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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001563
Title: Multivitamin plant: pharmacognostical standardization and phytochemical profile of its leaves
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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To explore the micro morphology and physio chemical parameters of the leaves of Sauropus androgynus L. Merrill. (Euphorbiaceae). Macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed. Leaves: Stipules lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 1.5-3mm long. Petioles 2-4 mm long; leaf blade sub membranous or thin-papery, ovate-lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, 3-10cm long, 1.5-3.5 cm wide, base cuneate, rounded or truncate, apex acuminate; lateral veins 5-7 pairs, flattened adaxially, elevated abaxially, reticular nerves obscure. Microscopic evaluation revealed the Midrib of the leaf is flat on the adaxial side and triangular with conical abaxial part. The adaxial epidermis of the midrib is fairly distinct with squarish cells and abaxial epidermis has small radially oblong cells. The vascular bundle is single broadly top shaped and collateral. The xylem elements are several parallel lines they are thick walled and angular in outline phloem occurs in wide band beneath the xylem. The lamina has bifacial symmetry of the mesophyll and the midrib. The lamina has smooth and even surface. The adaxial epidermis has dilated rectangular cells and small squarish cells. The abaxial epidermis also has circular or spindle shaped dilated cells. The adaxial epidermis is apostomatic. The cuticle layer is fairly thick, smooth and highly waxy. The cells are random in orientation. The abaxial epidermal is stomatiferous. They are paracytic type with two unequal, parallel subsidiary cells for each stoma. The epidermal cells are amoeboid with highly wavy anticlinal walls. Vein islet numbers, vein termination numbers, stomatal number, stomatal index and other physico chemical tests like ash values, loss on drying, extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, proteins and aminoacids, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, sterols and absence of mucilage, saponin, glycosides, volatile oil and fixed oil. Microscopic analysis was informative and provides useful information in the botanical identification, standardization for purity & quality and immense value in authentication of the leaf.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000420
Title: Co morbidity of Depression and Anxiety in Diabetes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Diabetes is one of the major health problems globally. Major problems associated with diabetes are neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, cardiovascular complications. Apart from these complications psychological problems are positively associated with the diabetes. Depression and anxiety are most common among psychological complications in the diabetic patients. The psychological problems are also responsible for worsening the glycemic control. The association between diabetes and psychological problems is bidirectional. Diabetes causes both behavioural and biological changes. In the case of diabetes, specific phobias such as fear of hypoglycaemia and injection-phobia also represent major contributors in the prevalence of psychological problems. Glycemic control is not maintained during the psychological problems in diabetic patients. Poor adherence to self care regimen, treatment regimen, physical activity are some of the negative outcomes of the psychological problems. Diabetes causes alteration in the neurotransmitters like catecholamines, serotonin, adrenaline, GABA etc and alteration in the HPA axis activity which further causes psychological problems. Treatment of the comorbidity in diabetic patients may result in the variations in the glucose levels or may interfere with action of the hypoglycemic agents. Along with the pharmacological treatment psycho-social intervention may be beneficial in the management of the comorbidity. In this review article, we highlight the association between diabetes and psychological problems, their current treatment and drawbacks of treatment.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000418
Title: Acute and sub acute toxicity study of an anti Diabetic Siddha Polyherbal Preparation, Atthippattaiyathi Kasayam.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Atthippattaiyathi kasayam (APK), a polyherbal Siddha formulation intended to use for diabetic patients, has been screened for toxic effects. For acute toxicity studies, Atthippattaiyathi kasayam was administered orally in single dose of 270 mg/kg to the mice. For sub-acute toxicity studies, different doses of Atthippattaiyathi kasayam (270, 1350 and 2700 mg/kg) were administered orally to the rats once daily for 28 days. Animals were observed for physiological and behavioral responses, mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes. All the animals were sacrificed on 29th day and changes in organ weights and histology were examined. No mortality was observed up to 270 mg/kg of Atthippattaiyathi kasayam in acute toxicity study. Daily administration of as high as 2700 mg/kg dose of Atthippattaiyathi kasayam did not result in any mortality or changes in gross behavior, body weight, weight and histology of different organs. Therefore such doses may be safe for daily administration without causing any serious side effects.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000417
Title: Identification, isolation and characterization of new impurity in donepezil hydrochloride
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Donepezil hydrochloride is a reversible inhibitor of the enzyme acetyl cholinesterase. During the process development of donepezil hydrochloride at lab scale, we observed an unknown impurity at levels 0.05-0.2% in a simple isocratic reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with the known potential impurities. This new unknown impurity was isolated using preparative liquid chromatography. Based on the complete spectral analysis, this new impurity was designated as 2-((1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl)-2-((4-((5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl)methyl)piperidin-1-yl)methyl)-5,6 dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (dimer impurity of donepezil). Impurity isolation and structure elucidation were discussed.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000416
