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Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN NO: 0974-6943
The Journal of Pharmacy Research is an online Journal, publishing of correct version and document can be modified when, we/or author get comments from any readers. The journal is devoted to the promotion of Pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including Pharmacy, medical, Biotech, Botany, organic and medicinal chemistry,  Nursing, Paramedical, prescription etc  fields).
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Journal Metrics for this Journal of Pharmacy Research (Source ID: 21100325431): 2015(SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.575; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.787; Impact Per Publication : 0.789 CiteScore 2016: 0.93(Top level : Life Science)

Year SJR Cites per document Year Value
2014 0.607 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2014 0.607
2015 0.787 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2015 0.789
2016 0.926 Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (3 years) 2015 0.789
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2014 0.607
    Cites / Doc. (2 years) 2015 0.789
2016   Cites / Doc. (4 years) 2016 0.926
Cites Year Value
External Cites per document 2014 0.607
External Cites per document 2015 0.789
External Cites per document 2016 0.926
Cites per document 2014 0.607
Cites per document 2015 0.789
Cites per document 2016 0.926

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-BGSA-00001590
Title: BLASTN Based Methodology to Classify Benzene Degrading Uncultured Bacteria into Bacterial Species using 16S rRNA Gene
Category: Bioinformatics (Genome & Sequence Analysis )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Benzene degradation is an important factor in pollution treatment studies as benzene is listed as frequently used chemical in an industry. Methods: During investigation we have referred several uncultured bacteria bringing about the degradation of benzene but cannot be identified for its taxonomical classification. We have developed a protocol using BLASTN and its associated 16S rRNA database, using it a precise bacterial species could be linked to the uncultured bacteria investigated by sequence homology. Results and Discussion:  Here we have reported 102 bacterial sp. with its genus and species being capable of degrading benzene which was previously being categorized as uncultured bacteria as per the information available in public nucleotide database. Conclusion: BLASTN based protocol can successfully classify the uncultured bacterium based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence by using the 16S rRNA gene database instead of using the nr database linked in BLAST program.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-B&NPS-00001004
Title: Leaf’s structural response of in vitro-cultured Leonurus cardiaca plants to N6-benzyladenine and indole-3-butyric acid
Category: Botany/ Herbal/ Natural Pharmacological Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Leaf anatomy and chloroplast ultrastructure of in vitro-cultured Leonurus cardiaca L. plants were studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. The purpose was to assess the structural response to the influence of N6-benzyladenine (BA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) during leaf morphogenesis in vitro. Typical bifacial leaves with well differentiated mesophyll and adaxial and abaxial epidermis as well as lens-shaped chloroplasts with properly developed and organized internal membrane system was observed in plants, micropropagated on standard MS medium (control plants). The photosynthetic apparatus in plants, regenerated on media supplemented with BA or with combination of BA and IBA, resembled the control ones. The leaves of plants regenerated on IBA-supplemented medium had uniformly structured mesophyll without differentiation into palisade and spongy parenchyma, the highest stomata frequency, round shape of the chloroplasts, fragmented stromal thylakoids, and also fragmented and partially destructed chloroplast envelope. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) BA or combination of BA and IBA were favourable for in vitro regeneration of L. cardiaca explants. On the contrary, individual application of IBA was unsuitable because of its negative effect on the development of the photosynthetic apparatus. These results provided appropriate basis for elaboration and improvement of protocol for micropropagation and ex vitro adaptation of that valuable medicinal plant.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001579
Title: Evaluation of the effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injections as contraceptives on some coagulation parameters
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background:There are very little studies to determine the effects of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections on  coagulation parameters in Iraq. Objective: To evaluate the effect of using DMPA intramuscular (IM) injections as contraceptives on some coagulation and anticoagulation parameters (prothrombin time (PT),  activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), platelet count, fibrinogen, antithrombin (AT), protein C and free protein S), this was in relation to the duration of  their usage and the parity of the DMPA users.  Subject & Methods: This is a case control study in which a total of 38 healthy married women , age range between 19-40 years, from those who were attending Azadi Family Planning Center in Kirkuk City  from the period of 1st  Feb 2012 to the 15th of June 2012, who were taking DMPA injections (each contains 150 mg of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMP)) for a period ranged between 3 months to 5 years and these were considered the users group. Another 44 healthy married women who did not use any hormonal contraceptives, instead they  used either a barrier method or mechanical method  and they were volunteered for comparison and were drawn from the same population and matched for age, parity, body mass index (BMI) with the users group and they were considered as the non users groups. Venous blood samples (7ml)  were obtained from DMPA users and non-user groups. About 2.5 milliliters of the venous blood were collected in an EDTA tube, mixed well to perform full blood count using automated hematology analysis machine Sysmex (Japan).  The plasma obtained from the other 4.5 milliliters of the  blood sample were used for estimation of  PT,  APTT, AT, fibrinogen, Protein C and free protein S by special kits.  Results: This study demonstrated that the use of DMPA leads to statistically significant lower mean plasma free protein S level (which is still within normal range), but non significant difference in the mean levels of PT, APTT, platelet count and mean plasma AT, fibrinogen and protein C level and the mean level of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in comparison with non-user groups. There were non significant correlations between the mean levels of all studied coagulation and anticoagulation parameters and the duration of DMPA injection use, and the parity of the DMPA users. Conclusion: The use of DMPA injections has been considered to be relatively safe regarding the risk of hyper coagulation and venous thromboembolism (VTE).

