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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001514
Title: Formulation development and evaluation of topical compositions comprising Arbutin, Tretinoin and Triamcinolone acetonide cream
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation is formulation development and evaluation of topical compositions comprising Arbutin, Tretinoin of Triamcinolone acetonide cream. The Arbutin, Tretinoin & Triamicoriolone acetonide were choosen as a novel drug in the present work of investigation due to wide spectrum of activity, low toxicity and effective against hyperpigmentation. The study aims to develop the triple combination cream due to the additive and synergistic effect of three component. The cream is formulated by using two phase system. The oil phase is melted at 90°C & then transferred into the heated 90°C aqueous phase. The mixture is stirred by using stirrer at 200 rpm. As the temperature decreases, the cream gets formed. The cream is formed by using the fusion technique. The formulation RD – E was found to be the best one which gives accurate result. The % drug content of Rationing was found to be 101.1% Triamcinolose acetonide was found 99% & Arbutin was 98%. The pH was found to be 4.21. Colour was found to be yellowish semisolid cream. The viscosity was found to be 63,000 cps. Spreadibility was found to be 11.30 & tube extrubility was found to be 93.80%.The result shown as per the stability study after three months. It gives the accurate and satisfactory result.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001499
Title: A facile UV spectrophotometric estimation of quetiapine fumarate in pharmaceutical dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple rapid, accurate, precise and reproducible validated UV spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of Quetiapine fumarate. The absorption maximum of the drug was found to be 237nm by using Ethanol: 1N sodium hydroxide (1: 1) as a solvent. It obeys the beer’s lamberts law in the range of 75-175µg/ml. The precision of the method was found within limit (RSD -%2).The analysis of the formulation showed good result in the concentration range of 102.42% to 103.24%. The mean percentage recovery was found to be 99.42%. This shows the adaptability of the method for routine estimation of Quetiapine fumarate in tablet dosage form.  Quetiapine fumarate is soluble in Methanol, Ethanol, 0.1N HCl, and Water, but the λmax of Quetiapine fumarate in above solvents is 207-215.Normally the solvent peak appears in the region of 200 to 220, so it may interfere the analysis, in order to avoid that extended conjugation Bathochromic shift method was followed by increasing the polarity of the solvent.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001500
Title: Ontogenetic assessment of withanolide biogenesis and expression of selected pathway genes in Withania somnifera, a traditional medicinal herb
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Background:Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Family, Solanaceae) is one of the most valuable traditional medicinal plant synthesizing large number of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites known as withanolides. Among withanolides, withanolide A and withaferin A were reported to be dominant metabolites, distributed among various tissues of this plant at varying concentrations. Withanolides are synthesized via mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathways (MEP) takes place in plastid and cytosol respectively. In this study, expression pattern of few pathway genes encoding for Hydroxymethylglutaryl Co-A reductase (Ws HMGR), Farnesyldiphosphate synthase (Ws FPPS), Squalene epoxidase (Ws SE), Cycloartenol synthase (Ws CAS) and Glucosyl transferase (Ws GT) involved in withanolide biosynthesis were analysed at different developmental stages of the plant. Methods:In this study, leaf, root, stem, flowers and berry tissues were harvested from Withania somnifera – JA 20 variety at five different life cycles and were used as a source material for (HPTLC) analysis, RNA extraction and gene expression. Results and Discussion: Significant increase in the expression pattern of selected pathway genes from vegetative stage till yellow berry bearing stage was documented in root and leaf tissues. Expression of FPPS gene was determined to be attributed to shoot tissues, whereas, SE levels were higher in root tissue.  At yellow berry stage, the concentrations of withanolide A and withaferin A were comparatively higher in root (623±0.12 µg/g DW) and leaf (3895±0.53 µg/g DW) tissues respectively. Flower possess more withaferin A than withanolide A, but surprisingly, both green and yellow berries contained only meager quantity of withanolide A but withaferin A was completely lacking. Conclusion:To date this is the first report on expression profiling of withanolide biosynthetic pathway genes at different phenophases alongside with secondary metabolite accumulation in all the tissues.  This study would be useful to harvest the plant at the right stage to obtain maximum bioactive principles which is a crucial step in the preparation of traditional medicine.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001501
