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Journal of Pharmacy Research-JPR Solutions - jpronline | JPR Info online Journal | Drug Invention Today
Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
  Scopus Indexed ( link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100202909&tip=sid&clean=0)
Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002251
Title: Symmetry of gingival zenith: Defining esthetic outcome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The appearance of gingival tissues plays a critical role in the esthetics of maxillary anterior region. Location of gingival zenith in a medial-lateral position too long axis of teeth varies for each individual tooth. The position of lateral incisor teeth relative to gingival zeniths of adjacent proximal teeth that is the central incisor and canine also affects symmetry. Aim: The aim of the study was to quantify these clinical parameters useful as esthetic guidelines and to compare left and right sides of six maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: A sample population of 20 patients (6 males and 14 females) with a total of 240 teeth with healthy gingival tissue was selected by randomized sampling method. Two clinical parameters were evaluated on the right and left sides of maxillary anterior teeth-gingival zenith position (GZP) from the vertical bisected midline (VBM) of the tooth and gingival zenith level (GZL) of lateral incisors in an apical-coronal direction relative to line joining the tangents of the GZP of the adjacent central incisor and canine. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results: All incisors displayed a distal GZP from VBM, with a mean of 1.8 mm and 0.93 mm, on the right and left sides of central and 0.48 mm and 0.54 mm on the right and left sides of laterals, respectively. GZP of canine was centralized along the long axis of canine in, 60% of the population on the right side, and in 70% of the population on the left side. The GZL was approximately 1 mm and 0.93 mm, on the right and left side, respectively. Conclusion: There was a statistically significant difference in the GZP and GZL in the right and left sides (P < 0.05). The results could be used as reference points during esthetic anterior oral rehabilitation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002239
Title: Irrigation technique used in cleaning and shaping during endodontic treatment - A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The success of root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Moreover, during the preparation of root canal, manually and by rotary instruments, the smear layer is created that must be eliminated by irrigants. Irrigants have traditionally been delivered into the root canal space using syringes and metal needles of different size and tip design. This review summarizes the various irrigants and their delivery devices used in clinical practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002238
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice of various impression techniques for removable partial denture among practicing dentists in Chennai
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Removable partial dentures (RPD) still form a significant part of treatment modalities in prosthodontics. Most distal extension RPD is constructed from single reversible or irreversible hydrocolloid impressions. Aim: The aim of this study was to check the awareness and utilization of different impression techniques used for RPD. Materials and Methodology: A self-structured questionnaire was designed consisting of 18 questions regarding various impression techniques used for RPD and dentists were also asked about the most common technique used by them. The survey was made on Google forms and distributed to dentists through electronic media. Results: The response rate was 93%. 97.8% dentists used alginate for the diagnostic impression of which 61.3% used medium setting alginate and 92.5% used perforated full tray for making the impression. 94.6% were aware about anatomic and functional impressions. 2% glutaraldehyde is most commonly used for disinfecting impressions by the dentists. Conclusion: Although dentists are aware of various impression techniques, maximum of them use selective pressure technique in their clinical practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002237
Title: The correlation of bizygomatic width and ridge relationships in determination of width of maxillary anterior teeth
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: A denture is fabricated as a coverage prosthesis to replace some or a missing teeth. It has been used extensively to replace the missing dentition which enhances the esthetic pleasing of the patient. Determination of the mesiodistal width of maxillary anterior teeth is one of the difficult aspects in teeth selection. Many attempts have been done to establish methods for estimating the appropriate width of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Aim: The scope of the research was to study the correlation of the bizygomatic width (BW) and ridge relationship in the determination of the width of maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 students from two populations were participated in this study. 14 students from Malaysia and 14 Indian students were selected. The measurements include facial, dental, and denture cast measurement. The data were analyzed using Karl Pearson correlation test and P-value of the data was considered 0.05 statistically. Result: The population of Indian is having larger width (mean = 11.72 cm) when compared to the Malaysian population (mean = 11.17 cm). The correlation coefficient test in Indian population for facial measurement with the width of the maxillary central incisor (P = 0.05 and r = 0.73) and the total width of the maxillary anterior teeth (P = 0.05 and r = 0.54) showed average correlation. Conclusion: It was found that Indians have relatively higher values of correlation between the BW and hamular notches than the population of Malaysian. There was a high significant correlation between all the parameters for the samples except for the measurement between the distance of interhamular notches and combined width of the maxillary anterior teeth, which showed a weak downhill linear relationship.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002236
Title: Retention and stability of overdentures with ball, bar, or magnet attachments: A systematic review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background: Edentulism is considered a poor health outcome and may compromise quality of life. The prosthetic management of the edentulous patient has long been a major challenge for dentistry. The classical treatment plan for the edentulous patient is the conventional complete denture. Aim: The aim of the study was to systematically review the literature comparing the effect of ball, bar and magnet attachment systems on the stability and retention of overdentures. Methods: Electronic search of the Pub Med-MEDLINE database was done. The reference lists of all eligible studies were also searched. The results of the searches were analyzed. Primary Outcome Measures: Stability of implant overdenture, retention of implant overdenture. Results: The PUBMED search yielded a total of 89 articles of which 3 studies met the inclusion criteria and 89 were excluded. The results were tabulated. Conclusion: Implant supported overdentures have different attachment systems such ball and ring, bar and clip, and magnetic attachments. Tests were done to assess which of these systems are the most efficient in terms of retention and stability of the denture. Bar and clip systems are the most effective systems in terms of denture retention followed by ball and ring systems and then magnetic attachments. Thus, bar-clip and ball-ring are both effective systems to be used in overdentures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002221
Title: Impact of lifestyle and environment on melatonin hormone in relation to oxidative stress
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Melatonin hormone secretion affected by the type and conditions of sleep. Its act as antioxidant and has a major role in different biochemical process in human body. The aim of the present study is that to determine the effect of lifestyle (time of sleep, exposure to sunlight, and physical activity) on melatonin levels and oxidative stress markers in groups which differ in their lifestyle and activity. Materials and Methods: Three groups participate in the study; Group 1 consists of 30 volunteers selected from an agricultural rural community, Group 2 includes 30 volunteers selected from army forces works at a checkpoint, and Group 3 includes 30 volunteers from medical staff (doctors and nurses) in Al-Yarmok Teaching Hospital. Blood was drawing from all volunteers in the morning (8:00–10:00 AM). Melatonin levels and oxidative stress markers were measured. Results: Melatonin hormone level shows significant increase (P ˃ 0.05) in rural environment when compared to other studied environment. The mean of glutathione significantly increase (P ˃ 0.05) in Group 1 when compared to both Groups 2 and 3, but there was no significant difference between Groups 2 and 3. Serum malondialdehyde significantly increases in Group 3 when compared to other studied groups (P ˃ 0.05). Conclusions: The difference in lifestyle was effected on melatonin level which acts as antioxidant and also on oxidative stress markers. Melatonin levels increase in the subjects who lived in the rural environment which exposure to sunlight and exert more effort due to their work in agriculture as compared to subjects who work in army in checkpoint and the two populations more than the 3rd group which include medical staff who work at night shift.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002206
Title: Risk factors, susceptibility, and machine learning techniques for cancer prediction
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Machine learning (ML) based techniques are being widely applied in the field of cancer prediction. Predictive analytics applied to health care has a huge scope in this particular domain. Data from the real world pertaining to cancerous cases have the abundant potential for enabling the realization of better performing predictive techniques since timely diagnosis and prediction of the advanced stage is extremely important for cancer detection and recovery. However, incorporation of correct and appropriate features is extremely important for accurate prediction models. This paper gives an account of the recent trends in ML techniques applied in the field of cancer detection. The various techniques reported have been compared in terms of the features selected and the performance parameters. Various databases used in different researches have also been reported. The major shortcomings found in the reported approaches have also been highlighted. In view of the same, the importance of considering various miscellaneous features and creation of a comprehensive, automated, and data-driven prediction tool has been discussed in the future scope. Significance statement: This study gives a comprehensive survey of the risk factors pertaining to different forms of cancer. It also highlights the importance of utilizing predictive data analytics to extract knowledge from these factors for early prognosis. This study will thus help the researchers to uncover the risk factors as predictors to contraction of cancer. Thus, as a specific region-based study, a new paradigm in understanding the quality of life and predicting it for better assessment of cancer treatment and its after effects can be arrived at.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BMa-00002183
Title: Anti-inflammatory Activity of Bioactive Flavonoid Apigenin- 7-O-β-D- Glucuronide Methyl Ester from Ethyl Acetate Leaf Extract of Manilkara zapota on Lipopolysaccharide- induced Pro-inflammatory Medi
Category: Biological Macromolecules
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (AG) is a bioactive flavonoid isolated from the leaves of ethyl extract of Manilkara zapota, it is well known to exhibit significant in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of AG against nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods: Measurement of pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2 in the RAW 264.7 macrophages using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: AG, exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the isolated bioactive AG, act as potent anti-inflammatory agents, it can be used for the treatment of inflammatory related diseases without having any side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-DRP-00002135
Title: Challenges in delivery of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of brain cancer and the scope of nanoparticulates
Category: Drug Release Profiles
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Brain tumor remains one of the most dreadful, poorly prognosed cancer despite advances in understanding the molecular basis of carcinogenesis. Treatment of brain tumors requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes combination of surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. The major hindrance to prognosis of brain tumor is the autoprotective nature of the brain and blood–brain barrier (BBB). The approaches involves deliberate opening of the tight junctions of the BBB or delivery of drugs “through” or “behind” BBB by manipulating the physicochemical properties of the drug and have major drawbacks including irreversible opening of BBB that potentially allows the entry of exogenous material such as viruses and bacteria, and allows limited spatial distribution of drug. Nanoparticles (NPs) focus on the administration of nanometric size particles loaded with chemotherapeutic agent, monoclonal antibodies, genes, proteins, peptides, and other entities. Due to its small size and modifiability warrant their selective uptake by the tumor cells. They can be formulated out of variety of substance and can carry multiple loads of drugs directing the substance toward the tumor cells. Thus in comparison to conventional therapies, NPs reduces the side effects. Number of drug delivery strategies has been developed to overcome challenges presented by the BBB. One technique that holds promise for bypassing the BBB to deliver drugs to the brain the spillover effect of drug to normal tissue is intranasal delivery. The intranasal delivery of NP loaded anticancer drug provides a practical and noninvasive method for delivering therapeutic agents to the brain due to the unique anatomical connections.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00002066
Title: Proteins P53 and BCL-2 in pathogenesis of missed and spontaneous abortions
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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mRNA expression of p53, p21, BCL-2, Bax, Noxa and MDM2 in decidual tissue (endometrium) of 50 patients with missed abortions, 47 patients with spontaneous abortions, and 57 patients with artificial abortion (control group) at 6–10 weeks of gestation were examined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Expression of p53 mRNA had no significant differences in patients with missed and spontaneous abortions. Significant increase of proapoptotic protein Noxa, accompanied with anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 elevation was observed in the endometrium of patients with missed abortions. In patients with spontaneous abortions, only increase of Noxa has been observed. It can be suggested, that increase of BCL-2 in patients with missed abortions, when embryo resorption has happened, protects nearby embryos in case of multiple pregnancies. No significant changes of p21 mRNA were discovered in both groups, which indicates, that cell cycle arrest is not involved in the pathogenesis of early miscarriages. No significant changes of Bax and MDM2 mRNA expression were discovered in decidual tissue of patients with missed and spontaneous abortions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002036
Title: Hypolipidemic of ethanolic extract of Salam bark (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) from Indonesia (Preclinical study)
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this research to evaluate the effect of 70% ethanol extract of Salam bark (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) ethanolic extract of Salam bark (EESB) from Indonesia toward blood cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in male rats Wistar strain. Materials and Methods: This study was a preclinical experimental study with a pre- and post-test with control group design. A total of 25 white male rats Wistar strain were divided into five groups with simple random sampling. The groups were negative control (aquadest), positive control (simvastatin 0.2 mg/200 g bw/day), dose I (0.36 g/200 g bw/day), dose II (0.72 g/200 g bw/day), and dose III (1.44 g/200 g bw/day). Blood cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and HDL levels were measured before and after applying treatment. This study was held for 15 days and data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test followed by least significant difference test and Kruskal–Wallis followed by Mann–Whitney test. Results: The 70% EESB (S. polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) at dosage of 0.72 and 1.44 g/200 g bw/day can decrease blood cholesterol; triglyceride and LDL levels (P < 0.05), meanwhile, the extract at dosage of 0.36, 0.72, and 1.44 g/200 g bw/day can increase serum HDL levels (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The 70% EESB (S. polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) decreases the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase HDL levels significantly in hypercholesterolemia male rats Wistar strain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002032
Title: Comparison of gingival retraction produced by retraction cord and expasyl retraction systems - An in vivo study
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Statement of Problem: A gingival retraction system may be soft tissue friendly or could be easy to use or could be the tried and tested one. However, when compared to the results they produce, the clinical application is questioned. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the amount of gingival retraction produced by expasyl retraction paste and plain retraction cord. Methods and Materials: This study included 39 subjects. After abutment, teeth were prepared for fixed partial denture, plain retraction cord or expasyl retraction paste was placed into the sulcus of the prepared teeth, and time taken for application was recorded and bleeding was noted after removal of retraction material. Gingival sulcus width was measured by travelling microscope. The gingival recession was measured using digital caliper. Results: The mean gingival width of retracted sulcus in both the groups showed no statistically significant difference between the two (P < 0.05). The mean time taken for application and hemorrhage of expasyl paste (99.34 min, 5.1% bleeding) was significantly less than plain retraction cord (221.89 min, 74.4% bleeding). In both phases, the gingival index and gingival recession in the cord group were significantly higher than expasyl paste group. Conclusion: From the study results, amount of gingival retraction with the use of expasyl retraction paste is almost similar in comparison to plain retraction cord; expasyl retraction system appears to produce less hemorrhage and needs less clinical time for application. The effect of retraction system on soft tissue health (plaque index, bleeding on probing, and mean gingival recession) in the expasyl paste group was significantly better than cord group. Clinical Significance: Retraction with expasyl paste producing similar amount of lateral displacement of the gingival margin, therefore based on the beneficial effects, it may be recommended for absorption of intraoral fluids and exerting moderate pressure on gingival tissue.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002026
Title: Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium of Ca(II) and Mg(II) onto sulfonate-modified silica from sugarcane bagasse
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Sugarcane bagasse contains silica, which was separated and modified in this investigation. The silica was reacted by 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanethiol, and the product was oxidized to produce sulfonate-modified silica (SMS). The result of modification was accomplished by spectroscopic analysis of FTIR, XRD, and SEM-EDX. The SMS was used as adsorbent for adsorption kinetic and equilibrium of Ca2+ and Mg2+. The mechanism of the adsorption can be proposed from these experiments. Adsorption kinetic studied the adsorption of the cations as the function of contact time, and the data were evaluated by intra-particle diffusion model, Boyd equation, and Lagergren pseudo kinetic model. The calculated model fitted well to the experimental data and suggests that both Ca2+ and Mg2+ were adsorbed by SMS through external mass transfer, and were pseudo-second ordered. Adsorption equilibrium was evaluated using proton stoichiometry, and adsorption isotherms, the adsorption as the function of cation concentration, and the data were analysed using Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR)-Raduskovich. The results showed that the adsorption of Ca2+ onto SMS was through cation exchange and, that of Mg2+ onto SMS was via physisorption.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001828
Title: Infusion of adrenomedullin22-52 antagonist causes uteroimplantation growth restriction during early gestation in rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The present study exploited whether antagonism of endogenous Adrenomedullin (ADM) in rats during early gestation period resulted in diminished uterus and implantation growth and explored whether this causes through induction of apoptosis. Rats on gestational day 2 were implanted subcutaneously with osmotic (ALZET) minipumps delivering 125 and 250 µg/rat/day/of ADM22-52 and were killed on gestational day 9. On gestational day 9, both in the control group rats and ADM antagonist-treated rats, 5-bromo 2´deoxyuridine labeling dye is injected in the tails of rats with a concentration of 1 ml/100 g body weight and then sacrificed the animal. We have demonstrated that the uterus growth and implantation development are seriously compromised by this modest decrease in expression and the implanted sites were shown prominently by blue-/purple-colored spots both in control and ADM-treated groups. Results: Apoptotic variations were more evident in stromal trophoblastic cells in the uteroimplantation sites of ADM22-52-treated rats when compared with vehicle control rats. Immunoreactivity to active caspase-3, Bax, Bcl2 protein was abundant in the uteroimplantation regions of the ADM22-52-treated group. Conclusion: These findings, however, show that antagonism of ADM in rats during early pregnancy caused uteroimplantation growth restriction and increased fetal resorption through the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001830
Title: Evaluation of combined wound healing activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Murraya koenigii and Nyctanthes arbortristis on rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present work was executed to evaluate the wound healing potency of a combined preparation of two plant extracts. The objective of this study is to induce experimental wounds using excision and incision wound model in normal albino wistar rats and to study the wound healing activity of prepared combined formulation by comparison of changes in wound healing between experimental and placebo controlled rats. Methods: The individual ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii and Nyctanthus arbortrstis was investigated for preliminary phytochemical study. Then the effect of combined ointment formulation containing equal quantity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Murraya koenigii and Nyctanthus arbortrstis was investigated by using excision and incision wound model in rats. Results: Both the extracts show presence of phytochemicals responsible for wound healing activity. The herbal ointment formulation 3 was found to be significantly reducing wound area, epithelization period and wound contraction rate. Similarly this formulation also shows significant increase in wound breaking strength. Conclusions: The study shows capability of both the extracts to promote accelerated wound healing activity by dose dependant manner when compared with placebo control.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001827
Title: In vivo antiplasmodial evaluation of syzygium jambos L. Alston by four day suppressive test
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The unexplored region of Western Ghats possesses natural source of noble therapeutic floras for many diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of Syzygium jambos from Western Ghats. Methods: The four extracts acetone, chloroform, methanol and aqueous were explore their antiplasmodial activity by Peter’s four day test. Results: In Peter’s four day test significant parasite suppression 99.24% (P<0.001) was observed in Chloroquine (CQ 25mg/kg b.wg.) group prolonging the mean survival time of animals ≥30 days, whereas no average parasitaemia suppression (44.33±0.94) was observed in the negative control group. An effective parasite suppression (P<0.01) of 72.93% and 72.18% was identified in methanol and acetone extracts respectively at 600 mg/kg b.wt. The acetone and methanol extracts prolonged the mean survival days of mice groups up to 27.8 ± 0.68 and 26.0 ± 1.29 days respectively. Conclusion: Among the four extracts tested methanol and acetone extracts exhibited antimalarial activity. The present study report establishes, Syzygium jambos leaf extracts were effective with an assorted range of antiplasmodial activity and could be a potential source in the discovery of antimalarial drug.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001826
Title: Validation of water system: A review
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Water is essential for industrial, pharmaceutical, and hospital purposes, in the preparation and processing of medicines and other health products and for cleaning and hygiene purposes. A supply of clean water is an essential requirement for the establishment and maintenance of diverse human activities. Water resources provide valuable food through aquatic life and irrigation for agriculture production. Steps involved in the validation of the pharmaceutical water system are; design qualification, installation qualification, operational qualification, and performance qualification. Validation of the water system should be performed time to time so as to prove its reliability and robustness of the system for producing water of specified quality with a high degree of assurance and every report should be documented for better work. This review is an attempt to discuss about the various aspects of validation of water system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00001970
Title: Anatomic X-ray features of the temporomandibular joint elements with a decrease in the interalveolar distance
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This paper presents data on the anatomical and radiological features of the dentoalveolar system and especially the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) elements in patients with major dental diseases accompanied by a decrease in the interalveolar distance. Radiographically, there is a distal displacement of the lower jaw heads observed in the habitual occlusion with signs of a decreased height of occlusion. When optimizing the ratio of the jaws, the mandible heads occupy a harmonious front position, which leads to a decrease in the compression of the TMJ bilaminar zone, significantly reduces the likelihood of developing musculo-articular dysfunction in the dentoalveolar apparatus and improves the activity of other organs and systems. The study of the topography of the stony-tympanic gap using cranioscopy methods identified two extreme variants of its location relative to the mandibular fossa, which is of fundamental importance in the development of TMJ diseases and determines the nature of their clinical manifestations.