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001580
Title: Omega Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: A Review
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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In the recent period there is renewed concern about dietary supplement of omega fatty acids for its beneficial effects on human health. Omega-3 (ϖ-3) and Omega-6 (ϖ-6) fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids and both of them metabolically yield very long chain fatty acids which supports numerous physiological and development processes in the body. These are essential and must be obtained through the diet as they are not synthesized de novo in the human beings, The major dietary sources are plant seeds, nuts, fish oils and other sea foods, Many studies have revealed that omega fatty acids are potent molecules possessing anticancer, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti diabetic activities and can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Even though omega 6 fatty acid encompasses health benefits if not balanced with dietary supplement of omega 3 may cause detrimental effects Therefore the present article gives an account of chemistry, structure, and biological properties of ϖ -fatty acids and examines the importance of the ϖ-6/ϖ-3 balance in maintaining good health and its pivotal role in prevention of degenerative diseases and other inflammatory disorders.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001581
Title: The effect of visuomotor priming of a manual reaching movement during a perceptual decision task in adults with hemiplegia.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To examine the effect of visuomotor priming of a manual reaching movement during a perceptual decision task after stroke. Method: Forty (n=40) post stroke subjects were recruited and divided into two groups. Following pre test, both the groups trained in reaching proximal and distal object with visuomotor priming (experimental group) or without visuomotor priming (control group).Each participant practiced 24 trials (proximal-12 & distal-12) with affected extremity. Following training, post tests were done on the same day (acquisition phase) and after 24 hours (retention phase).Dependent variables measured include reaction time and number of errors. Results: Significant change in reaction time for experimental group and change in error for both the group. There is statistically significant difference between control and experimental group in performance error during acquisition and retention phase. Conclusion: Visuomotor priming is effective in training hand functions following stroke.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001582
Title: Screening of antiviral compounds from plants- a review
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Viruses are one of  the main hazards for humans and animals, they enter in human body and redirect body’s metabolism to produce large copies of their genome and proteins. It is difficult to control viral infections with currently available drugs like moroxydine, valaciclovir, ganciclovir and valganciclovir and they act by inhibiting the virus replication via different mechanisms. The difficulty in drug treatment arises due to their low efficiencies, cytotoxic effect and development of viral resistance against them as viruses are smart organisms which mutate themselves and show resistance to drug therapy. This review is focused on identification of antiviral compounds or fraction from plants as they contains active phytochemicals. Ole is a unique secoiridoid glycoside which was extracted from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum has reported to show anti-HBV activity. The methanol, butanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Lactuca sativa var. longifolia showed significant anti-coxsackie B3 activity. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of  propolis exhibited high level so antiviral activity against HSV-2 due to polyphenols, flavonoids and phenyl carboxylic acid content. One report demonstrates the strongest inhibitory action against HIV-1 RT was found in seven  plants few includes  Q. infectoria (fruit), A. heterophyllus Lam. (seed) and A. calamus L. (rhizomes). This paper may serve as a vital link between active Pharmacognosy and Formulation and  Development department for using active extracts to be formulated and hence gives the best possible solution to the community to treat viral infections.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001583
Title: Antimicrobial Profile of Stachybotrys chlorohalonata Isolated from the Marine Habitats
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The main objective of this work was to study the antimicrobial profile of Stachybotrys chlorohalonata isolated from marine habitats of Nizampatnam, East coast of India.  Methods: Soil samples were collected from marine habitats of Nizampatnam and serial dilution plate method was employed for isolation of fungi.  All the fungal strains were screened for antimicrobial activity and the potent strain was identified through cultural, morphological and molecular approaches.  Antimicrobial activity of the strain was tested against Gram +ve and Gram –ve bacteria as well as fungi.  Attempts were made to optimize the cultural conditions to get high yield of the metabolite.  Antimicrobial spectrum as well as cytotoxic activities of the strain was studied by using disc diffusion method and MTT proliferation assay against HeLa cells respectively.  Results: A total of 56 marine fungal strains were isolated and 7 of them showed antimicrobial activity.  MVR 14 exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and was identified as Stachybotrys chlorohalonata.  