Title: Alleviative Role of Rutin Against 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide (4-NQO) Provoked Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Experimental Animal Model
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) occurs in the oral cavity and causes high morbidity and mortality, the tongue is the most common site for OSCC. The major etiological factors are various forms of tobacco and alcohol consumption. 4-Nitroquinoline (4-NQO) provoked rodent tongue carcinogenesis is a proficient model for studying OSCC. 4-NQO is an eloquent synthetic carcinogen used for the induction of OSCC in an experimental animal model. Aim of this study was to probe the alleviatory role of rutin (RUT) against 4-NQO induced OSCC in Wistar rats. 4-NQO at a concentration of 50 ppm was used for 20 weeks through drinking water to provoke oral carcinogenesis concurrently; rutin administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg.b.wt (kilogram bodyweight) thrice a week orally was able to scavenge the free radicals thereby attenuating cancer progression. The tongue tissue levels of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (Vit-C), vitamin E (Vit-E) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and tumor markers 5’-nucleotidase (5'-NT), γ-gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and cathepsin-D (CD) were estimated. 4-NQO hoisted the levels of tumor markers, lipid peroxides and detracted the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants significantly (p<0.05). Rutin treatment significantly (p<0.05) augmented the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, concomitantly diminished levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) and tumor markers were also observed. Substantially results from our present findings imply that rutin may be effectively hampering the OSCC by its antioxidative and antitumor capacity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000415
Title: Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity index of the aerial roots of Rhaphidophora aurea (Linden Ex Andre) intertwined over different host trees
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Rhaphidophora aurea is a common ornamental plant with aerial roots required for its support. It climbs over host trees and sucks the nutrients of the host. A similar species Epiprenum pinnatum is reported to possess anticancer activity. The leaves of Rhaphidophora aurea are toxic but there are no reports on the uses of aerial roots. The weird property of the aerial roots to twine over the host and suck its nutrients persuaded us to explore the properties of the host and uncover the acquired therapeutic properties of the aerial roots of Rhaphidophora aurea. Materials and methods: The antioxidant activity index of various solvent extracts of the aerial roots of Rhaphidophora aurea intertwined over four different host trees were evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging method and reducing power assay. IC50, EC50 and antioxidant activity index (AAI) were taken up for antioxidant assessment. The ethyl alcohol extract of the aerial roots of Rhaphidophora aurea twined over Lawsonia inermis (MM) and Areca catechu (MB) were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in formalin induced Swiss Albino mice paw oedema model and the paw thickness was measured each one hour upto six hours. Results and Conclusions: Among all the extracts evaluated, the ethyl alcohol extract of the aerial roots of Rhaphidophora aurea twined over four host trees specially Azadirachta indica (MN) exhibit higher antioxidant activity with a strong AAI (5.29) as compared to AAI (2.74) of standard Ascorbic acid. In formalin induced inflammation model, the dose (100mg/kg) produced significant percentage inhibition of mice paw oedema compared to control group. It can be concluded that alcoholic extract of aerial roots of Rhaphidophora aurea intertwined over four different host trees shows good in vitro antioxidant and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and hence of good promise in pharmaceutical field.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000414
Title: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: An awareness guide for women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was originally identified as a reproductive disorder characterized by enlarged, sclerocystic ovaries, menstrual disturbances, obesity, infertility and hirsutism. PCOS is now recognized to be a metabolic syndrome which may include hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, and possibly cardiac disease, as well as the more conventionally recognized increase in androgen levels, cosmetic problems, anovulation, infertility, endometrial cancer and obesity. The high prevalence of adverse metabolic features in women with PCOS translates into significantly increased risks for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other indicators of susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of PCOS in women of reproductive age has been reported to be about 6-10%, although a prevalence of 12.5-50 %  has been reported in women with diabetes. It is now very well known that there is an epidemic of diabetes in Indian population and onset of Type 2 diabetes occurs at early age in Indian population. The correction or insulin resistance in PCOS not only helps in restoration of menstrual cycle and ovulation in PCOS but also, reduces overall risk of developing type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and possibly cardiovascular disease. These findings can emphasize the need to begin awareness for effective treatment of insulin resistance by preventing associated lifestyle factors along with insulin sensitizing agents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000413
Title: Primary Responses of Graded Doses of mica Derived Ayurvedic Drug, Abhrak Bhasma and Silicon Dioxide on Liver and Kidney Histology in Male Albino Rat.