KEY WORDS: Bilaminar zone, Decrease of interalveolar distance, Deep occlusion syndrome, Dentistry, Functional- physiological test method for jaw ratio, Multilayer spiral computed tomography, Stony-tympanic gap, Temporomandibular joint anatomy, Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001968
Title: Substantiation of the technology for obtaining an extract from the fruit of blessed milk thistle for a geriatric drug creation
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This paper presents the results of studying the effect of ethanol concentration in the water-ethanol mixture on the qualitative and quantitative composition of extracts obtained from crushed fruits of blessed milk thistle with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Materials and Method: For the extraction, plant materials were used: “Blessed milk thistle additive” made from grinded blessed milk thistle fruits by PJSC “Lektravy,” Zhitomir, Ukraine, date 28.03.17, series No. 002, shelf life 24 months. Result and Discussion: The optimal concentration of ethanol as an extractant was determined for the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds from plant raw materials. The effect of temperature on the extraction degree of extractives during the filtration extraction method was studied, and optimal parameters for the isolation of biologically active compounds from this plant material were proposed. Conclusion: It was found that the optimal concentration of ethanol in the water-ethanol mixture, which simultaneously extracts hydroxycinnamic acids, taxifolin, and flavonolignans and the fruits of blessed milk thistle, falls within the range of 64 ± 6% by weight.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001967
Title: Development of a technique for assessing the quality of propolis by the content of caffeic acid phenethyl ester by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode- matrix detector
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Propolis is characterized by a wide range of pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic, as well as cardioprotective. A number of listed pharmacological properties of propolis is associated primarily with of oxycinnamic acid ester, one of them - caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) - is considered the most pharmacologically significant. This paper presents the results of the development of an estimation of the quality of propolis with the use of CAPE as a marker component. Using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-matrix detection, identification was carried out, and the quantitative content of this component in propolis was determined. As an optimal elution mode, a gradient regime was used, with allowed differentiating CAPE from other esters of caffeic acid. In the course of the experiment, it was found that the most suitable extractant for extracting CAPE from propolis is isopropyl alcohol. The optimal color form of propolis, containing the greatest amount of the component to be determined, is green propolis. A quantitative evaluation of the studied component was carried out using the absolute calibration method in the concentration range of the standard sample of CAPE 0.01–0.1%. In the indicated concentration range, the calibration curve was linear; the correlation coefficient was R² = 0.9998. To assess the comparability and correctness of the methodology, metrological characteristics were calculated. The error of the single determination with the relative error P, 95% was 4.76%. The quantitative content of CAPE in 6 propolis samples taken from different regions of the Russian Federation showed a significant difference in the content of this component and was in the range of 0.106– 0.515%. The results of the conducted studies indicate the possibility of assessing the quality of propolis in terms of one of its most significant components - CAPE.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00001966
Title: Microcirculation dynamic of changes in the oral mucosa in patients with paresthesia during orthopedic dental treatment
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Based on laser Doppler flowmetry and optical tissue oximetry, a change in the state of microcirculation of the oral mucosa (OM) in 39 patients with paresthesia of the OM was evaluated. All patients had a secondary deformation of the dentition, accompanied by a decrease in the interalveolar distance and needed orthopedic treatment. Materials and Methods: A two-stage method for treating patients with paresthesia of the OM using individual caps is proposed, aimed at restoring the central ratio of the jaws and correcting the orientation of the mandible in the facial skeleton space. Result and Discussion: Based on the results of the work performed, during initial treatment, there was a violation of microcirculation in the area of lesion by paresthesia of the mucous membrane of the cavity. Correction of occlusive relations led to optimization of microcirculation. Conclusions: Thus, all the examined patients (100%) with OM paresthesia showed a significant improvement in microcirculation indices with a decrease in tissue hypoxia in paresthesia sensations after the use of the treatment and diagnostic apparatus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00001940
Title: Mathematical modeling of the in-stent restenosis risk of patients with coronary heart disease
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aims: This article presents the mathematical modeling of the in-stent restenosis risk of patients with coronary heart disease, which is also known as ischemic heart disease. Methods: The mathematical model was developed based on an artificial neural network and regression analysis. Results: The results identified increased in-stent restenosis risk in patients with the following genotypes: [Hp 1-2; Gc 1-2; Tf CB; C’s SS], [Hp 2-2; Gc 1-1; Tf CC; C’s FF], [Hp 2-2; Gc 1-2; Tf CB; C’s SS], [Hp 2-2; Gc 1-1; Tf CC; C’s SS]. Conclusion: The coefficients of determination of ANN (0.21) and linear regression (0.11) were calculated. The resulting values of the coefficient of determination were <0.5, suggesting that the simulation was unacceptable. Analysis revealed that the presence or absence of restenosis was possible with the same set of phenotypes

