to its antisecretory and antioxidant property.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001457
Title: Spectrum of Pharmacological Activities from Bauhinia variegata: A Review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Bauhinia variegata Linn., commonly known as ‘Camel’s foot tree or Orchid tree’, belonging to the most primitive subfamily (Caesalpinoideae) of the Leguminosae family is widely distributed in most tropical countries and have been used frequently in folk medicine for varied purposes; to treat different kinds of pathologies, particularly diabetes, infections, as well as pain and inflammation. The chemical composition and biological potential of the plant is widely studied. Results of preclinical studies have suggested its possible applications in clinical research.B. variegata appears to be a promising therapeutic agent and can certainly play an important role in the discovery of new and effective medicinal agents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001459
Title: Pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigation of Barleria prionitis Linn leaves.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study leaves of Barleria prionitis Linn was subjected to pharmacognostical studies such as macroscopic, microscopic and micromeretics parameters were also observed. Physicochemical studies such as ash values, extractive values of plant part were carried out to confirm the identity of plant. Ash values such as total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash were determined and recorded. Extractive values such as alcohol soluble extractives and water soluble extractive values were also determined. The leaves of Barleria prionitis Linn shows the presence of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, glycosides and tannins.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001460
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Drug Delivery System of Simvastatin
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the possibility of using different ratio of polymeric grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (K15) and carbapol(400) and different ratio used in platsizer (PEG 400) for the development of transdermal delivery of simvastatin, an antilipedamic drug. Transdermal films of simvastatin were prepared by solvent casting method. Polymers were used such as HPMC: Corbopol (3:1) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (1%,2%,3%).It was found that 1% of PEG helped as ideal concentration. The prepared films were evaluated for physicochemical properties. Matrix films were evaluated for their physicochemical characterization followed by in vitro evaluation. the in vitro release study from different transdermal patches across the goat abdominal skin Polymer concentration of 3:1 (HPMC:Carbopol) w/w in each type of as polymer film was found to be best. As the polymer concentration increase to be used 4:6 w/w, 1:3 w/w ratio. The drug released was found to be decreased.PEG in concentration of 1% showd best release as compared to other concentrations. The release pattern was found to be in the order of HPMC: Corbopol. Hence among all the formulation, HPMC: Carbopol (3:1), polymer concentration with 1%PEG concentration was showing the best release and r2 is 9952.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001462
Title: Antibacterial activities study of ofloxacin containing mucoadhesive suspensions
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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To study the in vitro antibacterial properties of mucoadhesive suspensions containing Ofloxacin, three different suspensions, such as S1, S2 and S3, were prepared by using three different polymers, such as HPMC, Carbapol934 and Carbapol940, respectively, along with some common ingredients (bases). Ultrasonication method was followed for the preparations of these suspensions. For the antibacterial activities study of the suspensions, agar well diffusion method was performed taking Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (ATCC 25923), Bacillus (B.) subtilis and Escherichia (E.) coli (ATCC 25922). Considering the overall antibacterial activity pattern of different formulations used in the present study, it may be concluded that mucoadhesive suspension of Ofloxacin with HPMC containing base (S1) was the most active, and Ofloxacin with C940 containing base (S3) was the least active suspensions. Intermediate type of antibacterial activities was found in case of Ofloxacin with C934  containing base (S2). The antibacterial activity of pure drug (S4) was more or less retained in almost all the suspensions (such as S1, S2 and S3). Moreover, all the suspensions were not inferior, if not better, to the pure drug in water as far as their antibacterial activities were concerned. However, marketed product containing Ofloxacin and Ofloxacin Disc were inferior to all the suspensions and S4 according their antibacterial activities. The negative controls of the study, i.e., the different bases and distilled water did not show any antibacterial activity. All the ingredients present in the bases were bacteriologically inactive.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001463
Title: Screening of antibacterial potential of leaves and leaf derived callus extracts of Solanum trilobatum L. an important medicinal plant
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The aim of present investigation was deals with the antibacterial activity of leaves and leaf derived callus extracts (ethyl acetate, ethanol, chloroform, and acetone) from the S. trilobatum L. were tested against nine human pathogenic bacteria using agar well diffusion technique. A better inhibition zone was recorded in chloroform extract than other solvents of both extracts. Based on the results, it clearly indicates that most of the extracts were effective against S. aureus, S. typhi, S. dysentriea, S. sonii, C. diptheriea and S. boydii. The other solvent extracts (such as ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate) showed moderate to least inhibitory effect against these organisms. The results from our findings indicated that  S. trilobatum is one of the potential medicinal plant used for therapeutic purpose. Among the two extracts tested, callus extracts was found to be superior to field grown plants.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001464
Title: Development and validation of UV spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of emtricitabine and tenofovir in combined dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Two simple, rapid, accurate and precise UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Emtricitabine (EMB) and Tenofovir (TEN) in combined dosage form. Simultaneous equation method (Method - I) involves the measurement of absorbance at two different wavelengths 282nm (λmax of EMB) and 257nm (λmax of TEN). Absorbance ratio method (Method - II) involves the measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths, λmax of one of the components and 266nm (wavelength of equal absorptivity of EMB and TEN). EMB and TEN obeyed Beer-Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 10-60µg/ml and 5-30µg/ml in method - I and method - II respectively. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and also by recovery studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001465
Title: Transdermal drug delivery system : Review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Drug delivery system (DDS) plays a vital role and has attracted enormous scientist and researchers. DDS is way to deliver the desired drug to the desired organ. Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) may enhance the efficacy of the drug along with safety. TDDS is topically administered medicaments in the form of patch. This article will  provide overview on the TDDS.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001466
Title: Sensitive Analytical Method Development and Validation of Simvastatin Bulk Drug by RP-HPLC
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This paper describes the analytical method suitable for validation of Simvastatin by reversed Phase High Performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. The method utilized RP-HPLC (Younglin HPLC with UV-detector) model and a column, 150mm  4.6 mm, 5m (Symmetry, ODS- 3V, 150mm ´ 4.6mm, 5m). The mobile phases were comprised of Acetonitrile and (0.02M) Buffer pH 3.5 (60:40 v/v). Validation experiments were performed to demonstrate System suitability, precision, linearity and Range, Accuracy study, stability of analytical solution and robustness. The method was linear over the concentration range of 1-150 mg/ML-1. The method showed good recoveries (98.2 – 104.3%).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001467
Title: Preventive effect of esculetin on lipid peroxides and antioxidants in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study is undertaken to evaluate the effect of esculetin on the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in Wistar rats. The rats were subcutaneously injected with isoproterenol (ISO) (85 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 hours for two days. A significant increased in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxide (HP), whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and non-enzymatic antioxidants like reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin E & C were significantly decreased. Oral pretreatment with esculetin (10 and 20 mg/kg) to ISO-induced rats daily for a period of 21 days significantly decreased the levels of TBARS and HP also increased the levels of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant. This could be due to free radical scavenging and antioxidant property of esculetin. Thus, our finding demonstrates that esculetin prevents the alterations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status during ISO-induced MI in rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001468
Title: DPPH scavenging assay of the solvent extracts and fractionates of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The antioxidant activity of the petroleum ether(PE), acetone(Ac), ethyl acetate(EA), aqueous(Aq), hydrolysed (Hy) extracts and fractionates viz the ethanol (EFA), the aqueous fractionate (AFE),  methanol fractionate (MFA) and the aqueous fractionate (AMF) of  Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay. Of all the extracts and fractionates, hydrolysed extract showed better free radical scavenging activity. The extracts and the fractionates showed scavenging activity better than that of the standard ascorbic acid (AA). The results obtained depicts that the waste plant waterhyacinth which is considered to be a major threat to the environment and economy possess good antioxidant activity and this plant can be exploited for use as an effective natural antioxidant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001469
Title: Synthesis and evaluation of carrier linked Prodrug of Ketoprofen with Glucosamine
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used to treat the effects of inflammation through inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzyme. The major limitation to long term therapeutic use of these drugs is their gastro toxicity. The Prodrug approach can be applied to solve this problem, which is an established tool to mask the side-effects of drugs. The present work was targeted at the designing of carrier linked prodrug of Ketoprofen with glucosamine by masking the free carboxyl group. The synthesized prodrug was characterized by analytical and spectral data. The synthesized prodrug was also evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity and ulcerogenic potential. It exhibited increase in anti-inflammatory activity and significantly less ulcerogenic ability than parent drug.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001470
Title: Effects of ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pioglitazone in normal and diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the study is whether the impact of ritonavir will increase the plasma level of pioglitazone or not. Ritonavir is an antiretroviral drug to treat HIV AIDS and inhibits cytochrome P450-3A4. Multiple CYP isoforms are involved in the metabolism of pioglitazone like CYP2C8 and CYP3A4. Hence there is more possibility of ritonavir to inhibit the metabolism of pioglitazone by inhibiting CYP 3A4. Ritonavir (10 mg/kg,p.o.)  alone and alongwith pioglitazone (10mg/kg, p.o.) was given to normal and diabetic rats. PK/PD parameters were studied. In the rats co-treated with ritonavir and pioglitazone, fasting plasma glucose concentration (58.93±3.20%) was further reduced. The pharmacokinetic parameters like clearance (12.20±0.625 l/hr) of pioglitazone was reduced, peak plasma concentration (16.78±1.08ug/ml), area under the plasma concentration time curve (163.5±14.82ug/ml/hr) and elimination half-life (6.194±0.81hr) were significantly increased when compared to pioglitazone treated rats.This study revealed that ritonavir affected the disposition of pioglitazone in rats probably by the inhibition of CYP3A4, leading to increasing pioglitazone concentrations that could increase the efficacy of pioglitazone or it may causes severe hypoglycemia. Therefore, its warrants to use relatively less dose of pioglitazone than the normal dose required for the beneficial effect on hyperlipidamia induced by ritonavir. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001474
Title: Influence of the blood group reactive substances in saliva on the aggregation of Streptococcus mutans
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Streptococcus mutans is one of the most dominant species of oral cavity that also initiates the dental plague formation. An attempt has been made to establish the correlation between the secretor status and aggregation of Streptococcus mutans with the salivary blood group reactive substances. The level of aggregation of S. mutans with salivary mucin was studied spectrophotometrically (630 nm) and has been greatly influenced by the blood group reactive substances. A person can be either a secretor or a non-secretor. This is completely independent of whether one’s blood type is A, B, AB or O. In the present study it was observed that out of the 98 individuals 94 were secretors. The secretor status was determined by absorption elution technique. The presence of Streptococcus mutans in the saliva was detected by the colony morphology grown on Nutrient agar followed by Gram’s staining and then the presence of S. mutans in the saliva were confirmed by their biochemical test of the same samples. The aggregation in the non-secretors is almost constant whereas the level of aggregation in blood group A, B, AB and O are found to be reducing with respective dilution.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001475
Title: Novel synthetic molecule inhibits Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) for anti-hyperglycemia: Investigation by Molecular Docking Approach
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Synthetic molecule (RBMS-01) was investigated as an inhibitor of human PTP1B in an attempt to explain its anti-hyperglycemic activity.  The investigation included molecular docking experiments to fit the synthetic molecule within the binding pocket of PTP1B.  This novel compound was found to readily fit within the binding pocket of h-PTP1B in a low energy orientation characterized with optimal electrostatic attractive interactions bridging the quinoline positively charged nitrogen atom of the synthetic molecule.  Then, the comparative studies with other natural compounds were analyzed.  Our findings strongly suggest that PTP1B inhibition is at least one of the reasons for the reported anti-hyperglycemic activities of the novel synthetic molecule.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001477
Title: Solid dispersion a new horizen in novel drug delivery system
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The enhancement of dissolution rate and oral bioavailability is one of the greatest challenges in the development of poorly water soluble drugs. So, solid dispersion is an efficient tool for increasing the oral bioavailability and dissolution rate of a range of hydrophobic drugs. Solid dispersion is used to produce a homogeneous distribution of a small amount of drug in solid state. This article reviews the various preparation techniques of solid dispersion and compiles some of the recent technologies. This article summarize some of the practical aspects for the preparation of solid dispersion like selection of carrier ,method of physicochemical characterization, their advantages, limitations and applications along with an insight into the molecular arrangement of drug in solid dispersion. Solid dispersion technique is widely used to study various approaches and applications of drug properties and polymers used in pharmaceutical research. Hence, solid dispersion is a very useful method for pharmaceutical point of view because of its capability to solve the solubility problems by using solid dispersion method.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001478
Title: Effective quantitation of Acetaminophen, Phenylephrine hydrochloride, Cetirizine hydrochloride and Caffeine in pharmaceutical dosage form using UV spectroscopy
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Attempting to minimize the drawbacks of various organic solvents commonly used for solublization, two new spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous determination of acetaminophen, phenylephrine hydrochloride, cetirizine hydrochloride and caffeine in pure and tablet dosage form by using 0.1N NaOH. Jasco V-630 sepctrophotometer is used for quantitation.  Without resolving mixtures of acetaminophen, phenylephrine hydrochloride, cetrizine hydrochloride and caffeine, simultaneous estimation has been successfully achieved by spectrophotometry. Method I employ formation and solving of mathematical simultaneous equation using 259 nm, 233 nm, 231 nm and 273 nm as the lmax of acetaminophen, phenylephrine hydrochloride, cetirizine hydrochloride and caffeine respectively. Method II is a multiwavelength spectrophotometric analysis in which the instrument is preprogrammed to collect and compile the spectral data from the scan of standards and matrix calculations. These methods were validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity and sensitivity as per ICH norms. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 0-40 ìg/mL for all drugs. The validation study is statistically significant as all the statistical parameters are within the acceptance range (% COV< 2.0 and S.D. < 2.0) for both accuracy and precision. Both the methods are successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation, with no interference from excipients as indicated by the recovery study. The proposed methods are simple, rapid, economic and accurate for routine simultaneous estimation of acetaminophen, phenylephrine hydrochloride, cetirizine hydrochloride and caffeine.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001480
Title: Formulation and evaluation of lamivudine sustained release matrix tablets using synthetic polymers
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation is aimed at formulating and evaluating sustained release matrix tablets of Lamivudine using different synthetic polymers such as Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K4M), Ethyl cellulose and Methyl cellulose taken at 10%, 20% and 30% of the total weight of the tablet. Lamivudine is a potent hydrophilic anti viral agent indicated for treatment of AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). The sustained release tablets were prepared by direct compression method. The powders for tableting were evaluated for angle of repose, loose bulk density, tapped bulk density, compressibility index and hausner’s ratio etc.The powder blend showed satisfactory flow properties.The tablets were subjected to thickness, weight variation test, drug content, hardness, friability and in-vitro release studies. All the formulations showed good results which were compliance with Pharmacopoeial standards.  In-vitro drug release studies were carried out using USP dissolution apparatus type I at 100 rpm with 900 ml phosphate buffer solutions (PBS) of pH 6.8, maintained at 37±0.5°C. The release kinetics was analyzed using the zero-order, first-order model equation, higuchi’s square-root equation, and the Korsmeyer-peppas model.  In vitro release studies revealed that the release rate decreased with increases in polymer proportion. The sustained release matrix tablets containing 30% Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K4M) (Formulation LF3) were found to show good initial release (20.41% in two hours) and extended the release upto 12 hours and can overcome the disadvantages of conventional tablets of Lamivudine. The n value obtained from korsmeyer – Peppas model confirmed that the drug release was non- fickian diffusion mechanism.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001481
Title: Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of some thiophene derivatives.
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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We have synthesized a series of new thiophenes with various substitutions at 2-amino position[2]. The starting material 2-amino-3-carboxamido-4, 5, 6, 7-tetramethylene thiophene was synthesized as per literature method which were derivatised into Schiff bases by reacting with various substituted aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized new compounds were characterized by  mp, TLC, UV, IR, NMR and Mass spectrum. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against two gram positive and two gram negative bacteria and antifungal screening against two fungi using Ampicillin and Miconazole nitrate.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001482
Title: In vitro prevention of oxidative damage by Curcuma amada in goat liver slices exposed to oxidative stress
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Liver, the largest organ in vertebrate body, has a pivotal role in regulation of physiological processes. It is involved in several vital functions such as metabolism, secretion and storage. Furthermore, detoxification of a variety of drugs and xenobiotics occurs in liver. Most of the hepatotoxic chemicals damage liver cells mainly by inducing lipid peroxidation and other oxidative damages in liver. Even common dietary antioxidants can provide such protection from liver damage caused by oxidative mechanisms of toxic chemicals. A phytotherapeutic approach to modern drug development can provide many invaluable drugs from traditional medicinal plants. Search for pure phytochemicals as drugs is time consuming and expensive. In the present study one such medicinal plant Curcuma amada has been tested for their antioxidant activity in precision cut goat liver slices exposed to oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide treatment. The activity of enzymic antioxidants and the levels of non enzymic antioxidants which decreased initially by H2O2 treatment was found to be increased on treatment with methanolic extract of both the leaves and rhizomes of Curcuma amada.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001483
Title: Quality assessment of a traditional oil based Ayurvedic formulation :Yashtimadhuka Taila
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Yashtimadhuka Taila (YMT) is an ancient Ayurvedic oil based formulation prescribed for Palita (graying of hair), Keshpatana (falling of hair) and Smasru Patana (falling of beard and moustache). Though YMT is an age old formulation, not much attempt has been made towards its standardization. The current work aims to standardize YMT using modern bioanalytical tools. YMT was prepared in house as per the classical reference and the content of gallic acid from YMT and its ingredients was determined using HPTLC. It was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical, physicochemical and stability evaluation. Skin irritation potential of YMT was tested in rabbits as a safety parameter.