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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-000090
Title: An emphasis on global use of traditional medicinal system and herbal hepatoprotective drugs
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Nature is the best combinatorial chemist and possibly has answers to all diseases of mankind. Till now, natural products discovered from medicinal plants (and their analogues thereof) have provided numerous clinically useful drugs. There is no plant in this Universe which is non-medicinal and which cannot be made of use for many purposes and by many modes. This definition rightly suggests that in principle all plants have a potential medicinal value. Medicinal plants have been considered as important therapeutic aid for alleviating ailment of humankind. Search for eternal health and longevity and to seek remedy to relieve pain and discomfort prompted the early man to explore his immediate natural surroundings to develop a variety of therapeutic agents using natural resources. Herbal plants or botanical medicines have been used traditionally by herbalist worldwide for the prevention and treatment of liver disease. Medicinal plants play a key role in human health care. About 80% of the world population relies on the use of traditional medicine, which is predominantly based on plant material. Liver diseases are a major problem of worldwide proportions and liver damage is very common since liver has the capacity to detoxicate toxic substances. Liver plays a vital role in metabolism and excretion. Liver ailments need to be treated with utmost care. In India, there are about 100 medicinal plants used in 33 herbal formulations. Medicinal plants may serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat a variety of liver problems. Many herbs have been proven to be effectual as hepatoprotective agents while many more are claimed to be hepatoprotective but lack any such scientific evidence to support such claims. Developing a satisfactory herbal therapy to treat severe liver diseases requires systematic investigation of properties like anti-hepatotoxicity (antioxidants), stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. Formulation of herbal medicines with standards of safety and efficacy can revitalize treatment of liver disorders. The aim of this review is to elucidate the list of hepatoprotective medicinal plants, which are scientifically proved.

DOI: An emphasis on global use of traditional medicinal system and herbal hepatoprotective drugs.

https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3168148.v1

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-000089
Title: Assessment of the anti-ulcer action of the leaves of calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides Desv) in Wistar rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The leaves of Calopogonium mucunoides is used in South Eastern Nigeria for the management of ulcer. Thus, the phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity and anti-ulcer effect of the ethanol extract of the leaves of C. mucunoides using ethanol-induced model of gastric ulceration in rats were evaluated. Methods : The anti-ulcer action of the extract was assessed by determining the volume of gastric juice secretion, ulcer index (length of gastric lesions) and concentrations of the free and total acidity with the aid of standard methods. Results : The phytochemical analyses of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids. The extract at a dose as high as 5000 mg/kg body weight (b.w) was not toxic. The extract at the tested doses (100 and 300 mg/kg b.w) caused significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent reductions in the volume of gastric juice secretion, ulcer index and concentrations of the free and total acidity in the treated rats. The anti-ulcer effect exhibited by the extract was comparable with that obtained for the standard anti-ulcer drug [ranitidine (150 mg/kg b.w)]. Conclusion : These findings indicate that the ethanol extract of the leaves of C. mucunoides has remarkable anti-ulcer effect and therefore, lends believability to its use in folk medicine for the management of ulcer.

DOI: Assessment of the anti-ulcer action of the leaves of calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides Desv) in Wistar rats. figshare.

https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3168142.v1

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-000088
Title: Effect of chlorogenic acid content in roasted coffee on in vitro antioxidant efficiency
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of chlorogenic acid content on in vitro antioxidant property of some commercially available (A, B and C) and (VC) roasted coffee from Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd. The DPPH scavenging, SOD scavenging, Reducing power and lipidperoxidation assays were conducted. The coffee samples were quantified for chlorogenic acid through HPLC method. The antioxidant activity of coffee samples showed chlorogenic acid dependent activity. The VC showed the good antioxidant property than the commercially available tested coffee brews. The good activity might be due to rich chlorogenic acid content in VC coffee sample.

