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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001495
Title: Novel Synthesis of Puriens analougues and Thieno[2,3-b] pyridine derivatives with anticancer and antioxidant activity
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Treatment of Sodium-3-(2,5-dichlorothiophene-3-yl) prop-3- oxo-1-en-1-olate 2 with aminopyrazoles 3 , aminotriazole 4 and aminotetrazole 5 was produced pyrazolopyrimidines 6, triazolopyrimidines 7 and tetrazolopyrimidines 8 derivatives respectively. These derivatives showed potent anti-tumor cytotoxic activity in vitro using Human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2) and anti-oxidant activity. also compound 2 was reacted with cyanoethanethioamide 9 , cyanoethaneamide 10 and 2-cyanoacetohydrazide 11 afforded 6-(2,5-dichlorothiophene-3-yl)-2-mercaptopyridine-3-carbonitrile 12, 6-(2,5-dichlorothio phene-3-yl)-1,2-dihydro-2-oxopyridine-3-carbonitrile 13 and 2-amino-6-(2,5-dichlorothiophene-3-yl)-1,2-dihydro-2-oxopyridine-3-carbonitrile 14 respectively. 6-(2,5-dichlorothiophene -3- yl ) - 1,2 – dihydro - 2- oxopyridine – 3 - carbonitrile  13 was reacted with different reagents to yield pyridinethiol derivatives 15,16 and thienopyridine 17,18,19.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001428
Title: Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna protects against adrenaline-induced hepatic damage in male albino rats through antioxidant mechanism(s): a dose response study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of different doses of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) on adrenaline-induced hepato-toxicity in male albino rats.  Methods: A total number of 48 adult healthy male albino rats were divided into eight groups comprising of 6 animals each. Group-I served as normal control group. All other groups (group-II and group-VI to VIII) were administered adrenaline sub-cutaneously at a dose of 0.3mg/kg body weight. Group- III to V was treated with different doses of aqueous bark extract of TA at doses of 10mg/kg bw/administered orally (For Group-III), 20mg/kg bw/ administered orally (For Group-IV), 40mg/kg bw/administered orally (For Group-V).  Group-VI, group-VII and group-VIII were also co-treated with different doses of aqueous bark extract of TA at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg bw/ administered orally, respectively.  Results: Treatment of rats with adrenaline induced alterations in the activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase total (LDH T), lactate dehydrogenase-5(LDH 5), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), caused elevation in the level of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, a decrease in glutathione content as well as altered the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the enzymes of Kreb’s cycle and respiratory chain. Tissue histomorphological studies also showed considerable damage following adrenaline treatment. Pre-treatment of rats with aqueous bark extract of TA significantly protected against these hepatic damage. Conclusion: The present studies suggest that the aqueous bark extract of TA may be beneficial in ameliorating adrenaline-induced oxidative stress mediated damages in the rat liver.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001105
Title: Assortment of vital nutrients for enhancement of Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens KST5: A Plackett-Burman design approach
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is the enzyme which have the capability to convert various sugars and starch into cyclodextrins (CDs). These CDs enables their broad application in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, agriculture, analytical chemistry and biotechnology industries. Methods: In the present study various carbon and nitrogen sources were screened for enhanced CGTase production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens KST5. A Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was employed to screen the 15 nutrients. All compounds were studied at 3 levels (-1, 0, +1). Results and discussion: Results indicates that among selected 15 nutrients yeast extract, peptone and starch showed highest impact on the CGTase production. Between 15 studied nutrients 5 compounds such as potassium nitrate, fructose, urea, dextrose and lactose were found to be insignificant for CGTase production. It was observed that yeast extract and starch at lower concentrations are favorable for hyper CGTase production however peptone is needed at higher concentrations. Conclusion: With the help of PB design important nutrients which have the highest influence on the CGTase production were screened. This study implies that the PBD is an efficient tool to screen the large number of compounds with less number of runs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001399
Title: Lead induced oxidative stress: a health issue of global concern
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background/aims: Lead is recognized as one of the major environmental toxins, most  widely distributed in the nature. The effect of lead induced toxicity leads to severe health ailments. The most significant one being neural, cardiac, hepatic and renal damages. Method: Studies including our investigations revealed that the underlying story of lead induced oxidative stress mediated damage has been documented to be lead induced generation of free radicals which causes oxidative damages leading to oxidative stress onslaughts. Occupational and environmental exposure to lead is unavoidable for some people in certain parts of the world. Therefore, the only way out remains to provide a protective remedy against lead induced oxidative stress. Results: Researches around the globe are targeting amelioration of lead induced toxicity by administering antioxidant(s). We have found that melatonin or aqueous extract of curry leaves provides protection against lead induced oxidative damages. Aqueous curry leaves extract and melatonin if used in combination, acts synergistically, complements each other and thus provides a better and stronger protection against lead induced toxicity. Conclusions:  Antioxidant supplementation can provide a magic remedy against lead induced oxidative damages. Thus, curry leaves and melatonin can be used to design a potent drug formulation to provide protection against lead induced oxidative damages. It is void of side effects and has no reported cyto-toxicity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001401
Title: Screening of plant extracts for their antibacterial activity on human pathogens
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: To evaluate the In vitro antibacterial activities of methanolic extracts of medicinal plants  Polyalthia longifolia(sonner)Thw  , Parthenium hysterophorus Linn., Citrus limon(L) Burm.f., Quisqualis indica (Linn), Tephrosia Purpurea(linn)pers, Adhatoda zeylanica Medik, Tinospora cordifolia(wild)Miers ex Hook. And Thoms, Tribulus terrestris (linn), Piper longum(linn),Phyllanthus emblica L. Linn., Abutilon indicum(linn) sweat,Azadirachta indica A.juss,Mimosa pudica(linn) and Pongamia pinnata(linn)mree.Methods: The antibacterial activity of all the 14 medicinal plants used in the study were tested by agar well diffusion method against 12, (5 gram positive and 7 gram negative) bacterial pathogens. The bacterial susceptibility index (BSI) and average percent of bacterial susceptibility (APBS) was determined for evaluating the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts. Results and discussion: All 14 methanolic plant extracts have shown antibacterial activity. The largest DIZ (Diameter of Inhibition zone) belongs to Polyalthia longifolia   leaf extract against Aeromonas hydrophilaas as23mm.It has shown an average DIZ of 20mm against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis. According to BSI Aeromonas hydrophila and   Escherichia coli, were most susceptible Gram-negative bacteria having BSI value 100mm and 64.2mm respectively and most susceptible Gram-positive were Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with a BSI value of 78.5mm and 50 mm respectively. APBS for Gram-negative bacteria was 34.6mm and for Gram-positive bacteria was 25.7mm showing that the plant extracts are more effective against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusion: The study shows that Polyalthia longifolia , Parthenium hysterophorus, Citrus limon, Quisqualis indica has potent antibacterial activity and are new source for antibacterial compounds for treating drug resistant human pathogen.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001403
Title: Antifungal activity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Gladiolus watsonoides Baker (Iridaceae)
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Plants and plant products are by far the most utilized by humans as source of medicine. They are used by various cultures in various ways. Although the beginning of the usage was by trial and error, accessibility may have also contributed to some potentially medicinal plants not being accessed and utilized, hence lack of ethnomedicinal usage in history. Gladiolus watsonoides Baker (iridaceae) is one such plant with high antifungal and cytotoxic activities yet no previous reports have been recorded on its usage, biological activities and phytochemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity, cytotoxicity and the phytochemical components in this plant. Method: Organic and aqueous extracts were tested for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Cryptococcus neoformans by disc diffusion method. Toxicity tests were done using brine shrimp larvae – nauplii and phytochemical screening for the presence of selected classes of compounds conducted by standard chemical procedures. Results: Corms from Organic extracts  showed moderate to high antifungal activity against the three test opportunistic fungi.  The aerial extracts were not active against Aspergillus niger and Cryptococcus neoformans. Varied toxicity levels were noted against the nauplii. Amongst the classes of compounds screened, only steroids were absent in corms while glycosides, anthraquinones and steroids were absent in the aerials. Conclusion:  Further analysis need to be undertaken before more conclusions can be made on the potential significance of this plant as lead to antifungal drug development.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001486
Title: The anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of Cleome felina linn