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001939
Title: Cardiac mechanisms of chronic heart failure development in patients with ischemic heart disease, postman arcticcardiosclerosis of the elderly
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The objective of this study was to study the formation of myocardial remodeling in elderly patients with CHF of ischemic genesis. Materials and Methods: The object of our study was 140 elderly men suffering from CHF with a history of myocardial infarction more than 4 months ago; the average age of the examined persons was 68.4 ± 7.8 years. Results: It was determined that hypertrophic remodeling develops in most elderly patients with IHD, postinfarction cardiosclerosis, and a smaller number of patients have dilated myocardial remodeling. Thus, the morphometric study of myocardial tissue
in patients with eccentric hypertrophy of the LV revealed a significant reduction in the size of the cardiomyocyte nuclei (94.08 ± 16.41, P = 0.0057) in comparison with patients with concentric hypertrophy with a group without signs of remodeling and control group. Conclusion: It was established that structural changes occur in the formation of postinfarction cardiosclerosis. Morphological studies revealed an increase in size and a decrease in the number of myocytes and an increase in the connective tissue matrix. The density of the myocardium increases accompanied by a diastolic LV disturbance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001938
Title: Minimally invasive access for open heart surgery - Relevance for modern cardiac surgical practice
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Today in the modern medicine, the quality of life takes on great importance, what determined significantly by the cosmetic effect of the surgery. Together with it, the variety of combinations of types of the constitution and the options of heart diseases requires the surgeon’s ability to possess different variants of mini approaches. Minimally invasive access without sternotomy was considered as the main method which reduces the duration of hospital stay after surgery; early activation of the patient and the rapid recovery of physical functions. There should be noted that the minimally invasive open-heart surgery using thoracoscopic equipment with cardiopulmonary bypass demonstrates that is a feasible method that can be performed safely and effectively, especially in the hands of experienced surgeons.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001937
Title: Morphological characteristics of the rats brain under hypergravity
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The objective of the research was to study the morphological changes in the most sensitive areas of the brain under hypergravity, using standard general histological and histochemical, as well as immunohistochemical methods with antibodies to glial fibrillary acid protein, neurofilament protein, Ki67 proliferation markers, and p53 apoptosis. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed on 40 white Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: 1st - control, 2nd - rats exposed to hypergravity for 8 min at a centrifuge rotation rate of 5,000 rpm, 3rd - rats exposed to hypergravity 3 times during the 1st day for 5 min and at a rotation rate of 4,000 rpm, and 4th - rats exposed to hypergravity 3 times for 5 min and a rotation speed of 4,000 rpm for 3 days.After the end of the experiment, morphological changes in the brain were examined. Results: It was established that the animals of the first
group died from compression and dislocation of the brain resulted from overloads. Rats from the second group had clinical signs, such as weakness, one- and two-sided paresis, which completely passed within an hour. The histological picture of the brain had no specific features. In the third and fourth groups, the clinical symptoms were more pronounced, remaining until the end of the 1st day. Morphological picture of the immunohistochemical examination had no features but showed severe microcirculation disorders when stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Conclusion: Thus, the hypergravitational model of cerebral ischemia allows
obtaining circulatory hypoxia of the brain, which is confirmed by clinical data and general histological methods.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001936
Title: The influence of sleep disorders on cognitive functions of a brain at patients with Type 2 diabetes
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The results of neuropsychological and sleep examination with the use of validated tests and questionnaires at 136 patients with the verified Type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis are presented in this article. The average age of the examined patients was 59.19± 5.649. The patients were in decompensated condition on indicators of carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and Methods: A totalof 136 patients older than 40 years with clinically and laboratory proved Type 2 diabetes were examined. The research included the participants of both genders living in Astana with a different national and ethnic origin to be convinced that the research advantage and burden are distributed evenly. Results and Discussion: By results of neuropsychological testing, cognitive functions of a brainwere reduced in all age groups at patients with Type 2 diabetes and were characterized by retardation of intellectual activity rate, the reduction of speech fluency, the depression of concentration of attention, memory disturbances of dynamic character. 77.9% of patients had sleep disorders, including, mild degree - 28% of patients; moderate - 30.9% of patients. Conclusion: The intrasomnic disorders including frequent night awakenings with the subsequent difficulty of sleep initiation prevailed. It is revealed that insomnia negatively influences on such cognitive functions of a brain as attention and visual-constructive skills.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00001935
Title: A review on antimicrobial activities of important thiazines based heterocycles
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Nowadays, a number of thiazine-based heterocycles were prepared or extracted from natural sources such as plants and animals, using various approaches and examined for their biologically important activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antihypertensive to apply them as a possible pharmacological and chemical agents in a range of medicinal fields. Although several dynamic antimicrobial agents have since been developed, a allocated co-occurrence through the employ of current drugs as a single agent has developed drug resistance. This has made use to investigate for novel thiazine derivatives for ruling more effective antimicrobial agents. Thus, the present review was designed to provide a sequence of work going on the development of potential antimicrobial agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00001949
Title: A review: Different approach of bioactive pyrimidobenzothiazoles synthesis
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Due to structural specificity, heterocyclic compounds such as pyrimidobenzothiazoles are unique with biological activities and can be utilize as potential pharmaceutical material. Pyrimidobenzothiazoles are well-known agents for different activities such as antihypertensive anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumor, antiviral, antihypotensive, antimalarial, antimicrobial, and anticancer, make them more leader in their class. At present, benzothiazoles and their derivatives attracted the scientific community. The present work is a review of the newest work carried out by researchers in the finding and synthesis of new biological active pyrimidobenzothiazoles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001892
Title: Comparison of open and closed biopsies in the diagnosis of breast lumps
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The breast cancer diagnosis and treatment is based on a less invasive, more accurate and effective strategybut the key factor in respect of these new standards is to confirm cancer before going to the operating room. Closedbiopsies by means of Tru-cut biopsy needle have replaced the more traditional incisional or excisional biopsies for the diagnosis of palpable breast lumps and have a definite role in the histological diagnosis of majority of palpable breastlumps. These biopsies can be performed under local anesthesia in the office or in outpatient setup. The technique is reliable,simple, and reproducible, and inexpensive; it can be adapted even for low-income developing countries. Objective:This study is designed mainly to compare the diagnostic accuracy of Tru-cut needle biopsy with that of excision biopsy.Materials and Methods: The original study is carried from July to December 2014 in Surgical Unit-1, Baqai Medical University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Among women with palpable breast lumps came to the outpatient, 140 patientsselected and Tru-cut needle biopsy along with excision biopsy was performed and the result of both the modalities recorded
and compared with each other. Results: The diagnosis given by Tru-cut needle biopsy is confirmed by means of excision biopsies. Therefore, it may be said that out of 49 malignant lumps 45 (91.83%) and out of 91 benign lumps 87 (95.60%)are correctly diagnosed with a total of 132 (94.28%) correct diagnosis. Conclusion: As the diagnostic accuracy of closed biopsies is considerable and very close to that of excision biopsies, the closed biopsies can be performed routinely on anoutpatient basis on women with palpable breast lumps.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001948
Title: Reverse engineering ancient cu based drugs, their synthesizing methods and evolution using Vedic mind tools
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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These days reverse engineering has gathered much attention due to its diversified applications. It is a unique approach involving an entirely afresh perception of a product as a combination of parts and structure. This concept can be felt back to Plato, Vedic Maths inventive principles and even up to modern TRIZ methodology of problem-solving. Reverse engineering sometimes called back engineering extracts valuable design information or knowledge from anything human-made and reportrait same thing or anything based on the extracted information. It involves, and its applications often involved are mechanical components, electronic, computer devices, programs, biological, and chemical and biological matter. The applications it serves are broad, and its objectives are priceless, however, only a few researchers have worked on its innate concepts and applied it in the field of traditional drugs. The present work aims at reverse engineering ancient Cu based Indian drugs using Vedic inventive and alchemical mind tools. The novelty of work is using aforementioned tools in exploring what Carse calls “Anomalies you cannot account for by any of the laws known to you.” Regarding which several modern tools such as scanning electron microscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, in vitro, and ex vivo analysis were also involved to carry the drug evolution forward in an innovative way.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001727
Title: Hepatoprotective activity of Bridelia retusa leaves against paracetamol-induced liver damage in Swiss albino mice
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study is aimed to evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of Bridelia retusa leaves extracts by paracetamol-induced liver damage in swiss albino mice.The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin.. Treatment with Bridelia retusa leaves extracts showed significant reduction in level of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and total bilirubin almost comparable to the Silymarin. The hepatoprotection confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue. From the result it can be concluded that Bridelia retusa leaves possesses hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol –induced liver damage in mice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-0000866
Title: Development and validation of a RP-HPLC method for quantification of rottlerin in Kamala (Mallotus philppinensis)
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Kamala is orange red powder consisting the glands and hair covering the fruit of Mallotus philppinensis Muell. (Euphorbiaceae), a small tree widely distributed throughout India up to an attitude of 1500 m. It is indigenous to southeastern Asia and find wild throughout tropical Asia, Australia and Philippines. In the indigenous system of medicine, Kamala is used as anthelminitic and cathartic. Kamala powder is used in external application for parasitic affection of the skin and also an aphrodisiac, lithotropic, and stypic. Kamala powder is also used as an antiseptic in blisters in the ears. The seed and fruit powder are generally used for urinary and menstrual disorders. A selective, precise and accurate Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the quantification of Rottlerin in kamala. The use of reverse phase C18 column using gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and water enabled the efficient separation of the chemical markers within a 22 minute analysis. Validation of method performs in order to demonstrate its selectivity, accuracy, precision, repeatability and recovery study. The proposed RP-HPLC method was found to be simple, precise and accurate and can be used for the quality control of the raw materials as well as formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000867
Title: Antifungal activity of stem bark of Helicteres isora Linn.
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The effect of petroleum ether and methanol extract of stem bark of Helicteres isora was investigated in five different fungus i.e. Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida tropicalis, Trychophyton rubrum, Microsporum furfure, Epidermophyton floccosum to evaluate the antifungal activity. For this evaluation Sabouraud’s glucose broth media was used. All the two extracts exhibited antifungal activity. The methanol extracts showed significant antifungal activity; where as the petroleum ether extract showed weak antifungal activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000868
Title: Antimycotic activity of the componenets of Abutilon indicum (Malvaceae)
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The search for novel antifungal agents relies in great part on ethnobotanical information and ethnopharmacologic exploration. Methanol extracts provide a more complete extraction, including less polar compounds, and many of these extracts have been found to possess antifungal properties. Methanolic extracts of various parts of Abutilon indicum were tested for their ability to inhibit the aetiological agents of dermal fungal infections in humans. The screening for the antimycotic activity was performed by testing Minimum Inhibitory concentration and Disc diffusion method. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of plant extract used to purify the flavonoid content of plant parts. Quercetin present in these extracts was separated. Methanolic extract of leaves of Abutilon indicum shows remarkable antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum. This study provides a sample large enough to determine the antimycotic properties of A. indicum and suggest further studies for a possible therapeutic use.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000869
Title: Optimization of mouth dissolving meloxicam tablets prepared by sublimation technique
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this investigation was to develop mouth dissolving tablets of Meloxicam. Granules containing Meloxicam, menthol, crospovidone and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of menthol and crospovidone. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that for obtaining mouth dissolving tablets; optimum amount of menthol and higher percentage of crospovidone should be used. Surface response plots are also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percentage friability and disintegration time. The validity of a generated mathematical model was tested by preparing a checkpoint batch. Sublimation of menthol from tablets resulted in rapid disintegration as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. Hence, it was concluded that mouth dissolving tablets with improved meloxicam dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing suitable subliming agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000870
Title: Analgesic, Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory Effect of the Whole Plant Extract of Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf (Poaceae) in Albino Rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Analgesic, Antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect of petroleum ether, benzene chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extract of the whole parts of Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf (Poaceae) was investigated in albino rats. Animals were given a subcutaneous injection of 12% w/v suspension of yeast (1ml /100gm Body weight) suspended in 0.5% w/v methylcellulose solution which leads to pyrexia. Oral administration of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extract of the whole parts of Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf (Poaceae) at a dose 300 mg/ kg body weight into six groups of animal for both the activities were shown significantly reduce the elevated body temperature of rat which was compared with standard paracetamol (marketed product) and diclofenac sodium respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using Digital plethysmometer. The study was carried out using dose of 300 mg/kg orally. All the extracts produced statistically significant and dose dependent inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at all doses when compared to the control groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-0000871
Title: RP-HPLC method for the estimation of tamsulosin hydrochloride in bulk and tablet dosage form
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The Present work describes a simple reverse phase HPLC method for the estimation of Tamsulosin hydrochloride in bulk and tablet dosage form. The estimation was carried out on ODS,Phenomonex,C-18 (250x4.6 mm,5μ) column using a mobile phase consisting of sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer-Acetonitrile (70:30).The eluent was monitored at 280 nm. The results have been validated statistically and recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of proposed method.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00001217
Title: Smart functionalization cotton preparation using synergistic drug for enhanced bioefficacy against nosocomial pathogens
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: This study focus on smart functionalization cotton fabric preparation by using the synergistic antimicrobial agents like, the antibiotic cefixime trihydrate and the biopolymer chitosan. The analysis provides a reliable method of coating the selected drugs permanently with the cotton fabric surface for reuse. Methods: The synergistic effect of the polymer chitosan and the antibiotic cefixime trihydrate were analysed using checker board method against nosocomial pathogens Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The cotton fabrics were coated with the synergistic drug using the reactive dye exhaust method to prepare a permanent antimicrobial finished cotton fabric. The antibiotic cefixime was made reactive using cyanuric chloride which was an efficient linker of chitosan with cellulosic units in cotton fabrics. The antimicrobial efficiency of the finished cotton was analysed using the AATCC 124-1996 and AATCC 100 test methods. To ensure its biocompatibility, the coated cotton fabric was implanted in chorio-allantoic membrane of the embryonated eggs and analysed.Results and Conclusion: The qualitative and quantitative microbial analysis of the coated cotton fabric produced reliable results against the used pathogens. The bacterial reduction percentage after every wash of coated cotton was increasing and provides a proof for the permanent coating of synergistic drugs.

Cite this article as: S. Vanitha Malathy, R. Joycy Jay Manoharam, B. Venkatrajah,Smart functionalization cotton preparation using synergistic drug for enhanced bioefficacy against nosocomial pathogens,Drug Invention Today 2016,8(1),1-5.