When the strain was grown on different culture media, it produces green halo around the colony on Czapek-Yeast autolysate agar media.  The metabolite extracted from S. chlorohalonata cultured on optimized Czapek-Dox broth exhibited enhanced antimicrobial activity along with cytotoxicity.   Conclusions: This is the first report of S. chlorohalonata from marine habitats.  In this study, the strain was grown on different culture media to know its cultural and morphological characteristics.  The strain grew luxuriously on Corn Meal agar and it exhibited good antimicrobial activity when cultured on Czapek-Dox agar.  As S. chlorohalonata failed to grow on the culture media without sodium chloride, it is considered that it is a marine strain.  This study revealed that the strain possessed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity along with cytotoxicity.  Hence further research was recommended to identify the secondary metabolites produced by S. chlorohalonata. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001584
Title: Formulation of olmesartan medoxomil nanoparticulate drug delivery for enhancement of oral bioavailability by Ionic-Gelation Techniques
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The drug olmesartan medoxamil bioavailability is only 26% due to its poor aqueous solubility. The purpose of this study is to improve aqueous solubility by nanotechnology of Ionicgelation technique using chitosan as polymer and tripoly phosphate as cross linking agent. The nanoparticles of olmeasartan medoxamil is formulated to increase oral bioavailability by preparing particles of nano size range with good zeta potential and SEM analysis of prepared particle is done to confirm the surface morphology of nanoparticles with free of clusters. The different formulation of olmesartan medoxomil nanoparticles were compressed into tablets and it complies with IP standard for tablet. In-vitro release study of all the formulation were done to confirms its enhancement of in-vitro bioavailability, when compare to marketed formulation-M of 93 ± 2.95% drug release at 60 minutes, formulation OLM-9 of nanoparticle has shown 99% at 20 minutes with particle size of 633 nm, which indicates 3 fold increase in the in-vitro dissolution rate of olmesartan medoxomil. The prepared particles were free from clusters and with good zeta potential.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-BGSA-00001585
Title: In-silico analysis of BRCA2 protein with pediflavone (Didymocarpus pedicellatus)
Category: Bioinformatics (Genome & Sequence Analysis )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Cancer is the lethal disease which is prevalent all over the world. Among various types of cancer, Breast cancer is more common in women, nowadays. Natural products are used extensively as drug candidate for various diseases. Because it has less side effects compare to the chemical compounds.In present study Didymocarpus pedicellatus was taken, which belongs to the family of Gesneriaceae. These are widely used in South Indian Cuisine. It is commonly known as Black stone flower. Didymocarpus pedicellatus has a strong ethanopharamaceutical background.  Methods: Screening of phytochemicals were done, Flavonoids were found to be the major component in this plant1.As flavonoids are known for anti-cancerous activity. We have chosen BRCA2, Breast cancer protein ( PDB ID- INOW), as a target and pediflavone which is present in D. pedicellatus as a ligand. Docking studies were performed by Autodock 4.0.  Results: Autodock results shows the binding energy of the ligand was in the range of – 4.12 to  – 2.79Kcal/mol. Conclusion: As the ligand pediflavone shows the minimum binding energy, this bioactive compound may act as a lead molecule for designing the drug against cancer.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001586
Title: Saponins from Rumex vesicarius reduces acute and chronic inflammation and HDAC
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To investigate effect of saponins isolated from leaves of Rumex vesicarius Linn (Polygonaceae) on acute and chronic inflammation and histone deacetylase (HDAC).   Methods: Saponins were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema, histamine induced paw oedema, cotton pellet induced granuloma, Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis and HDAC 1 assay.  Results: The saponins, at the dose of (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg p.o), showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity both in the carrageenan and histamine-induced oedema test models in rats, showing maximum reduction in the paw volume by 30 mg/kg at 4 h in carageenan model, whereas, 87% inhibition of histamine-induced oedema at 1 h compared to that produced by the standard drug diclofenac (81%).  Saponin at a oral dose of 10 and 30 mg/kg treatment for 14 days showed significant activity which was supported by the results of body weight, biochemical parameters in complete Freund’s adjuvant arthritis model. Saponin also exhibited significant inhibition (67%) of granuloma tissue formation. HDAC 1 in paw tissue was reduced significantly by 30 mg/kg. Conclusions: Saponins from R vesicarius possess anti-inflammatory activity that may work through inhibiting histamine and prostaglandin effect and by inhibiting HDAC level. It also inhibit exudative and proliferative phase of inflammation. The drug is having potential to be used therapeutically for treatment of inflammation. This justifies use of R vesicarius in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory disorders.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-MB-00001587
Title: Antimicrobial potential of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis and isolation of Colletotrichum gleosporioides –an endophyte.
