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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MPS-0000141
Title: Orally administered melatonin protects against adrenaline-induced oxidative stress in rat liver and heart: Involvement of antioxidant mechanism(s)
Category: Mechanism / Pathway Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present studies intended to investigate the protective effects of melatonin (5mg/kg bw, fed orally) against adrenaline (0.25mg/kg of body weight, s.c. for a period of 15 days) induced oxidative stress in rat liver and heart through certain antioxidative indices like Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO), other biochemical parameters such as mitochondrial Kreb’s cycle enzymes as well as respiratory chain enzymes were also measured. Antioxidative enzymes and other parameters showed a significant reduction while LPO, Mn SOD and reduced glutathione levels increased significantly in adrenaline-treated rats as compared to control groups. These biochemical changes were supported through our studies on tissue morphology. However, all these parameters were protected from being altered when rats were pre-treated with melatonin. The present studies perhaps for the first time comprehensively indicated that melatonin has the potential to provide protection against adrenaline-induced tissue injury and further strengthen the notion that this indole may be relevant therapeutically in future days in humans exposed to various stressful situations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000157
Title: In vitro antifungal activity of four folklore medicinal plants used among tribal communities of Western Ghats, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was conceded to investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of four medicinal plants Solanum trilobatum, Spathodea campanulata, Syzygium jambos and Tylophora indica used in folklore treatments among tribal community in Western Ghats of Coimbatore district. The cold macerated crude aqueous and organic solvent leaf extracts were subjected to antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus by agar plate dilution method. At an MIC of 500 µg/mL the methanolic leaf extracts of S.jambos, T.indica and S.trilobatum showed significant (p<0.001) fungal inhibition against A.flavus with IC50 values 94.56, 84.52 and 40.63 µg/mL respectively. Furthermore, the ethanolic extracts of S.trilobatum, S.campanulata, S.jambos and T.indica showed substantial (p<0.01) antifungal activity against A.flavus with IC50 values ranging between 102.34-146.79 µg/mL, whereas the methanolic extract of S.campanulata and chloroform extract of S.jambos influenced an inhibition against A.flavus with IC50 values at 147.92 and 111.08 µg/mL respectively. On the other hand the methanolic leaf extracts of S.campanulata exhibited exceptionally significant antifungal activity (p<0.001) against A.fumigatus with an IC50 value at 95.3 µg/mL. Comparable mycelia inhibition was also observed among methanolic extracts of S.jambos and T.indica against A.fumigatus with IC50 values predicted at131.52 and 114.51 µg/mL respectively. The alcoholic leaf extracts of the selected plants remained more active against tested fungal strains when compared to the chloroform and aqueous extracts, showing no pronounceable inhibition of two fungal strains used in the assay signifying not up to the score. Further investigations are mandatory to identify the antifungal compounds present in the chosen herbs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MPS-0000160
Title: A combination of aqueous curry (Murraya koenigii) leaf extract and melatonin protects against piroxicam induced gastric ulcer in male albino rats: Involvement of antioxidant mechanism(s)
Category: Mechanism / Pathway Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Melatonin (M) and aqueous curry leaf extract (CuLE) protected gastric mucosa from piroxicam induced damage in a dose dependent manner. In two different sets of experiments, pre-treatment of rats with melatonin at a dose of 20 mg/kg bw and CuLE at a dose of 50 mg /kg bw, individually, failed to render complete protection against piroxicam-induced gastro-toxicity though mean ulcer index showed some decrease on oral administration of both at the above mentioned dose. Combination of the above mentioned two doses, however, provided complete protection as indicated by the results from a third set of experiment. Gastro-toxic side effects of piroxicam depend on oxidative stress built up in vivo. Potential antioxidant activities of both melatonin and CuLE possibly provided protection against gastric oxidative stress. Biochemical studies of biomarkers of gastro- mucosal damage and oxidative stress parameters along with supporting histopathology reveal that the combination has the potential to provide protection against piroxicam-induced ulceration of the gastric mucosa experimental rats. Thus, the combination (CuLE50+M20) seems to be an effective and a safe gastro-protective co-therapy in patients where piroxicam can be a useful drug of choice.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MPS-0000159
Title: Computational study on binding affinity of polyphenolics against cysteine rich C1 domain of kinase suppressor of RAS (KSR) as a target for inhibition of MAPK signaling pathway in neoplasia
Category: Mechanism / Pathway Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim:Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a conserved component of the Ras pathway  that acts as a molecular scaffold to promote signal transmission from Raf-1 to MEK and MAPK.  Method: Study has been carried out through Computational analysis on inhibition of conserved cysteine-rich C1 domain of KSR protein receptor and MAPK downstream signaling pathway interruption through molecular docking studies by polyphenolic compounds. Result: The ligands investigated were found to occupy the potential areas of active site of ksr with satisfactory binding energies. Ligands like 2'-hydroxygenistein showed lowest binding energy value of -6.36 kcal/mol. Further, Binding site analysis shows the ligands has the high fidelity towards target site with maximum potential. Conclusion: Investigational ligands has occupied the potential area of interaction of Raf binding sites, in such perspective these ligands can be targeted for interruption in MAPK signaling pathway for neoplasia.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000158
Title: Evaluation of In-vitro Bioequivalence of Commonly Prescribed Generics of Poorly Water Soluble Drug-Atorvastatin Calcium in Pakistan
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Atorvastatin is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor which reduces the blood cholesterol levels and is commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. It is a poorly water soluble drug and has 14% oral bioavailability therefore mild formulation factors may affect its oral absorption and bioavailability. This study was aimed to conduct bioequivalence study for six commonly prescribed brands of atorvastatin. In this study in vitro bioavailability of six generic brands of atorvastatin were compared with the standard brand leader using their dissolution profiles and evaluation of pharmacokinetic data model independent approach (f1 and f2). Only one generic brand exhibits similar release profile and its f1 and f2 values were within range and the rest of the five brands did not show similar release patterns in comparison to the brand leader. The results of other physical test were found to be within range. It is concluded that all generic brands of atorvastatin are not bioequivalent in terms of their in vitro release behavior. Thus in vitro testing should be declared as mandatory requirement for registration of any pharmaceutical generic in Pakistan.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000156
Title: Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Lamivudine Microspheres, for the treatment of Hepatitis-B
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of the present work is to develope the lamivudine microspheres by using Coacervation phase separation technique to release the drug for a longer period of time and to minimize the adverse effects. Methods: The present work involves the preparation of eight formulations of microspheres from Coacervation phase separation technique of Lamivudine by incorporating the drug into the natural polymer(gelatin). All formulations of microspheres were subjected to evaluation such as Angle of repose, Bulk density, Tapped density, Compressibility index, Hausner ratio, Percentage yield, Particle size determination, Drug loading, Drug entrapment, SEM analysis and In-vitro drug release determinations. Results: All the values of Pre-formulation and Evaluation studies are with in the range and kinetic studies shows that the optimized formulation follows first order kinetics. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the microspheres of F4 formulation prepared by Gelatin with the ratio of 1:2.5 by Coacervation phase separation technique shows desired stability, prolonged drug release by following first order kinetics and was success full. This could be capable of reducing the adverse effects by releasing the drug for a longer period of time.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000155
Title: Phytochemical screening and hepatoprotective activity of Celosia argentea Linn.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Ethanol extract of Celosia argentea linn. (Amaranthacea) was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver injury in rat. The plant extract (ECA) at the dose of 250 & 500 mg/kg, p.o Showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity as judged from the serum marker enzyme. Paracetamol induced a significant rise in aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and decrease in total protein. Treatment of rat with ethanol extract (250&500mg) significantly (P<0.001) Altered Serum Marker Enzyme levels to near normal against paracetamol treated rats. The activity of the extract was comparable to the standard drug, silymarin (50mg/kg, p.o). Histopathological changes of liver sample were compared with respective control. Result indicates that Celosia aregentea possesses hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol –induced hepatotoxic in rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-RA-0000154
Title: Radioprotective effect of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiole against electron beam radiation induced Biochemical and Clastogenic effect
Category: Radioprotective agents/activity
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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It has long been known that some of the most effective radioprotective agents are those which contain sulphydryl groups. The present study reports an evaluation of radioprotective property of sulphydryl group containing triazole derivative. The lethal dose of Electron beam radiation (EBR) was studied by survival assay. The dose reduction factor (DRF) of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiole (ATT) was calculated by taking the ratio between LD50 of EBR with and without ATT treatment. The chromosomal level damage in mice was assessed by Micronucleus assay. The assay was carried out in bone marrow cells of mice, pretreated with ATT (100mg/Kg) for 15 days. The animal blood was used to assess the level of oxidative stress. Radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes was assessed by comet assay parameters. Survival assay results showed 10Gy EBR was the LD50 for albino mice. The dose reduction factor for ATT was found to be 1.2. Treatment of animals with ATT showed a significance (P<0.05) decrease in oxidative stress and micronuclei formation. Comet parameter results are also showed a protective effect of ATT against EBR induced DNA damage. The obtained result concludes the protective property of ATT against EBR.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MPS-0000153
Title: Protection against lead-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of male Wistar rats using melatonin and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Murraya koenigii - A novel combinatorial therapeutic a
Category: Mechanism / Pathway Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Treatment of rats with lead acetate (15 mg / kg body weight) intraperitoneally for seven consecutive days caused significant damage in rat liver and kidneys indicated by the altered levels of lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidised glutathione content, the activities of hepatic and renal antioxidant, pro-oxidant enzymes, mitochondrial Kreb’s cycle and respiratory chain enzymes. Histomorphological changes were also induced in both the tissues by lead acetate which was evaluated using histological studies and microscopy .Collagen content of the liver and kidney tissues were also altered with lead treatment and those were evaluated using acid sirius stain and confocal microscopy and quantified using Image J software. All these changes were ameliorated when the rats were pre-treated with melatonin (10 mg / kg BW, fed orally) and aqueous extract of curry leaves (CuLE) (50 mg / kg BW, fed orally) in combination. The current studies indicated that co-treatment of melatonin and CuLE protected the rat hepatic and renal tissues against lead-induced oxidative stress possibly through their antioxidant activity. The results of the current studies may have future applications in developing a potent pharmaceutical agent with minimum or no cytotoxic side effects against lead induced hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000152
Title: Antioxidant role of Pithecellobium dulce fruit pulp extract in ameliorating hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress studied in streptozotocin induced experimental diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense capacity of the body. The superfluous generation of the free radicals is proved to aggravate most of the dreadful ailments including diabetic complications. Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes is associated with oxidative stress mediated tissue damage. Recently, we have evaluated the antidiabetic properties of P.dulce fruit pulp extract in STZ induced experimental diabetic rats. The present study is aimed to explore the antioxidant potential of P.dulcee fruit pulp, in ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative damage to liver in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In addition to the levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, the extent of oxidative stress was assessed by hepatic lipid peroxides and hydroperoxides. The levels of reduced glutathione and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants were also determined in the liver tissues. The activities of serum aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were assayed. A portion of liver was processed for histological and ultrastructural studies. Oral administration of fruit pulp extract (300 mg/kg b.w.) to diabetic rats decreased the levels of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and increased the plasma insulin level. A reduction in lipid peroxides and hydroperoxides were observed. The declined activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione in diabetic rats were improved upon extract administration. The activity of these antioxidant enzymes were also observed by means of activity staining using native PAGE. The results of the present study indicate that fruit treatment protects the hepatocytes by improving the antioxidant competence in hepatic tissues of diabetic rats which is further evidenced from histological and ultra structural observations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000151
Title: Diverse Biological Activities of 2-aryl Benzothiazoles
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Heterocyclic compounds are widely distributed in nature and are important because of their extensive variety of physiological activities. Among the all benzohaterocycles, benzothiazoles have considerable place in research area especially in synthetic as well as in pharmaceutical chemistry. The present study is intended to evaluate antibacterial activity of synthesized 2-aryl benzothiazoles.  Antibacterial study is carried out against Gram negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Psedomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella abony, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus). The results reveal that, all the tested compounds are found to be active against most of the bacterial strains. The data obtained by MIC throws light on its utility for human beings. Such moieties in future may be a part of an antibiotic molecule.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000150
Title: Synthesis, spectroscopic investigation and DNA binding studies of Pramipexole Schiff base metal complexes
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A novel and simple approach to the synthesis of Schiff base ligand resulted from the condensation of Pramipexole (N6-propyl-4,5,6,7-Tetrahydro-,1,3-benzothiazole-2,6-diamine) with O-Hydroxy Acetophenone (OHAP ). Using this bidentate ligand, complexes of Cu(II), Ru(II) with general formula ML2 have been synthesized and its complexes were synthesized and characterized using different physical, chemical studies as elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, conductivity, magnetic properties, thermal analysis, and their biological activities. The elemental analysis data suggest that stoichiometry to be 1:2 [M:L]. All the complexes are non electrolytic in nature as suggested by molar conductance measurements. Infrared spectral data indicate the co-ordination between ligand and central metal ion through deprotanated phenolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. In addition the authors have been screened the compounds for biological activity. It was found that the compounds have shown activity against the organisms like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Bacillus subtilis.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-0000149
Title: Investigation of Modulation in Redox Status and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Fagonia cretica linn, Tinospora cordifolia and Rubia cordifola in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Epithelial Cell Line A549
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In a study we investigated the role of three ayurvedic plants showcasing the modulating action on redox status and anti-inflammatory action in the human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549. Study highlighted the significant changes in the level of expression as compared to control for the cellular level of Nitric Oxide, Glutathione, Superoxide further suggested the medicinal value of the given plant extracts.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-0000148
Title: Analysis of tandem repeats in human genome by computational and statistical approach
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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BACKGROUND: Human genome contains a collection of genetic information which are stored within 23 pairs of chromosomes, whose size is of 3.8 billon base pairs and it is divided into Coding and Non-coding DNA sequence. For many identified genes the complete biological functions of their proteins and RNA products are unknown. The gene-rich and gene-poor region varies significantly in each chromosome, which may be parallel with chromosome band and GC–content. The importance of these non random patterns of the gene density is not well understood and also the recent studies reveal that vast quantities of non-coding DNA in human genome plays a significant role in regulation of gene expression ,organization of chromosome structure and signals controlling epigenetic inheritance. Protein coding genes are distributed unevenly throughout the chromosomes. METHODS: The Statistical methods were used to analyze the significant and poorly understood region in human genome. We have developed the statistical and computational method to analyze human genome sequence on short range interaction and to find out the significance of their existence in particular chromosome, which was performed by random shuffling of bases such as Singlet, Doublet, Triplet, Tetralet, Pentalet, and Hexalet. This method was developed using Python Script. RESULTS: The result reveals that, as the probability of a particular short range sequence increases there is more chance of them being expressed. Our predicted result is more accurate than previously proposed result on Short range interaction. CONCLUSION: The predicted short range patterns in human genome may be useful to study Microsatellites, Gene density in different chromosomes, Gene Switch in non coding DNA, Evolution etc.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000147
Title: Stem of Cissampelos pareira: A noble herbal resource for antifertility agent
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the stem of Cissampelos pareira for its antifertility potential and to find out its mechanism of action. Also, it was aimed to identify the probable chemical constituent responsible for antifertility effect. Methods: The methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira stem were investigated for their effect on estrous cycle in female rats at two dose level: 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively for 21 days. The Cissampelos pareira stem methanolic extracts were further studied for its effect on implantation and reproductive hormones. Blood samples were collected on 12th, 19th, and 21st day of pregnancy, serum estradiol and progesterone level were estimated by ELISA method. The methanolic extract was fractionated with different solvents successively in the order of toluene; chloroform; and ethyl acetate. The fractions were evaluated for contractions on isolated estrogenized rat uterus. Results: The result of the present study has shown that Cissampelos pareira stem methanolic extracts significantly prolonged the duration of estrus cycle and the diestrous phase of the rats as compared to control group. Prolonged diestrous phase cause inhibition of ovulation which was reversible with discontinuation of treatment. These extracts also reduced the number of implants significantly as compared to control group. Furthermore, serum estradiol levels for Cissampelos pareira stem methanolic extract treated groups were increased in dose dependent manner. In contrast the progesterone level gradually decreased significantly from day 12th to 19th in extract treated groups as compared to control group. Chloroform fraction of methanolic extact (EC50, 0·313 mg ml–1) and methanolic extract (EC50, 0·752 mg ml–1) evoked contractions on the isolated uterus in concentration-dependent manner. All these observations suggest that the methanolic extract has significant (p < 0·001) antifertility effect. Conclusion: Low progesterone level in Cissampelos pareira stem methanolic extract treated groups is responsible for anti-implantation activity of the extracts. Prime constituent of chloroform fraction is flavonoid and the greatest uterotonic activity was found with this fractions. So, flavonoid is responsible for antifertility activity of methanolic extract of the Cissampelos pareira stem.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000145
Title: Anti-anxiety activity of Moringa oliefera assessed using different experimental anxiety models in mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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BACKGROUND: The clinical applications of well-known benzodiazepines as anxiolytic agents are limited because of their side effects. Therefore, the development of new pharmacological agents, from medicinal plants, is well justified. OBJECTIVE: Among medicinal plants, Moringa oliefera (Moringaceae) has been recommended for relief of anxiety in traditional folk medicines. Nevertheless, no pharmacological studies have so far evaluated it in this regard. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anxiolytic effects of ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Moringa oliefera. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanolic extract was prepared by solvent extraction using a Soxhlet apparatus, and subsequently evaluated for antianxiety activity using the elevated plus maze, light and dark test, open field test and social interaction test models. Diazepam was used as standard drug. RESULTS: Results suggested that extract of Moringa oliefera at 200 and 400 mg/kg dose produced anti-anxiety effects almost similar to diazepam, and at 100 mg/kg dose did not produce significant anti-anxiety activity on any of the paradigm used. Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s) and the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed central effects of the ethanolic extract of Moringa oliefera. CONCLUSION: The present study clearly demonstrated that the ethanol extract exerts an anxiolytic effect on mice, and it could serve as a new approach for the treatment of anxiety.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000144
Title: Melatonin protects against lead acetate-induced changes in blood corpuscles and lipid profile of male Wistar rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Treatment of rats with lead acetate at a dose of 15 mg / kg body weight intraperitoneally (i.p) for a period of seven consecutive days caused alterations in the total count of erythrocyte, total count of leukocyte, hemoglobin content, mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, neutrophil count, small lymphocyte count, eosinophil count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, Total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol :HDL cholesterol. All these changes were ameliorated when the rats were pre-treated with melatonin at a dose of 10 mg / kg (fed orally) for a similar period of time. The results of the current studies indicate melatonin’s ability to mitigate heavy metal-induced alterations in blood tissue. This is probably brought about through the antioxidant activity of melatonin and may have future therapeutic relevance in humans exposed to lead environmentally or occupationally and in situations where chelation therapy has limited success.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-0000143
Title: Simultaneous estimation of paracetamol caffiene and propyphenazone in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form by RP-HPLC
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A new, precise, rapid, accurate RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Paracetamol Caffiene and Propyphenazone in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. After optimization the good chromatographic separation was achieved by Isocratic mode with a mixture of Methanol : Water (80:20) v/v and add 3ml Triethylamine to adjust the pH as the mobile phase with Thermohypersil C18 Octa Decyl Silane (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm), column as stationary phase at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection wavelength of 243 nm. The Retention times for Paracetamol Caffiene and Propyphenazone were found to be 3.8, 4.7 and 5.7 min respectively. The linearity of this method was found in the concentration range of 50-150 µg/mL. The correlation coefficient R2 values of Paracetamol Caffiene and Propyphenazone found to be 0.997, 0.998, 0.998. The method of analysis was used for quantification of paracetamol, caffeine and propyphenazone pharmaceutical preparation with a co efficient of variation <2%.The % recovery of Paracetamol Caffiene and Propyphenazone were found to be in the range of 98-102% indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. The specificity of the method shows good correlation between retention times of standard with the sample so, the method specifically determines the analyte in the sample without interference from excipients of formulation. The method was extensively validated according to ICH guidelines for Linearity, Range, Accuracy, Precision, specificity and Robustness.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000140
Title: Synthesis and antifungal activity studies of novel 3,4,5-trisubstitutedisoxazole derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Novel 3,4,5-trisubstituedisoxazole derivatives were prepared by multi step synthesis. We have prepared two set of derivatives, in the first set 3,5-diarylisoxazole-4-carboxamide derivative and in the second set 3,5-diaryisoxazole-4-methyamine derivatives were prepared. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds are characterized by 1HNMR, 13C NMR, LC-MS and screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus (NCIM No.524), Fusarium oxysporum (NCIM No.1072) and Candida albicans (NCIM No.3102).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000139
Title: Development and validation of liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous estimation of levodopa , carbidopa and entacapone in the combined dosage form
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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An isocratic, Reverse Phase-HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of Levodopa , Carbidopa and Entacapone in combined-dosage form. A Inertsil- ODS C18 (250mmx4.6mm, particle size 5µm) column with mobile phase containing water (pH 4.5 adjusted with potassium dihydrogen phosphate) and methanol are in the ratio of 600: 400 (v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, column temperature was 30 °C and effluents were monitored at 287 nm. The retention times of Levodopa, Carbidopa and Entacapone were 3.3min, 4.1min and 9.5min respectively. The correlation co-efficients for Levodopa, Carbidopa and Entacapone were found to be 0.99, 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. The proposed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, and robustness. Recovery of Levodopa, Carbidopa and Entacapone in formulations was found to be 100%, 100% and 100% respectively confirms the non-interferences of the excipients in the formulation. Due to its simplicity, rapidness and high precision, this method was successfully applied to the estimation of Levodopa, Carbidopa and Entacapone in combined dosage form.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000138
Title: Amoxicillin resistance in transient Bacteremia after third molar surgeries
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of transient bacteremia after third molar impactions, in patients who had taken Amoxicillin and in patients who had not taken Amoxicillin previously, to investigate the efficacy of the prophylactic administration of Amoxicillin in the prevention of bacteremia following third molar surgery and to identify the causative microorganisms and find the prevalence rate. Study design: 50 generally healthy patients, who came to SRM Dental College, Ramapuram ,Chennai, were taken for the study. Of these 25 were patients who had taken Amoxicillin prior to impaction and 25 were patients who had not taken any antibiotics before impaction. Blood samples were collected at baseline, before extraction , 30 seconds after extraction, and a third sample was collected 15 minutes later. Three samples were collected from each patient , so totally 180 samples were collected. Results: No bacteria were isolated at baseline in all the patients, the prevalence of bacteremia in the control group was 30 seconds after third molar surgery was 88% which persisted 15 minutes after extraction. The prevalence of bacteremia after third molar surgery in the Amox group collected 30 seconds later was 72% and was shown to persist after 15 minutes. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that transient bacteremia can occur after third molar extractions even after prophylactic administration of Amoxicillin . As many oral bacteria and oral streptococci are increasingly showing resistance to Amoxicillin, importance of alternative drugs such as amoxicillin/clavulanate, clindamycin and metronidazole need to be examined.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000137
Title: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites and enzyme production from endophytic fungi isolated from Eucalyptus citriodora
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present study focused on isolation and identification of endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial compounds and enzymes from a draught resistant medicinal plant. Methods: Endophytic fungi were isolated from fresh live parts of Eucalyptus citriodora and studied their antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microbes and enzyme production. Secondary metabolites assayed for Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC). Active endophytic fungi were identified using rDNA by molecular method. A phylogeny tree for the identified fungi was constructed using online software. Results: Three endophytic fungal isolates inhibited standard microorganisms Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans when tested in dual culture, well and disc diffusion methods. Isolates PECL011 and PECL014 had the best MIC value of 62.5 µg/ml against C.albicans and 125 µg/ml against both P. aeroginosa and M. smegmatis. All the ten fungal isolates were showing activity for at least one of the five enzymes tested qualitatively. The endophytic fungi showing highest inhibition to Candida albicans identified as Aspergillus sp. and Chaetomium sp. by rDNA molecular method. There are 5 isolates belongs to Preussia spp. which are rarely reported and this is the first report from E. citirodora in India. Conclusion: Crude extract of endophytic fungi Aspergillus sp and Chaetomium sp. are very active against fungi and comparable to that of standard antifungal agent flucanazole. Purified compound from this crude extract might be a promising antifungal compound for the treatment of various fungal infections.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000136
Title: Otomycosis: A study from a tertiary care center
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Otomycosis is a superficial mycotic infection of the external auditory canal that is caused by opportunistic fungi.It is common fungal infection of the ear that is world wide in distribution. It presents with nonspecific symptoms of itching, earache, ear discharge, hearing loss,aural fullness and tinnitus. Objective: To isolate and identify the fungal pathogen causing otomycosis and predisposing factors for otomycosis in our study. Materials and Methods: we conducted a hospital based cross sectional study which includes clinically diagnosed 246 patients attending ENT Out Patient Department of SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre. Out of 246 patient 36 were immunocompromised and remaining were immunocompetent. Each patient were studied for gender, age , presenting symptoms, site and fungal species identified. Result: Out of 246 patients 143 were female and 103 were male. In our study age group between 31-40 years were more effected. The infection was found to be unilateral in most of the cases in which right side of ear was more effected as compared to left. Diabetes mellitus (72.22%) was the most commonest disease among the immunocompromised patients. In our study among immunocompromised patient candida (47.22%) was the commonest and among immunocompetent patients Aspergillus niger (61.81%) was the commonest isolates. Conclusion: In this study we found that otomycosis is more common in females than males. Aspergillus niger is the major etiological agent. The major predisposing factors for otomycosis are trauma to the EAC, use of ear drops, unsterile oil and immunocompromised status. Treatment of otomycosis is mandatory to prevent recurrence.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-CPRMS-0000135
Title: An overview on age related macular degeneration and recent advances in its management
Category: Clinical Pharmacy and Related Medical Science
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a condition characterized, in the early stages, by slow development and progression, absence of symptoms over a number of years, and extensive retinal deposits called drusen, often associated with pigmentary abnormalities (early AMD). There is strong and consistent evidence that increasing age, family history, obesity/high body mass index, and cataract surgery are associated with late AMD. Smoking is the strongest and most consistently found modifiable risk factor for late AMD. Age-related macular degeneration remains one of the most severe and profound disabilities encountered in medicine, particularly due to the loss of the central vision and the high economic burden it places on patients and societies.Recent advances in management of AMD is anti-angiogenic drugs. The identification of the crucial role played by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of wet AMD hasallowed the development of VEGF-blocking agents such as bevacizumab, pegaptanib and ranibizumab.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-SM-0000134
Title: Biological evaluation for anti-arthritic potential of hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract of a polyherbal formulation
Category: Siddha Medicine
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The current management of arthritis is limited to the use of synthetic anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic drugs whose, long-term administration causes various adverse effects. Single herb medicaments and polypharmaceutical preparations of Unani Medicine may provide many safe and very effective anti-arthritic drugs that can be used even for long duration. Therefore, in the present study the 50% alcoholic and aqueous extract of a Unani pharmacopoeial preparation comprising of Colchicum (Colchicum luteum), Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Aloe (Aloe vera) was studied for Anti-arthritic activity. Methods: In this study anti-arthritic potential of the test drug was evaluated by Freund’s Adjuvant Arthritis Test in albino rats. Paw volume, Ankle joint thickness and X-ray of hind paws were used as indicators of arthritic changes. Diclofenac sodium was used as the standard drug. Results: The test drug produced highly significant decrease in paw volume and ankle joint thickness (p<0.001). The X-rays studies of hind paw indicated minimal sclerosis of bones in the test groups as compared to the untreated group. Conclusion: The present study clearly shows that, the test formulation possesses significant anti-arthritic activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000133
Title: Determination of the significance of various molecular weights Poly (ethylene oxide) on the in vitro release of Naproxen sodium matrix tablets
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Present investigation was designed to determine the significance of the different molecular weights of poly (ethylene oxide) on the in vitro release of naproxen sodium matrix tablets and also to study the influence of formulation variables on the drug release. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using various molecular weights of poly ethylene oxides (PEO) such as WSR N-750, WSR N-60K, WSR301 and WSR coagulant in 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations. Formulations were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters and in vitro drug release studies were performed for a period of 12 hrs. Drug and excipients interaction analyzed by FTIR and DSC studies. All the physicochemical properties of tablets were within house specifications. In vitro drug release studies revealed that drug release was faster from the formulations containing less molecular weight polymer. Mathematical analysis of drug release indicates that drug release mechanism is non-Fickian or anomalous release. Statistical analysis ANOVA and student Neumann keuls test revealed that PEO WSR 301 in 5% was sufficient to prepare oral sustained release matrix tablets of naproxen sodium.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-0000132
Title: Phytochemical and Metabolite Fingerprinting of Helictres isora Through Gas chromatography and Mass Spectrum analysis
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: In the present study, phytochemical fingerprinting of methanolic extracts from H. isora fruits were investigated through Gaschromatography and mass spectrometric (GC-MS) studies. Methods: Methanolic extracts of H.isora were subjected for GC-MS fingerprinting to screen out the metabolite present in the extract. Results: GC-MS results revaled that the extract consists of alkaloid and phenolic derivatives as its key metabolite. All above antidiabetic agent of berberine chloride derivative of dimethylene berberine is reported in the present investigation. Conclusion: H.isora seems to possess significant phytochemicals which have key importance in pharmacological industry for treating several disease like diabetes, cancer and aging related ailments.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-0000131
Title: Quantification of Phenolics and Flavonoids by Spectrophotometer from Artemisia pallens roots
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Since very old times, herbal medications have been used for relief of symptoms of diseases. Davana (Artemisia pallens) is an important annual aromatic herb belonging to asteraceae family, which is much priced in India for its delicate fragrance. It is traditionally used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, immunomodulating, anthelmintic, antipyretic and wound healing. The oil possesses antispasmodic, antibacterial, antifungal and stimulant properties. A.pallens has shown good antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri . It exhibits significant anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti obesity effects. Artemisia species demonstrates potential as bioactive food supplements. The use of medicinal plants with high level of antioxidant constituents has been proposed as an effective therapeutic approach for hepatic damages. Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological potential, which outlines the necessity of their determination. Catechol and quercetin reagents were used as the standards for calibration for the phenols and flavonoids respectively. A. Pallens roots constitute more amounts of phenolics than flavonoids. This is the first study determining the phenol and flavonoid contents of A.Pallens roots.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000130
Title: Composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and antimutagenic capacity of leaf extract of Phoenyx dactylifera L from Algeria
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The ethanolic extracts of leaves of the Southeast Algeria endemic Phoenyx dactylifera L, three varieties were analyzed for their phytochemical constituent, in vitro antioxidant activity and antimutagenic properties. The phytochemical contents were examined by colorimetric methods. For antioxidant activity effect of ethanolic extract were evaluated in different in vitro methods like hydroxyl radicals, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and 2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). An assay for the ability of these extracts to prevent mutations induced by various oxidants in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA 100 strains was conducted. The condensed tannin content, anthocyanin and Ascorbic acid for ethanolic extract (23.32± 1.45 mg CE/g, 11.79± 0.11mg cyanidin-3-glucoside E/ g, 0.091 ±0.0002 mg/g respectively for Ghars variety). The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage of Saponin and Steroid respectively 1.54±0.14 %, and 1.06±0.07 for Ghars vareity. In in vitro studies of extracts showed very good scavenging activity on ABTS (IC50 20.78 ±0.53 µg/ml), hydroxyl (IC50 35.61 ±0.41 µg/ml) and the FRAP (238 ±11.73 mg/ml FeSO4 equivalent). The ethanolic leaf extracts of Phoenyx dactylifera L of three varieties exhibited potent antimutagenic high inhibitiory level of the Ames response induced by the indirect mutagen 2- aminoanthracene. Results of this experimental study indicated that ethanolic leaf extract of Phoenyx dactylifera L possessed antioxidant and antimutagenic activities.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000129
Title: Attenuation of Ischaemic Myocardial Injury from Carica papaya (Linn.) Leaves Extract
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of various extracts of Carica papaya leaves to limit ischaemia and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury in isolated heart of wister albinorats. Material and Methods: Various extracts of Carica papaya leaves were prepared viz. Pet.ether, chloroform, acetone and methanol. These extracts evaluated for cardioprotective effect. Isolated perfused rat heart was subjected to global ischaemia for 30min. followed by reperfusion for 120min. Coronary effluent was analysed for LDH and CK-MB release to assess the degree of cardiac injury. Myocardial infarct size was estimated macroscopically using TTC staining by volume method. Results: The present study demonstrates that methanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves significantly prevented myocardial infarct size and markedly reduced LDH and CK-MB release in coronary effluent at dose level of 100mg/kg body weight as compared with that of standard ramipril (2.5mg/kg body weight). Conclusion: These results suggest that cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Carica papaya was found significant (p>0.05) as compared to vehicle control group.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000146
Title: In vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity of psidium guajava extracts
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objective of the present study was to determine the inhibitory activity of in vitro a-glucosidase and á-amylase using leaves extracts of Psidium guajava (PG) The leaves of PG were extracted with methanol (MEPG) and aqueous (AEPG). The extracts were analyzed for the in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition activity and total phenol content. The results show that methanolic extracts have α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 187.21μg/mL and 199.1μg/mL, respectively. Aqueous extract of PG have low α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity. The total phenol contents of MEPG were higher than that of AEPG. MEPG is potential for diabetes mellitus management.