 

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-CR(D)-0000909
Title: Prescribing Patterns of antihypertensive drugs in a South Indian tertiary care hospital
Category: Case Reports (Drugs)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction:.The choice of drug for the treatment of hypertension changes at short intervals. Drug utilization studies conducted at regular intervals help to guide the physician in prescribing drugs rationally. The present study was done to analyze the prescribing patterns of antihypertensive drugs in a South Indian tertiary care hospital. Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional analysis of prescriptions of antihypertensive cases admitted in Medicine in-patient wards of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Attavar, Mangalore, India during the period of January 2010 to July 2010 was conducted. All the prescription files with diagnosis of essential hypertension (ICD-9CM: 401-405, WHO international code: A 26) were analyzed. Prescriptions for hypertension with other co-morbid conditions were also included. Frequency and proportions of utilization of antihypertensive medications were charted and figured. Results: During the study period, there were 200 prescriptions for essential hypertension. The most frequently prescribed antihypertensive medications were: Calcium channel blockers (49%) followed by diuretics (43.5%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (29.5%) beta blockers (29%)and angiotensin receptor blockers (21%). 51% of patients were on multiple drug therapy, the most favored fixed drug combination being diuretics with angiotensin receptor blockers (25.4%). Among the hypertensive cases with co-existing diabetes mellitus type II, the most prescribed class of drugs was diuretics (43.8%) followed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (40.4%). Conclusion:The present study represents the current prescribing trend for antihypertensive agents. It implies that calcium channel blockers are the leading group of antihypertensive agents followed by diuretics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000907
Title: Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic, Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Methanolic Extract of “Ata-Ofa” Polyherbal Tea (APolyherbal) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Methanolic extract of “Ata-Ofa Polyherbal tea” (A-Polyherbal) was evaluated for hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Compared to the untreated diabetic rats, administration of methanolic extract of A-Polyherbal at 50mg/kg dose for 7 days caused a statistically significant (P < 0.05) percentage reduction in fasting blood glucose level (55.43±3.50%), significantly boosted the activities of superoxide dismutases and catalases, HDLcholesterol, packed cell volume and hemoglobin, and significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), total cholesterol, total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These results strongly demonstrate that “Ata-Ofa Polyherbal tea” (A-Polyherbal) has strong potential in the alleviation and management of diabetes and related complications, including hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, development of micro and macro vascular diabetic complications arising from elevated plasma lipids and decreased levels of antioxidant defense systems, as well as reduced erythrocyte survival rate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000896
Title: Antibacterial study of silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives

The present study has been undertaken to synthesize silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles, with pharmaceutical importance. The synthesized particles have been evaluated to study the effect of silver doping on grain size and further on antibacterial activities against the microorganismsBacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

Methods

Silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by the solution route spin-coating process, using zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) as host and dopant precursors respectively. The antibacterial activity of the silver doped zinc oxide were studied against S. auerus and B. subtilis via using agar well diffusion method.

Results & discussion

: The structure of the powder samples was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of silver doping on grain size and further on antibacterial activity against the microorganisms B. subtilis and S. auerus is discussed.

Conclusion

It was clear from X-ray investigations that its structure is wurtzite type and that an increase in Ag-doping resulted in decrease in the grain size of the ZnO nanoparticles. Antimicrobial study against the microorganisms B. subtilis and S. auerus shows that in case of S. auerus the MIC varies with increase in Ag content but in case of B. subtilis the MIC remained constant for all concentration of Ag.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000875
Title: Orally Disintegrating Tablets: A Review
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Over a decade, the demand for development of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) has enormously increased as it has significant impact on the patient compliance. Orally disintegrating tablets offer an advantage for populations who have difficulty in swallowing. Prescription ODT products initially were developed to overcome the difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets with water among pediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. Today, ODTs are more widely available as over-the-counter products for the treatment of allergies and cold and flu symptoms. Technologies used for manufacturing of orally disintegrating tablets are either conventional technologies or patented technologies. In conventional freeze drying, tablet molding, sublimation, spray drying etc. and in patented Zydis technology, Orasolv technology, Durasolv technology, Wowtab technology, Flashdose technology are important. Important ingredients that are used in the formulation of ODTs should allow quick release of the drug, resulting in faster dissolution. Evaluation of these tablets are done by following weight variation, friability, tensile strength, wetting time, water absorption ratio, In vitro dispersion time and dissolution test.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000900
Title: Formulation and evaluation of topical gel of diclofenac sodium using different polymers
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A wide choice of vehicles ranging from solids to semisolids form has been used for skin care and topical treatment of dermatological disease, High molecular weight water soluble polymers of Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), Carbapol 934P, Sodium alginate that possess very high viscosity, transparency, film forming properties at low concentration, are reported to useful in formation of gel. In the present investigation Diclofenac sodium gels were prepared for topical drug delivery by using different concentration of HPMC, Sodium alginate, Carbapol 934P, with an objective to increase transparency and spreadability. From the study it was concluded that HPMC gel containing Diclofenac sodium showed good consistency, homogeneity, spreadability and stability and has wider prospect for topical preparations as compared to Sodium alginate, Carbapol 934P gel containing Diclofenac sodium.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000901
Title: Insights into Polymers: Film Formers in Mouth Dissolving Films
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Mouth dissolving films is a new drug delivery system for oral route. This delivery system consists of a very thin oral strip, which is simply placed on the patients tongue or any oral mucosal tissue, instantly wet by saliva, film rapidly hydrates and then disintegrates and/or dissolve to release the medication. In the formulation of oral film, the most important ingredient is polymer which helps in film formation. Mainly hydrophilic polymers are used in mouth dissolving films. The present article highlights various natural and synthetic polymers, their properties and applications in oral film delivery system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000856
Title: Oral disintegrating tablets: A future compaction
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Recent advances in novel drug delivery (NDDS) aims to enhance safety and efficacy of drug molecule by formulating a convenient dosage form for ease of administration and to achieve better patient compliance. One such approach is oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs). ODTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrates or dissolves rapidly in the mouth without the general requirement for swallowing, the chewing and water. An oral disintegrating tablet provides an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations and is who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review depicts the various formulation aspects, technologies developed, ingredients used, evaluation tests and marketed formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000903
Title: Fast Dissolving Tablet: As A Potential Drug Delivery System
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Tablet is the most popular dosage form among from all existing dosage form. but in some instances due to the large size of dosage forms, and in case of uncooperative, pediatric and dysphasia patients, it may create some problems, to overcome this problems, a new form of dosage form is developed, which is known as first dissolving tablet or mouth dissolving tablet. These tablets are the advanced dosage form which is dissolve with in few seconds after placing on the tongue. Fast dissolving tablets have gained considerable attention as a preferred alternative to conventional tablets and capsules due to better patient compliance. Preparing pharmaceuticals acceptable dosage form demands clear understanding details about the Fast dissolving tablet or Mouth dissolving tablet. This review discusses the method of preparation, properties, advantages, mechanisms; drugs to be incorporated in the mouth dissolving tablet and evaluation of the mouth dissolving tablet are emphasized.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-0000918
Title: A review on Calotropis procera Linn and its Ethnobotany, Phytochemical, Pharmacological profile
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Calotropis procera Linn is small, erect and compact shrubs, which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. This shrub has been known to posses’ Analgesic, Antitumor, Antihelmintic, Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Inflammatory, Antidiarrhoeal, Anticonvulsant, Antimicrobial, Oestrogenic, Antinociceptive, and Antimalarial activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including Benzoyllineolone, benzoylisolinelone and ß-amyrin. The root bark contains the calotropoleanyl ester, proceroleanenol A and proceroleanenol B. The latex contains the calactin, calotropin, uscharin, sitosterol, and calotoxin. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the ethnobotany, pharmacological, phytochemistry, biological activity and toxicity of the calotropis procera shrubs.

Cite this article as: Ajay K. Meena , Ajay K. Yadav , Uttam S. Niranjan , Brijendra Singh , Amit K. Nagariya, Kiran Sharma , Anand Gaurav , Surabhi Sharma and M.M.Rao, A review on Calotropis procera Linn and its Ethnobotany, Phytochemical, Pharmacological profile, Drug Invention Today, Vol.2.Issue 2.February 2010,185-190

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001097
Title: Multiple-Unit-Pellet System (MUPS): A Novel Approach for Drug Delivery
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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MUPS (Multiple Unit Pellet Systems) are multi-particulate pellet formulations that, easily administered as tablets, disintegrate into their subunits directly after swallowing, so as to disperse into their subunits across the stomach and the small intestine, that combine the advantages of both tablets and pellet-filled capsules in one dosage form. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages and preparation, key variables for production of MUPS Tablets and all literatures related to MUPS Tablets.