Title: Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Sustained Delivery of Penicillin G prepared by ionic gelation technique
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: In the present scientific era,  use of nanoparticles for antibiotic delivery is increasing due to increased prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. The aim of  this study was to formulate and characterize chitosan nanoparticles of  penicillin G delivery to improve the bioavailability and prevent drug resistance.  Method: In this work we took  penicillin as drug of choice to demonstrate the efficacy of chitosan nanoparticles against bacterial resistance. Ionic gelation technique was used to encapsulate penicillin G  in chitosan  nanoparticles. The anti bacterial efficacy of penicillin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were evaluated against five bacterial strains namely Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella  planticola. The antibacterial effect of penicillin nanoparticles was compared with conventional penicillin drug.  Results: In the present study,  maximum activity was found in Streptococcus pyogenes followed by Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.  Conclusion: Our study suggested that the nano penicillin showed better activity than the conventional penicillin. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001502
Title: Synthesis and Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Some Synthesized Quinazoline and 1,4-Diazepine Derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: This study was aimed to synthesize a series of novel quinazoline and diazepine derivatives effective as antioxidants. Methods: In present work, a number of 2-aminocarbonyl compounds were converted into corresponding 2-chloro-N-(2-((hydroxylimino) methyl)phenyl) acetamide derivative and an unprecedented dehydration-cyclisation step gave 2-(chloromethyl) quinazoline 3-oxide derivative. At this junction point, we can move either way to six or seven membered aza heterocycles. The synthesized quinazoline and diazepine derivatives were characterized by physico-analytical methods like melting point, TLC, IR, NMR. Compounds have been evaluated for their invitro antioxidant methods like DPPH, nitrous oxide (NO) and H2O2 scavenging method. Results and Discussion: From spectrochemical data the structure of synthesized compounds were confirmed. Antioxidant activity was determined from IC50 value. Compound 5e showed lowest IC50 value in radical scavenging assay and were observed to be 16.74, 16.05, and 18.41 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: All the synthesized compounds showed moderate to good antioxidant activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-MPDI-00001503
Title: Marine Derived Fungi A. cervinus NCIM 1356: A Potential Source of HMGR inhibitors.
Category: Marine Pharmacy Drug Investigation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Lovastatin is an important fungal secondary metabolite inhibiting the enzyme which catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Increasing incidence of heart attacks and strokes due to hypercholesterolemia necessitates the invention of new drugs or novel sources/production strategies of existing drugs to manage higher cholesterol levels. Aim: In the present study, a new species of Aspergillus family, A. cervinus, isolated from Indian marine source has been screened for production of lovastatin. Methods: Lovastatin production by submerged fermentation was confirmed preliminarily by TLC and UV spectroscopy with further confirmation by HPLC and yeast growth inhibition bioassay. Results and conclusion:  In the past, A. terreus has been mainly exploited for commercial production of lovastatin but results obtained in this study indicated that further studies and medium optimization can provide an additional industrially important strain for statin production.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001504
Title: Formulation and evaluation of extended release tablets of Tapentadol hydrochloride using hydrophilic-hydrophobic polymer combinations.