Category: Microbiology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A comparative study has been carried out to assess antibacterial potential of different plant parts of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis. Leaf was experienced as the most efficient plant part having antibacterial activity against pathogen tested. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic extract of root, shoot and leaf were tested by well diffusion method. Leaf was taken for further activity by preparing four fractions (ethyl acetate, n- butanol, chloroform and aqueous) of its’ methanolic extract. Antibacterial activity of these fractions were analysed for more accuracy. Sections of leaf of N. arbor-tristis were inoculated on PDA media to isolate and identify endophytic fungi. Aqueous extract of leaf possess greater activity against pathogenic bacteria than methanolic extract. Ethyl acetate, n- butanol  and aqueous fraction of methanolic leaf extract is the effective fraction having antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria monocytogens, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. On the basis of morphological features, biomass production and enzymatic studies the isolated endophytic fungus was identified as Colletotrichum gleosporioides.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001588
Title: Antibacterial potential of Elletaria cardamomum, Syzygium aromaticum and Piper nigrum, their synergistic effects and phytochemical determination
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Spices are considered as rich source of bio-active antimicrobial compounds and are indispensable components of Indian cuisines since ancient times. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of Elletaria cardamomum, Syzygium aromaticum and Piper nigrum, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, isolated phytoconstituents and combinations were evaluated for antibacterial potential against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and gram negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi) bacteria.  Methods: Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and the effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents and combination of spices were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect.
Results: Organic extracts of all three spices showed good antibacterial activity against all the test strains, which was found to be comparable with standard antibiotics. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and organic seed extracts ranged from 25 to >50 mg/ml and 2 to 50 mg/ml respectively. Inhibitory activity of all the extracts was found to be increased when used in combination. This synergistic effect supports the use of these spices in combination. Quantitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.30 – 7.8% alkaloids, 5.7 – 26.2% flavonoids, 11.0 – 33.0% tannins, 0.60 – 3.8% saponins. Conclusion: Antibacterial efficacy shown by these spices and their combinations provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and characterization of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001589
Title: Antihyperlipidemic effect of the aqueous extract from Cinnamomum tamala leaf in hyperlipidemic rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum tamala leaf in experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Materials and methods: The antihyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum tamala leaf (CTLE) was evaluated in male albino rats of Wistar strain at two graded doses levels viz. 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight. The following two models were used for the antihyperlipidemic activity, high fat diet and Triton X-100-induced hyperlipidemia in rat. CTLE (200 mg/kg, b.w. & 400 mg/kg, b.w.) was administered orally for 28 days in high fat diet and 7 days in Triton X-100 (100 mg/kg, i.p.) induced hyperlipidemia in rat. The efficacy of CTLE was compared to Standard Atorvastatin (30 mg/kg, p.o.) in high fat diet and Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in Triton X-100-induced hyperlipidemia. Effect of CTLE on serum lipid profile like TC, TG, HDL-C, weight gain and LDL-C, and biochemical parameters like SGOT and SGPT were estimated. Result: CTLE significantly reduced the TC, TG, LDL-C and increase the HDL-C in both high fat diet & Triton X-100-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The increase in weight in rats administered with CTLE was less when compared to rats fed with high-fat diet and Triton X-100. The levels of SGOT and SGPT have been significantly (P < 0.001) decreased by the administration of CTLE in the experimental groups. The efficacy of CTLE was found to be comparing to Atorvastatin (30 mg/kg, p.o.) in high fat diet and Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in Triton X-100-induced hyperlipidemia. CTLE showed a significant antihyperlipidemic effect in both high fat diet and Triton X-100-induced hyperlipidemic rats in a dose-dependent manner during 28 days and 7 days of treatment period. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the CTLE has a definite antihyperlipidemic potential.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-ND-00001591
Title: Preliminary phytochemical screening and quantification of bioactive compounds in the leaves of spinach ( Spinaceae oleraceae L.)