Cite this article as : Ozarde Y S*., Serri Sarvi . Polshettiwar S A., Kuchekar B S, Multiple-Unit-Pellet System (MUPS): A Novel Approach for Drug Delivery, Drug Invention Today, 2012, 4(12), 603-609.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00001096
Title: Versatile Applications of Bryonia laciniosa: A Herbal Drug
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The plant extracts derived from various medicinal plants have been drawing the attention of the scientific community continuously owing to their wide uses in the treatment of several clinical diseases. Bryonia laciniosa commonly known as Shivlingi that belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae, is known to have many pharmacological actions. The leaves, fruits and seeds have been employed as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antipyretic, anti-asthmatic, anticonvulsant and antimicrobial agent in the traditional ayurvedic system of medicine. Further, the extract obtained from the seeds of the plant has been proved to be a potent medicine to improve the quality and quantity of rasa and in the treatment of impotency. This review collectively discusses nearly all the literature reports advocating the medicinal efficacy of Bryonia laciniosa (Linn.).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001095
Title: Hookworm Infestation, Anaemia and Pregnancy
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Hookworm infestatiation is among the major causes of anaemiain developing countries. It is a common problem, but its importance causing maternal anaemia is little understood. It is an important risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. Hookworm infestation is a leading cause of maternal and child morbidity in the developing countries of the tropics and subtropics. It is rarely fatal, though anaemia can be significant in the heavily infested individuals. Consequences of hookworm infestation associated with anaemia in pregnancy are cardiovascular symptoms, reduced physical and mental performance, reduced immunity, fatigue, reduced peripartal blood reserve in mothers and intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, and low birth weight in newborns. Thus, importance for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages in India based on WHO recommendation is a requirement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001094
Title: Effect of electron beam radiations on memory in experimental animal models
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Exposures to ionizing radiation have been an inevitable part of the environment. This type of radiation can disrupt atoms, creating positive and negative charged particles, and cause biological harm. Ionizing radiation includes x-rays, gamma rays, alpha particles, beta particles and neutrons. They have the potential to cause both beneficial and harmful effects. There are concerns about these radiations as they are widely used in hospitals for treatment and diagnosis of various diseases. The present work was designed to test the effect of whole body electron beam radiation on memory in mice using the Hebb Williams Maze, Elevated Plus Maze and Jumping apparatus, the commonly used exteroceptive models for cognitive tests in rodents. Mice were irradiated with three different doses (2Gy, 4Gy and 6Gy) of electron beam radiations. Statistical analysis revealed that whole body irradiation of the moderate dose range (2-6 Gy) of electron beam leads to a significant (p<0.001) loss of memory in irradiated mice. Electron beam induced memory loss can be due to radiation induced reactive oxygen species in brain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00001093
Title: Studies on the Phytochemistry, Antimicrobial Activity and Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles Using Cassia tora L.
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The field of nanotechnology is one of the most active areas of research in modern materials science and technology. An eco-friendly green mediated synthesis of inorganic nanoparticle is a fast growing research in the limb of nanotechnology. The present study synthesis from 1 mm AgNO3 solution through the leaf extract of Cassia tora L. as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV –vis absorption spectroscopy’s green synthesized silver nanoparticles showed the antibacterial against the isolated microorganisms. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. were isolated from clinical specimen. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extracts of Cassia tora L. showed the presence of anthraquniones, carbohydrates, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, amino acid, phytosterols, fixed oils and fats, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The silver nanopaticles was characterized by using UV –visible Spectrophotometer at the range of 200-800nm. Absorption spectrum (200-800nm) at the beginning of the reaction showed three distrinct peaks, centering around 220, 280 and 430nm. The absorption spectrum showed increase in intensity over a broad spectrum in the range of 350-600nm within 10min of contact time while the remaining part of the absorption spectrum in the range of 350- 600nm continued to increase with increasing incubation time till 60min. Each antibiotic resistant microorganism differs in the formation of zone of inhibition representing their sensitiveness to silver nanoparticles extracts of Cassia tora.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001092
Title: Prion Diseases: Combat of Genomes and Contest for the Survival of Fittest in Microbial World
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Prion diseases are incurable neurologic disorders, in contrast to Alzheimer, Parkinson and other neurodegenerative diseases, are transmissible from one individual to another .It is confrontation for both to medicine and neuroscience is the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases The infectious agent causing prion diseases has been proposed to consist exclusively of a protein. Currently a characteristic feature of these diseases is the conformational change of highly conserved cellular protein, the prion protein into pathogenic prion proteins such as scrape-associated prion protein. The exact mechanism by which the agent replicates is still unclear, Prion diseases still lack of effective treatment and are universally fatal. This paper will review some of the general background related to prion biology, the history and epidemiology of these diseases, and then focuses on important areas of current research & future prospect in prion disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001091
Title: Study of Antinociceptive Effect of Paroxetine and Elucidation of Its Mechanism of Action in Acute Pain in Albino Rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Pain is the most common reason patients seek medical care. Increased level of monoamines (serotonin and norepinephrine) in synaptic clefts lead to changes in pain threshold and induce antinociception. The study was carried out to evaluate antinociceptive effect of paroxetine in albino rats and to probe into its possible mechanism of action. Albino rats of either sex of average weight 100-200gms were used. The drugs used were paroxetine 5mg/Kg, pethidine 5mg/Kg(active control), naloxone 5mg/Kg, ondansetron 0.1mg/Kg and normal saline 1ml/Kg. Antinociceptive effect tested by using thermal method i.e. tail flick response. Statistical analyses indicate significant difference between value of control when compared with paroxetine i.e., paroxetine shows antinociceptive effect. The effects of paroxetine were comparable to that of pethidine. Naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist and Ondansetron, a 5HT-3 receptor antagonist when combined with paroxetine blocked its antinociceptive action. This finding suggests and involvement of serotonergic mechanisms (5-HT3 subtype), and the opioidergic system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00001090
Title: Antibacterial and antifungal screening of ethanol leaf extract of Wrightia tinctoria against some pathogenic microorganisms
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation focuses on the antimicrobial screening of leaf extract of Wrightia tinctoria against the selected bacterial and fungal strains. Leaf extract of Wrightia tinctoria was more potent in inhibiting the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli with different degree of inhibition. Wrightia tinctoria completely inhibited Trichophyton floccosum at 500- 1000ppm. The results support that the plant extract containing compound that can form the basis for the development of novel broad spectrum antimicrobial formulations against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Trichophyton floccosum.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001089
Title: Pharmacological Intervention of Pre-Eclampsia and Eclampsia: A case study of a tertiary health institution in Jos, Nigeria
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Blood pressure is an important parameter in monitoring pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are major causes of poor gestational outcome in tropical Africa. This research was carried out to ascertain if the management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Nigeria is in line with global recent advances. A retrospective data collection and evaluation protocol was used. Eighty-eight patient files (sixty-two with eclampsia and twenty-six with pre-eclampsia) presented over a period of four years (Jan 2004- Dec 2007). Parity, age, stage of pregnancy, occupation, blood pressure range (before and after pharmacological intervention) and drugs used in managing both conditions were evaluated. The highest incidence occurred in first pregnancies, young maternal age, third trimester and full-time house wives. Blood pressures were observed to decrease with drug use and after delivery of the fetus and placenta. The study was in line with global recent advances. It revealed the need for closer evaluation of pharmacological intervention for eclampsia and pre-eclampsia to ensure better fetal and maternal health outcomes as stated in the 4th and 5th Millennium Development Goals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00001084
Title: In- silico analysis of pyrazinamide resistance of Mycobacterium sp.
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Pyrazinamide (PZA), a prodrug used for the treatment of tuberculosis, requires conversion into its active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA), by the bacterial enzyme pyrazinamidase (PZase), which is encoded by the 561- nucleotide pncA gene. The present study was aimed at predicting the active site and drug binding characteristics of mycobacterial PZase by constructing homology models and docking with PZA. Despite 99% identity in the amino acid sequences of PZases from M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, significant variations in their three dimensional structure was observed. PZase of M. kansasii also differed from all other PZases. Active sites of PZases were identified by docking studies and were found to be partially conserved in the PZases. These results suggest that PZA resistance of these organisms is not necessarily due to a non-functional PZase but by alternate mechanism. On comparing with reported mutations responsible for PZA resistance in M. tuberculosis, the mutations His51Gln, Trp68Arg, His71Glu, Tyr103His and Cys138Tyr might have direct role in the enzyme activity as these occur in the active site whereas the other mutations cause resistance by bringing structural changes in the functional PZase.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00001082
Title: Overview on medicinal plant used in anthelmintic
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Plant-derived compounds have played very crucial role in the field of anthelmintic drugs. The knowledge of most ‘Medicinal plants’ used in the treatment of helminthic. Plants are always an exemplary source of drugs; in fact many of the currently available drugs were derived either directly or indirectly from them. Medicinal plant is sensitive to the majority of anthelmintic drugs that are used against parasitic worm infections of humans and livestock. In addition, there are numerous examples of anthelmintic drugs providing exceptionally useful pharmacological tools to delineate fundamental aspects of cell signaling. So this review provides a platform for the researcher and gives them an opportunity to prepare such herbal formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000931
Title: Evaluation of wound-healing activity of Eichornia crassipes: A novel approach
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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There are no experimental reports on wound healing activities of Eichornia crassipes in literature. In this article, we report for the first time, the efficacy of Eichornia crassipes extract in the treatment of wounds. The methanolic extract of Eichornia crassipes leaves were investigated for the evaluation of their wound healing potential on excision experimental model of wounds in rats. The methanolic extract of leaves of Eichornia crassipes, in the form of an ointment with two different concentrations (10% and 15% w/w ointment of leaf extract in simple ointment base) was evaluated for wound healing potential in an excision wound model in rats. It is observed that the wound contraction ability of the ointment containing Eichornia crassipes extract in different concentrations was significantly greater than that of the control (simple ointment). The 15%w/w extract containing ointment group showed significant wound healing from the fourth day onwards which was comparable to that of the nitrofurazone ointment treated animals. The wound closure time was less and the percentage of wound contraction was much more with the 15%w/w extract ointment treated group. On 18th day 100% contraction was observed which was almost similar to that of the nitrofurazone ointment group. 10%w/w extract ointment group of animals showed significant wound contraction from the 18th day onwards and achieved 100% with the wound closure time of 20th days. Both concentrations of the methanolic extract of Eichornia crassipes ointment showed significant responses when compared with the control group. The effect produced by the extract ointment, in terms of wound contracting ability, wound closure time, regeneration of tissues at wound site, and histopathological characteristics were comparable to those of a standard drug nitrofurazone ointment. Thus, this investigation confirms the use of the Eichornia crassipes ointment as a wound-healing agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000932
Title: Antibacterial activity of aqueous plant extracts against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Spices are the key ingredients of the Indian food. Inspite of enhacing flavour of food, these are found to have medicinal importance too which is shown in our study. In this study, the antibacterial activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Mentha arvensis (Mint), Curcuma longa (Turmeric), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis by agar well diffusion method. The maximum antimicrobial activity expressed in terms of zone of inhibition was shown by aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale followed by Curcuma longa and Azadirachta indica. However, aqueous extract of Piper nigrum was only effective against B. subtilis and Mentha arvnesis did not show any activity against both the test organisms. This study scientifically validates the use of plants as a potent antibacterial agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000911
Title: Antimicrobial Spectrum and Phytochemical Study of Ficus Tsiela L. (Moreceae)
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study deals with the antimicrobial activity of the diethyl ether, ethanol, and acetone extracts of the plant Ficus tsiela using disc diffusion method against human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present investigation, all the extracts were found to be effective against the four selected bacterial species tested and are sensitive to all the plant extracts used. The study suggests that the extracts of the plant possesses potential broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of the diethyl ether extract was found to be higher than that of other extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-000062
Title: Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) Analysis of Ichnocarpus frutescens Plant Parts
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Ichnocarpus frutescens (Apocynaceae) commonly known as Thapalaha (Syamolata). Its leaf, stem and root were investigated for its metal mineral content by using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Elemental analysis was performed on eleven elements (C, O, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn). The analysis of EDX showed that root possesses all the tested elements. However, Leaf was found deficient in Fe and Al and stem deficient in Mg.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-000063
Title: Control of phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola using medicinal plant methanolic extracts
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The antifungal activity of forty nine medicinal plants belonging to different families was tested in vitro on phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. In which methanolic extracts of forty two plants exhibited varying degrees of inhibition activity against C. graminicola. The results revealed that extract of Terminalia chebula was highly effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of C. graminicola at 75μg/50μL. The following six plants Acalypha indica, Eichhornia crassipes, Gyanandropsis gyanandra, Suaeda maritime, Tephrosia pumila and Tinospora cordifolia did not exhibit antifungal activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-000064
Title: [Antibacterial and Antineoplastic Effect of Root of Euphorbia hirta L] ----------- [vol1 issue 1 2009Jan DIT]
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This dissertation describes the antibacterial and antineoplastic effect (against Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma; EAC) of methanol extract of root of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol extract showed moderate activity against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus megaterium) and Gram negative (Escherchia coli, Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella sonnei) bacteria. In vivo the root extract resulted 45% and 54.4% Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell growth inhibition at the dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The root extract also showed moderate cytotoxic effect (LC50 37.07 μg.ml-1) against Artemia salina (brine shrimp nauplii) in respect to ampicillin trihydrate (LC50 16.87 μg.ml-1).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-TPS-000065
Title: In-vitro release, Thermodynamics and Pharmacodynamic Studies of Aceclofenac Transdermal Eudragit Patches
Category: Thermodynamics and Pharmacodynamic Studies
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aceclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug has been formulated into transdermal Eudragit patches. The drug was first characterized for its physicochemical properties by studying its solubility and its partition coefficient at different pH values. Formulation of Aceclofenac into transdermal patches using three acrylic resin polymers like Eudragit L100, L100-55 and S100 was done. The effect of different plasticizers, like propylene glycol (PG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) in concentrations of 5% and 10%, on the in-vitro drug release was investigated. Thermodynamics of the in-vitro release of Aceclofenac from Eudragit patches were also studied. The anti-inflammatory effect of the selected Aceclofenac Eudragit patches was determined in male albino rats, using paw edema method. The results of the in-vitro release show that, Eudragit patches of Aceclofenac had an acceptable % drug release after 60 minutes and the increase of hydrophilic plasticizers PG or PEG concentrations form 5% to 10% is accompanied by an increase in drug release. The release of drug from all investigated Eudragit patches follows zero order kinetic and it increases linearly as a function of temperature. The free energy (rG) values of drug release are negative for all Eudragit patches and the best thermodynamically stable patch was L100+10% PG, which was chosen for further pharmacodynamic evaluation of Aceclofenac anti-inflammatory activity. The results show that in all treated rat groups there are significant inhibition in edema thickness, produced by carrageenan when compared with the non-treated group. This inhibition in edema is statistically significant at P < 0.05. It was also observed, that the group pretreated with water for 30 hours prior to the experiment showed the highest percent edema inhibition, followed by group pretreated with isopropyl myristate (IPM). This study demonstrates the feasibility of formulating Aceclofenac into transdermal patches using Eudragit L100+10% PG to deliver it as part of inflammatory management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-000066
Title: Sedative and anticonvulsant activities of the methanol leaf extract of Ficus hispida Linn.---- vol1 issue 1 2009 [DIT]
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The central nervous system (CNS) depressant and anticonvulsant activities of the methanol leaf extract of Ficus hispida Linn (FH) were investigated on various animal models including pentobarbitone sleeping time and hole-board exploratory behaviour for sedation tests, and strychnine, picrotoxin, and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. FH (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.), like chlorpromazine HCl (1mg/kg, i.m.), produced a dose-dependent prolongation of pentobarbitone sleeping time and suppression of exploratory behaviour. FH (200 and 400mg/kg) produced dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) increases in onset to clonic and tonic convulsions, and at 400mg/kg, showed complete protection against seizures induced by strychnine and picrotoxin but not with pentylenetetrazole. Acute oral toxicity test, up to 14 days, did not produce any visible signs of toxicity. These results suggest that potencially antiepileptic compounds are present in leaf extract of FH that deserve the study of their identity and mechanism of action.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-000067
Title: Protective effect of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats------------VOL1 ISSUE 1,2009,[DIT]
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa, Roxb. in Wister albino rats by inducing liver damage by carbon tetra chloride (CCl4). The ethanolic extract at a oral dose of 200mg/kg exhibited significant (p<0.001) hepatoprotective effect by lowering serum enzyme levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TB). These observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver section. Silymarin was used as positive control.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-000069
Title: Synthesis and Screening of Some New 2-Amino Substituted Benzothiazole Derivatives for Antifungal Activity
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Some new 2-Amino substituted- benzothiazole (A1-7) were synthesized by treating with KSCN in presence of glacial acetic acid and with different Substituted aniline. Structures of the synthesized compounds were established on the basis of Melting Point, TLC, and IR spectral data. The anti-fungal activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by disc diffusion method.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-000070
Title: In silico prediction of selected pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties of some neuroactive steroids
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Selected pharmacokinetic and toxic properties of some neuroactive steroids derived from pregnanolone and alphaxalone were predicted by in silico methods.Pregnanolone and alphaxalone were selected as lead molecules and a series of drug-like molecules derived from them were generated. Their pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties were calculated through the ADME and Tox boxes web version of pharma algorithms and ACD labs Chem. Sketch software version 12.0.All drug-like neuroactive steroids were predicted to be less toxic(LD50900 to 1020 mg/kg and 940 to 1020 mg/kg) with an enhancement in lipophilicity (c log P 3.31 to 4.73 and 5.06 to 6.41),protein binding (64% to 91% and 56%to 92%) and oral bioavailability(64% to 88% and 52% to 90%).From this study, it can be concluded that all the drug-like neuroactive steroids possess marked lipophilicity, rate of absorption, volume of distribution, protein binding and oral bioavailability.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 7, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000694
Title: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Evaluations of Aceclofenac Matrix sustained release Tablets using Natural gum
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: This study was undertaken to develop and formulate aceclofenac matrix sustained release tablets using a natural gum and to conduct its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation. Methods: Sustained release matrix tablets of aceclofenac were prepared by using a direct compression technique, using Salmalia malabarica gum as matrix forming material while microcrystalline cellulose was as filler. All the ingredients were passed through a # 20 sieve, weighed, and blended. These formulations were compressed with a single station tablet compression machine using 9 mm flat faced punches. Results and discussion: The drug–polymer interactions were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy which indicated the absence of interactions. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the surface morphology of the tablets and confirm drug release mechanisms. The stability studies were performed using ICH guidelines for a period of six months and found that the developed formulation was stable. In-vivo studies for anti-inflammatory activity and pharmacokinetics were performed in wistar rats and young male rabbits respectively. The in-vivo results showed that the optimized tablet (F-5) exhibited significant difference in the drug release in comparison to that of pure drug and marketed formulation. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the developed formulation shows sustained release and is of cost effective for the formulation development of aceclofenac tablets.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-0000853
Title: Vitex agnus castus Molecular Marker Compounds Extraction and Optimization Using HPLC with ELS Detector
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Vitex agnus castus extracts in different solvent ratios were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (ELSD). The markers of our interest in Vitexagnus castus are Agnuside, Casticin and Vitexyl acetone. To correlate the retention time of the molecular marker compounds with Vitex agnus castus extract were compared with standard molecular markers of Agnuside, Casticin and Vitexyl acetone using same conditions of that of extract and were analyzed statistically. Apart from the results ELS Detector is regarded as a valuable alternative to UV detection system for liquid chromatographic analysis of substances that does not contain a strong chromophore. As the markers do not contain strong chromophore, it is difficult to identify it UV detection system in High performance liquid chromatography. So an alternative is the Evaporative Light scattering Detector which is an effective tool for the identification of the compounds which do not contain chromophores. Present study concludes that ELS Detection system is more efficient than the UV/Vis detection system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000854
Title: Antioxidant potential of a polyherbal formulation (Diabet) on alloxan induced oxidative stress in rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Diabet, a polyherbal formulation intended to use for diabetic patients has been screened for antioxidant activity. For antioxidant studies, Diabet was administered orally for 30 days at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight to alloxan induced diabetic male Wistar rats. All the animals were sacrificed on the 31st day and the levels of LPO, SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in kidney and liver of control and experimental rats were studied. The formulation exhibited significant antioxidant activity showing increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and decreased level of lipid peroxidation. These results showed that treatment with Diabet lowers Alloxan induced LPO and alters SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH enzymes to reduce oxidative stress.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000855
Title: Evaluation of Nephroprotective and antioxidant potential of Tragia involucrata
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Tragia involucrata (TI) Linn is a shrub belongs to family Ephorbiaceae widely distributed in the Indian subcontinent. TI is used for treatment of various diseases including eczema, inflammation, superficial skin infections. Juice from its leaves is commonly used for illnesses including liver and renal conditions in the Asian subcontinent. The aim of this study was to investigate the nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of TI at two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg B/W on acetaminophen (APAP) induced toxicity in male albino rats. APAP significantly increased levels of serum urea, hemoglobin (Hb), total leukocyte count, packed cell volume,creatinine, , DLC, and mean corpuscular volume, raised body weight, and reduced levels of neutrophils, mean corpuscular Hb content, mean corpuscular hematocrit, granulocytes, uric acid, and platelet Concentration. TI inhibited the hematological effects of APAP. TI significantly increased activities of renal superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase and decreased malondialdehyde content of APAP-treated rats. Apart from these, histopathological changes also showed the protective nature of the TI extract against APAP induced necrotic damage of renal tissues. In conclusion it was observed that the ethanol extract of AC conferred nephroprotective and antioxidant activities by histopathological and biochemical observations against APAP induced renal damage in rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000858
Title: Antifungal activity of stem bark of Kigelia pinnata Linn.
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The effect of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extract of stem bark of Kigelia pinnata was investigated in different fungus i.e. Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida tropicalis, Trychophyton rubrum, Microsporum furfure, Epidermophyton floccosum to evaluate the antifungal activity. For this evaluation Sabouraud’s glucose broth media was used. All the three extracts exhibited antifungal activity. The chloroform extract showed significant antifungal activity; where as the petroleum ether and methanolic extract showed weak antifungal activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000859
Title: Free radical scavenging and insecticidal activity of Elaeagnus kologa Schldl.
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Free radicals contribute to more than one hundred disorders in humans. Mosquitoes are the most important single group of insects acting as vector for many tropical and subtropical diseases. The present study was conducted to screen various solvent extracts of Elaeagnus kologa Schldl. for Antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay and insecticidal activity against second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The extracts have exhibited concentration dependent radical scavenging activity. Among the extracts, methanol extract exhibited high free radical scavenging activity. A concentration dependent larval mortality was observed in all the extracts. The larval mortality was recorded as 100% in the case of 15 and 20mg/ml of methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts. The radical scavenging and insecticidal activity could be attributed to the presence of phytochemicals in the solvent extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000860
Title: Studies on diuretic and laxative activity of bark extracts of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The diuretic and laxative activity of various extracts of the barks of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser (Family: Rubiaceae) were studied in Wistar albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and agar-agar (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as reference standards respectively for activity comparison. The methanol extract significantly increased the urinary out put as well as urinary electrolyte concentration at the tested dosage regimen that is comparable with the reference standard except in increasing the urinary out put. The chloroform extract produced significant laxative activity. Presence of different phytoconstituents in various extracts of N. cadamba may be responsible for the specific activities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-0000861
Title: Impurity profile- A review
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Impurity profiling is the common name of a group of analytical activities, the aim of which is the detection, identification/structure elucidation and quantitative determination of organic and inorganic impurities, as well as residual solvents in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. Since this is the best way to characterize the quality and stability of bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations, this is the core activity in modern drug analysis. Due to the very rapid development of the analytical methodologies available for this purpose and the similarly rapid increase of the demands as regards the purity of drugs it is an important task to review a summary of the problems and the various possibilities offered by modern analytical chemistry for their solution. Various regulatory authorities like ICH, USFDA, Canadian Drug and Health Agency are emphasizing on the purity requirements and the identification of impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient’s (API’s). Qualification of the impurities is the process of acquiring and evaluating data that establishes biological safety of an individual impurity; thus, revealing the need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research. Identification of impurities is done by variety of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic techniques, either alone or in combination with other techniques. There are different methods for detecting and characterizing impurities with TLC, HPLC, HPTLC, AAS etc. Conventional Liquid Chromatography, particularly, HPLC has been exploited widely in field of impurity profiling; the wide range of detectors, and stationary phases along with its sensitivity and cost effective separation have attributed to its varied applications. Among the various Planar Chromatographic Methods; TLC is the most commonly used separation technique, for isolation of impurities; due to its ease of operation and low cost compared to HPLC. An advancement of thin layer chromatography HPTLC is a well-known technique for the impurity isolation.Headspace GC is one of the most preferred techniques for identification of residual solvents. The advent of hyphenated techniques has revolutionized impurity profiling, by not only separation but structural identification of impurities as well. Among all hyphenated techniques, the most exploited techniques, for impurity profiling of drugs are LC-MS-MS, LC-NMR, LCNMR- MS, GC-MS, and LC-MS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000862
Title: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract of Momordica charantia fruits
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The fruits of Momordica charantia have been traditionally used in India and other Asian countries. The methanol extract of Momordica charantia fruits (MCM) was evaluated for immunomodulatory activity using in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Effect of extract was evaluated at various concentrations (832 – 6.5 μg/ml) for secretion of mediators like nitric oxide, superoxide, lysosomal enzyme and myeloperoxidase activity of isolated murine peritoneal macrophages. The extract showed stimulation of nitric oxide, lysosomal enzyme and myeloperoxidase activity. The extract was also evaluated for in vivo phagocytic activity by carbon clearance assay in mice and it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg dose. The effect of the extract on delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody titre assay were evaluated in ovalbumin immunized mice. MCM showed no significant effect on DTH response but significant stimulation of antibody titer at 200 and 400mg/kg dose. The effect of the extract in cyclophosphamide induced myelosuppressed mice was not significant. The results suggest that the extract stimulated non-specific murine immune system, both in vitro and in vivo.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000863
Title: Anti-hyperglycemic activity of methanolic extract of Salacia fruticosa leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti hyperglycemic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Salacia fruticosa (Family:Hippocrataceae) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The hyperglycemic rats were divided into different groups and were treated with methanolic extract of S. fruticosa at a dose of 125 & 250mg/kg. Treatment with extract produced a significant dose dependent reduction in blood glucose levels and this anti hyperglycemic activity was comparable with the reference standard, metformin. The results of the present study revealed the anti-diabetic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Salacia fruticosa in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DRP-0000864
Title: Effect of manufacturing conditions on physico-chemical characteristics and drug release profiles of aceclofenac sodium microbeads
Category: Drug Release Profiles
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study reports the optimization of sustained release microbeads of aceclofenac sodium were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique, using different variables such as drug-polymer ratios, concentration of cross-linking agent, cross-linking time. The effects of these processing variables were evaluated on physicochemical properties and drug release potential of microbeads. .The shape and surface characteristics were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). While increasing in the concentration of sodium alginate dispersion increased sphericity, size distribution, flow properties, mean particle size, swelling ratio and drug entrapment efficiency. While increasing cross-linking time was significantly decreases the mean particle size. The mean particle sizes of microbeads were found to be in the range 596.45±1.04 to 880.10±0.13μm. The drug entrapment efficiency was obtained in the range of 63.24-98.90%w/v. No significant drug-polymer interactions were observed in FT-IR studies. In-vitro drug release profile of aceclofenac sodium from microbeads was examined in simulated gastric fluid pH1.2 for initial 2h, mixed phosphate buffer pH 6.8 up to 6h and simulated intestinal pH 7.2 at end of 24h. The release of drug from the microbeads was pH dependent, showed negligible drug release in pH1.2. Under neutral conditions the beads will swell and the drug release depend on swelling and erosion process resulting optimum level of drug released in a sustained manner and exhibited zero-order kinetics. Aceclofenac sodium microbeads prepared by ionotropic gelation method using natural polysaccharide like sodium alginate showed a satisfactory sustained release profile and minimizing dose related side effects. The entire process is feasible in an industrial scale and
demands pilot study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000865
Title: Antidepressant activity of the ethanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck (Linn) bark in animal models of depression
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant effects of Albizzia lebbeck bark in various animal depression models.Materials and Methods: The alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) of Albizzia lebbeck bark (200 & 400 mg/kg. p.o) was administered once daily for seven successive days to separate groups of young male swiss albino mice. The immobility periods of control and treated mice were recorded in two behavioral despair models forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and the effect of extract on locomotor function of mice was studied using actophotometer. The antidepressant-like effect of tested drug was compared to that of imipramine (15 mg/ kg. p.o) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg.p.o). Results: The bark extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in a dose dependent manner in both FST and TST. The extract did not show significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. The efficacy of tested extract was found to be comparable to that of imipramine and fluoxetine. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the ethanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck bark exerts antidepressant-like effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-0000872
Title: The oil Palm tree: A renewable energy in poverty eradication in developing countries
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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This paper highlights the role of the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) as a renewable energy in poverty eradication in developing countries. Many uses of the oil palm are known. This paper describes the processing of palm oil fruits for the extraction of both palm oil and palm kernel oil at the small-scale level. Palm oil and palm kernel oil are the primary major products of the oil palm tree. These oils also are raw materials for the production of a variety of products such as cooking oils, biodiesel, edible fats in the confectionery and bakery trades, ice-cream, mayonnaise, toilet soap, powder detergents, pomades, candles, etc. The palm kernel cake is a major ingredient in the livestock feed manufacture. Palm wine, an alcoholic beverage produced from the sap obtained by the tapping of the male inflorescence is sweet when fresh and sugar can be produced from it. Gin is distilled from the fermented wine. The trunk and the leaflet of the tree are also used for the production of various materials. The sale of all these products of the palm tree will yield cash (money) and social recognition for the oil palm tree farmer. It is also argued that adequate support from the government in terms of research in oil palm, training of farmers, provision of processing facilities, and social amenities will help to promote the quality of products and increase the earnings of the oil palm farmers and processors. In order to attract the land-less farmers, incentives are should be offered to them in the shape of land and seeds at an affordable price. They should also be provided road approach, drinking water facility, low cost sanitation, primary education, basic health facilities, oil extraction mill and market to the nearest township to enable them to sell the fruit, seed, oil and inter-cropped vegetables. These facilities if provided would be result oriented, functional and economically viable thereby eradicating poverty in the society.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000873
Title: Ocular Inserts : A Review
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist. The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye render this organ exquisitely impervious to foreign substances. The challenge to the formulator is to circumvent the protective barriers of the eye without causing permanent tissue damage. Newer delivery system is being explored to develop extended duration and controlled release strategy. Some of the newer, sensitive and successful ocular delivery system like inserts, biodegradable polymeric system, and collagen shields are being developed in order to attain better ocular bioavailability and sustained action of ocular drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000874
Title: Niosomes: The ultimate drug carrier
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Niosomes or non-ionic surfactant vesicles are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl or dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. The method of preparation of niosome is based on liposome technology. The basic process of preparation is the same i.e. hydration by aqueous phase of the lipid phase which may be either a pure surfactant or a mixture of surfactant with cholesterol. After preparing niosomal dispersion, unentrapped drug is separated by dialysis centrifugation or gel filtration. A method of in-vitro release rate study includes the use of dialysis tubing. Niosomes are unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles formed from synthetic non-ionic surfactants. Niosomal drug delivery is potentially applicable to many pharmacological agents for their action against various diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000876
Title: Bactericidal activities of different Medicinal plants extracts against Ocular pathogen viz Corynebacterium macginleyi
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In this contemporary investigation bio-control of ocular pathogen i.e. Corynebacterium macginleyi was achieved by methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts of forty different medicinal plants using agar well diffusion method. Among the forty selected plants, methanolic extracts of thirty six plants given remarkable bioactivity than chloroform and hexane extracts against C. macginleyi. The methanolic extracts from Terminalia catappa, Terminalia chebula, Rosa indica, Albizia lebbeck, Butea monosperma showed maximum activity. Hibiscus rosasinensis, Justicia adhatoda, Physalis minima and Pongamia pinnata did not exhibit antibacterial activity at the condition studied. Among the forty plants studied 90 % of the plants had antibacterial activity while the remaining 10% had no antibacterial activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-0000877
Title: Conservation of an endangered medicinal plant Centella asiatica through Plant Tissue culture
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Centella asiatica is an endemic herbaceous plant with great medicinal value. Medicinal properties of the plant has led to it’s over exploitation coupled with inadequate cultivation and unsatisfactory attempts for its replacement, the wild stock of this species has been markedly exhausted and now it is listed as threatened species. Hence, there is an urgent necessitate to safeguard this precious germplasm. Plant tissue culture has proved to be helpful in conserving threatened plant species. In this direction, in the present study, an efficient protocol was developed for callus induction and plantlet regeneration from nodal explants of Centella asiatica. Well-organized plant regeneration was achieved on MS medium containing different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators. MS medium supplemented with 4 mg/l and NAA in combination with 2 mg/l 2, 4-D proved effective for callus induction, with this combination we achieved a frequency of 92% and BAP 1.5 mg/l and KN 1.5 mg/l was effective for regeneration response.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000878
Title: A comparative study of Aloe, Kundru and Neem as an antidiabetic agent
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Natural products compounds discovered from medicinal plants (and their analogues there of) have provided numerous clinically useful drugs and still remain as an essential component in the search for new medicines. So, these traditionally used plants can be exploited effectively in order to find New Chemical Entity for treatment of diabetes. Present studies besides confirming hypoglycemic activities of the experimental herbal samples; help identify more potent indigenous hypoglycemic herbs (in crude extract) from the comparative study of the reported experimental results. Particularly in preparation of polyherbal antidiabetic formulation. Chronic administration of different plant extracts (200mg/kg)for 14 days reduces the blood glucose level of the diabetes induced animals as compared to diabetic control group. There was significant decrease in the blood glucose level in the 7th[p<0.01] and 14th [p<0.001] days of the diabetes induction, showing antidiabetic effect individually. The peak reduction in the blood glucose level was found by the MG-02 extract treated animal. Plant extracts were Chronically administered (200mg/kg ) to the diabetic induced animals shows significant decrease in the blood glucose level [p<0.001] and the effect was comparable to that of standard antidiabetic drug Glibenclamide. This shows the antidiabetic effect of the different plant extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000879
Title: Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of the aqueous extract of the Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats.
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Experimental evidences are suggesting that the plasma hypercholestrelomic state is a main contributor of the development of cardiovascular diseases like atherosclerosis.The present study an aqueous extract from Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves was designed to evaluated for its hypocholesterolaemic and hypotriglyceridemic activities. Artocarpus heterophyllus leaf extract has not shown any side effects during acute toxicity studies Hyperlipidaemia was developed by intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR – 1339 400mg/kg.The animals were divided into Normal (CG), Triton treated group (T), Triton plus Atorvastatin, Triton plus herb extract 200 mg/kg, Triton plus herb extract 400 mg/kg, treated groups. Oral administration of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaf extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) in both groups At 24 hrs after treatment with TRITON WR 1339 caused a significant decrease in serum lipid parameters like Triglycerides (TG), Cholesterol (CH), LDL- cholesterol, Atherogenic index (AI), LDL/HDL Ratio and Total proteins as like in atorvastatin treated groups. The both extract treated groups and atorvastatin treated group bought about a significant increase in HDL-Cholesterol levels levels. Significant reduction in lipid parameters indicates that this herb may contain products that lowers the Serum lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-0000880
Title: Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. root tubers
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (Amaryllidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant. The root tubers of the plant have been used extensively in India in indigenous medicine. Its root tubers were investigated for its metal mineral content by using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The elemental analysis was performed to estimate eleven numbers of elements (C, O, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu & Zn). The analysis of EDX showed that root tubers possesses only seven type of essential elements. The root tubers was found deficient in Mg, Al, Si and Fe.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000881
Title: Formulation and evaluation of Orodispersible tablets of terbutaline sulphate
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Terbutaline sulphate is widely used medicine of bronchial asthma. It is a beta 2 receptor agonist. Orodispersible tablets of Terbutaline sulphate were prepared using superdisintegrants, ac di sol, sod.cmc, alginic acid, chitosan, mcc, as diluents by direct compression method. Twelve formulations were prepared using the superdisintegrants at lower, intermediate, higher concentration. Mannitol is used to enhance the organoleptic properties of tablets. Tablets were evaluated for uniformity of wt, hardness, friability, content uniformity, wetting time, dispersion time, disintegration time and in vitro drug release. All the formulation s showed disintegration time less than less than 35 and drug release by dissolution (100% at the end of 10 mins).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000882
Title: Anti-oxidant activity of the aqueous extract of the Morinda citrifolia leaves in triton WR- 1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats.
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Different epidemiological studies have shown that the oxidative stress is one of the major contributor of the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. This study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Morinda citrifolia leaves against hyperlipidemic rats. Morinda citrifolia leaf extract has not shown any side effects during acute toxicity studies Hyperlipidemia was developed by intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR – 1339 400mg/kg.The animals were divided into Normal group, Triton treated group (T), Triton plus Atorvastatin, Triton plus herb extract 150 mg/kg, Triton plus herb extract 300 mg/kg, treated groups. Oral administration of Morinda citrifolia leaf extract (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) in both groups At 24 hrs after treatment with TRITON WR 1339 caused a significant decrease in Malondialdehyde levels and significant increase in Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Reduced glutathione, Catalase levels as like in atorvastatin treated groups. Significant reduction in above stated anti-oxidant parameters indicating that this herb may contain products that lowers the oxidative stress and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-0000883
Title: Carboplatin-mediated changes in the activity levels of steroidogenic marker enzymes, serum hormones and testicular architecture in male rats.
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Carboplatin (10 mg/ kg body weight) caused significant decrease in the activity levels of steroidogenic marker enzymes such as 3ß-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and 17ß-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase in experimental rats when compared to that of the control rats. In addition, activity levels of serum hormones including LH, FSH and Testosterone were also altered significantly in experimental animals. Besides, causing significant alterations in the activity levels of steroidogenic marker enzymes, and serum hormones, carboplatin treatment also caused changes in testicular architecture in rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-0000884
Title: In vitro Bioautography of different Indian Medicinal plants
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In vitro screening of ethanolic crude extracts of Indian medicinal plants Terminalia chebula, Centella asatica, Solanum xanthocarpum were studied that have been popularly used as folk medicines. The main characteristic of an antioxidant is its ability to trap free radicals and also reduce the risk of chronic diseases including cancer, central nervous system injury, arthritis and heart diseases. Scientific information on antioxidant properties of various natural sources is still rather scarce. A variety of free radical scavenging antioxidants are found in plants. The results provided evidence that the studied plants might indeed be potential sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000885
Title: Evaluation of binding properties of Moringa oleifera gum in the formulation of paracetamol tablets
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Plant gums and mucilage are being used in Pharmaceuticals and in other various industries due to their abundance in nature, safety and low cost. Binding agents are used to impart the structural strength required during the processing, handling and packaging of tablets. In view of the importance of binders in pharmaceuticals for the manufacture of tablets and capsules, gum isolated from the stem of Moringa oleifera have been evaluated for its binding properties in the formulation of conventional Paracetamol tablet (500mg) containing 8%, 10% and 12% binding concentration. The binding property of gum was evaluated in relation to conventional binder like gelatin at different parameter like percentage of fines, tablet hardness, disintegration time, dissolution and friability. Studies showed that increase in binding concentration of M.oleifera gum from 8% to 12% decreases the percentage of fine, increases the hardness, increases the disintegration time, decreases the percentage of friability and decreases % cumulative release. The binder-excipients interaction study was also carried out by using FTIR i.e. by KBr pellet method which showed that M.oleifera gum is compatible with drug and all excipients in the formulation. It may be concluded from the studies that increase in binding concentration decreases drug release hence this gum can be used to formulate sustained/controlled release tablet formulation, since it shows better tabletting characteristics have high potential for the substitution of expensive binder.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-0000886
Title: Characterization of marine Streptomyces from Visakhapatnam coast
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Six unidentified gram-positive, filamentous organisms recovered from the marine sediments of visakhapatnam coast were characterized by morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical studies and assessed for their antimicrobial activity. Chemotaxonomic investigations revealed the presence of L, L- diaminopimelic acid, glycine and xylose in whole-cell hydrolysates of isolates, which indicated cell wall type 1, consistent with the genus Streptomyces. Out of 6 isolates, 4 isolates exhibited broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and two isolates showed strong antifungal activity. As the isolates differed from the standard cultures in characteristics of the spore bearing apparatus and other taxonomic cultures in characteristics, they are classified as novel strains of the genus Streptomyces.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000887
Title: Nasal Drug Delivery Systems: Scope And Potential
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The administration of drugs through the nasal cavity is not a new method of delivering drugs. It has been used of the delivery of psychotherapeutic compounds in the ancient era, particularly for the systemic effects. The increasing research in the field of pharmaceutics has led to the development of a number of formulations for the systemic drug delivery. The drug delivery through the nasal mucosa provides a number of advantages like an large surface area for absorption, overcomes the first pass effect. The increasing research in the field of novel drug delivery system has led to the development of novel forms like the intranasal route which has been shown to have an equivalent efficacy to the intravenous route. The nasal drug delivery system is very advantageous in the delivery proteins, peptides and the novel research in the field has led to the development of nose to brain drug delivery systems. The use of the strategies which enhance the nasal bioavailability are being used to formulate a number of drugs for delivery via the nasal route. The present article focuses on the recent trends in the intranasal drug delivery, formulation approaces, bioavailability considerations and the evaluation parameters.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000888
Title: Hypoglycaemic activity of a polyherbal product in alloxan induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of medicine, mentions several plants that are useful in the correction of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Plants have been exemplary source of drugs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus [DM]. Many of the currently available drugs have been directly or indirectly derived from them. In spite of being hundreds of claimants none have gained enough momentum in clinical practice as most of them lack scientific validation. YXK12 is a commercially available polyherbal product recently introduced in the market and manufacturers claim the product to have anti diabetic properties. This study was undertaken to evaluate the hypoglycaemic effect of this drug in Alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and methods: Alloxan monohydrate is used to induce diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Hypoglycemic effect of two doses of the drug YXK12 is evaluated in these rats and the results are compared to the effects of a placebo and the standard hypoglycaemic drug Glibenclamide. Results: Blood glucose lowering effect of YXK12 in the higher dose of 2000mg/kg was found statistically significant [p=0.001]. Lower dose of 1000mg.kg did not show statistically significant hypoglycaemic effect when compared to placebo control. Conclusion: The dose which has produced hypoglycaemic effect in rats is equivalent to the highest doses of the product recommended for patients of diabetes mellitus. This dose [2000mg/kg in rats] if converted to human dose is equivalent to highest human dose recommended. As lower doses have not demonstrated any hypoglycemic activity, lower doses in humans needs to be evaluated.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000889
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Gastro retentive Floating Drug Delivery System of Ofloxacin
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objective of this present study is to formulate and evaluate the gastroretentive floating drug delivery system (GRFDDS) of ofloxacin prepared by using synthetic and natural polymers (polyethylene oxide and gum karaya). Formulations were prepared by wet granulation technique and sodium bicarbonate (10% w/w) was incorporated as gas generating agent. Tablets were evaluated for hardness, in vitro buoyancy, drug content and in vitro drug release studies. Release data obtained was subjected to analysis using different mathematical models namely – zero order flux, first order, erosion plot, Higuchi and Korsmeyer peppas equations. All formulated tablets irrespective of polymer used had hardness and friability values >5.0kg/cm2 and <0.68%. The in vitro lag time and total buoyancy time for all the formulations
were between 45 to 183secs and 5 to 16 hrs respectively. As the concentration of the polymers in the formulations increased the drug release decreased. Formulations made with gum karaya exhibited first order kinetics, non- fickian diffusion and the formulations like OGK3 and OGK4 followed first order and erosion mechanism. Whereas polyethylene oxide based formulations OP2,OP4 and OP5 exhibited zero order, non fickian diffusion and remaining formulations followed first order, erosion mechanism. GRFDDs of ofloxacin using synthetic (polyethylene oxide) and natural polymer (gum karaya) with drug to polymer ratio 1:0.5 and 1: 0.625 respectively are final optimized formulations. These were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which indicated that there was no interaction
between drug and polymers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000890
Title: Antioxidant activity of melanin pigment from Streptomyces species D5 isolated from Desert soil, Rajasthan, India
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study reports antioxidant activity of melanin pigment from actinomycete strain D5 isolated from Thar Desert soil, Rajasthan, India. Melanin production by the strain D5 was confirmed using tyrosine agar. Melanin production was carriedout by adopting solid state fermentation using wheat bran and rice bran medium and extracted using ethyl acetate. About 280 mg/10 gram and 192 mg of crude pigment were extracted from 10 gram of wheat bran and rice bran medium, respectively. The melanin pigment from crude extract was partially purified by preparative TLC and the purified melanin fraction showed good free radical scavenging activity in DPPH method. The actinomycete strain D5 was characterized and identified as Streptomyces girseorubiginosus (D5) based on their phenotypic characteristics. Further fermentation and purification of melanin pigment from strain D5 will leads to a development of pharmaceutically valuable antioxidant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000891
Title: Antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia tetraphylla (Apocyanaceae) and its bioactive compound reserpine
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In vitro antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia tetraphylla was studied against selected pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica by disc diffusion assay. Bioactive compound reserpine was isolated from the leaf. The results revealed that the ethanolic leaf extract and reserpine compound are potent in inhibiting these bacteria which cause gastroenteritis in human population. This work highlights that the inhibitory effect is on par with standard antibiotics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-0000892
Title: In Silico Screening of Drugs against Trypanosomes Using Blast
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Human African Trypanosomiasis and Chagas Disease are diseases of poor people in Africa and Latin America respectively. The traditional market-driven pathways to drug development are not available. One potentially rapid and cost-effective approach to identifying and developing new trypanocidal drugs would be in silico screening of existing drugs already approved for other uses. Here BLAST is used for screening drugs against Trypanosomes. From the 1470 drugs analyzed, 121 passed the in silico test performed with the help of BLAST. Out of the 121 drugs, 61 drugs proved to be effective against Trypanosomes, 15 were confirmed to have no effect on Trypanosomes and the effectiveness of 45 drugs remained unknown. One result indicated that the enzyme phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase, which was previously unknown in Trypanosoma brucei, might be present in it. Hence BLAST is a tool which can be used for in silico screening of existing drugs is a rapid, cheap and effective way.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CA-0000893
Title: Phytochemical and Pharmacognostical Studies on Murraya koenigii (L)spreng. Roots
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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The Murraya koenigii plant is widely used as herb, spice, condiments and also used to treat various types of ailments in Indian traditional system. Worlds about 80% population relies upon herbal products, because they have been considered as safe, effective and economical. The present study was aimed to set standard parameters for standardization of Murraya koenigii roots. In the present study microscopy of root and roots powder carried out, ash values, extractive values, fiber content, bitterness value, haemolytic activity, tannin content and roots powder fluorescence nature also observed using different chemical reagents. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts were screened for presence of amino acid and carbohydrates. The preliminary phytochemical screening of petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract, chloroform extract, ethanol extract and aqueous extract was performed. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sterol in various extracts were observed. This is first ever pharmacognostical study carried out on Murraya koenigii roots.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-0000894
Title: Spectrophotometric determination and thermodynamic studies of the charge transfer complexes of bambuteroleHCl
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective

The aim of the present work was to develop simple spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of bambuterol hydrochloride.

Method

Spectrophotometric method for determination of bambuterol hydrochloride after its conversion to bambuterol base by formation of charge transfer complexes as n-donor with π-acceptors, dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) and tetracyanobenzoquinodimethane (TCNQ) which were prepared in acetonitrile. They yield radical anions measured at 461 and 842 nm within concentration ranges of 36.7–183.7, 4.59–36.7 μg ml−1 with a good correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.9999–0.9998) respectively. The nature of the formed complexes was studied via determination of the association constant and the molar absorptivity using Bensi–Hildebrand equation. The free energy change (ΔG) and the enthalpy of formation (ΔH) as well as the entropy (ΔS) were determined for the reaction product with TCNQ. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of bambuterol hydrochloride in its pharmaceutical preparation where no interference could be observed from the additives commonly present as proven by good mean recoveries of 99.74% and 100.014%. There was no significant difference observed when the method was statistically compared with the pharmacopeial official method used for determination.

Conclusion

The proposed charge transfer complexation methods are rapid and simple and from the economical point of view, the analytical reagents used are inexpensive, have excellent shelf life and are available in any analytical laboratory. The suggested methods could be successfully applied for quality control and routine analysis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000895
Title: In vivo study of clobetasol propionate loaded nanoemulsion for topical application in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Objectives

Optimized formulations were subjected to various In vivo studies like anti-inflammatory activity, Nickel induced dermatitis and irritation study. Clobetasol propionate (CP) has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activity. The aim of the present work was to test the hypothesis that the addition CP in nanoemulsions would result in enhancement CP delivery and leading to better antipsoriatic activity.

Materials and methods

Nanoemulsions were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using eucalyptus oil, Tween 20, ethanol, and distilled water as the oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase, respectively.

Results and discussion

We developed a topical O/W nanoemulsion in which drug is incorporated in disperse phase of oil and evaluated its efficacy against different types ofin vivo studies. It was also found that the significantly increased their anti-inflammatory activity. It was reported that CP-loaded nanoemulsion significantly increased NTPDase (Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases) activity in lymphocytes. This membrane protein is responsible for the hydrolysis of extracellular ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) which is responsible for cell proliferation, differentiation and inflammatory processes.In vivo irritation studies did not show any irritation in spite of having high amount of surfactant.

Conclusion

On the basis of above in vivo study we conclude that developed nanoemulsion is safe for human use because it has good anti-inflammatory action and did not show any irritation to the skin. All though nanoemulsion contain high amount of surfactant in comparison to cream.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 6, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-0000897
Title: The Medicinal And Nutritional Role of Underutilized Citrus Fruit- Citrus hystrix (Kaffir Lime): A Review
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Citrus hystrix, commonly known as kaffir lime and medicinal lime as mentioned in ancient literature and belonging to Rutaceae family and it is native to everywhere within India and South East Asia. The fruits are green when raw and greenish yellow when fully ripe. They are used to prepare juice, pickles and as acidulant in curries. In the traditional Indian system of medicine the Ayurveda and various folk systems of medicine, the fruit peel and leaves are used to treat various inflammatory ailments. Chemical studies have shown that fruit contains various phytoconstituents like glycerolglycolipids, tannins, tocopherols, furanocoumarins and flavonoids and alkaloids. Preclinical studies have shown that some of its phytochemicals possess antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, chemopreventive, antioxidant, anticholinesterase, cardio and hepatoprotective effects. The present paper deals with review of phytoconstituents and pharmacological action of underutilized C. hystrix fruit.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000906
Title: Solid Dispersion: Approaches, Technology involved, Unmet need & Challenges
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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More than 60% of potential drug products suffer from poor water solubility. This frequently results in potentially important products not reaching the market or not achieving their full potential. Most of the chemical entities are being are discovered are lipophilic in nature and have poor aqueous solubility, thereby posing problems in their formulation into delivery system. Experience with solid dispersions over the last 20-30 years indicates that this is a very fruitful approach to improving the release rate and oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs and the availability of a wide variety of polymers that are themselves poorly soluble or which swell under aqueous conditions suggests that solid dispersions have tremendous potential in the area of controlled release dosage forms

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000908
Title: Antifungal Activity of Indigofera aspalathoides (Shivanar Vembu) Vahl ex Dc.
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study deals with the antifungal activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the plant Indigofera aspalathoides using agar diffusion method against human pathogens, such as Candida albicans; Candida parapsilosis; Candida tropicallis. In the present investigation, all the extracts were found to be effective against three human fungal species sensitive to all the plant extracts. The study suggests that the extract of the plant parts possesses potential broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of methanol extracts was found to be higher than that of other extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 7, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-0000910
Title: Phytochemical and Pharmacognostical Studies on Murraya koenigii (L)spreng. Roots
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The Murraya koenigii plant is widely used as herb, spice, condiments and also used to treat various types of ailments in Indian traditional system. Worlds about 80% population relies upon herbal products, because they have been considered as safe, effective and economical. The present study was aimed to set standard parameters for standardization of Murraya koenigii roots. In the present study microscopy of root and roots powder carried out, ash values, extractive values, fiber content, bitterness value, haemolytic activity, tannin content and roots powder fluorescence nature also observed using different chemical reagents. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts were screened for presence of amino acid and carbohydrates. The preliminary phytochemical screening of petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract, chloroform extract, ethanol extract and aqueous extract was performed. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sterol in various extracts were observed. This is first ever pharmacognostical study carried out on Murraya koenigii roots.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-CA-0000912
Title: Green-synthesis and characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by aqueous Leaf extracts of Cardiospermum helicacabum L.
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The synthesis of nanoparticles from plant sources has proved to be an effective and alternate method for the novel production of nanoparticles. A number of synthesis techniques have been developed including the chemical reduction of silver ions in aqueous solutions, with or without stabilizing agents, thermal decomposition in inorganic solvent, and chemical and photo reduction. Our study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cardiospermum helicacabum leaf extracts mostly fresh. The samples consisted of the leaf extracts at two different temperatures 65°C (5min,10min,15 min) and 95°C for 5 min. The plant extract at 95°C, however showed better and accurate nanoparticles formation with AgNO3 with time. Thus showing that the extraction temperature plays an important role in formation of nanoparticles. Also U.V Spectrophotometer studies show a graph that shows gradual increase of nanoparticles concentration with time, temperature, and sample characteristics. From these results we can conclude that Cardiospermum helicacabum is a potential source for nanoparticles synthesis and have identified an optimum temperature for its efficient synthesis. Depending Upon the particle size application of the nanoparticles varies. Particle size, shape can be determined by characterization procedure SEM and XRD .Synthesizing Silver
nanoparticles by medicinal plants is echo friendly and good antimicrobial efficiency against bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms. Now days widely applicable in medicinal fields for Cancer treatments, AIDS, Epilepsy etc.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-0000913
Title: Combinatorial Chemistry: A review
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Combinatorial chemistry is a new technique which have been used for synthesis of defined compounds having screened for pharmacological activity. This technique leads to synthesis of pharmacologically, biologically active compounds and their QSAR studies.This article emphasizes the different methods of combinatorial chemistry concept and their methodology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000914
Title: Recent advances in self emulsifying drug delivery system - A review
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are usually used to improve the bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. Approximately 40% of new chemical entities exhibit poor aqueous solubility and present a major challenge to modern drug delivery system, because of their low bioavailability. From time to time many workers have claimed various rational applications of Self-emulsifying formulation for enhancing bioavailability and site-specific targeting of highly lipophilic drugs. SEDDS is ideally an isotropic mixture of oils and surfactants and sometimes co solvents. The multi-component delivery systems have optimized by evaluating their ability to self-emulsify when introduced to an aqueous medium under gentle agitation, and by determination of particle size of the resulting emulsion. Upon per oral administration, these systems form fine (micro) emulsions in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with mild agitation provided by gastric mobility. These articles
give an overview of the recent advances in the development of SEDDS and the dosage forms along with the associated problems and the possible future research directions in this field.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-0000915
Title: Review on antifungal activities of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Infectious diseases represent a critical problem to health and they are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The resistance to antibiotics and with the toxicity during prolonged treatment with several drugs due to this medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. During the past several years, there has been an increasing incidence of fungal infections due to a growth in immunocompromised population such as organ transplant recipients, cancer and HIV/AIDS patients. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the new profile of antifungal drugs obtaining from medicinal plants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-0000916
Title: A review on cataract and its herbal treatments
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Cataract, called in Sanskrit as linganaasha or timira, is one of the leading causes for blindness today. Cataract is the opacification (light impenetrability) of the lens. In this condition, the lens of the eyes interferes with the eye vision. Since light cannot enter the opaque lens, therefore the eyes fail to give the representation of the objects seen. Plants used in Ayurvedic eye drops formulation are rich source of tannin and tannin like compounds. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of ayurvedic eye drops are attributed to the presence of tannins and tannin like compounds. Now-a-days, people increasingly prefer ayurvedic eye drops because it is safe and relatively free from side effect and adverse reactions. Ayurvedic eye drops are known to show antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity due to their tannin content in aqueous extract. The anticataract efficacy of these preparations was mainly attributed to their antioxidant potential. Various herbal drugs such as Osmium sanctum, Emblica officinalis, Ginkgo biloba etc are used in cataract. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the new profile of anticataract drugs obtained from medicinal plants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000917
Title: Studies on Insecticidal activity and Nutritive composition of a macrolichen Parmotrema pseudotinctorum (des. Abb.) Hale (Parmeliaceae)
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was carried to determine the nutritive composition and insecticidal activity of a macrolichen Parmotrema pseudotinctorum (des. Abb.) Hale (Parmeliaceae) collected from forest area of Bhadra wildlife sanctuary. The nutritive parameters namely moisture, ash, fat, crude fiber, protein, carbohydrate and mineral contents were determined. The insecticidal efficacy of solvent extracts was determined against second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. P. pseudotinctorum was found to possess high crude fiber, carbohydrate and protein content. Nutritive value was found to be 336.1 cal/100g. Phosphorus was found to be in high concentration than potassium. A rich amount of iron was detected followed by manganese, copper and zinc. The insecticidal efficacy of solvent extracts was found to be concentration dependent. Among extracts, marked insecticidal activity was observed in case of methanol extract than other extracts. Phytochemical analysis detected tannins and steroids in the methanol extract. Thin layer chromatography revealed the presence of Atranorin and Lecanoric acid. The insecticidal activity of P. pseudotinctorum could be mainly due to constituents present in extracts. The results of this study highlighted the significance of the macrolichen P. pseudotinctorum studied in terms of its rich nutritive composition and justify the possible use of the lichen in reducing problems associated with malnourishment. The extracts of the lichen selected in this study could be used in the control of mosquitoes. Further studies on isolation of active principles and determination of insecticidal activity of them are to be carried out.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000919
Title: Antimosquito (Insecticidal) activity of extracts of Hemidesmus indicus and Swertia chirata against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae- A Comparative Study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was carried out to investigate antimosquito (insecticidal) activity of methanol, chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of two medicinal plants Hemidesmus indicus and Swertia chirata against second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The insecticidal activity of different concentrations of solvent extracts was found to be dose dependent. Among extracts, H. indicus showed more larvicidal efficacy when compared to S. chirata. Overall, it was found that the chloroform extract was more effective in killing larvae followed by ethanol and petroleum ether extracts. The larvicidal efficacy of solvent extracts may be due to the presence of phytochemicals in the extracts. