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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001545
Title: Trigonelline [99%] protects against copper-ascorbate induced oxidative damage to mitochondria: an in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Fenugreek [Trigonella foenum graecum] (Linn.); family Papilionaceae], commonly known as Methi in Hindi and Bengali is a small annual herb which is cultivated throughout the world. It is commonly used as a dietary ingredient (spice) in India, Middle East, Egypt, North Africa and other parts of the world. It has long been used for several medicinal purposes in folk medicine. In the present study, trigonelline was isolated from the fenugreek seeds at 99% purity and the pure compound was found to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), in vitro.  Oxidative stress was generated, in vitro, by copper-ascorbate in mitochondria isolated from goat tissues like, heart, liver, brain, lung and kidney and the changes brought about in the levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, activities of Kreb’s cycle and respiratory chain enzymes, cardiolipin content, NADH autofluroscence, di-tyrosine fluorescence,  mitochondrial swelling and mitochondrial morphology was studied. Trigonelline [99%] when co-incubated was found to protect against copper-ascorbate induced oxidative stress mediated changes in mitochondria and antioxidant mechanisms appear to be associated with such protection. A dose-dependant protection was also evident. The results of the current study suggests that trigonelline [99%] may be considered as a future therapeutic antioxidant and may be used singly or as a co-therapeutic in the treatment of diseases associated with mitochondrial oxidative stress.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001524
Title: Synthesis and biological evaluation of new Thiadiazole analogues for anti-diabetic activity against Alloxan induced diabetes
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A  series  of  new   5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol  derivatives ( 1a-f)  were  synthesized  by  single  step method. All the synthesised compounds were evaluated for their anti -diabetic activity using Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) as reference drug. 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol was treated with substituted benzaldehyde    and acetanilide  derivatives  in  ethanol with catalytic amount of glacial acetic acid and HCl respectively, gives imine derivatives (Schiff bases). Total seven compounds were synthesised, among that compounds 1a, 1b and 1c shown significant activity (p< 0.0001). Acetanilide derivatives were not shown good activity as compare to standard drug Glibenclamide. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by physical (m.p., TLC) and spectral data (IR, NMR and Mass). The  dose selection  was made  on  the  basis  of  acute  oral  toxicity study  423 (50mg/kg). Alloxan (150mg/kg)   induced diabetic   model   was   used   for anti-diabetic activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001525
Title: A Novel Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method For Enantiomeric Separation of Pregabalin With Immobilized Zwitterionic Stationary Phase
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background:  The objective of present investigation was to develop simple, sensitive, specific, precise and accurate reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method and subsequent validation of the method for the determination of R-isomer in Pregabalin.  Method:  The chromatographic method was carried out using Chiral pak ZWIX (+) column (250mm x 4.0mm i.d., 3µm particle size) and mobile phase consisting of methanol and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer in the ratio of 10:90 v/v and 0.2% trifluoro acetic acid.   Mobile phase was delivered at a flow rate of 0.5ml/min.  Ultra violet detection was carried out at 210nm.  The elution technique was based on isocratic mode and the sample volume 25 µL was used.  The method was validated in terms of linearity, range, specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ).  Results: The retention time of R-isomer and Pregabalin was found to be 7.2 and 10.7 min respectively.  The developed method illustrated excellent linearity (r2  > 0.99) in the concentration range of 1.4 µg/ml – 11.25 µg/ml for Pregabalin.  No chromatographic interference from the tablets excipients was found.   The mean recoveries were found in the range of 99.2-100.8% for Pregabalin which shows accuracy of the method. Conclusion: The developed method was found to be accurate, precise, reproducible and specific and can be successfully applied for the determination of R-isomer in Pregabalin in pharmaceutical formulation and routine analysis in quality control laboratories.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001527
Title: Status on Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Anti Viral Therapy : A Perspective