Category: Natural Drugs
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Plants are the sources for large amount of secondary metabolites. Spinacia oleraceae is a green leafy vegetable belonging to Chenopodiaceae family. It is having medicinal properties due to rich nutritional value and is extremely rich in antioxidants. Antioxidant property of the spinach is due to the presence of bioactive compounds. A preliminary phytochemical screening of different plant extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol and chloroform extracts)  revealed the presence of carbohydrates, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and steroids. The quantification of bioactive compounds yields 45.24% of phenols, 27.34% of flavanoids, 23.05% of saponins and  4.82% of alkaloids. By this present phytochemical screening and quantification, we suggest that S.oleraceae is a good nutrient rich leafy vegetable with antioxidant value that can be used as a therapeutic and curative medicine for many oxidative stress induced diseases.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PHDRS-00001592
Title: Pharmacognosy and phytochemical evaluation of Gynochthodes umbellata (L.) Razafim. and B .Bremer (Rubiaceae) a potent dye yielding medicinal plant
Category: Pharmacognosy and Herbal Drugs related study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Gynochthodes umbellata is a pretty woody climber with bright orange fruit having potent medicinal properties. Traditionally it is used for treating dysentery and diarrhoea. The present study is focussed on the pharmacognostic characters of the plant and its bioactive compounds. A systematic approach is necessary in pharmacognostic study which helps in confirmation and determination of identity, purity and quality of a crude drug. Various physicochemical parameters like ash values, extractive values, and moisture content were investigated. Preliminary analysis showed the presence of various groups of phytochemicals like anthraquinone, terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, phenols in various plant extracts. These studies revealed the presence of various important bioactive compounds and proved that the plant is medicinally important. These results may help in standardization, identification and in carrying out further research in G. umbellata.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001593
Title: Silibinin treatment to hepatic stellate cells: an exploration of apoptosis and cellular senescence
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells play pivotal role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis consequent to chronic liver injury. Thus, the inhibition and clearance of activated HSCs from the injured liver by apoptosis and cellular senescence is clearly an appropriate approach for therapeutic treatment for hepatic fibrosis. To evaluate the pro-apoptotic and cellular senescence inducing potential of silibinin, a flavonoid compound in LX-2 cells. Methods: LX-2 cells treated with various concentration of silibinin (10, 50 and 100 ìM) treatment for 96 h, cytotoxicity test, cell counting pro-apoptotic and cellular senescence induction properties of silibinin were evaluated. Results: The present study demonstrates that SBN treatment shows a dose-dependent fall in active proliferation of immortalized LX-2 cells in serum supplemented medium with out affecting its cell viability. Further, SBN treatments neither induce apoptosis nor cellular senescence in the human hepatic stellate LX-2 cells. Conclusion: The anti-proliferative effect of SBN reported in this study might be due its cell cycle arresting properties. 

