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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001283
Title: Phytochemical screening and bioactivity studies of Phyllanthus wightianus
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This study was designed to determine the primary and secondary metabolites present from the leaves of Phyllanthus wightianus using various analytical techniques. Furthermore the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of the leaves of P. wightianus were investigated using standard models. The results show that the leaves exhibit good antioxidant activity and protective to HRBC (Human Red Blood Cell) membrane due to the presence of some valuable phytochemicals present in the leaves.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001270
Title: Formal chemical stability analysis and solubility analysis of artesunate and hydroxychloroquinine for development of parenteral dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: Artesunate, the only artemisinin analogue that can be given intravenously, produces rapid parasite and fever clearance in falciparum malaria. These investigations will impact on development of parenteral dosage forms of artesunate combined with long acting antimalarial drugs. Methods: The initial stability studies of common antimalarial drugs were performed at laboratory scale in different solvents, buffers, pH, temperature and alcohol content. The effect of light at a wavelength of 240e600 nm on aqueous solutions of hydroxychloroquinine (HCQ) was investigated. Results: It was found that after five week of storage at 2e8 C and 60% RH, 96  0.88% of artesunate in dry form of drug remained unchanged. The solubility analysis of both drugs suggests that alcohol can be used as cosolvent to increase solubility of the drugs. The photo reactivity screening of HCQ gave idea of packaging the formulation in light resistant container as after 5th week of storage at 25 C only 80  0.38% HCQ was remaining. Compatibility studies of HCQ sulphate in different vehicle reveals temperature induced degradation of drug in 5% dextrose in normal saline. Conclusion: Data indicates that maximum stability of artesunate can be achieved by storing the formulation in refrigerated conditions. It suggests that sodium chloride and dextrose can be used as osmotic adjusters while developing parenteral dosage form of aforementioned drugs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000691
Title: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer potential of Morinda pubescens synthesized silver nanoparticles
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: Plant mediated green synthesis of nanoparticles is an eco-friendly and efficacious approach which finds immense application in the field of medicine. The present study is undertaken to determine the antioxidant and anticancer activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from the aqueous leaf extract of Morinda pubescens by reducing silver nitrate. Methods: Free radical scavenging potential of M. pubescens synthesized silver nanoparticles is evaluated in vitro by using diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Other antioxidant assays like Ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method, Superoxide Anion Radical scavenging assay, Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, Metal chelating assay and Phosphomolybdenum assay are also adopted. The anticancer effect of these nanoparticles on HEP G2 (Human Epithelium cells of liver cancer) is determined by MTT (Methylthiazolyl diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results: The nanoparticles are found to possess high antioxidant capacity and thus can be used as potential radical scavengers against deleterious damages caused by the free radicals. MTT assay shows that the nanoparticles have cytotoxic activity against HEP G2 cell lines and can be used as anticancer agents. Conclusion: The results suggest that the silver nanoparticles from M. pubescens can be potent natural antioxidants and can be essential for health preservation against oxidative stress related degenerative diseases, such as cancer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PB-0000689
Title: Fabrication of porous chitosan/silver nanocomposite film and its bactericidal efficacy against multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates were used to test the bactericidal efficacy of the newly synthesized porous chitosan/silvernanocomposite film. The synthesized composite was characterized by using UVeVis, FTIR, XRD and HRSEM analysis. The SEM images illustrate the presence of embedded silver nanoparticles (20e50 nm) throughout the films. Moreover, the presence of a small quantity of metal nanoparticles in the composite was enough to significantly enhance inactivation of MDR pathogens as compared with unaltered chitosan.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000688
Title: Chromatographic analysis of polyherbal extract and formulation by HPTLC and GCeMS methods
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study reports the chromatographic analysis of a polyherbal extract and formulation by HPTLC and GCeMS methods. The polyherbal extract was prepared from the combined ethanolic extracts of Saraca indica, Symplocos racemosa, Hemidesmus indicus, Aloe vera, Asteracantha longifolia, Erythrina indica and Tribulus terrestris. The polyherbal extract was compressed into tablets after the addition of the required excipients. HPTLC studies revealed that there was good correlation between the extract and formulation. The HPTLC chromatogram of both extract and formulation showed Rf values at 0.03, 0.33, 0.48, 0.63 and 0.76. The phytoconstituents present in both the extract and formulation were identified by GCeMS analysis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000687
Title: Crystal structure and potent antifungal activity of synthetic homoisoflavanone analogues
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of seven homoisoflavanone analogues (1e7) were synthesized previously from the corresponding substituted phenols via chroman-4-one in three steps. These analogues were evaluated for their antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Compound 3, (E )-5,7-dimethoxy-3-benzylidene-4-chromanone, showed the highest activity (MIC50 ¼ 25 mM), which is better than the reference drug clotrimazole (MIC50 ¼ 42 mM). The X-ray structure of this compound is also reported. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was also investigated against Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) cells in an MTT assay and the data shows variable results but in general much less toxicity than the control drug emetine.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001256
Title: Anti-ulcer activity of NS-EA 51 e A fraction of Nigella sativa seed, in histamine plus pylorus-ligated and hypothermia plus restrain stressed rat models
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: In spite of all recent advancements, the complete cure of gastric ulcer disease has awaited, to be explored. Earlier we reported the potent anti-secretary and anti-ulcer activities of ethanol extract and a fraction of Nigella sativa, seed (NS) in indomethacininduced gastric ulcers-models. Therefore, anti-ulcer activity of purified fraction of NS (NS-EA 51) in different experimental gastric ulcer-models was evaluated in the present study. Methods: Anti-ulcer activity of NS-EA 51 was evaluated in histamine plus pylorus ligation (PL) and hypothermia-restrained stress, rats (adult male albino; weighing 180e220 g). Changes in the gastric secretion volume, pH, acid-output, pepsin activity, mucus secretion and ulcer indices were observed in histamine plus PL rats. Effects on gastric mucus secretion and ulcer indices were also evaluated in the hypothermic-restrain stressed models. Results: NS-EA 51 antagonized histaminic effects on gastric juice volume, pH, acid-output, lesion formation and pepsin activities. Fraction also inhibited gastric ulcer formation induced by hypothermic-restrained stress in this study. But it did not show any significant change in the gastric mucus secretion in above models. The anti-ulcer effects of NS-EA 51 found comparable to the Famotidine, a reference anti-ulcer agent. Conclusion: NS-EA 51 fraction isolated from NS may prove an effective anti-ulcer tool.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001257
Title: Does nature provide the best therapeutic options? Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of a naturally occurring homoisoflavanone and its enantiomer
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The Hyacinthaceae family is one of the most important plant families across the eastern seaboard of Africa. The (R)-5 enantiomer of a homoisoflavanone with anti-inflammatory activity was previously isolated from members of this family, namely Drimiopsis burkei Bak. and Scilla nervosa (Burch.) Jessop. However, the activity of the (S )-5 enantiomer is unknown. In this paper, we report the synthesis and structural elucidation, in vivo antiinflammatory activity and in vitro cytotoxic properties of both the (R)-5 and (S )-5 enantiomers and the racemate. The enantiomers and racemate exhibited a relatively short duration of action and activity similar to that of the known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac. The naturally occurring enantiomer exhibited the least cytotoxicity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001258
Title: Antifungal activity of nanostructured polyaniline combined with fluconazole
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Conductive polymers are gaining much interest in field of pharmacy and biomedicine. Polyaniline (PANi) is one of such conducting polymer belonging to semi-flexible rod polymer family. There are some potential applications of PANi in biosensors, biomedical applications, drug delivery and tissue engineering because of its excellent stability, high conductivity and easy mode of synthesis. Nanofibres of polyaniline combined with fluconazole are prepared by simple and cost effective sol-gel method using D-10-camphorsulfonic acid (D-CSA) as a dopant and as a surfactant, and ammonium persulfate as the oxidant. The synthesized nanostructured materialwasdissolved indimethylsulfoxide at different concentrations andtested for its antifungal properties against Candida albicans (ATCC 140503), Candida tropicalis (ATCC 13803) and Candida krusei (ATCC 34135). The results showed that, compared to nanofiber structured conducting PANi, polyaniline doped with fluconazole have shown higher antifungal activity on all the species tested. It is very much evident that PANi doped fluconazole has considerable enhanced antifungal activity. C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803) is more susceptible than C. albicans (ATCC 140503) and C. krusei (ATCC 34135). Structural and morphological properties of PANi with fluconazole nanofibers were evaluated by SEM and FTIR.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001259
Title: Identification and characterization of forced degradation products of paliperidone using LC-APCI-Ion Trap-MS
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Degradation products of paliperidone formed under different forced conditions have been characterized through LCeUVePDA and LCeMS studies. Paliperidone was subjected to forced degradation under the conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress as prescribed by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline Q1A (R2). Three degradation products were formed and their separation was accomplished on reversed phase C-18 (4.6  250 mm, 5 mm) analytical column using gradient elution method. The drug degraded to products II and III under acid and alkali hydrolytic conditions while a common product I was formed under the photoacid and photoneutral conditions. No additional product was shown up under other stress conditions. Validation of the LCeDAD method was carried out in accordance with ICH guidelines. The method met all required criteria and was applied for analysis of commercially available tablets. All the products were characterized through LCeMS analyses and their fragmentation pathways were proposed. The products were proposed as 3-(1-allyl-1, 4-dihydropyridin-4-yl)-5-fluorobenzo [d] isoxazole, 5-fluoro-3-(piperidin-4-yl) benzo[d] isoxazole and 5-(2-(4-(5-fluorobenzo[d] isoxazol-3-yl)piperidin-1-yl)ethyl)-6-methylpyrimidin-4-(3H)-one.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001260
Title: LC–MS/MS analysis of tetracycline antibiotics in prawns (Penaeus monodon) from south India coastal region
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the present study is to analyze the presence of tetracycline antibiotics (Tetracycline (TC), Oxytetracycline (OTC), Chlortetracycline (CTC) and Doxycycline (DOC)) in prawns (Penaeus monodon) obtained from the coastal region of southern India. LC-MS/MS was used for determination of tetracycline antibiotics. Separation was carried out by gradient elution technique using mobile phase A (0.1% formic acid in water) and mobile phase B (0.1% formic acid in methanol), at a flow rate of 400 ml/min and injection volume 20 ml. The % recoveries of analyzed drugs were in between 80 and 101. The results indicated that tetracycline antibiotics were not found in most of the samples. The samples collected from Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka were detected with oxytetracycline antibiotic but it was less than the maximum residual limit (MRL).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001261
Title: Validated RP-HPLC method to estimate eugenol from commercial formulations like Caturjata Churna, Lavangadi Vati, Jatiphaladi Churna, Sitopaladi Churna and clove oil
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Eugenol is an important phytochemical bioactive compound of ayurvedic and other marketed herbal formulations. It shows anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-tubercular activity. Thus, it is a suitable bioactive biomarker to establish the quality of commercial drug and its formulation. The aim is to develop and validate an efficient and effective RPHPLC method for quantification of eugenol from commercial marketed formulations. Separation was carried out on a cosmosil C18 column, mobile phase composition was methanol: distilled water (60:40, v/v) at flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 215 nm using a photodiode array detector (PDA). Commercial Ayurvedic formulations such as Caturjata Churna, Lavangadi Vati, Jatiphaladi Churna, Sitopaladi Churna and clove oil were further subjected to RP-HPLC for estimation of eugenol. The RP-HPLC method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The LOD and LOQ level were found to be 25.00 ng/mL and 50.00 ng/mL, respectively. Detector response was found to be linear from 50.00 ng/mL to 50,000.00 ng/mL. The method was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible and rugged. This method was used to estimate the content of eugenol in commercial formulations and the method is found suitable for quality assurance and marker based standardization of ayurvedic formulations containing eugenol.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001262
Title: Preparation and evaluation of sodium CMC zaltoprofen spherical agglomerates for direct compression
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Zaltoprofen spherical agglomerates were prepared by spherical crystallization technique using a three solvent system comprising a good solvent (acetone), a bad solvent (water) and a bridging liquid (dichloromethane) by using a hydrophilic polymer sodium CMC in different concentrations for enhancing micromeritic properties and dissolution rate. The prepared zaltoprofen spherical agglomerates were evaluated in terms of flow properties, particle size analysis, compression and dissolution behavior. Physical characters of the crystals were studied for the morphology of crystals using scanning electron microscope (SEM), identification of polymorphism done by X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD) and for thermo dynamic properties using differential scanning colorimetry (DSC). The prepared agglomerates were improved the micromeritic properties, packability, wettability, solubility and compaction behavior, as well as dissolution behavior in comparison to pure zaltoprofen drug.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00001263
Title: A study of the factors affecting time to onset of lactogenesis-II after parturition
Category: Pharmacy practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Lactogenesis or the mode of formation of milk. Lactogenesis-II commences after delivery and is the initiation of plentiful milk secretion. Time to lactogenesis is defined as the number of hours between delivery and the time that the sign of a surge in milk production is first observed. If the onset of lactogenesis occurs 72 h postpartum, it is defined as delayed. Objective: To identify different socioeconomic, demographic and delivery related factors that affect the time of onset of lactogenesis-II. Design: Six months prospective observational study. Participants: A total of 200 subjects were recruited into the study. Pregnant women within age limit of 18e65 years of age were included in the study. Methods: The data were collected from various sources such as patient’s case reports, treatment charts and also through direct patient interview. The significance of the factors affecting onset of lactogenesis-II were assessed by chi-square test. A p-value less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: The study showed that factors like type of anesthesia, mode of delivery, body mass index, Apgar score, parity, age, education, number of breastfeeding, infant birth weight, hemoglobin level, pregnancy induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism are risk factors for delayed onset of lactogenesis-II. Conclusion: By anticipating delay in lactogenesis-II, because of above mentioned factors clinicians may be able to support nursing mothers and prevent hasty transitions to formula supplementation due to a misperception of insufficient milk production as opposed to a delay in lactogenesis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001264
Title: Development of a floating multiple unit controlledrelease beads of zidovudine for the treatment of AIDS
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Zidovudine is the first approved compound for the treatment of AIDS, and having short biological half-life and poor bioavailability. The present research work an attempt has been made to design the zidovudine gas powered multiple unit drug delivery system for controlled release. Floating beads are often used for controlled drug release as they have a gastroretentive property without affecting the gastric emptying rate. In the present study zidovudine-controlled release beads were prepared with the help of the ionotropic gelation method, using sodium alginate containing KHCO3 as the gas-forming agent. The beads were subjected to in-vitro drug release, kinetic studies and stability studies. FTIR and DSC studies shown there was no interaction between drug and polymers. The percentage of zidovudine content from the beads was determined by UV-spectroscopy and ranged from 93.76  0.44 to 98.14  1.10. The in-vitro percentage release of zidovudine from the beads at the end of 12 h ranged from 86.10424 to 96.83746. The kinetic studies revealed that the drug was released by zero-order kinetics. The optimized formulations were subjected to stability studies and shown there were no significant changes in drug content, physicochemical parameters and release pattern. The floating beads designed for the gastroretentive dosage form could be suitable for controlled drug delivery.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001265
Title: Virtual screening and evaluation of heterocyclic 1, 5-benzothiazepines compounds against MAP kinase protein
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Hetrocyclic 1, 5-benzothiazepines compounds were synthesized and screened for drug likeness property using Lipinski’s rule of five. Among 20 compounds of benzothiazepine three compounds were further evaluated for the conformation based molecular docking studies using lib dock. The crucial amino acids of MAP kinase are MET109, LYS53, TYR35, THR106, ALA51 the binding of compounds with active site amino acid will show specific inhibition with MAP kinase protein. The BTZ-6b, BTZ-16 and BTZ-17 shows the specific binding with active site amino acid residues of TYR35, LYS53 specifically and the other amino acid present in the active shows Vanderwaals interaction with protein with good dock score.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001266
Title: GC-MS profiling and antibacterial activity of Sargassum tenerrimum
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: To profile the bioactive compounds present in methanolic extract of Sargassum tenerrimum by Gas ChromatographyeMass Spectrometry (GCeMS) analysis for its antibacterial activity. Methods: Antibacterial activity of methanolic extract was evaluated against five pathogenic strains by disk diffusion method at different concentration (25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/ml). Results: The presence of bioactive functional groups was revealed by Fourier Transform- Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT-IR) analysis. The identification of phytocomponents of the methanolic extract was done by Gas ChromatographyeMass Spectrometry analysis. Twelve compounds were identified of which two compounds 1, 2-Benzoldicarbonsaeure and Cyclopropanepentanoic acid showed maximum intensity of peak. The methanolic extract showed good antibacterial activity against five pathogenic strains at different concentration. Conclusion: To conclude, S. tenerrimum was found to have bioactive compounds and it is necessary to identify the compounds responsible for antibacterial activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001267
