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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001454
Title: Schiff Bases of Thiazole as Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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An efficient and convenient procedure has been developed for the synthesis of thiazole derivatives by one-pot condensation reaction of á-haloketone, thiourea and thionyl chloride. Starting from 2-amino-4-phenyl-1,3-thiazole (1), we synthesized Schiff bases of thiazole 2-29 in the search for possible clinically suitable derivatives for antibacterial and antifungal studies. The structure of synthesized compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, 1H-NMR, and EI-MS) methods. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Minimum inhibitory concentrations are also calculated.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001453
Title: Synthesis, antioxidant and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory potential of Schiff bases of thiazoles
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of Schiff bases of thiazole 2-29 was synthesized and screened for their possible antioxidant and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory potential. The structures of synthetic compounds were characterized by using spectroscopic techniques including IR, 1HNMR and EIMS. All the synthetic compounds gave satisfactory elemental analysis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001438
Title: Antiulcer and Antioxidant activity of Methanolic leaf extract of Soymida febrifuga
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The anti-ulcerogenic potential and antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extract of Soymida febrifuga was investigated. Totals phenols and total flavanoids content in the methanolic extracts of Soymida febrifuga were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and rutin equivalent, respectively. Antiulcer activity was determined by three different models in experimental wistar rats: Aspirin induced ulcer, Cold-restraint Stress induced ulcer, Ethanol induced ulcer. Antioxidant capacity was assessed by Enzymatic Antioxidant Activity [Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase] and Non - Enzymatic Antioxidant Activity [Reduced Glutathione]. The extract of Soymida febrifuga yield 98 mg/g of phenol content and 22.12mg/g of flavanoid content. The extract of Soymida febrifuga significantly reduced the gastric lesions at 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o doses in all the three models.  Oral administration of methanolic extract of Soymida febrifuga at doses of 200 and 400mg/kg exhibited dose dependent ulcer inhibition percentage of 70.86 and 79.79, 86.32 & 94.23 and of 49.30 and 73.64 (p<0.001) in Aspirin, ethanol and cold restraint stress induced ulcers. The effects of methanolic extract of Soymida febrifuga on acid parameters were less significant at 200mg/kg dose but showed significant (p<0.001) effect at 400mg/kg dose compared to ulcer control animals. The antioxidant levels were also restored to normal levels in treated animals when compared to non treated animals. Methanolic leaf extract of soymida febrifuga showed potent antiulcer and antioxidant activity. Further research is required to isolate the active phytoconstituents present in the extract and experimentation on the healing action of drug on chronic ulcer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001430
Title: Bioactive compounds in Sesbania sesban flower and its antioxidant and Antimicrobial activity
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In plants, there are number of bioactive compounds present, among them anthocyanins are water – soluble natural pigments found in flowers and fruits . The pigments may appear in different colours such as red, purple or blue. They belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized through the phenylpropanoid pathway. Anthocyanins occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits. Anthocyanins are derivatives of anthocyanidins which include pendant sugars. This work was an attempt to extract anthocyanin from Sesbania sesban flower petals. Anthocyanins from coloured petals of Sesbania sesban flower were extracted by using solvents such as methanol and acidified methanol. The studies were carried out from the crude extracts  to  obtained anthocyanins, total phenol and total flavonoids from flower petals. From the extracts of Sesbania sesban flower petals the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of anthocyanins were analysed. These merits can  put the plant in a wider and more significant perspective with respect to national and global interest in  medicinal uses and food  industries.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001418
Title: Alkamides and their biological activity from Piper longum Linn.
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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From the air dried fruits of Piper longum Linn., four secondary metabolites: brachystamide D (1), isopiperlongumine (2), piperine (3) and piplartine (4) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive  physical and chemical analysis (UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR) and comparison with known compounds. One of the compound, isopiperlongumine (2) is new to the literature and brachystamide D (1) is the first report from this plant. The methanolic extract, its fractions and isolated compounds were examined for in-vitro dendrite elongation inhibition property and showed good activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001070
Title: Antibacterial activity of Dibutyl Phthalate : A secondary metabolite isolated from Ipomoea carnea stem.
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human disease as they contain components of therapeutic value. Ipomoea carnea is one of those reported as used in folk medicine. Ipomoea carnea belongs to convolvulaceae family and fistulosa sub-family. It is a wild herb, largely available in all states of India and a native of South America. It is a green manure crop and also used as a folk medicine. Many Ipomoea species having antimicrobial activities were reported in literature. Taking this into consideration, chromatographic separation of the components from ethyl acetate extract of the stem of I. carnea was carried out. A bioactive secondary metabolite – dibutyl phthalate was isolated for the first time from this plant source. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by IR, MS, 1H-NMR, 13C- NMR, DEPT, etc. The antibacterial activity of the isolated compound was assayed in vitro by Agar disc diffusion method against gram negative bacteria Klebseilla pneumonia (ATCC33495), Proteus mirabilis (ATCC12453) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC10662) in concentration 40 μL/m .The compound showed significant activity against the tested strains. MIC study of the isolated compound was also carried out. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found most susceptible as the compound showed the highest activity against this strain. The antibacterial activity was determined by using disc diffusion method. Streptomycin was used as a standard.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001069
Title: Phyto-chemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activities of Dhaman grass and Indian Ginseng
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed) of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358) and (Unripen fruit, ripen fruit and calyx) of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668) were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their Biological activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Raoultella planticola) and one yeast (Candida albicans) by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC). Water extract of Unripen fruit of W. somnifera showed highest antibacterial activity (IZ-13.33±0.24 mm, AI- 0.833) and highest antifungal activity (IZ-18.67±0.22 mm, AI- 2.667) against E. coli and C. albicans respectively as well as chloroform extract of stem (IZ-12.50±0.64 mm, AI- 1.042) and seeds (IZ-10.67±0.23 mm, AI- 0.821) of C. ciliaris against C. albicans and S. aureus.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000686
Title: Neurotoxic effect of Monosodium glutamate on the Circadian Rhythms of Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidants in Rats under Constant Light
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Monosodium glutamate (MSG) was administrated subcutaneously to wistar rats for 60 days and circadian rhythms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and Vitamin-E were studied. Advanced acrophase of TBARS and delayed acrophase of antioxidants were found in experimental groups as compared with control rats. Constant light exposed rats showed increased mesor of TBARS and decreased mesor of antioxidants. Ampiltude and mesor values of these rhythms were found to be altered in experimental group rats. Glutamate levels in the brain were found to be significantly increased in MSG treated rats. Hence, we hypothesised that the altered biochemical rhythms in MSG treated rats could be due to modulating transmission in several areas in brain, including retinohypothalamic tract and suprachiasmatic nucleus.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001411
Title: Volatile oil composition of an antiobesity Unani formulation Safoof-e-Muhazzil
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The hydro-distilled volatile oil of the Safoof-e-Muhazzil, an antiobesity Unani formulation, was analyzed using GC and GC-MS for the first time. Fifty eight compounds representing 99.35 % of the oil were characterized. Consisting of thirteen monoterpenes (11.62 %), forty four sesquiterpenes (85.05 %), two diterpene alcohols (0.56 %), trans-phytol and 13(16),14-labdiene-8-ol, four aliphatic hydrocarbons n-eicos-15-enol, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, n-heptacosane and methyl-6-hydroxyoctadecanoate and two aromatic components 2-benzilidine and amyrolin.   Eudes-4(14),11-diene (28.61 %), viridiflorol laurate (16.40 %), bisabolene (9.73 %), globulol (9.13 %), thymol (6.14 %), t-cadinol (4.15 %), trans-cadine-1,4-diene (2.08 %), 2E, 6E-farnesol (1.41), L-limonene  (1.39 %), d-cadinene (1.37 %) and â-gurjunene (1.28) were the predominant compounds.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001412
Title: Simultaneous Estimation of Aspirin, Ramipril, Metoprolol and Atorvastatin in Bulk and Its Polypill Using Isocratic RP-HPLC Technique
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple and reliable isocratic reversed-phase high-perfomance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of aspirin, ramipril, metoprolol and atorvastatin in bulk and its polypill. All the drugs were separated on a 250mm×4.6mm C18 column packed with 5 µm particles. The mobile phase, optimized through an experimental design, was a 50:25:25 (v/v/v) mixture of acetontrile, methanol and triethylammonium phosphate buffer (pH 2.5), pumped at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. UV detection was performed at 225 nm. The retention time of aspirin, ramipril, metoprolol and atorvastatin was found to be 4.117 min, 7.158min, 8.333 min and 5.90 min respectively. The method was validated in the sample concentration ranges of 75-1500 µg/ml for aspirin, 50-1000 µg/ml for metoprolol, 5-100 µg/ml for ramipril and 10-200 µg/ml for atorvastatin, where it demonstrated good linearity with correlation coefficient values of 0.999 (n = 3) for all the drugs in the study. The method demonstrated to be robust, resisting to small deliberate changes in pH and flow rate of the mobile phase. The LOD values were 3.052µg/ml, 3.700µg/ml, 1.007µg/ml and 0.961µg/ml, while the LOQ values were 9.248µg/ml, 11.213µg/ml, 3.053µg/ml and 2.912µg/ml for aspirin, metoprolol, ramipril and atorvastatin, respectively. The recoveries for all four compounds were above 98%. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining the drug content of commercial pharmaceutical formulation, where it exhibited good performance.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001413
Title: Protection of Oxidative Stress-Induced Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Erythrocytes Damage from Type2 Diabetic Subjects by In Vitro Tocotrienols Treatment
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Oxidative stress is recognized as a major contributing factor in the development of late complications of diabetes. In the present study, the antioxidant effects of mixture of tocotrienols (Tocomin) on low density lipoprotein (LDL) and erythrocytes from normal as well as type 2 diabetic subjects with varying severity of diabetes (5-24 months)/oxidative stress were investigated. We have investigated the concentration-dependent protective effect of  Tocomin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- or tert- butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) or decreases in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in intact erythrocytes and copper sulfate (Cu++)-induced MDA formation in LDL from five groups of type 2 diabetic as well as normolipidemic subjects.  In addition, antioxidant effect of Tocomin on free, membrane bound sulfhydryl (–SH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG/GSH ratio) as well as enzymatic activities of membrane associated ATPases in t-BHP-stressed normal erythrocytes was evaluated. Tocomin was found to exhibit time and concentration-dependent inhibition against Cu++-induced MDA formation in LDL as well as MDA formation during H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte from normal and five groups of diabetic subjects. Tocomin exhibited concentration-dependent protection of GSH in tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in erythrocytes from normal and 3 groups of diabetic subjects, the above protective effects of Tocomin are more pronounced in diabetic erythrocytes. They also protect free and membrane bound –SH groups as well as membrane associated total, Mg++- and Na+/K+-ATPase in t-BHP-stressed normal erythrocytes. Tocomin, being better antioxidant than reduced glutathione (GSH), exhibited stronger scavenging efficacy than GSH against ABTS+. In conclusion, the present study indicates a potent in vitro antioxidant effect of Tocomin at micro-molar and nano-molar concentrations on erythrocytes and LDL from type 2 diabetics against oxidative damage. Thus, further comprehensive study will be needed in in vivo system to scrutinize the possible therapeutic role of toctotrienols in protection and management of type2 diabetes.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001414
Title: A validated method for the simultaneous quantification of hydrochlorothiazide, olmesartan medoxomil and amlodipine in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple isocratic Liquid Chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitative estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) and Amlodipine (AML) in bulk and tablet dosage form. Chromatography was carried on Agilent xbd- RP-18 (5 ìm, 150 mm x 4.60 mm I.D.) column with mobile phase comprising of acetonitrile, methanol and water (containing 0.1% orthophosphoric acid) in the ratio 25:25:50 v/v and pH was adjusted to 4.6 with sodium hydroxide. The flow rate was adjusted to 0.8 ml/min with UV detection at 232 nm. The retention times of Hydrochlorothiazide, olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine were found to be 2.133 min, 7.192 min, and 10.242 min, respectively. The different analytical parameters such as linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Q2B guidelines. In the linearity study, the regression equation and coefficient of correlation for HCT, OLM, AML were found to be y=10109+28556(R2=0.996), y=25501+1911(R2=0.999) and y= 16286x+1426 (R2=0.999). The proposed method is highly sensitive, precise, accurate and easy to perform and hence was successfully applied for the quantification bulk and tablet dosage form (Tribenzor).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001415
Title: Evaluation of in vitro thrombolytic activity of phytochemicals in Bacopa monnieri Linn.
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Myocardial or cerebral infractions are the serious consequences in Atherothrombotic diseases leading to death and the side effects produced by consecutive use of thrombolytic agent like t-PA, Urokinase and streptokinase to treat these diseases has become a global concern. Bacopa monnieri has been used for centuries in Ayurveda system of medicine as a memory vitalizer and as a liver and heart tonic. The present study was carried out to evaluate the thrombolytic activity of ethanolic, methanolic, acetone and aqueous extract of different parts (root, stem and leaf) of B.monnieri by in vitro method. Extraction was carried out using Soxhlet apparatus. The leaf ethanolic extract showed highest thrombolysis followed by aqueous, methanol and acetone extract. Concentration of phytochemicals and incubation time were directly proportional to the clot lysis. Application of the present study may be accessible for greater section of the society for treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001416
Title: Anti ulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Drynaria quercifolia Linn. leaves
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of etanolic extract of leaves of Drynaria quercifolia Linn. Materials and Methods: The etanolic extract of leaves of Drynaria quercifolia was investigated for its anti-ulcer activity against pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models in experimental rats at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight p.o.  Results: The Aqueous extract of Drynaria quercifolia (250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.05) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. Conclusion: This present study indicates that etanolic extract of Drynaria quercifolia have potential anti- ulcer activity in the both models. These results may further suggest that the extract was found to possess antiulcerogenic as well as ulcer healing properties, which might be due to its antisecretory activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001417
Title: Recent trends in synthesis of quinoxaline and its derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Quinoxaline is nitrogen containing heterocyclic nucleus made up of benzene ring and pyrazine ring. It is a wonderful nucleus which gives almost all type of biological activity. So due to diversity in biological activity, it attracts the researchers to find out more its biological activity. But its traditional synthesis suffers from variety of disadvantage  such as pollution, high cost, low yield, tedious work-up and long reaction time. Recently different methods have been developed for synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives by use of microwave and catalyst. In present study, we provide a concise review on history, chemistry, different methods of quinoxaline synthesis and its biological activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001419
Title: Biodegradable nanoparticle: emerging research area for novel drug delivery
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The advances in nanotechnology, helps in preparing nanoparticles which contain biologically active proteins that have total benefits of nanoparticulate system with maintain the stability and activity of the biological preparations against low pH of gastric fluid and action of proteolytic enzymes. The nanoparticle preparation method discussed is ionic relation between a polycationic and a polyanionic polymer under magnetic stirring. The polymer used for preparation of  nanoparticles are biodegradable and hydrophilic. Nanoparticles due to their small size can penetrate through smaller capillaries and are easy taken up by cells that allow efficient drug accumulation at the target sites. Whatever, the objective of the present study was to achieve drug loading into the matrices of gelatin-based nanoparticles through incubation of the drug-gelatin solution preceding to preparation and cross-linking of the nanopaticles in situ. This review gives the various traditional and novel techniques of preparing various drug loaded PLGA devices, with emphasis on preparing micro-particles. It also include a characterization of the nanoparticle with the study of particle size, particle morphology, FTIR, and a particle structure. It may also include a advantages and disadvantages of the various Biodegradable  Nanoparticles. Encapsulation of many drugs in to the nanopaticles like PLGA and others may also studied in it. They provide a various ideas regarding selection of polymer for different type of diseases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001420
Title: Isolation and characterization of a potent antimicrobial compound from Aerva sanguinolenta Blume.: An alternative source of Bakuchiol
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The methanolic extract of the dried leaves of Aerva sangulnolenta Blume, by bio-assay guided isolation yielded only one compound, bakuchiol (1). The structure of the compound has been established on the basis of  physical and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H & 13C NMR and mass) and comparison with an authentic compound. The compound, bakuchiol (1) is the first report from this plant. The methanolic extract and isolated compound were examined for anti-microbial property and were active against gram positive organism.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001421
Title: Attenuation of Aflatoxin B1 induced primary hepatocarcinogenesis by a citrus bioactive compound-Limonin
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Limonin, a citrus plant-derived bio-active compound believed to play a role in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we found that the treatment of limonin (50 mg/kg/bw; p.o) for 28 successive days to  Aflatoxin B1 (2 mg/kg bodyweight; ip) induced liver cancer bearing rats provides protection against the oxidative stress caused by the carcinogen and thereby prevents hepatocellular carcinogenesis. On administration of the carcinogen, the levels of marker enzymes increased markedly, but were found to be significantly lowered by limonin treatment. On the contrary, the antioxidant levels were decreased in carcinogen-administered animals, which were improved to normalcy upon limonin administration. In conclusion, these findings indicate that limonin prevents oxidative stress induced by Aflatoxin B1 and protects the antioxidant system.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001422
Title: Characterization of Azadirachtin from ethanolic extract of leaves of Azadirachta indica
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The neem tree has long been recognized for its unique properties both against insects and in improving human health. It is grown in most tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world for shade, reforestation and for the production of raw material for natural insecticides and medicines. Azadirachtin, a complex tetra-nor- triterpenoid limonoid from various parts of the neem, is the main component responsible for the toxic effects in insects. The compound is extremely active as an antifeedant and growth disruptant in a large range of insect species, whilst retaining very low mammalian toxicity. In the present work we have investigated the qualitative and quantitative determination of Azadirachtin isolated from the A.indica. Qualitative estimation was carried out by thin layer chromatographic (TLC) method. The simultaneous determination of the Azadirachtin was carried out by HPLC techniques. HPLC separation was performed on a Cyber Lab C-18 column (250 x 4.0 mm, 5ì) using acetonitrile: water in the ratio 30: 70 (v/v) at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection of Azadirachtin was performed at 219 nm. HPLC analysis revealed that the % Azadirachtin content in the ethanolic extract of leaves was found to be 73.62.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001423
Title: Antibiogram pattern of endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plant Centella asiatica
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was aimed to screen the antimicrobial potential of 6 endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica plant. The endophytes were isolated by using two different mycological media namely Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and Malt Extract Agar (MEA). Maximum endophytes were isolated in PDA. The ethyl acetate extract of endophytic fungi showed growth inhibition on atleast one pathogenic bacteria  Klebsiella  sp., Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp.,  Salmonella sp., Proteus  sp.,  Shigella sp.,  Serratia sp. But the activity against fungal pathogen was very low compare to bacteria. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the extracts ranged from 50.6µg/ml to 274.6µg/ml. Among all isolated endophytic fungi isolated, the fungus which has the highest positive antimicrobial activity was identified as Penicillium sp. by 18S ribosome RNA sequence analysis. The sequence was submitted to NCBI and the accession number HM068965. The results indicated that the endophytic fungi of medicinal plants could be promising sources for bioactive compounds. The purification and determination of bioactive compound are needed to perform further study.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001424
Title: Anxiolytic effects of the extracts of Zingiber officinale in mice
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Zingiber officinale belonging to Zingiberaceae family is used worldwide as a cooking spice, condiment and herbal remedy. This study was taken up to investigate the anxiolytic activity of alcohol and water extracts of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale.in mice, by  behavioral tests like elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) which will serve as the basis for assessing anxiolytic effect. Three  doses viz. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. of 70% ethanol and water extracts were administered; i.p. to mice one hour before carrying out the tests. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body wt.) was taken as the standard anxiolytic drug. The animals administered with extracts at the levels of 200 and 400mg/kg body wt.  diazepam showed a significant increase in the time spent and total entries in the open arms of the EPM and increase in locomotor activity in OFT. However, extracts at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight demonstrated significant increase in the time spent in the centre of the field. The results of the study suggest that the extracts possess promising anxiolytic activity and the extract may be regarded as a potent nutraceutical for treating anxiety.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001425
Title: GC-MS analysis and identification of daidzein by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of Pluchea lanceolata - a bone healing plant of Semi-Arid Land
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Gas chromatography mass spectroscopic investigation of methanolic extract of Pluchea lanceolata – a semi-arid land plant is investigated using GCMS-QP 2010 Plus while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract are matched with the standard library of NIST. Maximum % area are found for hexadecanoic acid (19.93 %) with Rt = 24.598 min. and Ethanol, 2-(vinyloxy)- (16.46%) with Rt = 6.974 min. for stem and callus respectively. A simple HPTLC method is used for the qualitative determination of daidzein. The samples are dissolved in methanol and development is carried out in Camag twin trough chamber saturated with mobile phase consisting of Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Acetone: Formic acid (20:4:2:1v/v/v/v). Spectrodensitometric scanning is performed by TLC scanner III (CAMAG) in absorbance mode. The system are found to give compact spot for daidzein (Rf = 0.21 ± 0.03). The data of the results of stem and callus of Pluchea lancolata revealed that the samples also contain daidzein with maximum Rf = 0.20 & 0.21 respectively which is a potent bone healer compound. Data obtained could be useful in the identification and authentication of traditional drug for the international acceptance. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-ORS-00001426
Title: Validated Electrochemical Methods for the Determination of Antibacterial Veterinary drug Danofloxacin in bulk form and formulation
Category: Others ( Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Two simple, precise, and sensitive voltammetric methods for the determination of Danofloxacin (DFX) were developed. These methods were used to explore the adsorption behavior of the investigated antibacterial through oxidation reduction at hanging mercury dropping electrode (HMDE) by direct method I and secondly by modified method II via its complexation with PdCl2. The drug was accumulated on HMDE and a well defined reduction at pH 7. The adsorption response was evaluated as a function of some variables such as the scan rate, pH and accumulation characters. A linear calibration curves were obtained from 4x10-8 M to 2.4x10-7 M, and from 9x10-9 to 4x10-7 M while the limits of quantification (LOQ) were  1.5x10-7 M, and 6x10-8 M and limits of detection (LOD) were 5.5x10-8 M, and  2x10-8 M for direct HMDE, modified HMDE methods, respectively. The methods were applied to the determination of DFX in bulk and formulation. Complete validation of the proposed methods was also done.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001429
Title: Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase by Morus alba linn leaf extracts
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of Morus alba extract from different grades of alcohol and to know which grade is a potent inhibitor of  alpha- amylase and alpha- glucosidase enzymes. The screening of plant extracts of different grades was based on in vitro inhibition of   alpha- amylase and alpha- glucosidase enzymes. All extracts were subjected to enzyme inhibitory assay by using different concentrations of extracts. The alpha- glucosidase inhibitory activity was higher in 60% alcohol extract with a percentage inhibition of 80.92±2.39 and an IC 50 value of 0.4113, the lowest was found in 100% alcohol extract 30±0.7 % and IC 50 value 0.6315. The 60% alcohol extract at 1mg/ml had an inhibition of 69.69±0.85% for salivary amylase and 78.77±0.75% for pancreatic amylase with IC50 value of 0.4594 and 0.482 respectively. The lowest inhibition was found in 100% alcohol extract 16.58±0.13, and 22.39±0.13% respectively. These results suggest that 60% alcoholic extract of Morus alba is a potent inhibitor of alpha- amylase and alpha- glucosidase enzymes, therefore it may help in reducing post-prandial absorption of carbohydrates from the intestine.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001431
Title: In vitro antibacterial activity of Azadirachta indica against pathogenic bacteria
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Azadirachta indica is known for its wide range of biological activities and its use for various medicinal purposes is highly prevalent in Indian subcontinent. The present study was thus designed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of leaves of Azadarichta indica against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillius subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by agar well diffusion method, compared with standard antibiotic. Ethanol extract showed significant activity on the tested microorganisms. S. aureus was observed as most sensitive organisms while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the most resistant organism against all the tested extracts. Gram- positive bacteria showed higher susceptibility as compared to Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for ethanol extracts. MIC and MBC of ethanol extract against Staphylococcus aureus were 0.87 mg/ml and 1.74 mg/ml for Bacillus subtilis 0.36 mg/ml and 0.72 mg/ml and for Escherischia coli they were 1.26 mg/ml and 2.52 mg/ml, respectively. On the basis of results obtained for the present investigation, it is concluded that the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica has great potential against Gram- positive bacteria.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001432
Title: Antibacterial Properties of Nanofiber Structured Conducting Polyaniline Synthesized by Cost Effective Wet Chemical Process
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Conducting nanotubes of polyaniline (PANI) about 100–150 nm in diameter were synthesized by a simple wet chemical template-free method using D-10-camphorsulfonic acid (D-CSA) as dopant and as a surfactant, and ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8) as the oxidant. The synthesized nanostructured material was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide at  different concentrations and tested for their antibacterial properties against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial like Streptococcus pyogenes (NCIM-2608),Staphylococcus epidermidis (NCIM-2604), Staphylococcus aureus( NCIM-2079), Streptococcus faecalis (NCIM-2493),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM-5029),Serratia marcescens (NCIM-2397), Bacillus subtilis (NCIM-2063) and Bacillus cereus (NCIM-2185).  Quite interestingly, the nanofiber structured conducting polyaniline have shown high antibacterial activity on all the species tested. Methods such as SEM, UV–vis, FTIR, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) are used to identify the structure of the PANI nanofibres.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001433
Title: A Review on Microsphere for Novel drug delivery System
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The non ideal pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and therapeutic properties often combine to reduce the effectiveness of certain compounds. For the vectoring of such compounds to target areas, liposomes, nanoparticles, and microspheres have been suggested. The range of techniques for the preparation of microspheres offers a variety of opportunities to control aspects of drug administration. This approach facilitates accurate delivery of small quantities of potent drugs, reduced drug concentrations at the sites other than the target site and protection of the labile compounds before and after administration, prior to appearance at the site of action. Physicochemical properties of the drug and excipient such as permeability of one in the other, identity of the polymer, degree of crystallinity, inclusion of plasticizers and fillers and thickness of the polymer influences the drug release rate.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001434
Title: Comparative antioxidant activity of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study,comparative anti-oxidant activity of alcoholic extracts of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis was assessed. Anti-oxidant activity of alcoholic extracts of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis have been analysed for their free radical-scavenging activity by using(1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) DPPH radical , inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4 in egg yolk , presence of phenolic compound using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and identification of antioxidant compound  in bio-autographic analysis using DPPH agent. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. The both extracts neutralized the activities of radicals and inhibited the peroxidation reactions. Cuscuta reflexa plant reported to have greater in vitro antioxidant activity than Cassytha filiformis which were expressed as IC50. Ethanolic extracts of Cuscuta reflexa contained more polyphenols content compared with ethanolic extracts of Cassytha filiformis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-MGM-00001435
Title: Effect of ginger consumption on serum markers of general metabolism, liver and kidney functions and lipid profiles in ethanol induced withdrawal rats.
Category: Molecular and Genetic Medicine
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Routine biochemical assays has led to increased incidental findings of pathogenesis of chronic alcoholism. A thorough history and physical examination, followed by a series of blood tests, are essential for the comprehensive evaluation of the disease. Objective: Chronic intake of high dose alcohol may cause oxidative stress, and associated metabolic abnormalities in the body. The effect of long-term alcohol consumption on the biochemical parameters under withdrawal stress has not been explained well. In this study we investigated the restorative effect of aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale against ethanol induced serological changes in male albino rats. Material and Methods: Male wistar albino rats were maintained for 42 days as follows: I. Control, II. Alcohol-treated group, III. Alcohol-withdrawal group and IV. Ginger treated withdrawal group, with all groups containing 6 animals each and 72 hrs of post treatment in case of withdrawal groups. At the end of treatment period, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, albumin, bilirubin and enzymatic activities of GGT, ALT and AST in the rat serum or plasma were measured by using standard methods. Results: Metabolic markers and lipidaemic markers were significantly increased in the alcohol-treated group compared to control. A significant reduction in serum TC, LDL-c, TG, and total phospholipids was observed accompanied by an increase in HDL-c levels in ginger extract treated rats. No significant difference between the groups was observed when LFTs and renal damage markers were compared. Conclusions: Ginger supplementation can modulate different toxic effects that arise due to ethanol treatment and restored the normal levels of many altered biochemical parameters in rat serum. Together, our data suggest that consumption of ginger could be useful in the treatment of obesity and other disorders related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) due to its hypolipidaemic property.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001436
Title: Dissolution enhacement of nimesulide using HP-βCD.
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Nimesulide is a COX-II inhibitor and one of the potent NSAID used frequently in case of arthritis, spondylitis, dysmenorrhoea etc. It is practically insoluble in water and hence has a less bioavailability of 25%-55%. In the present study attempt has been made to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of nimesulide with HP- βCD. The phase solubility analysis indicated the formation of 1:1 molar inclusion complex of nimesulide with HP- βCD. The inclusion  complexes  were  prepared  by  three  different  methods  viz. physical,  kneading,  co-precipitation method. The complexes  were  characterized  using solubility  study,  differential  scanning  calorimetry  and  X-Ray  diffractometry. The complexes prepared by co-precipitation method exhibited greatest enhancement in solubility and fastest drug release of 102.015%.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001437
Title: Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Carvedilol microcapsules prepared using Orifice Gelation Technique
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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 Preparation  and Characterization of Carvedilol/ hydroxypropyl-â-cyclodextrin  (CR/ HPBCD) binary systems  by Co-grinding technique and formulating  the binary system in oral mucoadhesive microcapsules  by using hydrophilic polymer Sodium alginate (SA) and another natural plant seed mucilage, Dillenia (obtained from Dillenia indica, Family, Dilleniaceae) using orifice gelation technique  and systemically evaluating invitro by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) , Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analyzer (TG/DTA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD)  to detect any interactions of drug with polymer and invivo decrease of blood pressure in mice. The invitro release data followed mixed kinetics with diffusion controlled release.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001439
Title: Pharmacognostical study on Svensonia hyderobadensis (Walp.) Mold : A rare medicinal plant taxon
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Plants are the great sources of medicines, especially in traditional system of medicine, which are useful in the treatment of various diseases, traditional medicines are prepared from a single plant or combination of plants.  Indian contribution to herbal market and emphasis on novel research is continuously increasing.  The present study is deals the macroscopic and microscopic characters of the leaves and stem of Svensonia hyderobadensis used microtome method.  The leaf shows epidermis, mesophyll tissue and vascular bundles, whereas the stem showed epidermis, cork, cortex, metaxylem, protoxylem, phloem and medulla. These observations could be of immense value in the botanical identification and standardization of the drug in crude form.  This study would help distinguish the species from other species in the drug.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001440
Title: Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of flavanone from Cardiospermum halicacabum N. against Acetaminophen induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The flavanone isolated from Cardiospermum halicacabum was investigated for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects in wistar albino rats. The flavonone (5 and 10  mg/kg, p.o.) showed a remarkable antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity as judged from the antioxidant levels and the serum marker enzymes in liver tissues. Acetaminophen-induced a significant rise in aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphates (ALP), total bilirubin, gamma glutamate transpeptidase (GGTP), lipid peroxidase (LPO) with a reduction of total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Treatment of rats with different doses of flavanone (5 and 10 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) altered antioxidant levels and serum marker enzymes to near normal against acetaminophen-treated rats. The activity of the isolated compound at the different dose was comparable to the standard drug, silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.). Histopathological changes of liver sample were compared with respective control. Results indicated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of flavanone from C.halicacabum against Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001441
Title: New Phytoconstituents from the roots of Ocimum sanctum L.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Phytochemical investigation of methanolic extract of the roots of Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) resulted in the isolation of three new phytoconstituents identified as, stigmast-5-en-3b-olyl-n-eicos-9-12-dienoate (3), n-octacos-9-enoic acid (4) and lup-12, 20(29)-dien-28-oic-acid-3b-olyl-octadecanoate (5) along with known compounds of ursolic acid (1) and 3-epibetulinic acid (2). The structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectral data analysis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001442
Title: Thiophene: The molecule of diverse medicinal importance
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Thiophene nucleus has been established as the potential entity in the largely growing chemical world of heterocyclic compounds possessing promising pharmacological characteristics. The similar compounds synthesized through different routes bear variable magnitudes of biological activities. The knowledge of various synthetic pathways and the diverse physicochemical parameters of such compounds draw the especial attention of medicinal chemists to produce combinatorial library and carry out exhaustive efforts in the search of lead molecules. The present review provides a broad view on the medicinal importance of compounds having thiophene nucleus.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001443
Title: Simultaneous estimation of Sitagliptin and Metformin hydrochloride in bulk and dosage form by UV spectrophotometry
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, precise, rapid and economic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Sitagliptin and Metformin HCl  in bulk and dosage form. UV spectrophotometric method involves first order derivative spectroscopy using 238.5 nm & 216.0 nm as zero crossing points for Sitagliptin and Metformin HCl respectively. For spectrophotometric method, 0.1 N NaOH was used as a solvent. Linearity was observed in concentration range of  10-100 µg/ml of Sitagliptin and 2-20 µg/ml Metformin HCl. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001444
Title: A report on Pharmacognostical and quality control parameters of stem and root of Leptadenia pyrotechnica (forsk) decne.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Leptadenia pyrotechnica(forsk) decne,is a valuable desert plant which is commonly used in traditional system of medicine for relieving pain and inflammation, as well as  in a number of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. Present study is an effort to establish pharmacognostical & quality control standards for identification and standardizations of raw material. Presence of bundle of phelloderm fibers, uniserate and biserate medullary rays, along with three different type of phloem, is a distinguishing anamolous character of this plant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001445
Title: Obtaining a Dry Extract of Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae) Fruits by Spray-Drying
