Journal Menu

Issues

Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
Scopus Indexed (link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100325431&tip=sid&clean=0) 

Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-0000163
Title: Ethyl acetate partitioning positively modulates antioxidant efficacy of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Terminalia arjuna (TA) is a well known medicinal plant widely used in herbal medicine for over centuries in India. Initially it was known as “hirdya”for its cardioprotecting and chest pain (induced by cardiac problem) reducing activity. The crude aqueous extract of this plant bark contains phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidines. The present study investigated the biochemical efficacy of TA after ethyl acetate partitioning in comparison with TA crude extract and identification of phytoconstituents retained in this ethyl acetate partitioned fraction (EAPF).The incubation of liver homogenate with Cu-ascorbate system showed a steep rise in lipid peroxidation level and a concomitant decline in reduced glutathione content, the two important biomarkers of oxidative stress. The crude aqueous bark extract of TA and, EAPF obtained from it, when co-incubated with Cu-ascorbate system separately, the latter showed a more pronounced dose-dependent protection in the liver homogenate than crude TA aqueous bark extract. Again the EAPF fraction of TA bark extract was found to scavenge •OH radical and superoxide anion (O2•-) radical more potently (almost 2 fold compared to crude TA aqueous extract) in a chemically defined system. Furthermore, HPLC analysis and UV-visible spectral scanning of this fraction indicated towards enrichment of phenolics and benzoic acid like compound. Finally, GC-MS analysis of the same fraction proved the presence of estra 1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol,â-carotene and benzoic acid,2,4-bis(trimethyl) like compounds that inspired us to consider the EAPF fraction as partially purified, which may have a novel therapeutic relevance for curing several types of diseases associated with involvement of oxidative stress.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000182
Title: Total polyphenol and flavonoid content of Syzygium jambos (L) Alston leaf extracts and its in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Background: To investigate the total polyphenol and flavonoid content of Syzygium jambos leaf extracts and to correlate DPPH quenching by in vitro method. Methods: Shade dried leaves were extracted by cold maceration method and spectrophotometric method was adopted to evaluate the DPPH radical scavenging potential using standard procedures. Results: The total phenolic content (TPC) of ethanolic and chloroform leaf extracts were predicted as 42.72±0.07and 31.06±1.4 GAE/g of extract respectively. The TPC of ethanolic and chloroform leaf extracts accords with the radical destroying mechanism possessing strongest antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical with IC50 values 114.56±0 and 132.91±0.007 µg/mL respectively. A moderate radical shooting activity was observed in methanolic leaf extract exhibiting an IC50 159.57±0.003 µg/mL, which was not up to the significance compared to the standard ascorbic acid with IC50 66.5±0 µg/mL. Conclusion: A positive radical scavenging correlation was exhibited by polyphenolic contents of ethanolic, chloroform and methanolic extracts whereas, the flavonoids of the S.jambos leaf extract displayed a low correlation in radical quenching. Studies suggest that apart from plant phenols as a major phytometabolites in free radical scavenging, other secondary metabolites in plants may also be accountable for antioxidant mechanism. Further studies are obligatory to identify the exact compound for the antioxidant potential in S.jambos leaf extracts.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000162
Title: A Study of total phenolic content of Tylophora indica leaf extracts and it’s correlation with in vitro DPPH scavenging activity
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Background: Oxidative stress is a life threatening problem of all ages, where the plant derived antioxidants are recommended in Ayurveda as a safer drug of antioxidation. In the present investigation the antioxidant activity of senescent leaf extracts of Tylophora indica was evaluated using DPPH free radical. Methods: The crude aqueous and organic solvent leaf extracts were prepared by cold maceration method. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined and its correlation with free radical scavenging potential was evaluated using DPPH assay. Results: The methanolic leaf extracts showed higher phenolic content (58.8 mg GAE/g) compared to chloroform (44.9 mg GAE/g), ethanol (44.38 mg GAE/g) and aqueous extracts (19.38 mg GAE/g). Encouraging DPPH scavenging was observed in methanolic extract (IC50 95.17 µg/mL) relating a strong correlation with TPC of the extract. The free radical scavenging evidenced the presence of antioxidant polyphenolics and other related metabolites in the extracts. Conclusion: The study confirmed a positive correlation with the phenolic content of the extracts in antioxidant activity. Our observation submits that T.indica leaves are the noble sources of antioxidant constituents paving a way for the future studies.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000167
Title: Effect of Processing Parameters on Ethyl Cellulose Microparticles of Cefuroxime Axetil
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Cefuroxime Axetil, a second generation cephalosporin has a short half life (1.3 hrs). It is degraded by the intestinal esterases and causes adverse gastrointestinal effects. Sustained release gastroretentive microparticles of the drug have been tried by an emulsification and solvent evaporation method employing ethyl cellulose and chloroform which spontaneously yielded hollow spherical microparticles. The effect of polymer proportion (10% to 35%), stirring speed (700 and 1500 rpm) and dispersion medium temperature (28°C, 40°C and 60°C) on the formation of microparticles has been studied while keeping other process parameters constant. The microparticles formed were characterized by SEM, optical microscopy, micromeritics, floatation and in vitro drug release. The morphology of the microparticles formed is dependent on the conditions employed during preparation. Low stirring speed and low medium temperature enabled the formation of hollow spherical particles. At high stirring speed, irregular microparticles with multiple internal cavities formed. Crust formation due to solvent removal from the outer regions of the dispersed globule and further diffusion of solvent from inside may have led to such morphology. At high dispersion medium temperature porous surface of microparticle was evident and may be due to instantaneous solvent removal from the dispersed globule. Floating buoyancy showed that 82% of the microparticles continued to float after 12hrs. Only P1LSLT showed 100% release in 12 hours. With all the higher polymer proportions employed, release was very slow and extended beyond 24hrs.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-0000166
Title: Estimation of flavonoids in Dodonaea viscosa (Linn) JACQ. by HPLC analysis
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The plant Dodonaea viscosa (Sapindaceae) is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammation, swelling, rheumatism, pain, snake-bite and for wounds. The therapeutic efficacy of this plant is attributed to the chemical constituent flavonoids present in the plant. The present study is aimed to detect and quantify the flavonoids present in the leaves of Dodonaea viscosa using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic content of the extracts were determined by Folin cio-calteu method. The HPLC system used was Linchosorb Octadecylsilyl silica (ODS) column with Methanol–Water–Phosphoric acid (100:100:1) as the mobile phase and was detected at 270nm. The ethanolic extract showed maximum quantities (7.28, 5.64, 3.42mg/gm) of flavonoid (Rutin, Quercetin and Kaemferol) when compared to ethyl acetate extract (6.38, 5.26, 1.32mg/gm) respectively. Rutin, Quercetin and Kaempferol were identified and quantified in the ethanolic and ethyl acetate extract. This study provides the suitable method for the quantification of flavonoids present in the plant Dodonaea viscosa which will be helpful in authentication of the plant. This study also helps to develop the monograph for this plant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-0000165
Title: Transgenic technology: An overview, current status & future perspectives
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
View Article

Traditional breeding techniques have been employed for altering the genomes of plants and animals for many years. This has resulted in a variety of different organisms and the organisms that exhibit specific traits are chosen to breed subsequent generations. However, traditional breeding concept suffered a lot of limitations and that could not satisfy the actual need of the humans. Nowadays, innovations in molecular biology are happening at an unprecedented rate. Transgenic technology is one such breakthrough in the field of biotechnology. In recent years, advances in the field of genetic engineering have allowed for precise integration of foreign genes into the animal genome by genetic engineering technology so that foreign genes can be expressed and inherited to the offspring. The transgenic efficiency and precise control of gene expression are the key limiting factors on preparation of transgenic animals. A variety of transgenic techniques- microinjection, retroviral vector method, embryonic stem cell-mediated gene transfer, direct gene transfer methods in plants, gene transfer using Agrobacterium are available, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages and still needs further attention because of unresolved technical and safety issues. The potential outcomes of the in-depth research reveals that the transgenic technology will have broad application prospects in the fields of exploration of gene function, livestock improvement, production of pharmaceutical proteins , animal disease models, and organ transplantation and so on.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-ND-0000164
Title: GC-MS analysis in two species of Biophytum DC. (Oxalidaceae)
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Biophytum is one of the medicinally important plants belonging to the family Oxalidaceae. The present investigation is concerned with the GC-MS analysis of ethanol extracts of the two species of Biophytum to determine the possible bioactive components. The GC-MS analysis of different plant parts of Biophytum veldkampii and Biophytum reinwardtii revealed the presence of seven to twenty compounds. The results revealed that, Gamma sitosterol was the major component followed by n-Hexadecanoic acid, Phenylephrine, Bicyclo [3.1.1] heptane, 2,6,6-trimethyl, Phytol, p-Hydroxynorephedrine, Hexadecanoic acid ethylester, Stigmast-4-en-3-one, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 2,6,6-trimethyl, Mexiletine. Remaining compounds were present in small quantities (< 10%). The identified compounds are known to possess many biological properties such as antitumor, analgesic, anti-ulcer, antipyretic, antimicrobial, spermicide, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and hypocholesterolemic properties.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000161
Title: In situ modified ion selective electrodes for potentiometric determination Sildenafil citrate and some of its formulations
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The construction and performance characteristics of different Sildenafil citrate (SILC) drug potentiometric sensors are described. Three types of electrodes are demonstrated, namely In situ modified screen-printed (ISPE), In situ modified carbon paste (ICPE) and the conventional In situ modified IPVC membrane electrodes. The cited electrodes are based on Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB), ammonium reineckate (RN), Phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) and Phosphotungestic acid (PTA) ion pairing agents which show a considerable selectivity towards SILC with Nernstian or nonnernstian slopes depending on the type of the electrode and the various ion pairing agents incorporated. Different parameters were studied for each electrode achieve near nernstian or nernstian slope values such as matrix compositions and contents, pH, Temperature, selectivity, response time and life time. ISPE incorporated with Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) with dibutylphthalate (DBP) as membrane plasticizer, showed the best electroanalytical performances in the concentration range from 2 x 10-8 to 1 x 10-2 mol L-1 with Nernstian compliance 60.37 ± 1.95 mV decade-1 and detection limit of 2.51 x 10-8 mol L-1. Fast response time of about 3 s and adequate shelf-life (12 weeks) was achieved. The developed electrodes have been successfully applied for the potentiometric determination of SILC in pharmaceutical formulation under batch.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000189
Title: Physalis peruviana Linn. fruit extract improves insulin sensitivity and ameliorates hyperglycemia in high-fat diet low dose STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Physalis peruviana Linnaeus, belonging to the family Solanaceae and genus Physalis, possess a wide array of pharmacological properties. In the absence of systemic studies in the literature, the present study was aimed to explore the antidiabetic potential of the Physalis peruviana fruits in high fat diet fed-low dose STZ induced experimental type 2 diabetes in rats. Phytochemical screening of the fruit extract was performed. Diabetic rats were treated with Physalis peruviana fruit extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days. Metformin (200 mg/kg. b.w) was used as a standard drug. The physiological criterions such as food and fluid intake were recorded. The levels of fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and HbA1c were also estimated. Intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test was performed. The level of glycogen content in liver tissue was estimated. The activities of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were assayed. The fruit extract supplementation attenuated the elevated levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, AST, ALT and ALP. The insulin level was improved with an improvement in hepatic glycogen content of insulin resistant diabetic rats. The fruit extract improves insulin sensitivity which is evident from intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test. These results showed that Physalis peruviana fruits are non toxic in nature and possess significant antidiabetic properties which might be attributed to the presence of biologically active ingredients present in the fruit extract.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000188
Title: Novel Routes to Quinazolin-2,4-dione and Benzopyrimidino [4,5-b]naphthalen-2,4-dione Derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Owing to the various applications of quinazolin-2,4-dione and benzopyrimidino[4,5-b] naphthalen-2,4-dione derivatives in medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry, our study focused on the synthesis of new derivatives of these compounds. The evaluation of the chemical structure of the newly compounds was based on their spectral data.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PP-0000187
Title: Effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral hypoglycemic drug - Metformin in hyperglycemic rats
Category: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Gymnema sylvestre (GS) and Metformin both reducing insulin resistance. GS stimulate ß-cell function, increase ß-cell number, increases the enzyme activity responsible for glucose uptake and utilization. Metformin (MF), a biguanide increases glucose uptake and reduces hepatic glucose production. The effect of the combination of GS (100 mg/kg and 500mg/kg) and MF (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg.) on the pharmacokinetic parameters of MF was studied in STZ induced diabetic rats after single dose and multiple dosing for 15 days. Pharmacodynamic interactions were studied by determing the effect of combination therapy on the serum glucose levels of STZ induced diabetic rats before and after multiple dosing for 14days.The decrease in bioavailability was contributed by decrease in absorption rate constant and increase in clearance where as in the Pharmacodynamic study the combination in general showed decrease in serum glucose levels which was contributed by the hypoglycemic property of GS. But the combination did not decrease the serum glucose levels comparable to MF when given alone. Histopathological studies revealed that combination of GS with MF increased the volume of islets cells of pancreas. These observations show that GS is a potent hypoglycaemic but it contributes to a decrease in hypoglycemic effect of MF.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-0000186
Title: Optimization of Irbesartan tablet formulation by 22 factorial design
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Irbesartan, a widely prescribed anti hypertensive drug belongs to class II under BCS classification and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. It needs enhancement in the dissolution rate in its formulation development. Complexation with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and use of Primojel are tried for enhancing the dissolution rate of irbesartan in its formulation development. The objective of the present study is optimization of irbesartan tablet formulation employing Primojel and βCD by 22 factorial design. Formulation of irbesartan tablets with NLT 85% dissolution in 15 min employing Primojel and βCD was optimized by 22 factorial design.Four irbesartan tablet formulations were prepared using selected combinations of the two factors as per 22 factorial design. Irbesartan tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were evaluated for drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate characteristics. The dissolution rate (K1) values were analysed as per ANOVA of 22factorial design to find the significance of the individual and combined effects of the two factors (βCD and Primojel) involved on the dissolution rate of irbesartan tablets formulated. The individual and combined effects of βCD and Primojel on the dissolution rate (K1) of irbesartan tablets are highly significant (P<0.01). Irbesartan tablets formulated employing Primojel at a level of 30% of drug content and βCD in 1:1 ratio of drug: βCD (Fa) disintegrated rapidly within 20 seconds and gave very rapid dissolution of irbesartan,99.51% in 15 min. Higher levels of βCD and lower levels of Primojel gave low dissolution rates of irbesartan tablets.The increasing order of dissolution rate (K1) observed with various formulations was F a> Fab> Fb> F1.The polynomial equation describing the relationship between the response i.e. percent drug dissolved in 15min (Y) and the levels of Primojel (X1) and âCD (X2) based on the observed results is Y = 77.58+16.72 (X1) + 4.44 (X2) - 9.65 (X1 X2) .Based on the above polynomial equation, the optimized irbesartan tablet formulation with NLT 85% dissolution in 15 min could be formulated employing Primojel at 22.56% of drug content and βCD at 1:1.25 ratio of drug: βCD.The optimized irbesartan tablet formulation gave 86.35% dissolution in 15 min fulfilling the target dissolution set. Hence formulation of irbesartan tablets with NLT 85% dissolution in 15 min could be optimized by 22 factorial design.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000185
Title: Total phenolic content, total flavonoid & anti-bacterial activity of methanolic extracts of two medicinal plants
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Methanolic extract of P. guajava leaves Linn & Symplocos racemosa Roxb bark powder were subjected to phytochemical analysis, determination of phenolic content, total flavonoid content. In-vitro antibacterial activity of extracts against microorganism residing in mouth flora (inducing mouth ulcer) and against H.Pylori (causing peptic ulcer) was also evaluated. Gallic acid was used as standard and the results were expressed as mg Gallic acid (GAE)/g in both extracts for determination of TPC. The results were expressed as mg catechin (QE)/g in both extracts. Total flavonoid content was determined using aluminum chloride (AlCl3) according to a known method, using catechin as a standard. In vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans was conducted by broth dilution technique. Ampicillin for bacteria and Fulcin for fungi were used as controls. Both extracts were also evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity against H.Pylori using the agar-well diffusion method. Amoxicillin and clarithromycin was used as a control. Methanolic extract of both plants showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and terpenoids etc. Total Phenolic content of P. guajava leaves & Symplocos racemosa bark were found to contain 63.00µg/ml & 77.00µg/ml respectively equivalent to gallic acid. Total flavonoid content of P. guajavaa leaves & Symplocos racemosa bark were 3.8mg/ml & 1.4mg/ml respectively equivalent to catechin. Methanolic extract of Symplocos Racemosa Roxb & Psidium guajava possess good antibacterial activity as compare to aqueous extract. However Symplocos Racemosa Roxb has also showed good antibacterial activity against gram negative microorganism like P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Extracts of Psidium guajava & Symplocos racemosa showed dose dependent activity from 0.01mg/disc to 5.0mg/disc against H.pylori in vitro. The bioflavonoids and phenolic compounds present in the methanolic extracts may be responsible for such an activity.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-HMI-0000184
Title: Elemental Assessment of Fruits and Vegetables
Category: Heavy Metals /Impurities
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Objectives: The main aims of this investigation were to generate attentiveness among the human consumers about the use of such fruits and vegetable having high level of metals and to document evidence of essential and non-essential metals in these fruits and vegetables which are extensively used in the preparation of herbal products and standardized extracts. Materials and Method: Different heavy metals like Zinc, Iron, Nickel, Copper, lead and Cadmium, alkali metals like Sodium, Potassium and alkaline earth metal like Calcium were analyzed in selected fruits and vegetables including Habiscus esculentus, Lycopersicum esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Prunus armeniaca, Daucascarota, Citrus limon, Psidium guajava and Zizyphus jujuba, by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer and Flame Photometer. Results: The concentration of cadmium and Lead were below the detection level in selected fruits and vegetables. High potassium contents were observed in Prunus armeniaca 1750 mg/kg. The concentration of heavy metals particularly iron and nickel was also found in high level as compared to other analyzed elements in the selected fruits and vegetables. Conclusion: Utilization of fruits and vegetables unhygienic with heavy metals by public could lead to changes in health of the residents of contaminated areas.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000181
Title: Phytochemical screening of Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt. (Iridaceae)
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Background: Plants continue to play a vital role in their therapeutic value. This is because of the vast secondary metabolites that many of them produce. These natural products have been utilised as single or in combination with other compounds for utilization as source of drugs for many ailments in form of antibacterials, antifungals, antivirals, antihelminthes, and antimalarials among others. Plants evaluated phytochemically in most cases have previous reports on biological activity, ethnomedicinal or traditional medicine usage. However, many other plants with no such previous reports may be as important with variety of natural products with potential significance in pharmaceuticals for drug development. Dierama cupuliflorum is one such plant. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of phytochemicals in this plant. Method : The organic solvent extracts from Methanol: Dichloromethane (1:1) along with dry powder/ground portions from corms and aerial parts were screened for the presence of selected phytochemicals using standard chemical procedures. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavanoids, glycosides and anthraquinones. More phytochemicals were detected in corms than in the aerial parts. Conclusion: Although there is no available report on the use of this plant for medicinal purposes, the phytochemical data presented here has demonstrated that this plant has the potential to be used significantly for therapeutic purposes in many health challenges. This study has therefore laid down a good foundation for future studies on this plant whose bioactivity studies are currently underway.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000180
Title: Total flavonoid, total phenolic content, in-vitro anti inflammatory and antioxidant activity of extracts of two medicinal plants.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

In the present studies phytochemical screening of methanolic and aqueous extracts of rhizomes of Nephrodium cicutarium ( Aspidium cicutarium) and leaves of Spathodea campanulata is done. The work involves determination of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, in-vitro anti inflammatory activity for both the plants, in vitro antioxidant activity for Nephrodium rhizomes. The determination of flavonoids and phenols was done by spectrophotometry and antioxidant activity was measured by in-vitro DPPH assay method. The results indicated that the methanolic extract showed higher Catechin equivalent as compared to aqueous extract for both the medicinal plants. Similarly gallic acid equivalent values were also high for methanolic extract in both plants. The presence of flavonoids and phenols suggest that the extracts have a potential for antibacterial and wound healing effects. The antioxidant activity was also found to be higher in methanolic extract of Nephrodium cicutarium rhizomes and was as high as Ascorbic acid taken as standard. In-vitro anti inflammatory tests done by protein denaturation studies also show that the plants have a potential to be used as anti inflammatory agents. From the results of the present study it can be concluded that both the plants have a good potential to be used in antibacterial, anti inflammatory and wound healing formulations.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000179
Title: Nephroprotective and nephrocurative activity of Alangium salvifolium against Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Objective:To study the nephroprotective, nephrocurative effect of Alangium salvifolium ethanolic bark extract in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and methods: Nephrotoxicity was induced in wistar male rats by intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin at 40mg/kgb.wt /day for 21 days. Alangium salvifolium was selected to check the effect by using ethanolic bark extract with different doses (250,500,750 mg/kg body weight respectively), was given by oral route. Serum parameters (serum creatinine, serum urea,serum proteins, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)), urine parameters (urine creatinine and urine volume) and other parameters like body weight, in vivo antioxidants catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and Lipid peroxidase level were determined on 22nd day in wistar male rats .Histopathological study of kidney was studied. Results: The three doses of the extracts produced significant nephroprotective, nephrocurative activities with increased doses. The increased actions of nephroprotective, nephrocurative activity in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity models as evident by decrease in serum creatinine, serum urea,serum proteins, urine creatinine, BUN levels and lipid peroxidation (MDA).The increased glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) activities when compared to gentamicin control group which was further confirmed by histopathological study. Conclusion:The study revealed that ethanolic bark extract of Alangium salvifolium reversed the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin experimental animals. This indicates that Alangium salvifolium bark ethanolic extract can be used as an adjuvant with gentamicin to get the therapeutic benefit of these drugs without chances of its prominent nephrotoxicity side effect.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000178
Title: Effect of Hydroethanol Extract of Leaves of Trapa Bispinosa Roxb on Histological Assessment in Reproductive System of Albino Mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Aim: Effect of Hydroethanol Extract of Leaves of Trapa Bispinosa Roxb on Histological Assessment in Reproductive System of Albino Mice. Trapa bispinosa Roxb. is one of the aquatic medicinal plants commonly used to treat bleeding disorders and threatened abortion in some places of India. Methods: The hydroethanol extract of leaves of Trapa bispinosa Roxb. was administered orally at lower dose (200 mg/kg body weight) and at higher dose (400 mg/kg body weight) and effect on oestrus cycle, reproductive outcome and histological studies were carried out for different groups of mice. Results: Trapa bispinosa Roxb. at lower and higher dose significantly increased duration of estrus and metestrus phase (p<0.01) and significant decrease in proestrus and diestrus phase (p<0.01) without any alteration in estrous cycle pattern in female mice and increased significantly the number of litters in albino mice compared to control group. The histological study showed significantly increased the thickness of mucosal folds and number of mucosal glands(++) in oviduct at lower dose of 200 mg/kg as compared to the control group (+) All above parameters was found to be increased more at higher dose (400mg/kg). The histology of ovaries and uterus of mice in all group of mice found normal. Also the lower and higher dose of extract significantly increased (p<0.01) the mean number of litters, suggesting the fertility effect of the extract. The number of litters appeared to increase more with higher dose of treatment, which may suggest dose dependent fertility effect. Conclusion: Result of present study justifies the use of Trapa bispinosa Roxb in traditional medicine for the management of female infertility.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-0000177
Title: Trigonelline improves insulin sensitivity and modulates glucose homeostasis in high fat fed-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) is one of the most widely used medicinal plants in folk medicine. It is known to have diuretic, cardio tonic, hypotensive, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect. Trigonelline, a major alkaloid component of fenugreek, is reported to be responsible for most of its pharmacological activities. The present study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic effect of trigonelline in high fat fed (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by high fat diet and low dose STZ (35mg/Kg.b.wt). Oral administration of trigonelline (150 mg/kg body weight) to diabetic rats for 30 days established a significant (P<0.05) decline in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels and a significant (P<0.05) increase in plasma insulin level. The altered activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism such as glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver tissues of diabetic rats were significantly (P<0.05) reverted to near normalcy upon administration of trigonelline. Trigonelline improves insulin sensitivity which is evident from intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test. Thus, trigonelline improves insulin sensitivity and regulates carbohydrate metabolism by modulating the key regulatory enzymes in the hepatic tissues of diabetic rats.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000176
Title: In-silico design and docking study of novel Tetrahydroquinoline derivatives as inhibitor of WT and mutant HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Background and aim: Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) are structurally diverse group of compounds which binds to Reverse Transcriptase (RT) enzyme of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Like other anti-HIV drugs, long-term clinical effectiveness of approved NNRTIs has been hampered due to the rapid development of drug resistance. Therefore, attempts have been made to develop NNRTIs active against both drug sensitive as well as drug resistant strains of HIV-1 RT. Method: Five novel series of Tetrahydroquinoline derivatives were designed as Non-Nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 RT based on the pharmacophoric requirements. In-Silico docking studies of the designed analogues were performed against both drug sensitive and resistant strains of HIV-1 RT. Standard drug rilpivirine, etravirine and efavirenz were used for the purpose of docking validation and comparison. Results and discussion: Among the designed analogs, four compounds (2x, 3x, 3f and 5t) showed significant in-silico activity against all three variants of HIV-1 RT. These four compounds were further selected for in-silico prediction of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity using Quick-pro module of Schrodinger and online tool AdmetSAR respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of in-silico docking studies and ADMET properties, four compounds (2x, 3x, 3f and 5t) were identified as lead molecules for further development of novel anti-HIV agents active against both wild-type and drug resistant strains with better therapeutic profile. Predicted ADMET properties of these four designed analogues were within the acceptable range of druggable properties.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000175
Title: Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial screening of novel bis-2-aminopyrimidines
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Aims: The aim of the present study is to synthesis of novel bis 2-aminopyrimidines with piprazines or morpholines nuclei and screening for their invitro antibacterial and antifungal activities. Methods: Compounds 3,4 are synthesized by the treatment of 1,4-[ bis[4-(piperazin-1-yl)propen-3-onyl]benzene(bis chalcone) with guanidine nitrate under the basic condition. The compounds are characterized by melting point, elemental analysis FT-IR, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic data. All the synthesized compounds are screened for their invitro antibacterial and antifungal activities against gram-positive, gram negative, bacterial and fungal strains by disc diffusion and serial dilution method. Result: The piprazine nuclei substituted compounds (1 and 3) are found have excellent level of antibacterial and anti fungal activities. Conclusion: The compounds 1 and 3 exhibited maximum invitro antibacterial and antifungal activities against different bacterial and fungal strains. Thus in future, this kind of pyrimidine derivatives may be used to generate better drugs with improved antibacterial and activities.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-0000174
Title: Pharmacognostical and analytical studies of leaves of Pterolobium hexapetalum (Roth) Santapau & Wagh
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The present investigation deals with the Microscopical, physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the leaves of Pterolobium hexapetalum (Roth) Santapau & Wagh (Bull Bot. Sur. Ind. 5: 108. 1964, Synonym:Reichardia hexapetala Roth. Nov. Pl. Sp.210. 1821 (Apr 1821), Local Name: Korintha Podha) with the scope of ethnic importance. Leaves of this plant are used by the Yanadi tribes of Seshachalam hill regions of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh as a single drug remedy to treat for Fevers, tooth ache, chest pain, delivery pains, antidote to dog bite, wound healing, Constipation, piles, ulcers, skin infections, venereal diseases, jaundice, diarrhea, cough in children. In the present work the leaf of the plant was subjected to various microscopical and physico- preliminary phyto chemical evaluations. In the microscopical studies, the different cell structures and arrangements were studied. Physicochemical parameters like loss on drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash, water insoluble ash, alkalinity of water, moisture content and various extractive values etc., were carried out. Further, qualitative tests for various functional groups like Phenolic compounds, Flavonoids, Amino acids and Lipids etc., were carried out and HPTLC profile was also established with Methanolic extract.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-0000173
Title: Development of analytical method for the estimation of metaxalone in pure and solid dosage forms by RP-HPLC method
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

A simple, precise rapid and economical reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the estimation of Metaxalone in tablet dosage from, using mobile phase containing Phosphate buffer: Acetonitrile : Methanol in the ratio of 40:40:20 at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. An ODS C18 RP column (150 x 4.5 mm, 5 µ) was used as stationary phase. The linearity of Metaxalone was in the range of 20-100 µg/ml, shows a regression coefficient of 0.9997, quantification was done using UV detector at 280 nm. The retention time of the drug was found to be 4.31 min. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 0.320525186 µg/ml and 0.971288443µg/ml respectively. The percentage assay of Metaxalone in SKELAXIN was 99.9 ± 0.441 %. This proposed method is precise, accurate and rapid for determination of Metaxalone.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PC-0000172
Title: Synthesis and antibacterial activity of Quinazoline derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The main objective of the medicinal chemistry is to synthesize the compounds that show promising activity as therapeutic agents with lower toxicity. In the current research work, the title compounds 2-(2-arylidene hydrazinyl) -4-phenyl-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinazoline were synthesized by treating 2-hydrazinyl- 4-phenyl-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinazoline (V) with the different substituted aromatic aldehydes in the presence of glacial acetic acid. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of their M.P, TLC, IR, and 1HNMR. All the newly synthesized quinazoline derivatives were evaluated for their antibacterial activity by cup plate method by measuring zone of inhibition. Ampicillin was used as standard drug. The compounds GH4 showed more potent antibacterial activity than the standard drug ampicillin.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PB-0000171
Title: Harmonizing various Culture Conditions and Inducers for Hyper Laccase Production by Pleurotus ostreatus PVCRSP-7 in Solid State Fermentation
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Background: Laccases are one of the industrial important enzymes. For industrial applications enzyme is required in large amounts at low price. For decreasing the cost of production of enzymes, agricultural wastes or it’s by products are used as solid substrates in solid state fermentation (SSF). Objective: To enhance the production of laccase enzyme by P. ostreatus under solid state fermentation by optimizing various nutritional and cultural conditions. Methods: One at a time method of optimization was used, in this method one parameter varies and all other are kept at constant. Once the parameter is optimized its optimum values take in the subsequent experiments. Results: Black gram husk (BGH) and green gram husk (GGH) supports the hyper laccase production by isolated P.ostreatus. A maximum laccase yield obtained was 3186 U/gds under optimized conditions such as particle size 1.2 to 1.6 mm, moisture content 60%, substrate loading 3 gms, inoculum size 3 g, carbon source 0.2 g, peptone 0.2 gm, 2,5 xylidine 0.15 mg, and CuSO4 0.6 mg by using the BGH as a substrate.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000170
Title: Preliminary estimation of antioxidant activities of Hypericum wightianum Wall. ex Wight & Arn using various in vitro assay models.
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

To evaluate the antioxidant potential of methanol and aqueous extracts of Hypericum wightianum (MEHW & AEHW) using various in vitro antioxidant assay systems. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of MEHW and AEHW was assayed by using different in vitro models like ABTS, DPPH, hydroxyl radical, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide. Reductive ability of the extract was tested by the complex formation with potassium ferricyanide. Further total phenol and flavonoid contents of the crude extracts were also determined. Ascorbic acid and Rutin were used as standards. MEHW shows potent free radical scavenging activity in all the tested models when compared with AEHW. Reductive activity was also found to increase with increase in MEHW concentration compared with AEHW. The antioxidant activity may be due to the rich amount of phenol and flavonoids present in the extracts. Therefore, the plant could be considered as a very good antioxidant source with therapeutic potential.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MB-0000168
Title: Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection Susceptibility Pattern in Tertiary Care Hospital
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

An attempt was made to characterize the pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibilities in patients with catheter associated urinary tract infection in order to optimize empirical antibiotics therapy and prophylaxis. About 3635 patients with an indwelling catheter from a tertiary level hospital, Kerala was examined for a period of one year.. Antibiotic susceptibility of 325 bacterial isolates was performed using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) Kirbey Bauer method. Two hundred and twenty two isolates were conformed to cause symptomatic bacteruria while 10 isolates were found to be of asymptomatic bacteruria. E coli was the most frequently isolated pathogen followed by Pseudomonas and Klebsiella. E coli had higher susceptibility towards Chloramphenicol and then to aminoglycosides followed by Moxifloxacin, while Pseudomonas is highly susceptible to chloramphenicol Followed by aztreonam followed by aminoglycoseds and ceftazidime. Klebsiella showed high susceptibility to aminoglycosides followed by chloramphenicol followed by cotrimoxazole and doxycycline.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PA-0000169
Title: Development and validation of a simple UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of lornoxicam both in bulk and marketed dosage formulations
Category: Pharmaceutical Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

A rapid, specific and economic UV spectrophotometric method has been developed using a solvent composed of 0.05N Sodium hydroxide: methanol (80:20) to determine the Lornoxicam content in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage formulations. A pre-determined lmax of 377nm, it was proved linear in the range of 5 to 30 µg/ml, and exhibited good correlation coefficient (R2=0.999). This method was successfully applied to the determination of lornoxicam content in five marketed brand the results were in good agreement with the label claims. The method was validated statistically and studies for linearity, precision, repeatability, and reproducibility. The obtained results proved the method can be employed for the routine analysis of Lornoxicam in bulk as well as in the commercial formulations.