DOI: Effect of chlorogenic acid content in roasted coffee on in vitro antioxidant efficiency. 

https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3168139.v1

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-000087
Title: Synthesis and screening of some new halogenated aryl sulfonyl derivatives of (3,4-methylenedioxy)benzylamine as potential antibacterial agents
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: Due to diverse biological activities of sulfonamides, a new halogenated series of N-(un)substituted N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) arylsulfonamides were synthesized to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methods: N-(3,4-Methylenedioxybenzyl) arylsulfonamides (3a-e) were synthesized by the benignant reaction of (3,4-methylenedioxy)benzylamine (1) and halogenated aryl sulfonyl chlorides (2a-e) in an aqueous sodium carbonate solution. These prepared molecules were further treated with ethyl iodide (4), benzyl chloride (5) and 4-flourobenzyl chloride (6) using NaH as activator in a polar aprotic solvent, to yield the target compounds, 7a-e, 8a-e and 9a-e respectively. IR, 1H-NMR and EIMS spectra were employed for the structural analysis of the synthesized molecules. Results: The synthesized molecules were obtained in good yields. Among the synthesized molecules, 7d exhibited no activity at all against all the bacterial strains. The most of the molecules showed comparable inhibition potential to ciprofloxacin, the reference standard, against the three bacterial strains of gram negative and two bacterial strains of gram positive bacteria. Conclusion: The evaluation of the synthesized molecules for antibacterial activity rendered them moderately better inhibitors as evident by their MIC values.

DOI:Synthesis and screening of some new halogenated aryl sulfonyl derivatives of (3,4-methylenedioxy)benzylamine as potential antibacterial agents. figshare.

https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3168136.v1

 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-000086
Title: Effect of B.diffusa root extracts on ex vivo and Cu++ -mediated in vitro susceptibility of LDL, sd-LDL and lb-LDL to oxidation in absence or presence of glucose in diabetic-hyperlipidemic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) for all age group worldwide is quite high. In India the total number of subjects with DM is projected to increase from 31.7 million in 2000 to 79.4 million in 2030. Boerhaavia diffusa is a member of Nyctaginaceae family. It is a perennial creeping weed, a number of branches spread out from the node of main stem and cover most of the surrounding area.In India it is commonly known as ‘punarnava’ where it has a long history of use by indigenous and tribal people and in Ayurvedic herbal medicine systems. Methods: In this study we tried to check the effect of B.diffusa on ex vivo and Cu++-mediated invitro susceptibility of LDL, sd-LDL and lb-LDL to oxidation in absence or presence of glucose in diabetic-hyperlipidemic rats. Results: Our results demonstrate that even in normal animals, relative to lb-LDL, the invivo oxidizability of sd-LDL, measured as base line diene conjugation (BDC) was higher by 2.90-fold, which was further increased to 3.3-fold due to diabetes. Similarly, in comparison to a lag phase value of 53 min for lb-LDL in normal rats, sd-LDL lag phase was reduced to only 15.0 min, which was further shortened to 9.6 min in diabetic rats, indicating a substantially enhanced Cu++-catalyzed sd- LDL oxidizability. Conclusion: Dietary B. diffusa aqueous and methanolic root extracts due to their potent antioxidative properties can provide additional benefits in the inhibition of oxidative stress, particularly in the resistance of highly atherogenic sd-LDL to oxidation and hence in the prevention and treatment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3168118