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Globally, hepatitis B is a significant health problem leading to one million deaths annually from liver failure, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is estimated that 400 million people worldwide are hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. HBV infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after kidney transplantation. Progressive liver diseases affect more than 80% of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in positive renal transplant recipients. The natural history of HBV infection is complex, which is influenced by many factors such as viral factors which includes HBV genome type, viral mutations, level of HBV replication and host factors such as gender, age and immune status. It is also influenced by exogenous factors such as concurrent infection with other viruses, most notably HIV and hepatitis C virus. Dual infection can modify the epidemiology, natural history and the development of complications of infection. The management of dually infected patients also varies from that  of HBV mono infected patients. The implementation of mass immunization programme has considerably decreased the incidence of HBV infection among infants, children and adolescents across the world. But the immune response varies with individual and declines with increasing age. Despite, the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection by vaccination programme, the infection is still prevalent worldwide.  Treatment with antiviral drugs is the major way to reduce morbidity and mortality of established chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Drugs like adefovir, entecavir, telbivudine, lamivudine & interferon a 2a has been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The ultimate aim of anti viral therapy is to suppress viral replication, reduce the liver inflammation, reverse the liver fibrosis and thereby protect the liver. Even though antiviral drugs are effective but drug resistance remains a global public health problem. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001528
Title: Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Psidium guajava L. leaf extract and antibacterial activity against some pathogenic microorganisms
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was attempted using leaf extract of Psidium guajava L. belonging to the family Myrtaceae and its synergistic antimicrobial activity with six commercial  antibiotics against Gram positive (S. aureus, L. monocytogens, S. epidermidis) Gram negative (E.coli, S. typhi, E. aerogenes) bacteria was evaluated. The characterization of synthesized AgNPs was done by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and zeta potential. The UV–Vis spectrum of AgNPs showed absorption maxima at 462 nm. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs with antibiotics was better than antibiotics alone against the tested bacterial strains. This is a simple, economic, ecofriendly, non toxic, rapid and green synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaves extract of P. guajava.  It can be definitely used in cosmetics, foods and medical applications.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001529
Title: Studies on 3,5-Disubstituted-phenyl-3,3a,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrazolo [3,4-c]pyridazine derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: To evaluate in vitro antibacterial and antifungal potential of newly synthesized pyrazolo-pyridazine derivatives 5 (a-l). Method: 3,5-Disubstituted phenyl-3,3a,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrazolo [3,4-c]pyridazine derivatives 5 (a-l) were prepared by multi-step synthesis. Reaction of benzoyl propionic acidwith hydrazine hydrate gave 6-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-3-one. This on treatment with aryl-aldehyde resulted in the formation of pyridazinone 4 (a-l). In the final step, the pyridazinones 4(a-l) were reacted with hydrazine hydrate to furnish the title compounds 5 (a-l). Identity of these compounds was ascertained using IR, NMR and mass spectral data results. Following this, these compounds were screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities. Result: Compound 5i was found to be significant in its action against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, whereas compound 5f exhibited potent antifungal activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001530
Title: Formulation and evaluation of inlay tablet of metformin hydrochloride as sustained release and pioglitazone with glibenclamide as immediate release
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present research endeavor is directed towards the development of once daily sustained release matrix tablet of metformin hydrochloride with inlay tablet of pioglitazone glibenclamide as immediate release. Combination therapy concluded that Pioglitazone is effective in improving the glycemic control when added to a combination of glibenclamide and metformin in type 2 DM. Matrix system was based on swellable polymer were selected for sustained the drug release. Different polymers Viz., HPMC, Xanthan Gum, Guar gum, to get the desired release profile over a period for 12 hours. Different batches of both Immediate release(IR) and Sustained release (SR) were prepared by Direct compression and Wet granulation method respectively. In the immediate release layer formulation, disintegration such as sodium starch glycolate at three different concentration (5%, 7.5% and 10% w/w) with 5% concentration crosspovidone of tablet weight were tried to get a desired release profile within 30 minutes. The in-vitro dissolution studies were performed for all the IR formulations. Formulation IR1 to IR3 released of pioglitazone and glibenclamide respectively at the end of 30 minutes with SSG concentration of 10%. So IR3 were selected for final formulation. SR formulations F3 showed release profile were