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In Ayurveda, many drugs are mentioned to treat liver and kidney dysfunctions. Abhrak bhasma is a commonly used Ayurvedic drugs in various cardiovascular diseases including hepatotoxicity. In the present study, histological alterations in liver and kidney of male albino rat by the treatment of increasing oral doses (10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg body wt) of abhrak bhasma and silicon dioxide (SiO2) the control, in single dose experimental schedule for 24 hrs were studied. The results revealed that there were no significant changes observed in liver and kidney histology with abhrak bhasma treatments as it maintained normal architecture of centrolobular and periarterial region of liver and medulla and cortex region in kidney. However, SiO2 treatments especially at 30 and 40mg dose; caused alterations in both the tissues, which were associated with hypertrophy of hepatocytes, glomerular and proximal tubular dysfunction. These results indicated that even if abhrak bhasma is produced by processes that involve heating; it seems to not produce SiO2 and thus differs in pathways of metabolisms that occur through kidney.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PB-0000412
Title: Anti-oxidant activities of Biopolymeric Nanoparticles: Boon or Bane!
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Synthetic and natural polymers like gelatin, pectin, chitosan nanoparticles, pectin cisplatin conjugates have an established role as biomedical materials. Nanotechnology has made significant advances in the reduction of free radical damage in the field of materials science. Cross-disciplinary interactions and the application of this technology to biological systems has led to the elucidation of novel nanoparticle antioxidants, which are the subject of our study. Natural antioxidants, including vitamin E (a-tocopherol), vitamin C and others have the ability to potentially modulate oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a cause of cancer, arthritis, heart disease and even aging. Natural antioxidants are prone to degradation and their bioavailability is limited by low absorption and degradation during delivery. Nanoparticles can offer several advantages over traditional delivery methods for antioxidants, which include protection of the bioactive component from the environment, an increase in the bioavailability of the antioxidant targeted delivery of the component, as well as its controlled release at the site of action. Chitosan, a linear polysaccharide derived from chitin obtained from crustacean shells, has emerged as a useful drug delivery matrix because of it polycationic nature, biodegradability, biocompatibility, mucoadhesiveness and ease of physical and chemical modification. The use of nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles for anticancer therapeutics has great potential to revolutionise the future of cancer therapy. Therefore, the present study has been undertaken to evaluate the in-vivo GST activity of chitosan nanoparticles specifically on the tissues of Balb/c mice.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000411
Title: Preparation and evaluation of fexofenadine hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets using neem gum as binder
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The purpose of this study is to mask the intensely bitter taste of Fexofenadine hydrochloride and to formulate an orally-disintegrating tablet (ODT)) of the taste-masked drug by using Neem gum as binder in wet granulation method. The methods commonly employed for achieving effective taste masking include various physical and chemical methods that prevent the drug substance from interaction with the taste buds. In this present study we have evaluate the Neem gum as the binder in wet granulation method to prepare ODT. Sodium starch glycolate, cross povidone and croscarmellose sodium are used as Superdisintegrants to prepare ODTs with better release. Granules of Fexofenadine hydrochloride are prepared by wet granulation method and evaluated for pre-compression parameters. Neem gum concentration is optimized to prepare ODT with the help of invitro evaluation studies. With the help of in-vivo taste evaluation the optimum combination (2:1:0.5) of the drug - tartaric acid – aspartame is determined. Fast dissolving tablets of diclofenac sodium are prepared using this ratio of drug – tartaric acid – aspartame and the Superdisintegrants (4-6%) and evaluated for post compression parameters. Effect of Superdisintegrants on wetting time, disintegrating time, drug content, in-vitro release, have been studied. Based on these tests the formulations containing 6% of cross povidone is selected as the optimum formulation. Short-term stability studies on promising formulations indicated that there are no significant changes.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001564
Title: Ultrasound Promoted Facile Synthesis of Nitriles From Aldehydes
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Nitriles have served as important building blocks for synthesis of variety of intermediates and heterocyclic ring systems. In view of their importance as key intermediates in drug synthesis, the current work describes a facile synthesis of nitriles using ultrasound radiation with excellent yields and short reaction time.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001565
Title: Formulation And Optimization of Liposomal Delivery Vehicle of An Anti-Cancer Drug Exemestane By BOX-Behnken Design
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to formulate and optimize a lipophilic drug delivery vehicle to improve the bio-availability and reduce toxicity of Exemestane. The optimization of liposomal formulation was done using 3-factor Box-Behnken Design. Ultimately the optimized batch was formulated as a buccal patch and evaluation was done. Method: Dry Film Hydration method was used to prepare seventeen batches liposomes and then a 3-factor box behnken design was used to derive an equation to get the predicted responses. Contour plots were constructed to show the effects of independent variables- Drug : Lipid ratio (A), Drug : Cholesterylhemisuccinate (B), and rotational speed while hydration on percent drug entrapment. The final optimized batch was then formulated as a buccal patch and then evaluated. The contour plots obtained predicted the levels of the three independent variables A, B and C for maximum response of percent drug entrapment. Result: The solutions obtained by the computer optimization and constructed contour plots gave levels of independent variables A, B and C as (0.14, -1, 1, respectively) for obtaining highest entrapment efficiency. The results obtained after evaluation of buccal patch were optimum. Conclusion: Box-Behnken Design can be used a useful technique to get an optimized liposomal formulation. The solutions can be utilized to form an optimum liposomal formulation having highest entrapment efficiency for water insoluble drug. The oral route can be bypassed so as to increase bio-availability and decreasing the toxicity by formulating buccal patch of the optimized liposomal batch.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001566
Title: Anti-diabetic effect of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study, the  aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Curculigo orchiodes Gaertn  rhizome was used to screen the  antidiabetic and antioxidant activity in  alloxan induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia induced in rats by alloxan (150mg/kg i.p). Two weeks after alloxan induction, diabetic rats received aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Curculigo orchiodes (CO) orally 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively for 90 days. In this study, protective effects of CO rhizome on glucose tolerance test and an alloxan induced diabetes were evaluated.  Serum biochemical parameters glucose, urea, total cholesterol and total protein were measured. The activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxides (LPO) and also liver enzymes like SGPT, SGOT,ALP were also done. The observation confirm   that glucose tolerance were significantly (P<0.01) maximum with ethanolic extract of CO at 120 minutes (min).Serum glucose, urea, total cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) decreased with aqueous extract, reverse in the protein concentration. Elevated liver enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP) activity in alloxan induced rats were regained with ethanolic extract of CO rhizome administration at 300mg/kg.All the three doses of aqueous and ethanolic extract administration increased the enzyme activity (GSH, SOD and CAT) maximum effect found on 300mg/kg of ethanolic extract administration and reverse was recorded in lipid peroxidase enzyme system. The observation confirm that aqueous and alcoholic extract of Curculigo orchoides rhizome has  remarkable antidiabetic activity and, the hepatoprotective activity of the extract may be due to its antioxidant property exerted by glycosides and flavonoids respectively. It also warrants further investigation to isolate and identify the compound.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001567
Title: Synthesis and evaluation of new Triazolyl quinazolinone derivatives as possible antimicrobial agents
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present study a series of novel triazolyl quinazolinone derivatives were synthesized by the addition of ammonia and propargyl bromide to 2-Phenyl-benzo[1,3]oxazin-4-one [I] to give O-, N-alkylnyl quinazolinones [III, IV]. These compounds when treated with alkyl azides in DMSO using copper sulphate as catalyst, gives   4-((1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy)-2-phenylquinazoline [V] and 3-((1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)2-phenylquinazoline-4-one[VI]  and their derivatives. These synthesized compounds were characterized by TLC, IR, 1HNMR and Mass spectra. All these compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities  using minimum inhibitory concentration values (Zone of inhibition method). Some of them are found to be moderate to good biologically active compounds.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001569
Title: 2-(5-Substituted-1,3,4-Oxadiazole-2-yl)-1,3-Benzothiazoles: synthesis and antimicrobial activity
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: A series of new benzothiazole derivatives (6a-o) were synthesized by multi-step synthesis in good yields, and evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Method: It involved three steps. Initially The reaction of o-amino thiophenol with diethyl oxalate resulted in the formation of ethyl-2-benzothiazole carboxylate, which was treated with excess hydrazine hydrate to obtain the hydrazide derivative, resulted in the formation of compound 4 which was used in preparation of compounds 6 (a-o), namely, 2-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl)-1,3-benzothiazole.. The synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR, NMR and Mass spectral data. Compounds were evaluated for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity against against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Result: compounds 6n and 6o are active against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, whereas compound 6j exhibited potent antifungal activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001570