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-000085
Title: Protective effect of catechin from black tea in an in-vitro model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Present study was designed to compare cardio-protective activity of crude aqueous extract and catechin fractions of black tea on the oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat. Method: Black tea extract and catechin fraction were administered to male Wister rats weighing between 200-250 g in three different doses (n=6), by gastric gavage at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (BT1), 1000 mg/kg body weight (BT2), 1500 mg/kg body weight (BT3) and catechin fraction at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (CT1), 20 mg/kg body weight (CT2), 30 mg/kg body weight (CT3) daily for thirty days. Rat’s heart was subjected to in vitro global ischemic reperfusion injury (5 min perfusion, 9 min no flow and 12 min reperfusion). Biochemical parameters like TBARS, SOD, GSH and catalase were measured in treated groups at basal level and in in vitro ischemic reperfusion injury of the treated groups. Results: Pre-treatment with the black tea crude extract on the dose of both 500 & 1000 mg/kg and catechin 10, 20 & 30 mg/kg has a definite, dose-dependent modulatory effect on the antioxidant milieu of heart. CT2IR treated group offered better cardio-protection when subjected to IR injury. No definite pattern of change in the level of TBARS and endogenous antioxidants was observed. Hence these modulatory actions seem to be enzyme-specific. Conclusion: From these findings it has been concluded that Catechin fraction in a smaller dose (20 mg/kg) shows significant cardioprotective activity when compared with other doses and parent black tea extract. Further research is required to find out the mechanism of action of Catechin for cardioprotection.

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3168115.v1

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-0000102
Title: Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for quantitative analysis of Rizatriptan benzoate in pure and Pharmaceutical formulations
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was performed by using Intersil DBC C18column (250mmX4.6mmX5μ particle size) with UV detection at 225 nm. An isocratic mobile phase consisting of Phosphate buffer pH6.5:Aceto nitrile:Metahnol-87:7.8:5.2 (v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1ml/min.The retention time for Rizatriptan benzoate was 8.435 min. The method was linear in the concentration range of 20-60 μg/ml of Rizatriptan benzoate with the correlation coefficient of 0.999. The method was validated for linearity,accuracy,precision,limit of detection,limit of quantification, robustness and ruggedness.Recovey of Rizatriptan benzoate was found to be101% to 102%.The developed reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was simple, sensitive, precise and accurate and the method was found suitable for estimating in tablet dosage form.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000101
Title: Screening of Crude Plant Extracts for anti-adipogenesis activity in 3T3-L1 cells.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Hyperlipidemia is the major risk factor contributing to prevalence and severity of cardiovascular complications like atherosclerosis. The present study was aimed to screen the selected crude plant extracts for antiadipogenesis activity in-vitro in 3T3-L1 cells. Methodology: Four herbal drugs which were used traditionally in the treatment of several disorders including obesity were selected namely, Commiphora caudata (leaves, bark), Boswellia ovalifoliolata (leaves, gum), Saccharum spontaneum (whole plant) and Garcinia mangostana (fruit pericarp). Ethanolic extracts of the selected plants were screened for their cytotoxicity and anti-adipogenic activity in-vitro. For testing the in-vitro cytotoxicity of the selected plant extracts, an MTT assay was performed with concentrations of test extracts of the selected plants ranging from 31.25 to 1000 mg/mL. Effect of the plant extracts on lipid accumulation in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes was determined by measuring Oil Red O staining. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured and differentiated in a Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum for 6 to 8 days in the absence and presence of plant extracts. Results: Among the six plant extracts tested, ethanolic extract of B.ovalifoliolata gum showed higher cytotoxicity with a lower CTC50 value of 100 µg/ml and the remaining extracts showed CTC50 ranging from 120-720 µg/ml. Adipogenesis was substantially inhibited by the test extracts and among the six extracts screened, C. caudata leaves , B.ovalifoliolata Gum, S. spontaneum whole plant and G. mangostana fruit pericarp significantly reduced the lipid accumulation with 51.5, 46.1, 26 and 56.3 (%) over control at 100, 700, 250 and 250µg/mL respectively through the quantification method of Oil Red O staining. Other two extracts namely C. caudata bark (4.8) and B.ovalifoliolata leaves (8.3)) did not show significant inhibition of fat accumulation at the tested concentration. Conclusion: The results suggest that these extracts may be useful in the treatment of Hyperlipidemia and its associated cardiovascular diseases like atherosclerosis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000100
Title: Synthesis and in-vitro antimalarial evaluation of Pyrazoline: A new antimalarial scaffold
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Synthesis of novel Imino-arylidene derivatives of Pyrazoline and evaluation of their in-vitro antimalarial activity. Method: It involved three steps. Initially 1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-arylprop-2-en-1-ones (1a-1f) were synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation. Further, compounds (1a-1f) were refluxed with hydrazine hydrate using ethanol as solvent, to yield pyrazoline derivatives (2a-2f). Compounds (2a-2f) on refluxing with 4-methoxy benzaldeyde yield title compounds 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-[4-(5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenyl]methanimine (3a-3f). The synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR, NMR and Mass spectral data. Compounds were evaluated for their in-vitro antimalarial activity against 3D7 P. falciparum using chloroquine as standard drug. Result: Imino-arylidene derivatives of Pyrazoline (3a-3f) exhibited better in vitro antimalarial activity against 3D7 P. falciparum as compared to pyrazolines (2a-2f). Compound 3d was found to have IC50 value of 9.99µgmL-1. Conclusion: An increase in number of methoxy group on Imino-arylidene derivatives of Pyrazoline results in an increase in in-vitro antimalarial activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-000099
Title: Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for quantitative analysis of Modafinil in pure and pharmaceutical formulations
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present work aim to develop a simple, accurate and sensitive RP-HPLC method and validated for the estimation of Modafinil in pure drug and it’s tablet dosage form.A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was performed by using Agilent,XDBC18 column (100 mmX 4.6 mmX5ì paricle size) with UV detection at 225 nm. An isocratic mobile phase consisting of Potassium dihydrogen Phosphate Acetonitrile:50:50 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1ml/min. The retention time for Modafinil was 4.32 min. The method was linear in the concentration range of 12.5-75 μg/ml of Modafinil with the correlation coefficient of 0.999. The method was validated for linearity,accuracy,precision,limit of detection,limit of quantification,robustness and ruggedness.Recovey of Modafinil was found to be 99% to 101%.The developed reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was simple, sensitive, precise and accurate and the method was found suitable for estimating in tablet dosage form.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-000098
Title: Novel UV spectrophotometric method for estimation of Nelfinavir by derivative spectroscopy
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Two Simple, precise and economical UV methods have been developed and validated for the quantitative estimation of Nelfinavir in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Nelfinavir showed sharp peak at lmax 255 nm (Method A, zero order), showed sharp peak at 248 nm (Method B, first order). Methanol was used as solvent for all methods. Beer’s-Lamberts law was found to be obeyed in the concentration range of 5-40 μg/ml. The developed methods were statically validated according to international conference on harmonization guidelines and were found to be accurate and reproducible. Results of the analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000097
Title: Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for quantitative analysis of Miglitol in pure and pharmaceutical formulations
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was performed by using Zodiac C18column (250mmX4.6mmX5μ particle size) with UV detection at 216 nm. An isocratic mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile:Methanol:Potassium dihydrogen Phosphate50:35:15(v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1ml/min.The retention time for Miglitol was 3.84 min. The method was linear in the concentration range of 40-100 μg/ml of Miglitol with the correlation coefficient of 0.999. The method was validated for linearity,accuracy, precision, limit of detection,limit of quantification,robustness and ruggedness.Recovey of Miglitol was found to be 99% to 102%.The developed reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was simple, sensitive, precise and accurate and the method was found suitable for estimating in tablet dosage form.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DIR-000096
Title: Comparative study of regulatory requirements for the approval of generic drugs for Association of South East Asian Nation (ASEAN), Gulf Co-Operative Council (GCC) & United States Food And Drug
Category: Drug Information Research
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The purpose of the present study was to compare dossier requirements of different countries like ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nation), GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) and USFDA (United States Food and Drug Administration). Methods: Collection of the following dossier format like ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nation), GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) and USFDA (United States Food and Drug Administration). Identifying the critical and major differences among those three dossiers (ASEAN, GCC& US-FDA) related to technical document. Comparison of common technical document for those critical and major differences among three countries (ASEAN, GCC & USFDA) Results: After pooling all the information and data that was collected in due course of time of the research, was made into comparative chart format where it is shown that among group of countries (like ASEAN, GCC) and also these guidelines were compared with regulated market USFDA. It was found that, there was less harmonisation and various differences in dossier requirements. Discussion: In its legal sense regulation can and should be distinguished from primary legislation on the one hand and judge-made law on the other. Regulations may create costs as well as benefits and may produce unintended reactivity effects, such as defensive practice. Efficient regulations can be defined as those where total benefits exceed total costs. Regulatory reviews and communication with the applicants will be facilitated by a standard document of common elements. In addition, exchange of regulatory information between Regulatory Authorities will be simplified. Conclusion: Regulation creates, limits, or constrains a right, creates or limits a duty, or allocates a responsibility. Regulation can take many forms: legal restrictions promulgated by a government authority, contractual obligations that bind many parties, self-regulation by an industry such as through a trade association, social regulation, co-regulation, third-party regulation, and certification, accreditation or market regulation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-000095
Title: Preparation and evaluation of Venlafaxine hydrochloride Microspheres by Ionotropic Gelation method
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Venlafaxine hydrochloride (VHL) an antidepressant drug shows burst effect with fluctuating drug levels in systemic circulation due to its higher solubility and shorter elimination half life of 4 hrs. Background: In order to achieve the patient compliance the dose frequency and dose size of VHL can be reduced by entrapping it in gastro-resistant hydrophilic natural polymers. Method: Ionotropic gelation method. Results and Discussion: SEM confirmed cracks on the surface of calcium-alginate microspheres and due to these cracks low drug content and entrapment efficiency was observed. With the increase in the concentration of pectin, a higher number of free carboxylic groups of pectin were able to interact with Ca++ counter-ions and thus increases the drug entrapment. The characteristic peak of VHL was not more detectable in its physical mixture with pectin and sodium alginate due to the strong exothermic effect associated to the pectin decomposition that overlaps and masks the drug fusion peak indicating decrease of crystallinity and uniformity of dispersion at molecular level. The best fit model was Korsmeyer peppas for the formulations (F2-F4) with higher correlation coefficient value, n value, however, appears to indicate a coupling of diffusion and erosion mechanisms so called anomalous diffusion, whereas formulation F1 was best fitted to Higuchi model, indicates diffusion mechanism. Conclusion: Conclusively the optimal formulation comprising of 0.5%w/v VHL, 1.75%w/v sodium alginate and 0.9%w/v pectin was identified to provide maximum % CDR and a controlled drug release profile without burst release extending up to 12 hrs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DIR-000094
Title: The assessment of current regulatory guidelines for Biosimilars - A Global Scenario
Category: Drug Information Research