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Background: In the last decades, there is again a growing popularity of medicinal plants and plant derived products. Cancer is a class of diseases in   which a cell or a group of cells display uncontrolled growth, invasion and sometimes metastasis.  The anticancer activities of certain cleome genera have been studied. The present work deals with the anti cancer activity of the ethanolic extract of Cleome felina Linn. (C.felina). Methods: The anticancer activity against HepG2 (Human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line) cells was analysed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylterttrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Data were collected from triplicate separate experiments and the percentage of C.felina extract induced cell growth inhibition was determined by comparing with DMSO treated control cells. Results :. The maximum inhibition of cell growth was observed at the concentration of  200µg/ml of C. felina extract. Conclusion:The plant extract has potent to  decrease the viability of HepG2 cells in a dose – dependent manner.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001487
Title: Antihepatotoxic role of Boerhaavia diffusa (Linn.) against antituberculosis drug rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in male albino wistar rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To investigate the antihepatotoxic role of methanolic leaf extract of Boerhaavia diffusa on antituberculosis drug, Rifampicin induced liver injury in male albino rats.Methods: In the present study, the methanolic leaf extract of Boerhaavia diffusa (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) was examined for its antihepatotoxic efficacy against rifampicin induced liver injury in rats. Thirty six healthy male albino rats (150-180 g weight) were chosen and divided in to six groups. Rifampicin and methanolic extract were given according to the experimental design. After 28 days of treatment, hepatic marker enzymes and liver histology were analyzed. Results: Rifampicin induced liver damage showed significantly increased activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Gamaglutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and bilirubin and decreased levels of protein in serum when compared with that of the control group. Treatment with Boerhaavia diffusa or silymarin could significantly restore to normal by a decrease in the ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and bilirubin whereas protein levels in serum increased when compared with rifampicin alone treated rats. The probable mechanism of hepatocuration by administration of methanolic leaf extract of Boerhaavia diffusa could minimize the activities of liver marker enzymes and preserve the normal histoarchitecture pattern of liver. Conclusion: The present investigation suggests that the methanolic leaf extract of Boerhaavia diffusa has antihepatotoxic role against rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001488
Title: Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Owing to the immutable nature, metals are a group of pollutants of much higher concern. Human activities such as mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, electroplating, gas exhaust, energy and fuel production, fertilizer and pesticide application, etc., lead towards metal pollution, which has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. At high concentrations, metals can act in a deleterious manner by blocking essential functional groups, displacing other metal ions, or modifying the active conformation of biological molecules. The current remediation techniques of heavy metal from contaminated soil are expensive, time consuming and environmentally destructive. Phytoremediation, an emerging technology for cleaning up contaminated sites, which is cost effective, and has aesthetic advantages and long term applicability. The efficiency of removal of heavy metals like Copper (Cu), Antimony (Sn) and Lead (Pb) from soil by Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Cicer arientinum was studied. The phytoremediation rate with EDTA was compared to without .It was found that Phytoremediation is an effective method for remediation of soil with metal pollutants.the results with chelating agent like EDTA were very encouraging.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001491
Title: Nephroprotective and nephrocurative activity of Alangium salvifolium against Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective:To study the nephroprotective, nephrocurative effect of Alangium salvifolium ethanolic bark extract in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and methods: Nephrotoxicity was induced in wistar male rats by intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin at 40mg/kgb.wt /day for 21 days. Alangium salvifolium was selected to check the effect by using ethanolic bark extract with different doses (250,500,750 mg/kg body weight respectively), was given by oral route. Serum parameters (serum creatinine, serum urea,serum proteins, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)), urine parameters (urine creatinine and urine volume) and other parameters like body weight, in vivo antioxidants catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and Lipid peroxidase level were determined on 22nd day in wistar male rats .Histopathological study of kidney was studied. Results: The three doses of the extracts produced significant nephroprotective, nephrocurative activities with increased doses. The increased actions of nephroprotective, nephrocurative activity in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity models as evident by decrease in serum creatinine, serum urea,serum proteins, urine creatinine, BUN levels and lipid peroxidation (MDA).The increased glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) activities when compared to gentamicin control group which was further confirmed by histopathological study. Conclusion:The study revealed that ethanolic bark extract of Alangium salvifolium reversed the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin experimental animals. This indicates that Alangium salvifolium bark ethanolic extract can be used as an adjuvant with gentamicin to get the therapeutic benefit of these drugs without chances of its prominent nephrotoxicity side effect.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001492
Title: Simultaneous drug release and in vitro evaluation of dual drug loaded methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)- poly (ε-caprolactone) diblock copolymeric micelles
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The simultaneous release of two hydrophobic anticancer drugs from micelles helps in combinational therapeutic effect of both drugs. Methods: Amphiphilic methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (ε-caprolactone) (MePEG-PCL) diblock copolymers were used to form micelles and two hydrophobic anticancer drugs curcumin (CUR) and rapamycin (RAPA) were successfully encapsulated in it. The drug polymer interaction studies were carried by fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. The in vitro release was observed for 120 hrs and drug-release data were fitted to a set of empirical sigmoidal equations by nonlinear regression analysis to predict various drug release parameters. In addition, the efficacy of drug loaded micelles was evaluated in U373 glioblastoma cell lines. Results and discussion: The drug entrapment efficiency was found to be approximately 64 % for CUR and 92 % for RAPA as measured by HPLC method. The particle size of micelle formulation was in nanometer range with negative surface charge. The FTIR analysis studies show that both CUR and RAPA have no interaction with the polymer core and drugs were physically entrapped in micelle. The mathematical equations describe the in vitro drug release follows zero order kinetics and non-fickian diffusion (0.45 < n < 1.00) without erosion of polymeric micelle structure. The obtained half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values obtained from in vitro cell proliferation assay shows CUR+RAPA) loaded micelles have more significantly inhibit the cancer cells as compared to native drugs. Conclusion: The hydrophobic anticancer drug loaded micelles shows prolong release of both the drugs without erosion of the polymer matrix. The in vitro cell line studies shows significant efficacy of the formulation, which can be further explore to in vivo studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001493
Title: Beneficial effects of Hydnocarpus laurifolia seed on lipid profile status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the widespread and severe metabolic disorders in human all over the world. The effect of the disease on lipid metabolism is very well established. The association of hyperglycaemia with altered lipid parameters presents a major risk for all cardiovascular diseases. Various medicinal plants have effectively been used to conquer this health problem. Objective:The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti- hyperlipidemic efficacy of Hydnocarpus laurifolia seeds in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by giving Streptozotocin intraperitoneally, rats which showed blood glucose levels >250 mg/dl were selected for the study. The petroleum ether and ethylacetate extracts of Hydnocarpuslaurifolia seeds were prepared and administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg each orally. Metformin was given as a standard drug at a dose of 50 mg/kg orally. Results: The fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels were estimated by glucose-oxidase method. The plasma levels of cholesterol (CH), triglycerides (TG) low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were estimated and found to be  significantly (p<0.0001) lowered in extract treated diabetic rats. The results showed that the present study provided a rationale for the use of Hydnocarpus laurifolia seed extract as an anti-diabetic agent and anti-hyperlipidemic agent.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001494
Title: Antimicrobial, antioxidant and phytochemical property of Cassia tora against pathogenic microorganisms
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of seeds and pods along with seeds showed the highest activity in comparison to leaves and bark with regard to the inhibition of microbial growth while distilled water showed ineffective antimicrobial activity against different plant extracts. All plant parts exhibited antimicrobial activity but the highest activity is observed in the pods taken along with seeds. The methanolic extracts were considered for antioxidant analysis.All extracts showed significant antioxidant scavenging activities against DPPH radical as observed from IC50 values. The methanolic extracts of seeds proved to be most effective antioxidant as compared to methanolic extracts prepared using bark, leaves and pods.The Cassia tora is very easily available medicinal plant. The role of medicinal plants in disease prevention has been attributed to antimicrobial, phytochemical and antioxidant properties of their constituents. The antimicrobial activity of Cassia tora was analyzed by agar well diffusion assay. The antioxidant and phytochemical properties was analyzed by standard protocols.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001496