complies with USP at 40% concentration of HPMC-K100M with respect to drug compared with another 11 formulations. Inlay tablet formulation were prepared using Optimum formulation of sustained granules and immediate release granules.The tablets assay, weight variation, hardness, thickness friability, disintegration time and in-vitro dissolution were found to be within the official limits. The dissolution data of the optimized batch was subjected to study the in-vitro release kinetics. The result showed that the IR layer of inlay tablet formulation followed the first order release kinetics and the drug release kinetics of SR layer of Inlay tablet formulation correspond best to Higuchi’s model and drug release mechanism as per n value of Korsmeyer&Peppas Model appeared to be a complex mechanism of swelling, diffusion and erosion with zero order release kinetics.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001531
Title: Formulation and evaluation of antiinflammatory gel from the leaves extract of Vitex negundo Linn
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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 The present investigation was done to evaluate the Anti inflammatory   activity of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo Linn. The collected drug was dried and extracted by soxhlet extraction method. The obtained extract was formulated into gel. By following preliminary phytochemical evaluation, IR and UV analysis the extract was found to posses the Anti inflammatory activity. Casticin was the medicinal Anti inflammatory compound which was incorporated by using CMC Na, HPMC K4M, HPMC K100M, Carbomer 940 to formulate topical gel. The gel was evaluated for viscosity determination and stability studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001532
Title: Isolation of Phytoconstitutents from Terminalia catappa Linn Bark
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Terminalia catappa Linn are naturally widespread in subtropical and tropical zones of Indian and Pacific oceans. The leaves of Terminalia catappa plant were used as a folk medicine in  Southeast  Asia for dermatitis and hepatitis. The extract of leaves and fruits have anticancer, antioxidant, anti-HIV reverse transcriptase, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and hepatoprotective activities. The seeds are also have aphrodisiac activity. Methods:The bark of Terminalia catappa was extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol. The successive extracts were evaluated for in vitro antidiabetic activity. The methanol extract was found to be having significant antidiabetic activity. Hence the methanol extract was selected for isolation of phytoconstituent by column chromatography. Results and discussion: The sovents were allowed to pass through the column in order of increasing polarity. The fractions were collected and recolumn was done for major fraction. One compound was isolated. The isolated compound was elucidated by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HSQC, IR, UV and Mass spectrums. Conclusion: The isolated compound was proved to be triterpinoid and its structure was elucidated.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001533
Title: Blood Brain Barrier: The Sentinel of Brain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a major role in controlling the microenvironment of the brain. Drug delivery to the brain is restricted by the presence of the BBB. It is actually selectively permeable to nutrients necessary for healthy brain function. Material and Methods:  Various search engines like pubmed , medline and  cochrane database  were searched for various articles. Result and Conclusion : Prodrugs with increased lipophilicity and Chemical delivery system(CMD) are under research. A diverse collection of molecular transport systems is present on the brain endothelium to accomplish the task of nutrient transport. Receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT) systems can be used to transport a wide range of therapeutics into the brain.Molecular identification and functional analysis of influx transport proteins and efflux transport proteins, the most active being ABC-transporters (ATP binding cassette) at BBB have progressed rapidly. This review focuses on the role of Increased understanding of the pharmacology of the transport systems in the uptake of xenobiotics across the BBB into the brain for rational drug design to increase drug delivery to the brain .

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001534
Title: Microwave assisted Synthesis and Characterization of azole thiazolidinone acetamides
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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4-thiazolidinone derivatives of some azoles have been synthesized by cyclocondensation of Schiff’s bases with thioglycolic acid under microwave irradiation in presence of catalytic amount of anhydrous zinc chloride in good yields. The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data. The compounds showed moderate to good antimicrobial activity in test evaluation.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001535