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background: With the increasing number and generally high cost of biologic drug products and the impending loss of patent protection by many of them, it seems virtually certain the development of biosimilar drug products will be an increasingly important area in drug regulation and clinical availability. All over the world, countries have been putting regulations in place and are beginning to evaluate biosimilars for marketing approval. The study objectives are to describe the regulatory procedures, quality, safety, efficacy and compare the regulatory aspects of biosimilar guidelines in different countries Methods: To attain the desired objectives of the study review of national legislative documents and guidelines were studied. The drift towards harmonization is to promote public health by ensuring quality, safety and efficacy of biosimilars. The bottom line behind a unified framework of guidelines for biosimilars is to prevent duplication of pre clinical studies, clinical trials, comparability studies, demonstration of biosimilarity to reference biological product without compromising on safety and efficacy aspects, which is obligatory for registration and marketing of biosimilars in any country. Results: A sure prediction is that regulations governing biosimilars will continue to evolve and will become more detailed and specific as more experience is gained with these products and harmonization can be possible. Discussion: Besides, large emerging economies such as China and Brazil, India are currently lagging behind in terms of implementation of regulations and need to act rapidly in developing appropriate regulations for biosimilar product approval. Conclusion: A sure prediction is that regulations governing biosimilars will continue to evolve and will become more detailed and specific as more experience is gained with these products and harmonization can be possible.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-000093
Title: Glycemic control objective achieved and role of certain factors on type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Southwestern region, Saudi Arabia
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objectives of this research is to examine the extent of glycemic control achieved and to find relate if any selected demographic and clinical factors have a role in influencing glycemic control in Saudi patients of Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross sectional retrospective study of patients which included all adult type 2 DM patients who were referred to Aseer Diabetic Center. The eligible patients who got registered were assessed for glycemic control using primary outcome parameter of HbA1c and related factors influence on HbA1c were determined. Results: Among the medical records available, 251 patients fulfilled the criteria and were included in the study. Out of these 251 patients, 222 patient medical records had documentation of HbA1c values. Maximum number of patients, n=197(78.5%) were with duration of DM above 10 years. Almost three quarter of patients, n =177(70.5%) were having HbA1c>8%. The mean (±SD) BMI for men, 28.42(±5.08) kg/m2 was significantly lesser (p<0.0001) than women, 33.51(±6.80) kg/m2. The HbA1c target range of less than 7% was achieved by n=18(7.1%) patients only. Except for duration of diabetes mellitus all other factors (age, sex, family history, type of treatment and BMI)does not seems to influence HbA1c values. Conclusion: The trend of glycemic level reflected by HbA1c showed that the inadequate control of diabetes may be disastrous as this may propagate the microvascular and macrovascular complications. Efforts should be taken to make aware the importance of disease, and role of medication adherence.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-000092
Title: Evaluation of anti-nociceptive properties of Drynaria quercifolia rhizome in Swiss-albino mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Screening of methanolic crude extracts of Drynaria quercifolia rhizome (Family: Polypodiaceae) and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible anti-nociceptive activities in experimental Swiss-albino mice. Methods: Anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing inhibition and radiant heat tail-flick methods. Results: In peripheral method of anti-nociception, the methanolic crude extract (400 mg/kg) and carbon tetrachloride fraction (400 mg/kg) of D. quercifolia showed significant anti-nociceptive activity having 40.94% and 45.64% (P<0.001) of writhing inhibition respectively compared to standard diclofenac (51.68 % inhibition). The aqueous soluble fraction of the extract (400 mg/kg) also showed promising anti-nociceptive activity having 34.9% of writhing inhibition (P<0.001). In the radiant heat tail-flick method of central anti-nociception, the methanolic crude extract (400 mg/kg) and petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg) of D. quercifolia showed significant analgesic activity having 63.92% (P<0.001) and 64.49% (P<0.01) elongation of reaction time respectively at 60 minutes after administration of sample compared to the standard morphine (75% elongation). The carbon tetrachloride fraction (400 mg/kg) also demonstrated potent analgesic activity (51.14% elongation). Conclusion: The findings of the studies demonstrated anti-nociceptive activities of the rhizomes of D. quercifolia which could be the therapeutic option against pain.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-000091
Title: Concentrations of anti-nutritional factors in raw edible cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) leaves
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: The leaves of Colocasia esculenta is eaten as vegetable and thus, the concentrations of antinutritional factors in ethanol extract of raw C. esculenta leaves were determined. Methods: The concentrations of oxalates, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, lectins, phytates, trypsin inhibitors and cyanogenic glycosides in ethanol extract of raw C. esculenta leaves were determined using standard analytical methods. Results:The mean concentrations (in mg/g) of oxalates, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, lectins, phytates, trypsin inhibitors and cyanogenic glycosides were found to be 13.23 ± 0.29, 9.94 ± 0.08, 7.38 ± 0.06, 6.62 ± 0.03, 4.63 ± 0.02, 3.41 ± 0.01, 2.04 ± 0.02 and 0.97 ± 0.01 respectively. The results reveal that raw leaves of C. esculenta contain very high concentration of oxalate, moderate concentrations of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, lectins and phytates in order of decreasing concentrations, low concentration of trypsin inhibitors and very low concentration of cyanogenic glycosides.Conclusion: Experimental findings imply that the consumption of raw C. esculenta leaves may portend some adverse health implications.