Title: Evaluation of antioxidant potential & quantification of polyphenols of Diplazium esculentum Retz. with emphasis on its HPTLC chromatography
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The vegetable fern Diplazium esculentum Retz. was traditionally as well as scientifically examined to possess anti anaphylactic and mast cell stabilizing potential. It was thus needed to investigate its phytochemical constituents, antioxidant potential along with HPTLC Profiling. Methods: The aqueous and the ethanolic extracts of the fern were studied for the antioxidant activity by ABTS radical scavenging assay and H2O2 radical scavenging potential. Polyphenols namely phenols and flavonoids are believed to play key roles in providing protection against oxidative stress for which they were quantified using spectrophotometric methods and compared with their respective standards. Later HPTLC chromatogram was developed with particular solvent system for separation of flavonoids and saponins present in the fronds of the fern. Results: The results obtained suggested that the ethanolic extract have more phenolics, flavonoid and saponins than the aqueous extract. In the HPTLC chromatogram, a number of peaks at different Rf values were obtained which suggested presence of varied types of polyphenols and steroidal saponins. Conclusion: Owing to the present findings it can be concluded that the fern D. esculentum have considerable amount of polyphenols and saponins which might collectively be responsible for its pharmacological principles.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001268
Title: Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oil of Trianthema decandra L.
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Essential oils are promising sources of antimicrobial activity. Essential oil was isolated from chloroform leaf extract of Trianthema decandra using column chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 23 components were identified, representing 99.98% of oil. The major components of T. decandra oil were Eicosane (18.81%), Tetracosane (16.17%), Hexadecane (14.84%), Dotriacontane (8.17%), Nonacosane (7.13%), Tetrapentacosane (5.61%), Henelcosane (4.34%), 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol (2.92%), Bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (2.74%) and Phytol (2.19%). The oil has lower contents of 4,6-Dimethyldodecane (0.83%), 3,7-Dimethyldecane (0.77%), 3,4,5,6-Tetramethyloctane (0.64%), 3-Ethyl-3-methylheptane (0.35%), 3,8 Dimethylundecane (0.29%). The essential oil showed the Diameter of Inhibition Zone(DIZ) ranging from 19  0.01 to 24  0.05 mm at a concentration level of 1 mg/disc in all the twelve strains tested. Chloramphenicol and nystatin have shown DIZ ranging from 18  0.05 to 23.6  0.02 mm at a concentration of 30 mg/disc. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil against bacterial and fungal strains was in the range of 625e1250 mg/ml. Total phenolic contents of essential oil was 72.4  1.26 mg/g weight of essential oil which was expressed as GAE. The antioxidant activity assays of the essential oil used in the inhibition of the free radical 2, 2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl showed high inhibitory concentration values of 70.64  0.05 mg/g.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001269
Title: Hydrogen production by Pseudomonas stutzeri JX442762 isolated from thermal soil at Mettur power station, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Carbohydrate based substrates presents a promising route of biological hydrogen production compared with chemical routes. Pure substrates including starch, sucrose as well as different organic waste materials can be used for hydrogen production. Among a large number of microbial species, strict anaerobes and facultative anaerobic chemoheterotrophs, thermoanaerobacter species are efficient producers of hydrogen. Since hydrogen is a high-energy fuel than hydrocarbon fuel, it is essential to find an alternative source. Objectives: To isolate hydrogen producing organism from thermal soil sample, to identify the organism as it is a cost effective way for biological hydrogen production. The hydrogen production was assessed in pure starch, sucrose and also in mango juice effluent obtained from Krishnagiri dist., to find a better substrate. Methodology: Morphological, biochemical characterization of the isolate was evaluated and finally confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Hydrogen production was measured by simple water displacement method for the selected substrates at 70 C, initial pH 4.0 as well as for the effluent. Results: 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirms the organism as Pseudomonas stutzeri which was deposited in gene bank under the accession number JX442762 and the identified strain was named as SSKVM 2012. The G þ C content of the strain P. stutzeri was found to be 53 mol%. The obtained results showed that the maximum hydrogen production was observed with pure starch (255.98  0.76 ml) but in sucrose it was found to be 212.82  0.57 ml. The mango juice effluent showed 190.03  0.81 ml hydrogen. Even though it was less when compared to hydrogen production by starch and sucrose, mango juice effluent could be a better substrate for the identified organism. Conclusion: The identified strain confirms that it can use effluent as a good source for the hydrogen production as its initial pH is 6.0 and also freely available in the environment.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-QA-00001271
Title: Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Montelukast Sodium and Fexofenadine hydrochloride in combined dosage form
Category: Quality Assurance
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, fast and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Montelukast Sodium (MONT) and Fexofenadine hydrochloride (FEXO). The chromatographic separation was achieved on X-bridge C18 column (250 mm  4.6 mm, 5 mm) as stationary phase with a mobile phase comprising of 50 mM Sodium acetate buffer:acetonitrile:methanol (25:35:40) adjust pH 8.2 with 5% o-phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, column temperature of 40  2 C and UV detection at 210 nm. The retention time of Montelukast Sodium and Fexofenadine hydrochloride were 3.43 min, and 8.22 min respectively. The linearity were found to be in the range of 12.5e37.5 mg/mL and 150e450 mg/mL for Montelukast Sodium and Fexofenadine hydrochloride with correlation coefficient greater than 0.999. The proposed methods were validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied for the determination of investigated drugs in tablets.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001272
Title: Pharmcognostical standardization and HPTLC fingerprint of Averrhoa bilimbi (L.) fruits
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The fruits of Averrhoa bilmbi L. are used to treat skin disorders, fever, for scurvy and beneficial in diarrhoea, hepatitis and in inflammatory condition. It is also used to treat hyperlipidaemia and possess potential antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Pharmacognostical standards on bilimbi fruits are not yet available for correct identification of plant material and to ascertain its quality and purity. The present investigation was therefore undertaken to determine the requisite pharmacognostical standards according to the Pharmacopoeial guidelines for evaluating the fruit. Pharmacognostical evaluation included examination of morphological and microscopical characters, physicochemical properties, phytochemical analysis, fluorescence study and HPTLC fingerprint. The powder microscopy showed the presence of simple and glandular trichomes and spiral thickening of vessels. Phytochemical screening reported the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, tannins and hydrolysable tannins. The HPTLC fingerprint developed for the separation of phytoconstituents is unique to A. bilimbi L. fruit powder. HPTLC fingerprint has been developed; as the chemical fingerprint obtained by chromatographic techniques are strongly recommended for the purpose of quality control of herbal medicines. This unique band pattern obtained from HPTLC fingerprint can be used for the identification of A. bilimbi L. fruits. These studies provide referential information for correct identification and standardization of A. bilimbi L. fruit.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001276
Title: Enhanced production of laccase from Coriolus sp. using PlacketteBurman design
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Laccase production by an indigenously isolated white rot basidiomycete Coriolus sp. in solid-state fermentation was (SSF) studied. Bioprocess variables (pH, relative humidity (RH), nitrogen source (gram flour) and incubation time) were optimized in SSF using PlacketteBurman design. Laccase yield of 404.23 U/g dry substrate (U/gds) was obtained in control conditions using wheat bran as solid substrate after 10 days of studies with 80% RH at 30 C and five agar plugs as the inoculum. Further, 6.5 fold increase in laccase activity (2661.36 U/g dry substrate) was achieved at RH 89%; gram flour 1 g/5 gds; pH 5.0 and 10 days of incubation. Statistical analysis showed RH as most significant parameter and incubation time to be least significant parameter for laccase production. Proposed mathematical model based on multiple regression was in complete agreement with experimental observation. Thus, the indigenous isolate seems to be a potential laccase producer using SSF.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001277
Title: GC-MS analysis of essential oil obtained from Heracleum candolleanum (Wight et Arn)
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The essential oil from the seed of Heracleum candolleanum (Wight et Arn) was obtained by hydro distillation and analyzed by gas chromatographyemass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-one compounds were identified representing approximately 98.1% of the oil. The major volatile components of seed were methyl cinnamate (22.38%), n-hexyl hexanoate (21.74%) and octyl alcohol (11.78%).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001278
Title: Formulation and development of tinidazole microspheres for colon targeted drug delivery system
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objective of the present study was to formulate and optimize colon targeted tinidazole microspheres. To achieve these objective nine formulations of microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method using Eudragit polymer. A 32 factorial design was employed in formulating the microspheres with concentration of surfactant (A) and stirring speed (B) as independent variables. Percent drug release was considered as dependent variable. The effect of drug-polymer concentration, surfactant concentration, cross-linking agent and stirring speed were evaluated with respect to entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface characteristics, micromeritic properties, DSC study and in vitro drug release studies. The particle size and entrapment efficiency were found to be varied by changing various formulation parameters like surfactant concentration and stirring speed etc. IR study confirmed the drug-polymer compatibility and scanning electron microscopy indicates that the microspheres have the rough and porous surface due to arising as a trace of solvent evaporation during the process. The release profile of tinidazole from Eudragit microspheres was pH dependent. In acidic medium, the release rate was much slower; however, the drug was released quickly at pH 7.4. It is concluded from the present investigation that Eudragit microspheres are promising as a carrier for colon targeted delivery of tinidazole.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001279
Title: Antidiabetic effect of methanolic extract of Decalepis hamiltonii root (wight and Arn) in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Diabetes mellitus is a major health growing problem in most countries. Purpose of the study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extracts of root of Decalepis hamiltonii in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Alloxan monohydrate 120 mg/kg was used to induce diabetes mellitus. The methanolic extract of D. hamiltonii at 200 mg and 400 mg and glibenclamide at 7 mg/kg bwt were administered to normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats which significantly reduced the blood glucose in the normal rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Also the administration of extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and AST and ALT levels and at the same time increased liver glycogen content. OGTT was performed by administration of 200 mg and 400 mg of methanolic extract of D. hamiltonii and 7 mg of glibenclamide to different groups respectively which significantly lower at all time points that blood was sampled after oral glucose load. These results suggest that the methanolic extract of root of D. hamiltonii was effective in lowering blood glucose level in diabetic rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-BGSA-00001280
Title: Cross evaluation of different classes of alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists to identify overlapping pharmacophoric requirements
Category: Bioinformatics (Genome & Sequence Analysis )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Structurally dispersive classes of drugs targeting identical receptor binding site can serve as a source of information in the design of novel drug candidates. Their comparative cross structural features can be utilized toward optimization of receptoreligand interactions. Five established alpha-adrenergic receptors antagonists were selected as representative compounds of their respective classes. The selected antagonists are Phenoxybenzamine, Phentolamine, Prazosin, Ergoloid Mesylate and Labetalol. A small library of 1000 molecules, 200 from each class, were submitted to molecular docking in the antagonist binding site of alpha-adrenergic receptor. The present work includes homology modeling of alphaadrenergic receptor using SPDBV and its structure validation from Procheck. The molecule library was developed using drug likeness filters (Lipinski’s rules). Flexible molecular docking was performed using MVD (Molegro Virtual Docker) after receptor and ligand preparation. The conclusive outcome of the present work is identification of antagonist binding sites of the alpha-1 (a1)-adrenergic receptor exclusively as hydrophobic due to presence of the amino acids Val 107, Val 157, Asp 106, Ile 157, Ser 158, Ser 192, Ala 189, Phe 288 and Phe 289.The amino acids identified were found crucial to identify pharmacophoric features for alpha-1 (a1)-adrenergic receptor and antagonists. Results also include identification of new molecule (PubChem ID 10289950) similar to Ergoloid Mesylate with re-rank score 113.571. The present work explains successive workflow of homology modeling, flexible molecular docking, and pharmacophoric features identification.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 6, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001281
Title: Screening of phytochemicals, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of crude extract of Pteridium aquilinum Kuhn
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Leaves of Pteridium aquilinum collected from Dibrugarh was analysed for phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial property. The present study reveals that saponin, tannin, phenol, flavonoid, terpenoid, cardiac glycoside, alkaloid and reducing sugar were present in the sample while steroid and anthraquinone were not detected. The results revealed significant amount of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli with zones of inhibition ranging from 16 to 20 mm, but all the test organisms are highly resistant to methanol, chloroform and aqueous extract of the herb. The MIC test of the ethanolic and petroleum ether extract of P. aquilinum against B. subtilis and S. aureus was observed as 1 mg/ml and that for E. coli and P. vulgaris it was found as 0.8 mg/ml. Extracts of the plant were better/equally effective against tested organisms as compared to streptomycin except P. vulgaris. The study provides a scientific basis for the use of the plant extracts in home-made remedies and in the treatment of microbial-induced ailments.