Title: Evaluation of anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic activities of whole plant extract of Dipteracanthus prostratus NEES in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The main objective of this study was to focus on the anti-diabetic activity of dipteracanthus  prostratus nees, with special reference to its curative and protective role in streptozotocin- induced diabetic animal model. Attempts were further made to study the antioxidant properties of dipteracanthus  prostratus nees whole plant. The efficacy of 50% ethanolic extract of leaves of dipteracanthus  prostratus nees showed significant decrease in the blood glucose level and increase in the antioxidant efficacy in streptozotocin induced diabetes. It was demonstrated that the oral administration of the ethanolic  extract of leaves of dipteracanthus  prostratus nees extract to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant positive changes in the biochemical and physiological parameters related to carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism., the strong antihyperglycemic and the anti-oxidant effect observed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats justified the use of ethanolic  extract of leaves of dipteracanthus  prostratus nees for the treatment of diabetes-related complications.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001536
Title: Simultaneous estimation and validation of Bambuterol and Montelukast in bulk and Pharmaceutical dosage form by RP-HPLC method
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The Aim of Study to develop a simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination Bambuterol and Montelukast in pharmaceutical dosage form. Method: The column used was Hypersil BDS C18 (250mm x 4.6 mm, 5m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer, acetonitrile and methanol (45:50:5 v/v). The buffer is prepared by adding 2.72gm of potassium dihyrogen ortho phosphate in a 1000ml of volumetric flask add about 900ml of milli-Q water added and degas to sonicate and finally make up the volume with water then pH adjusted to 3.3 with dil. orthophosphoric acid solution. The flow rate was 1.2ml/ min and effluents were monitored at 225nm. Results and Discussion: The retention times of Bambuterol and Montelukast were found to be 2.219 min and 4.472 min, respectively. The linearity for Bambuterol and Montelukast were in the range of 12.5-75 µg/ml and 10-60 µg/ml respectively. The recoveries of Bambuterol and Montelukast were found to be 98.10% to 101.34% w/v and 98.35% to 100.81%w/v, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Bambuterol and Montelukast in combined tablet dosage forms.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001537
Title: Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography method for determination of Lercanidipine hydrochloride in bulk and tablet dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A simple, sensitive and rapid reverse phase performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was development for the determination of Lercanidipine hydrochloride. The HPLC analysis was performed on the Phenomenex Luna C18 (250 mm × 4.60 mm), 5µm particle size in isocratic mode, at 25 0C temperature using a mobile phase consisting of methanol: water (95:5 v/v), at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 237 nm. The average retention time for LCD was found to be 5.38 min. Linearity was observed in the concentration range 4 - 28 µg/ml (r2 = 0.998).The method has been successively applied for the determination of LCD in tablets. There was no interference from the excipients commonly present in tablets. The drug content was found to be 99.51 %. Accuracy of the method was checked by recovery experiments at three different levels 80 %, 100 % and 120 %. The mean percentage recovery was found to be within the limits of acceptance criteria with average recovery in the range 99.07 – 100.12%.  The % R.S.D. below 2.0 proved accuracy of proposed method. The results did not show any statistical difference between operators and they suggesting the methods developed was rugged. System suitability tests are an integral part of chromatographic methods. To ascertain its effectiveness, system suitability tests were carried out on freshly prepared stock solution. The method used for the above developed method is precise, accurate, simple and easy for routine analysis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001538
Title: Synthesis of [2] Rotaxanes Created By Hydrophilic-Hydrophobic Forces
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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At present time, a lot of studies have been focused on design and synthesis of interlocked molecules.Such as rotaxanes and catenanes, due to their distinctive structures, properties and significant applications. Host-guest interactions are used for efficient preparation of such interlocked molecules.New synthesized [2] rotaxanes containing of cyclodextrine reports in this work. Preparation of new [2] rotaxanes (A), (B), and (C) are depended on forming stable inclusion complexes between CDs and hexamethylenediamine which ended with a bulky group 9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethanoanthracene-11,12-dicarboxylic anhydride. Bulky group can prevent the dethreading of the cyclic component. CDs appear to be ideal host molecules in synthesis of rotaxane chemistry because of their shape and binding properties. The evaluation of the chemical structures of the newly compounds was based on their spectral data.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001539
Title: Prediction of binding energies/interactions between newly designed antidiabetic molecules and different target proteins of PPAR α,β ,γ receptors by molecular docking studies.
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In a search for more effective anti-diabetic treatment, we first aimed to work on the hypothesis that PPAR α,β/δ,γ receptors agonism must provide additive and positive synergistic pharmacology. A series of compounds containing thiazole/oxazole heterocycles were designed varying degrees of affinity and potency that selectively modulate the activities of all three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPAR α, PPAR β/δ and PPARγ for  exhibiting anti-diabetic activity through molecular docking  by using two different docking tools like ARGUS LAB 4.0  and GLIDE 9.1  . During the course of our research, we designed  four new chemical templates may bind into the active site of three different subtypes of like PPAR alpha-3V9V, 3FEJ PPAR beta-3DY6, 3GZ9:PPAR gamma-3KDU, 3FEI showing important short contacts with the Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α,β ,γ residues: Tyr 473, His 449, Ser 289, His 323; Tyr 464, His 440, Ser 280 and Tyr 314. The molecular docking studies revealed that the distances between the acidic group and the linker, when a ligand was complexed with PPAR- α,β/δ,γ proteins, are important for the potent antidiabetic activity. After comparing the predicted activities, docking scores and crash values for the screened molecules by the filters,  all the ligands(1-4) as best partial agonists of NCEs will be selected for synthesis in future as potent antidiabetic agents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001540
Title: Zinc-morin complex augments normoglycemia by regulating the carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in high fat diet – STZ induced experimental diabetes in rats
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Oral administration of zinc-morin complex (5 mg/kgbody weight) to high fat diet fed – low dose of STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats for 30 days established a significant decrease in the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and increase in plasma insulin level. The treatment also improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats, which is evident from HOMA-IR. Further, the altered activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes such as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase,  glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase in the liver tissue of diabetic rats were significantly improved  upon treatment with zinc-morin complex. Thus, the present results indicate that the zinc-morin complex administration maintain glycemic control through the regulation of carbohydrate metabolizing key enzymes in experimental diabetic rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001541
Title: Phytochemical analysis, in-vitro anti-microbial activity of Indian medicinal ferns Adiantum lunulatum and Hemionitis arifolia
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The aim of this study is to determine the phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of Adiantum lunulatum and Hemionitis arifolia against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96), Staphylococcus epidermidis (MTCC 435), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121), Escherichia coli (MTCC 739), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 432), Proteus mirabilis (MTCC 425), Salmonella paratyphi A (MTCC 735), Salmonella paratyphi B (Clinical isolate), Salmonella typhimurium (MTCC 98), Shigella dysentriae (Clinical isolate), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (MTCC 451), two fungus, Candida albicans (MTCC 183) and Cryptococcus neoformans (Clinical isolate). Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method and phytochemical constituents were identified by the standard procedures. Results and Discussion: The aqueous extracts of A. lunulatum showed significant inhibitory activity against C. neoformans, S. paratyphi B, P. aeruginosa and V. parahaemolyticus. Ethanolic extract showed inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa, S.epidermidis and S. paratyphi B. The petroleum ether extract showed significant inhibitory activity against S. flexneri, S. typhimurium, C. albicans and K. pneumoniae. The aqueous extract of H. arifolia showed inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. paratyphi A. Ethanolic extract showed better inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa, C. neoformans, S. paratyphi A, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and S. aureus. The petroleum ether extract showed maximum inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli and S. epidermidis. Conclusion: This study concludes that the antimicrobial properties of A. lunulatum and H. arifolia might be associated with the presence of minor and major phytoconstituents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001542
Title: Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory activities of novel N-(Sugar Pyranosyl) Thienopyrimidine 4-Amine derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A novel N-(sugar pyranosyl) thienopyrimidine 4-amine derivatives were synthesized. These derivatives were identified on the basis of melting point range, Rf values, IR and 1H NMR spectral analysis. The derivatives were screened for antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The derivatives exhibited significant to moderate antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001543
Title: Formulation And In Vitro Evaluation of Colon Targeted Matrix Tablets of Mebeverine Hydrochloride Using Natural Polymers
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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BACKGROUND: The present study focuses on the design and evaluation of colon targeted matrix tablets of Mebeverine hydrochloride using natural gums like guar gum, xanthan gum at different concentrations. This novel approach is expected to be promising drug delivery system for delivering Mebeverine HCl to the colon for its local action and thereby minimizing systemic side effects of the drug. METHOD: The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method and the compressed tablets were evaluated for the hardness, uniformity of weight, friability, drug content and in vitro dissolution studies. RESULTS & DISCUSSION:  All the physical characteristics evaluated for the tablets were found to be within the acceptable limits. Drug content was found to be in the range of 97.57±0.12 to 100.01±0.39% reflecting good uniformity within the batches of different tablets.  The in vitro release study was performed in 0.1N HCl pH 1.2 for 2 hrs followed by phosphate buffer pH 6.8 upto 24 hrs. The optimized formulation F4 containing 40% of guar gum released less amount of drug in first 2 hrs in pH 1.2 compared to other formulations and showed controlled release over a period of 24hrs. The drug release followed first order kinetics and the mechanism of drug release was found to be both diffusion and dissolution controlled. CONCLUSION: The result of the studies showed that colon targeted matrix tablet containing 40% of guar gum was most likely to provide targeting of mebeverine HCl for local action in the colon.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001544
Title: Genetic Biomarkers: Novel Diagnostic Tools for Detection of Thyroid Cancer
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Thyroid cancer is the common malignancy of endocrine related tumors. The routine diagnoses of thyroid cancer are done by Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). FNAC biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis. However it has some limitations, like showing low variability among papillary and follicular cancers. This requires some other methods for specific and sensitive diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Biomarkers are invaluable modern tools for cancer detection, diagnosis, patient prognosis and treatment selection. These can also be used to localize the tumor and determine its stage, subtype, and response to therapy. Current development in the field of genetic based biomarkers provides new hopes and become an area of active interest in thyroid cancer research. Calcitonin was the first biomarkers for thyroid cancer. After this there are some others genetic based biomarkers was discovered. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of genetic based biomarkers for thyroid cancer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-PA-00001546
Title: A Stability-Indicating Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Estimation of Related Substances and Degradants in Rivaroxaban Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient.
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to develop and evaluate the reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method for the quantitative determination of potential impurities of rivaroxaban active pharmaceutical ingredient.   Method: The method uses a water acquity BEH C8 column (100mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7µm) with mobile phase A consisted, 0.05M diammonium hydrogen phosphate, pH adjusted to 3.0 and acetonitrile (80:20, v/v) and mobile phase B consisted mixture of acetonitrile and water (90:10, v/v) with a gradient programme.  The column temperature was maintained at 30ºC and the detection was carried out at 254nm.  Results and Discussion: Efficient and reproducible chromatographic separation was achieved on BEH C8 stationary phase in gradient elution profile.  The newly developed UPLC method was validated accordingly to ICH guidelines considering five impurities to demonstrate precision, linearity, accuracy and robustness of the method.  The developed UPLC method was found to be rapid (15.0min runtime), accurate and sensitive.  The correlation coefficient values are greater than 0.999 for rivaroxaban and its five impurities.  Detection limit and Quantitation limit were 0.0005µg/mL and 0.0015 µg/mL respectively, indicating the high sensitively of the newly developed method.  Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 98.4% and 103.5% for all impurities.   The results of robustness study also indicates that the method is robust and is unaffected by small variation in chromatographic conditions. Conclusion: The proposed UPLC method provides reliable, reproducible, accurate and sensitive for the quantification of rivaroxaban related substances.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001547
Title: Antibacterial spectrum of black seed oil against selected human pathogenic bacteria
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background : Traditionally Nigella sativa (black seed) has been widely used as a medicinal plant in Unani, Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicine. Extensive studies have been carried out by various researchers to explore the pharmacological action of black seed oil. The purpose of this preliminary research work is to establish anti bacterial properties of black seed oil in order to develop a model for curing diabetic ulcers. Method: This preliminary research work was carried out to find the antibacterial effect of black seed oil against selected human bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella planticola. Results: The maximum activity was measured for Escherichia coli followed by Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris. However, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella planticola have shown resistance  against the black seed oil.  Conclusion: The black seed oil has excellent anti bacterial action on par with standard ciprofloxacin drug.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: November
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001548
Title: Studies on Comparative antibacterial activity of Wild and Micropropagated leaves extracts from Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitacaeae)
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The present study was aimed to test the antibacterial properties of wild and micropropagated Momordica charantia leaf extracts. Methods: Nodal and shoot cultures of M. charantia on B5 medium supplemented with different plant growth regulators and the various  solvent extracts of in vivo and in vitro leaves of plants were tested against eight pathogenic bacterial cultures. Results: 6-benzyl adenine (BA) hormone at the concentration of 2.0 mgL-1 was found to be finest for the optimal growth. Gamborg’s (B5) medium was supplemented with 1.0 mgL-1 indole -3- butyric acid (IBA) hormones were best suited for the induction of robust roots. The rate of successful acclimatization was about 90%. All the extracts were found to be exhibit broader spectrum of antibacterial activity against most of the tested bacterial cultures namely Klebsiella pneumoniae, Corneybacterium diptheriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Shigella sonnei (7-12 mm zone of inhibition). These extracts were analyzed and confirm the presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, tannins, glycoside and carbohydrates. HPLC profile of methanolic leaf extract of the plant shows the highest peaks indicate the presence of total phenolic compounds and other related group of compounds. FT-IR profile of extract reflects the identification of functional groups of bioactive compounds i.e. aromatic, aliphatic, aromatic amines and halides groups. Conclusion: The findings of the present work highlight that M. charantia extracts possess bioactive secondary metabolites having the potential for developing pharmaceutical drugs, particularly antibacterial agents. In vitro propagated plants have an excellent antibacterial activity against selected human pathogenic strains than the in vivo plant methanol extracts.