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the present work was to develop an extended-release dosage form of Tapentadol Hydrochloride (HCl). Introduction: Tapentadol is a centrally-acting opioid analgesic indicated for the management of moderate to severe chronic pain and neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in adults. Tapentadol is a BCS class- I drug. Method: Matrix tablets were prepared using hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers like Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K200M and Kollidon SR, either alone or in combinations by wet granulation method and evaluated for various physical and chemical parameters. Results and Discussion: Hydrophilic matrix tablets failed to prolong the drug release, whereas hydrophobic based matrix tablets showed lesser release of drug. The combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers matrix tablets showed zero order kinetics and release mechanism was non-fickion diffusion controlled. The release has shown that the tablets can be alternative for conventional Tapentadol tablets.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001505
Title: Study of wound healing activity of extracts of some Indian medicinal plants.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Wound is defined as the disruption of the cellular and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Several drugs of plant, mineral and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties. Inspite of recent advances in the basic mechanism of wound healing, knowledge of factors involved in the development and treatment of wounds and their prevention remains limited. Since both the plants under study Spathodea campanulata and Aspidium cicutarium are already reported to have a good antioxidant potential and high steroid, flavonoid and phenolic content they were investigated for wound healing activity. The wound healing activity was evaluated by using excision wound model, incision wound model and study of histopathology slides. The results of the methanolic extract of both the plants were studied and compared with standard 0.2%w/w Nitrofurazone ointment. From the results it can be concluded that the extracts of Aspidium cicutarium had 35% contraction in the wound area while extract of Spathodea campanulata showed 24.8 % contraction. The histopathology slides also show that the collagen formation increased and the macrophages had reduced which indicated the healing process. Thus it can be concluded that the methanolic extracts of both the plants find a potential as wound healing agents and can be formulated into suitable dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001506
Title: In vitro antiapoptotic activity of thymoquinone in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Medicinal plants, which are raw materials for many of the herbal formulations and popular nutrient supplements, are sold all over the country. The seeds of Nigella sativa which are commonly known as black cumin seed, used in herbal medicine throughout world for the treatment of a number of diseases. Thymoquinone (TQ), a phytochemical compound found in the seeds of Nigella sativa, has been proved to be a potential novel therapeutic agent. The present work was carried out with a view to study the anti apoptotic effect of thymoquinone in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (Baker’s yeast). Methods: The apoptotic events provoked by H2O2 and the effect of thymoquinone in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were analyzed by using various parameters such as cell viability assays, cytotoxicity assays, and visualizing nuclear and morphological changes accompanying cell death. Results and Discussion: The results showed that thymoquinone has protective effect against H2O2 induced oxidative damage and increased the survival of cells. Hence, this compound renders protection to cells exposed to oxidative stress by protecting normal cells from oxidative damage. Conclusion: Our observation suggested that, on treatment with thymoquinone the cytotoxicity and percent viability was found to be significantly improved in normal  S. cerevisiae cells.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001507
Title: Gelatin Biopolymer: A Journey from Micro to Nano
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The term “biopolymer’ is used to describe polymers that are produced by biological systems such as microorganisms, plants, and animals; polymers that are synthesized chemically but are derived from biological starting materials such as amino acids, sugars, natural fats, or oils. The journey of gelatin begins many decades earlier but its importance was recognized after first patent for its production in England in 1754. Since then it is becomes first choice of all scientist to work as hydrogel at macro scale to till date as drug delivery carrier at nano scale. Today, gelatin is classified as a food ingredient & WHO considers it to be a safe ingredient. Chemically Gelatin is a purified 100% natural protein having 18 different amino acids and derived from the selective hydrolysis of collagen.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00001508
Title: Investigation of the Effect of Metformin on the Level of Plasma Homocysteine, Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Category: Pharmacy practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Metformin on prolonged administration induce decreased levels of Vitamin B12 and Folic acid, and increased plasma HCY level. The aim of the present prospective study was designed to evaluate the effect of Metformin and other oral hypoglycemic agents on the level of plasma HCY, Vitamin B12 and Folic acid in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Methods: A total number of 100 subjects were divided into five groups. Healthy subjects were kept as control in group A, newly diagnosed Type-II Diabetes Mellitus patients in group B, Type-II Diabetes Mellitus patient treated with Metformin in group C, Type -II Diabetes Mellitus patient treated with Metformin along with folic acid in group D & finally Type II Diabetic Patients treated with Other Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (OHA) in group E. HCY, folic acid, Vitamin B12, HbA1C, lipid profiles was measured in the beginning and at the end of the study.  Fasting blood sugar, Blood pressure, Kidney function test, Urinalysis was measured in every visit of the patient to the hospital. Results: In Group C, the average levels of plasma HCY at the beginning and end of the study was 15.95 µmol/l and 20.35 µmol/l respectively. In Group D, the average levels of plasma HCY at the beginning and end of the study was 18.05 µmol/l and 15.65 µmol/l respectively. Conclusion: The present study indicates that Metformin increases plasma HCY level in Type II Diabetes Mellitus patients, whereas administration of Metformin along with folic acid can decrease the elevated plasma HCY level, hence prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001509
Title: In vivo Anti-helicobacter pylori activity of methanolic extract of Symplocos racemosa ROXB
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Helicobacter pylori leads to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. With increasing issues of antibiotic resistance and changing epidemiology of this pathogen, new approaches are needed for effective management. This attempt focuses on the antiulcer effect of Methanolic extract of Symplocos racemosa (SRME) against H.Pylori. Seven groups of animals (Wistar rats) were made for determination of antiulcer activity of SRME extract against H.Pylori. Chronic ulcers were induced by indomethacin & H.pylori. Group 1 was vehicle control, group 2 was treated with standard drugs Clarithromycin, Amoxicillin & Omeprazole (CAO).Group 3,4,5,& 6 received 100mg,200mg,400mg of SRME & 400mg+CAO/kg/day respectively. Group 7 was kept as healthy control. Animals were infected by H.Pylori. Presence of H.pylori in antrum tissue was confirmed by rapid urease test. Genomic DNA of H. pylori from pyloric antrum was isolated by phenol chloroform C-TBA method. After 4 weeks of administration of indomethacin & H.pylori, infection status was determined by DNA amplification. Gel image of amplified DNA revealed amplification of 16s rRNA gene of H. Pylori. Infection status of H.pylori was also determined using PCR. Gastric tissue of animals in vehicle treated group 100% animals were detected positive for 16s rRNA at the end of treatment of 4 weeks. Groups 3, 4, 5, & 6 showed dependent response after treatment period of 4 weeks.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001510
Title: Aspergillus Derived Silver Nano Particles as a Potent Antibacterial Agent and Identification of Linked Proteins
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: A simple cost effective and easy methodology was developed to produce the silver nanoparticles from four Aspergillus sp. Materials and Methods: The silver nanoparticles were analyzed by TEM for the shape and size and further evaluated for its antibacterial activity against the E. coli and S. aureus. Results and Discussion: Synthesized nanoparticles of length 10±3 nm have the antibacterial activity against the pathogens tested. Also the two proteins were sequenced confirm by MALDI-TOF as proteins of conidiation specific family and phosphatase regulator ypi 1 which may involve in silver nanoparticles formation but not been confirmed yet for its formation. Conclusion: Study investigated four aspergillus species capable of silver nanoparticles having the potent antibacterial capability against human pathogens.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001511
Title: Enrichment of Glucose oxidase production by Aspergillus niger PIL7 in submerged cultivation based on Conventional Optimization Approach.