Title: Effect of vitamin E supplementation and combined treadmill exercise towards development of leg strength, explosive strength and exercise oxygen uptake of male students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Physical training along with ample and proper nutrient intake together is very essential device to improve fitness as well as also to achieve high level performance .Micrnutrients particularly vitamins play a key role towards development of specific fitness components and therefore are of great choice for the athletes involving in competitive sports. Vitamin E apart from its other potent benificial properties have profound antioxidant role in protection of free radicals that are generated at endurance exercise. In this study we have shown the combined effect of Vitamin E and treadmill exercise towards development of muscle strength and power (leg strength and explosive strength), and exercise oxygen uptake in male active students. Total of 6 weeks duration of Vitamin E supplementaion combined with treadmill running increase leg strength, explosive strength and exercise oxygen uptake which proves another potential role of vitamin E along with treadmill exercise.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001571
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Tablets of Captopril
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present work fast dissolving tablets of captopril were designed with a view to provide quick onset of action. Captopril is a potent competitive inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme which is  responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Methods: The tablets were prepared by direct compression method usually by varying the individual concentration and combination of different superdisintegrants like acidisol and crospovidone. Results: The powder blend was evaluated for pre-compression parameters in order to assess the flow properties of powder like bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, hausner’s ratio, angle of reposes. The powder blend showed excellent flow properties. The prepared tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation, friability, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time and in-vitro drug release. Among all the fast dissolving tablets the formulation F12 containing combination equal and high concentration of superdisintegrants acidisol and crospovidone was considered to be best formulation with less disintegration time, wetting time and in-vitro drug release. Conclusion: Therefore it can be concluded from this study that  fast dissolving  tablets of captopril containing combination of superdisintegrants acidisol and crospovidone was showed quick action compared to individual concentration of superdisintegrants.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001572
Title: Pharmaceutical metabolites with potent bioactivity from mushrooms
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Mushrooms have been recognized for their immense health benefits and used in folk medicine. In mushrooms specific biochemical compounds used for improving human health in many ways. These bioactive compounds include polysaccharides, tri-terpenoids, low molecular weight proteins, glycoproteins and immunomodulating compounds. The medicinal use of mushrooms has a very long tradition in the Asian countries. Bioactive compounds isolated from medicinal mushroom shows a different activity against various diseases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001573
Title: Phytochemical analysis and Antioxidant efficacy of Avocado nonsaponifiables- in vitro and in vivo study on broiler hens
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The Nonsaponifiable fraction(NSF) of oils contain phytochemicals such as sterols,terpenoids, tocopherols,phenolics and a variety of other compounds which contribute to the health benefits of consuming virgin oils. Avocado nonsaponifiables are fractionated by HPTLC to qualitatively analyse the fraction. The Avocado (Persea americana) fruit was widely recognized for its high fat content and was consequently avoided by people on a diet for weight loss. However in recent times, the health benefits of avocado fruit and its oil consumption have been demonstrated. Its oil is rich in mono unsaturated fatty acids and resembles to olive oil in composition. In this study, the in vivo antioxidant activity of avocado NSF in broiler hens is demonstrated.  The in vitro antioxidant efficiency was measured and compared with ascorbic acid and tocopheryl acetate by DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric iron reducing ability. When compared to ascorbic acid, it displayed very less antioxidant ability but when compared to fat soluble vitamin, a-tocopherol, the avocado NSF was a very potent antioxidant with 3fold higher DPPH radical scavenging capacity and 20fold higher ferric iron reducing ability. The in vivo studies with NSF supplementation in broiler hens showed significant increase in total thiols and decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the major end products of lipid peroxidation in liver. Our results suggest that avocado NSF is an effective antioxidant in broiler hens in vivo.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001574
Title: Prescription Pattern of The Drugs Among Pregnant Inpatients In Tertiary Care Hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: To know the prescription pattern of the drugs among pregnant inpatients in tertiary care hospital. Methods: A total of 125 patients were included in this prospective study and relevant details were obtained from the patients and case sheets. The current drug treatment details as an inpatient was obtained from the treatment chart and recorded. The drugs prescribed were grouped under their pharmacological classes and under the Food and Drug  Administration (FDA) pregnancy risk classification groups. The drugs comprising the DU90% segment were used to categorise the predominant drugs prescribed. Results: In the present study, the pregnancy supplements (34.6%) and antimicrobials(18.9%) accounted for the two major prescriptions. The anti-hypertensives(12%),  gastro-instestinal medicines(8.6%), and the central nervous system medicines (8.3%) were other major prescriptions. Among the prescribed medicines the 25% and 23% belonged to category C and D respectively of Food and Drug Administration. Conclusion: Poly-pharmacy and over use of antimicrobial medicines still remains the problem, to be answered to avoid the negative consequences of inappropriate prescription in pregnancy. We need to have an interventional programme focusing on minimization of medicine use and rational prescription in pregnancy.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001575
Title: Comparative in-vitro anti arthritic studies on the various extracts of Glycosmis pentaphylla dc roots
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Glycosmis pentaphylla DC is a medicinal plant widely used in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of arthritis. The present study deals with the investigation on the roots of Glycosmis pentaphylla DC (Rutaceae) for its anti-arthritic potential. To evaluate the anti-arthritic efficacy, the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of Glycosmis pentaphylla were taken and screened by bovin serum albumin denaturation method. A preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of active phytochemicals such as alkaloid, glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids tannins and phenolic compounds in the different extracts. The results indicated that all the extracts tested, have shown positive response, with the ethanol extract exhibiting maximum efficacy of 46.46%, when compared with standard drug, diclofenac sodium with 51.92 % inhibition at 10 µg/ml. The effect of different extracts were in the order of ethanol > ethyl acetate > chloroform. The study concludes that further investigational studies are required to identify the phytoconstituent responsible for the activity and to elucidate the exact mechanism of anti-arthritic activity in Glycosmis pentaphylla.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001576
Title: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Justicia gendarussa Burm f. - review
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Justicia gendarussa Burm f. (family Acanthaceae) known as Willow-leaved justicia in English, it is native to china. It is commonly found throughout the greater part of India and Andaman islands. Justicia gendarussa Burm f. is one of the important herbal being used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Mostly the leaves are used for the medical purposes. A wide variety of biologically active constituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates are present in this plant. The leaves also contain friedelin, lupeol, â-sitosterol and aromatic amines. This plant exhibits anticancer, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anthelmintic and antiangiogenic activities. This review will focus on the phytochemical constituents isolated from the plants and phytopharmacological properties of different parts of Justicia gendarussa.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001577
Title: Antiproliferative activity of Zanthoxylum tetraspermum W.A. stem bark extract against Breast carcinoma in mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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 Breast carcinoma is a heterogeneous complex disease thought to occur via a multistep process, which despite improvements in surgery and the use of adjuvant therapy, continues to be fatal in many patients. Metastatic disease is the most common cause of breast cancer death. The genus Zanthoxylum is used as mouth fresh, tooth care, spice and possesses several types of biological activities. Zanthoxylum tetraspermum (Wight & Arn.) belongs to the family“Rutaceae” possesses some biological activities. In the present study antiproliferative activity of  Z. tetraspermum W.A. stem bark extract has been evaluated against N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) induced breast carcinoma in mice. Biochemical estimations like Lipid peroxidation, enzymic antioxidants and non enzymic antioxidants activity done in the liver and kidney tissue homogenate were restored after treatment with hydroethanolic stem bark extract of Z. tetraspermum. Comparison of normal mice, mice administered only with stem bark extract and mice administered with 5-Fluoro Uracil (5-FU) as positive drug control group showed no significant variations in these enzyme activities. The antiproliferative activity of Z. tetraspermum stem bark extract was studied using breast cancer cell lines and measured by MTT assay. From these findings it is reported that the hydroethanolic stem bark extract of the plant has shown good inhibition on lipid peroxidation and proliferation which indicated the antitumor activity of the plant extract in in vivo model against MNU induced breast carcinoma in mice.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: July
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001578
Title: Antimicrobial activity of Phellinus and Ganoderma samples against human pathogenic organisms
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Medicinal mushroom contains the bioactive compound like polysaccharides, terpens, proteins having bioactivity. Phellinus and Ganoderma has been used effectively in various diseases including improving blood circulation, enhancing detoxication and hepatoprotection, cobmbating allergy, arthritis, cancer, diarrhea, diabetes etc. Phellinus which are used by traditional healers in their treatment of infection, with the hope of isolating and identifying the compound responsible for its activity. Several extracts using various solvents have been evaluated for the antimicrobial activity. The extract of Phellinus contains different bioactive compounds like sesquiterpens, triterpensetc that may act on Acinetobacter. The extract of Phellinus was found to be stable in alkaline and acidic conditions. Thus it can be used as an oral antibiotic and it will be potent antibiotic drugs.