Title: Controlled release nasal route gel formulations of Mepivacaine Hcl for mucosal drug delivery with suitable rheology and mucoadhesive property
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The purpose of the study was to develop an optimized thermoreversible controlled release gel of amide group anesthetic agent for delivery into nasal mucosal pocket containing Mepivacaine hydrochloride as a model drug. Materials and methods: The prepared formulations are biocompatible and display low viscosity at the moment of in vivo application. Once applied, formulation undergo a sol-gel transition , resulting in semisolid gel. Thermosensitive controlled release gel containing  5% w/v Mepivacaine hydrochloride  was formulated by cold method using different combination of pluronic F 127, F 87, F 108  and F 68. The gels were evaluated for drug content, gelation temperature, viscosity, invitro release and Ex vivo evaluation of safety and efficacy of optimized formulation. The gelation of system at body temperature is important evaluation parameter in optimization study.  Results and discussion: The formulations containing 20% w/v of   Pluronic F 127, F 87, F 108  and 20% w/v of pluronic F 68 showed gelation near to body temperature. The drug release from the formulations was diffusion controlled without swelling. Ex-vivo evaluation of optimized formulation was carried in horizontal Ussing Chamber. Optimized formulation M4, M10 & M16showed promising finding in management of pain associated with scaling and root planning. Conclusion: Site specific delivery of anesthesia with longer duration of action was achieved with thermoreversible gel.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001497
Title: Development, characterization and optimization of fast-dissolve tablets of Esomeprazole & Enalapril by using solid dispersion technique
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Esomeprazole Magnesium Dihydrate (EMD) and Enalapril Maleate (EM) are poorly water-soluble drugs, and bioavailability is very low. The objective of the research was to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of both drugs by formulating a solid dispersion with Pluronic polymers F127, F87 & F108 using hot melt method.  Methods: The dissolution profiles of developed formulations were studied. Drug–polymer interactions also were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For the preparation of Esomeprazole Magnesium Dihydrate and Enalapril Maleate fast-dissolve tablets, a 1:2 solid dispersion with Pluronic polymers F127, F87 & F108 was used with croscarmellose sodium as a superdisintegrant and Pearlitol 200SD (pearlitol) as a pore-forming agent. Also studied were disintegration time, percentage friability, wettability, and percentage of drug released etc. Results and discussion: The results showed that a dispersion of the drug in polymer considerably enhanced the dissolution rate. The drug-to-carrier ratio is the controlling factor for dissolution improvement. FTIR spectra show no chemical incompatibility between the drug and Pluronic polymers F127, F87 & F108. FTIR and DSC data indicate that Esomeprazole Magnesium Dihydrate and Enalapril Maleate were in the amorphous form, which explains the faster dissolution rate of the drug from its solid dispersions. Conclusion: Concerning the optimization study, different analysis revealed that an optimum concentration of croscarmellose sodium and a higher percentage of pearlitol are required for obtaining rapidly disintegrating tablets.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001498
Title: Chitosan based mucoadhesive microsphers for oral controlled delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The use of natural polymers in dosage form design has received considerable attention, especially from the viewpoint of safety. Among these polymers, chitosan (CS), the N-deacetylated product of the polysaccharide chitin, is gaining increasing importance in the pharmaceutical field owing to its good biocompatibility, non toxicity and biodegradability.  It has also been shown that CS is mucoadhesive and enhances the penetration of  macromolecules across the intestinal and nasal barriers. This paper was an attempt to prepare mucoadhesive microsphres of diltiazem  hydrochloride, hydrophilic drug  using chitosan  to achieve a controlled drug release. The microsphres were prepared by using double emulsion technique.  The obtained microspheres were evaluated for particle size, size distribution and drug loading. The average particle size was found to be 412 µm, average drug content was 74 .25+ /- 1.11% and drug loading was 70.89 % +/- 2.21 %.  SEM studies indicated spherical particles with uneven surfaces. The extent of mucoahsion on porcine intestinal mucosa was up to 9.85 hrs. The ex-vivo permeation from chitosan  microsphers exhibited a drug permeation  of  78.85+/-2.22 % in 10 hr study. Short term stability indicated no significant changes in drug loading and release profiles.