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The Pterodon emarginatus presents some pharmacological properties that may be related to the presence of vouacapanes. The purpose of this work is to reach a standardized dry extract of the P. emarginatus fruit. The powder, ethanolic extract and dry extract showed the presence of vouacapanes and lupeol confirmed by IR and GC-MS. The drying process (spray drying) using the colloidal silicon dioxide showed to prevent the thermal degradation and increased approximately twice the terpenes content. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM)  showed irregular and spherical particles. The analytical method by spectrophotometry for the quantification of total terpenes was validated and showed to be selective, linear, precise, accurate and robust. In the antinociceptive activity test (capsaicin), the pre-treatment with the dried extract reduced the reactivity time in 50.9%. The results may suggest that the technological processes employed to transform the P. emarginatus fruits in standardized dried extract were adequate to maintain quality chemistry and antinociceptive activity described for the fruits. This work represents the first description of the obtaining of the standardized dried extract of P. emarginatus and also the identification of lupeol in the fruits of this medicinal plant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001446
Title: Anti-inflammatory activity of Spermacoce ocymoides Burm.F.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Inflammation is a response of vascularized living tissue to the local injury. The severe side effects of steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs evoked us to search for new anti-inflammatory drugs from the indigenous source. Hence, the present work was scrutinized to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of whole plant of Spermacoce ocymoides  (Family: Rubiaceae). The powdered whole part of S. ocymoides was  extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol successively. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema at the dose of (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. p.o.) of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extract respectively. The ethanolic extract of S.ocymoides exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity at the dose of 100 & 200 mg/kg than the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extract. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg b.w. p.o) had exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001448
Title: Anti diabetic and anti oxidative potencies study of ethyl acetate fraction of hydromethanolic (40:60) extract of seed of Eugenia jambolana Linn and its chromatographic purification
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Eugenia jambolana  Linn. of  Myrtaceae family is widely distributed all through India and its traditional medicinal use is well recognized. Diabetic therapeutic potentiality of ethyl acetate fraction of hydromethanolic (40:60) extract of seed of E. jambolana was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Diabetic state was confirmed by increased fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels along with diminished body weight and serum insulin level. Diabetes induced carbohydrate metabolic homeostasis alteration was evaluated by increased activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and decreased activities of hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzymes in hepatic, skeletal and cardiac tissues along with low glycogen contents in liver and skeletal tissues. Oxidative stress development in diabetes was confirmed from diminished activities of free radical scavenging enzymes and elevated levels of end products of lipid peroxidation in said tissues. Oral administration of ethyl acetate fraction at a dose of 20 mg and glibenclamide at a dose of 0.6 mg in 0.5 mL water /100 g body weight/rat for twice a day at fasting state to the diabetic rats for 28 days significantly (p<0.05) resettled all the above parameters to their respective control levels. To establish safety profile of the said fraction, metabolic as well as acute toxicity studies were carried out as per established guidelines. HPTLC fingerprinting of bioactive ethyl acetate fraction was recorded with mobile phase Ethyl acetate: Methanol: Water :: 100:13.5:10 (v/v).  Two separate spots with Rf values of 0.83 and 0.54 were found after scanning at l 254 nm. HPLC  study of ethyl acetate fraction was carried out on C18 column with premixed solvents Water: Acetonitryl: Methanol :: 40:30:30 (v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min using isocratic elution technique which also showed two completely resolved peaks at  l max 220 nm. On the basis of above mentioned experimental studies it has been revealed that the ethyl acetate fraction of E. jambolana has its attribute of antihyperglycemic and primary antioxidant activities against diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress by these two compounds.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001449
Title: Simultaneous Estimation of Atenolol and Losartan Potassium By High Performance Liquid Chromatography and UV Spectrophotometric Method
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, rapid, precise and accurate isocratic reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Atenolol (AT) and Losartan (LO) in commercial tablets. Chromatographic separation was achieved with ODS C-18 column (5ìm, 250 mm × 4.60 mm) using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile : water : methanol (60:30:10) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and UV detection at 235 nm. The retention time of Atenolol and losartan were observed at 2.18 min and 5 min respectively. The LOD for AT and LO were found to be 0.032 ìg/ml and 0.002 ìg/ml, respectively. In UV spectrophotometric method the lmax for Atenolol and Losartan was 275 nm and 232 nm respectively. The linearity of the proposed in UV spectrophotometric method was investigated in the range of 5-50 ìg/ml (r2 = 0.9942) for AT and (r2 = 0.995) for LO.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001450
Title: Preformulation Studies of Quetiapine Fumarate
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objective of present study was to perform some of the important preformulation studies of quetiapine fumarate (QPF) to obtain the necessary information for the design of controlled drug delivery system. The aqueous stability, pH solubility and drug-excipient compatibility studies were evaluated at preformulation stage. The drug-excipient compatibility was evaluated by isothermal stress test method (IST), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used as a tool to assess the compatibility of drug with the selected excipients. The compound was found to be stable in the studied pH conditions up to 24 h at 37 °C and the compound exhibited pH dependent solubility. On the basis of DSC and HPLC results, the drug was found to be compatible with gum kondagogu, chitosan, polyelectrolyte complex of gum kondagogu and chitosan, HPMC K100m, carbopol 934P, benecel® and A-tab®. Some degree of interaction was observed with magnesium stearate. Additional studies using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder-X-ray diffractometry confirmed that QPF is compatible with magnesium stearate. The interaction observed in the DSC experiments could be due to solid-solid interaction but not due to incompatibility. The information gathered in preformulation studies would be very useful in the design of controlled drug delivery system.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001451
Title: Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal evaluation of norfloxacin derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of different N-4-piperazinyl derivatives of norfloxacin was synthesized and screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities to monitor the variation in therapeutic effects of parent molecule. Result revealed that some of the tested compounds showed comparable or better activity than norfloxacin against Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria. The structures of synthetic compounds were determined by using spectroscopic techniques including IR, 1HNMR and EIMS. All the synthetic compounds gave satisfactory elemental analysis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 5, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001452
Title: Synthesis of benzoxazoles derivatives: Antiglycation activity
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of benzoxazole derivatives 4-32 was synthesized and screened for their possible antiglycation potential. The structures of synthetic compounds were characterized by using spectroscopic techniques including IR, 1HNMR and EIMS. Elemental analysis of all synthetic compounds was found in good agreement with the calculated values.