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001594
Title: Formulation and evaluation of bioadhesive tablets of Metronidazole from Gellan gum and gelatin
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The delivery of drugs using a combination of bio-polymers is gaining extensive grounds in the development of newer drug delivery systems. In this work the formulation, evaluation and release profiles of metronidazole bioadhesive tablets formulated with admixtures of gellan gum and gelatin were investigated. Methods: Aqueous dispersions of gellan gum and gelatin in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 1:4, 1:0 and 0:1 were prepared in distilled water. Metronidazole tablets were prepared with the dispersions by wet granulation. The bioadhesive strengths of the dispersions and tablets were determined using the coated bead and tensiometric methods, respectively. Tablet parameters evaluated were weight uniformity, friability, hardness, disintegration time, content of active, swelling index and tablet erosion. Release studies were carried out in simulated intestinal and gastric fluid. Results: All batches of tablets met compendial specifications with regard to weight uniformity, friability, hardness and content of active except disintegration times. Tablets prepared with gelatin alone had the highest swelling index and bioadhesive strength (40 %, 5 h and 0.253 Nm-1) while those prepared with gellan gum alone had the highest percentage tablet erosion and least bioadhesive strength (15 % and 0.085 Nm-1). Release profiles of API from the tablets showed delayed effect with the highest % release in simulated intestinal fluid from tablets formulated with gum-gelatin ratio 1:1 (80 %, 80 min) followed by the gelatin alone batch (60 %, 80 min). Release kinetics and mechanism were first order and diffusion controlled. Conclusion: Gelatin increased the bioadhesive strength of gellan gum. Gellan gum-gelatin ratios of 1:2 and 1:4 were the optimum combinations and were superior in the formulation of metronidazole tablets. The hydrophilic bioadhesive polymers enhanced the steady release of the drug.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-P'Col-00001595
Title: Effectiveness of tDCS on motor functions of the affected side in hemiplegic individuals: an overview
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: To review the researches on the effectiveness of non-invasive brain stimulation in the form of transcranial direct current stimulation on rehabilitation of individuals suffering from stroke. Design: A computerized search of CINAHL, EMBASE, COCHRANE central register of controlled trials, PEDro, PUBMED, SCIENTECH, and OT SEEKER from January 1996 to December 2013 was conducted. Participants: The study considered patients suffering from stroke of age 18 years and above of both genders and of all duration. Intervention: tDCS in association with physiotherapy or occupational therapy was included. Different modes of application such as unihemispheric and bihemispheric stimulations of tDCS were also included. Outcome Measure: Functional scales that measured motor functions, motor control, hand functions, Gait or Activities of daily living were included. Results: Seven studies met the inclusion criteriawere included and reviewed for their methodological quality. The average score of these studies was 8.57 ± 1.72  with a minimum score of  and a maximum score of 10. Conclusion: The review of all the seven studies on the effectiveness of the application of tDCS post stroke shows better recovery in the upper limb motor recovery and no significant difference in the lower limb motor recovery.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-BMB-00001598
Title: Effect of various cooking processes on antioxidants of potato (Solanum tuberosum)
Category: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Potato (Solanum tuberosum) has been used as a widely accepted food in different forms all over the world and  is well known for deliciousness. Different forms involve different type of cooking process.  Study from our laboratory had indicated potential ulcer preventive properties based on the inhibition of H+K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori (ulcer causing bacteria in humans) growth.  In the current study we evaluated the antioxidant and antiulcer potentials in potato during various cooking processes. Crude extract, free and bound phenolic fractions as well as  pectic polysaccharides were isolated and analysed for total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, H+,K+-ATPase/ Helicobacter pylori inhibitory activity and cytoprotectivity. PCE (Potato Crude Extract), PFP (Free phenolic fraction from potato) , PBP (Bound phenolic fraction from potato) and  PPP (Pectic polysaccharide from potato) showed antioxidant activity with an IC50 of  4.1±0.25, 8.3±0.58, 8.9±0.61 and 9200±552 ìg/mL and H+,K+-ATPase inhibitory activity was also evidenced with an  IC50 of  3.13±0.28, 1.22±0.11, 0.69±0.05 and 420±30.0 µg/mL respectively, as opposed to the standard H+,K+-ATPase inhibitor, lanzoprazole (19.3±2.2 µg/mL). Loss of activity was associated with loss of phenolic acids during cooking conditions as evidenced by HPLC quantification. Helicobacter pylori growth was also inhibited by various fractions of potato with an IC50 of 19.12, 37.5, 0.73 and 81.8µg by PCE, PFP, PBP and PPP respectively. DNA protection was retained in PBP and PPP even during  cooking conditions.  Stabilizing of  bioactivity during  cooking conditions thus become a key issue in Food and Bioprocess Technology.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PB-00001599
Title: Quantitative determination of Eugenol in aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography
Category: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The present study describes development and validation of new, rapid, accurate and precise, high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for quantitative determination of eugenol in herbal extract of Ocimum sanctum with densito-metric detection. Methods: High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner 3 and winCATS 3 software were used. HPTLC on aluminium-backed silica gel 60 F254 plates with toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid, 90: 10: 01 (v/v) as mobile phase was followed by densito-metric measurement at 280 nm. Results and Discussion: This system was found to give compact bands for eugenol (RF 0.59). The accuracy of the method was checked by conducting recovery studies for two different levels of eugenol; the average recovery was found to be 98.39%. The average eugenol content, as estimated by use of the proposed method, was 46.6 ng µL-1. Conclusion: The method was found to be simple, sensitive, selective and accurate. This study reports a routine quantitative method for the analysis of eugenol, in the leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001600
Title: Inhibition Effect of Barley and Oat Aqueous Extract on the crystal growth rate of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The inhibiting effect of Barley (Ba) and Oat (Oa), aqueous extract on the precipitation rate of calcium oxalate crystals has been studied using constant composition technique in which the super-saturation and ionic strength were maintained constant at 37oC. The presence of aqueous extracts of Barley(Ba) and Oat (Oa),  even at relatively low concentration 10-6 M, markedly reduced the rates of precipitation. The suggestion of predominately surface Controlled mechanism is also supported by the observed low value of the activation energy Ea = 4.0 kcal/mol. The effective order of crystal growth reaction is determined in absence and presence of aqueous extract of additive where parabolic rate low with  n – 2 The action of additives can be interpreted in terms of adsorption, following the Langmuir isotherm, of additives at the active crystal growth sites. Dependence of the degree of inhibition with the change in driving force has been observed. The order of the degree of inhibition on the rate of crystal growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate for various additives studied is as follows Ba> Oa .These results suggest that the use of natural  plants ,weeds and its extracts  rather  than medicine prepared chemically which have vast side effects, may provide a useful drug manufacturing and therapeutic approach to urinary stones and many disease.           

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001601
Title: Synthesis, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of some new pyrazole derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Pyrazole is an important class of heterocyclic compound, has been shown to exhibit diverse biological and pharmacological activities such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, etc. Methods: In this study, a series of novel pyrazole derivatives bearing hydrazone moiety have been synthesized via the reaction of the pyrazole carbohydrazide with different aldehydes. The structures of all compounds were confirmed via a wide range of spectroscopic techniques including IR, 1H NMR, and mass spectra. All synthesized compounds have been tested for their in vitro antioxidant activities using 1,1-biphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as a free radical scavenging reagent, and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities utilizing a standard acute carrageenan-induced paw edema. Results: The data reported herein indicates that compound 5a, 5c and 9 has emerged as potentially active compounds as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds. Conclusions: All synthesized compounds were found to possess antioxidant & anti-inflammatory activities and could be useful as a template for future development through modification or derivatization to design more potent biologically active compounds.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00001602
Title: Equilibrium, kinetic, spectral and thermodynamic analysis of nickel ion adsorption by Spirulina platensis in aqueous solutions
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aqueous phase separation of toxic heavy metal ions by biosorption is an emerging field of interest from resource conservation and environmental remediation. The present study comprises of biosorption of nickel metal ions onto cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis in immobilized and non immobilized forms. Optimum pH, algal dose, metal ion concentration and time were found to be 7, 1g/100ml, 100 mg/l and 90 minutes respectively. All the three biosorbents of S. platensis obeyed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The kinetic studies showed that the biosorption rates could be better described by pseudo second order reaction. Pseudo-second-order model fits the experimental data with a very high correlation coefficient and it was greater than 0.9779 in all the cases. Negative values of Gibbs energy indicate spontaneous nature of the process in all the three cases. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) analysis of S. platensis revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino, amide and imine groups. By blocking of the groups of S. platensis the percent removal reduced further confirmed that the carboxylic group was the main group responsible for the biosorption of metal ions. S. platensis immobilized in calcium alginate matrix for the nickel ions was the best biosorbent for the five cycles when regenerated with 0.1 M EDTA and from first to fifth cycle percentage desorption was 91.4 to 88.4.

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research , Volume: 8, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00001603
Title: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of New Hydrazonothizole and Diazo-[1,3,4]thiadiazole Derivatives
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Thiazoles and thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized from the reaction of hydrazonothiosemicarbazide derivatives and hydrazocarbodithioate with hydrazonoylhalides respectively. The new compounds were confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis and spectroscopic data and were screened antimicrobial activity.