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Glucose oxidase (GOx) or glucose aerodehydrogenase (EC. 1. 1. 3. 4) is an enzyme which catalyses the oxidation of â-D- glucose by molecular oxygen and produces gluconic acid and H2O2. GOx  has numerous applications in various industries. Methods: Various fermentation process parameters such as medium pH, incubation temperature, agitation speed, carbon source and nitrogen source were optimized by One-Factor-at-a-Time method. Optimum conditions obtained in each step were employed in the following experiments. Experiments were carried out up to 4 days with sampling period of  24 hrs.  Results and discussion: The highest GOx activity was obtained at pH 5.5, incubation temperature 30oC, agitation speed 140 rpm, 50 g/L glucose as a carbon source and 10 g/L beef extract and  yeast extract as a nitrogen source. In all conditions 72 hrs incubation yielded higher titers of enzyme production. Conclusion: With the help of One-Factor-at-a-Time method the production of GOx by isolated A.niger PIL-7 was improved from 107 U/ml to 286 U/ml. A 1.67 folds of enzyme production was improved by optimizing the various process and nutrient parameters.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001512
Title: Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of Artemether and Lumefantrine
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation is formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of artemether and lumefantrine. Artemether and lumefantrine are anitmalarial drugs used in the management of malaria. The objective of the proposed research work is to prepare and evaluate the fast dissolving tablets (FDTs) of artemether and lumefantrine, which avoid the first-pass metabolism, improved the dissolution rate and enhance the bioavailability. Fast dissolving tablets (FDTs) were prepared by direct compression method by using combination of superdisintegrant like, Crosspovidone and sodium starch glycolate(5%,10%,&15%) and evaluated for physico-chemical evaluation parameter such as hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content uniformity, water absorption ratio, wetting time, in-vitro and disintegration time, in-vitro dissolution studies. The control tablet (without superdisintegrant) was formulated and evaluated. The 12 formulations, F1to F6 were formulated and among these formulations, F3(crosspovidine) was optimized. The hardness, friability, weight variation and drug content were found to be within pharmacopeias limits. The water absorption ratio, wetting time, in-vitro  disintegration time of optimized formulation, F3 was found to be 62.87%, 12secs and 15secs  respectively. The formulation, F3 was considered to best formulation, which released up to 99.49% (artemether)&99.15%(lumefantrine)in 25 minutes. The comparison of dissolution rate profile of  formulation  and controlled formulation of artemether and lumefantrine tablet with best formulation, F3 was conducted. The result showed that the formulation, F3showed complete drug release within 25 minutes  and controlled formulation showed 26.50% (artemether) &24.50% (lumefantrine) drug release in 25 minutes. The stability study was also conducted the best formulation, F3 and it indicates that there was no significant change in any parameters. Hence the formulation F3 was considered to be highly stable.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001513
Title: RP-UPLC method development and validation for the quantitative determination of potential impurities of trimipramine maleate
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to develop and evaluate the reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method for the quantitative determination of potential impurities of trimipramine maleate active pharmaceutical ingredient. Method: The method uses a waters acquity BEH RP18 column (100 × 2.1mm, 1.7µm ) with mobile phase A consisted, 100 mM dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and 10 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH adjusted to 8.0 and mobile phase B consisted mixture of acetonitrile and methanol (80:20) with a gradient programme. The column temperature was maintained at 40 °C and the detection was carried out at 220 nm. Results and Discussions: Efficient and reproducible chromatographic separation was achieved on BEH RP18 stationary phase in gradient elution profile. The newly developed UPLC method was validated according to ICH guidelines considering four impurities to demonstrate precision, linearity, accuracy and robustness of the method.  The developed UPLC method was found to be rapid (10.5 min run time), accurate and sensitive. The correlation coefficient values are greater than 0.99 for trimipramine maleate and its four impurities. Detection limit and quantitation limit was 0.003% and 0.009% respectively, indicating the high sensitivity of the newly developed method. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 93.8% and 106.2% for all impurities. The result of robustness study also indicates that the method is robust and is unaffected by small variation in chromatographic conditions. Conclusion: The proposed UPLC method provides reliable, reproducible, accurate and sensitive for the quantification of trimipramine maleate related substances.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001515
Title: Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of Prochlorperazine maleate
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation is formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of prochlorperazine maleate. The demand of fast dissolving tablets has been growing, during the last decade especially for geriatric and pediatric patients because of swallowing difficulties. Prochlorperazine maleate (PCZM) is a phenothiazine antipsychotic and widely used in prevention and treatment of nausea, vomiting including that associated with migraine or drug-induced emesis. The concept of formulating fast dissolving tablets containing prochlorperazine maleate offers a suitable and practical approach in serving desired objective of faster disintegration and dissolution characteristics with increased bioavailability. Fast dissolving tablets of prochlorperazine maleate were prepared by direct compression methods. The tablets were prepared by using croscarmellose sodium, Crosspovidone, and sodium starch glycolate, as super disintegrates in different concentrations (4-8%) along with microcrystalline cellulose. Total seven formulations and a control formulation (without superdisintegrant) were prepared and evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time and Invitro drug release. In-vitro dissolution studies are performed by using 6.8PH buffer at 50 rpm by paddle method. F-6 is selected as the optimized formulation after evaluation. The stability studies were performed for two months (accelerated studies) as per ICH guidelines. The optimized formulation (F6) showed no significant variations for the tablets parameters and it was stable for the specified time period.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001516
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Floating Microspheres of Verapamil Hydrochloride
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Microencapsulation by the solvent evaporation method is a complex process, which can be influenced by many process parameters like solvent evaporation rate, temperature, solubility of polymer, drug and excipients in both emulsion phases, dispersion stirring rate, viscosity, solubility, volume and volume ratio between the inner and outer phases, the quantity of polymer and drug and the physico-chemical properties and concentration of the stabilizers. In this present study Floating microspheres were prepared satisfactorily by solvent evaporation technique using Carbapol , Eudragit S100 and HPMC K4M. The entrapment efficiency was found to  be good and that was above 90% and the in vitro buoyancy was more than 54 % after 10 hours indicated satisfactory performance of proposed formulations. The percent buoyancy was found to be 83 % in formulation. The mean particle size of microspheres was in the range of 0.221 ± 0.53 to 1.211 ± 0.81 mm depending upon the type of polymer used.  The particle size increased significantly as the speed of stirrer decreased. The flow properties of all the prepared microspheres were good as indicated by low angle of repose and low compressibility index. In-vitro release of microspheres of Verapamil hydrochloride was found to be 91% optimized batch in a proper manner within 12 hours.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001518
Title: Spectrophotometric determination of diazepam via charge transfer complex formation reaction
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: A spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of diazepam (DZP) in bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations.  Methods: This method is based on the formation of coloured charge transfer complexes of diazepam which act as electron donor with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone(DDQ)and 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (p-CLA) reagents which act as ðp -acceptors in acetonitrile solvent. Results:DDQ and p-CLA were found to form charge-transfer complexes in a 1:1 stoichiometry [drug: reagent] with diazepam with a maximum absorption band at 550 and 480 nm, respectively. Optimization of temperature and time proved the supremacy of 20 and 30 °C and 20 and 5 minutes for DDQ and p-CLA reagents, respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration ranges of 10-150 and 10-250 ìg mL-1 of DZP drug with high apparent molar absorptivities of 5.20x102 and 5.41 x102 and limits of detections are 6.83 and 9.60 ìg mL-1 using DDQ and p-CLA reagents, respectively. The results were compared with those given by the official method and showed that the developed methods are accurate, precise and reproducible. Conclusion: Thus the proposed methods are successfully applied to the determination of DZP in pharmaceutical formulations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001519
Title: Diuretic and Central Nervous System depressant effects of the different extracts of leaves of Chromolaena odorata (L) KING & H.ROB
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The main objective of this study was to focus on the CNS depressant activity of  Chromolaena odorata (L), with special reference to its curative and protective role in diazepam – induced swiss albino mice spontaneous motor activity was performed by using actophotometer. Attempts were further made to study the diuretic properties of Chromolaena odorata (L) leaves. The phytochemical screening of Chromolaena odorata is known to contain carbohydrates, glycosides, phenolic compounds, fixed oils, flavanoids, Saponin and tannins. In the present study the alcoholic and aqueous extract of leaves of Chromolaena odorata investigated for its CNS activity of swiss albino mice in actophotometer and diuretic activity in albino rats at the dose of 200 and 400mg/kg. The diuretic effect was found out by Lipschitz et al method using furosemide as standard drug. Both the extracts exhibited significant diuretic activity and CNS depressant activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001520
Title: Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method For Estimation of Pamabrom in Bulk And Marketed Formulation
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background : A rapid, sensitive and specific RP-HPLC method involving PDA detection was developed and validated for estimation of pamabrom in bulk drug and tablet dosage form. Method : The method was developed in terms of accuracy, precision, specificity, and robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The mobile phase used was water: methanol: acetonitrile in a ratio of 70:20:10, v/v/v. The detection of tablet dosage form was carried out at 279 nm at a constant flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Result and discussion : The method was found linear over the range 10 – 50 ìg/ ml for pamabrom. Correlation coefficient (r2) of the regression equation was found to be 0.999. Detection limit and quantitation limit was found to be 0.45 & 1.86 respectively. Conclusion :  Result of assay and recovery study was statistically evaluated for its accuracy and precision. According to the validation results, the proposed method was found to be specific, accurate, precise and economic for the estimation of Pamabrom in bulk and tablet dosage form.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001521
Title: Screening of Antinuclear antibodies in patients with newly developed subclinical hypothyroidism
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are the important biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of patients with autoimmune diseases. ANA occurs in different endocrine disorders including thyroid disorders. Subclinical Hypothyroidism is a common disorder with a prevalence of 1–10% in the adult population. Method: In the present study, subclinical hypothyroid patients were screened for the presence of antinuclear antibodies using biochip combination of HEp cells and primate liver the positive patients were further screened for anti-thyroid antibodies using biochip combination of thyroid gland and rat kidney.  Results and discussion: 45% of patients showed the prevalence of antinuclear antibodies and anti mitochondrial antibody predominated the population with 31%, followed by nucleolar pattern with 23% and nucleus granular with 17%. Moreover, the prevalence of antinuclear antibodies was more in female patients with 66% compared to the male patients. Conclusion: The study sheds light on the necessity to screen the subclinical hypothyroid patients for antinuclear antibodies for better prognosis of patients. The study can be extended to a bigger population to have a clear understanding of the pathogenesis of such clinical condition.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001522
Title: Synthesis and diverse in vitro biological activities of 5-(4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl)-3-phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of 5-(4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl)-3-phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives 7(a-h) has been designed and synthesized. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, H+/K+-ATPase inhibition and anti-microbial activity. The in vitro anti-oxidant activity studies reveals that the synthesized compounds 7(a-h) were better than reference compound BHT.  The compounds 7f, 7d, 7e and 7c are potent PLA2 inhibitors with an IC50 value ranging from 0.059 to 0.0780µmoles/ml respectively. Moreover, the compounds 7b, 7c, 7e and 7g exhibited potent inhibitory activity on gastric H+/K+-ATPase. The compounds 7e and 7h found to be potent anti-microbial agents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: October
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001523
Title: Synthesis, in vitro antifungal and antitubercular evaluation of novel amino pyrimidines based tetrazole derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aims: The aim of the present study is to synthesis of  novel series of  4-(4-(1H-tetrazole-1-yl) aryl) -6-phenylpyrimidine-2-amines(8a-i)  and screening for their invitro antifungal  and anti tubercular activities. Methods: The compounds (8a-i) has been synthesized by 1-(4-(1H-tetrazole-1-yl) phenyl)-3-arylprop-2-en-1-ones (7a-i) with guanidine nitrate under the basic condition. The compounds are characterized by melting point, elemental analysis FT-IR, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic data. The synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro anti-fungal and anti-tubercular activity against their microorganisms. Results: Compounds 8b, 8e and 8i are proved to be more potent against fungal strains when compared with the standard. 8i at a concentration of 10µg/ml showed inhibition against the growth of M. tuberculosis and it is emerged as lead molecule showing excellent activities, against a panel of microorganisms. These effective results also supported by in silico molecular docking study using 14a-demethylase (1E9X) protein. Conclusion: The compounds 8b, 8e and 8i exhibited maximum invitro antifungal and antitubercular activities against different strains. Thus in future, this kind of pyrimidine derivatives may be used to generate better drugs with improved antifungal and tuberculosis activities.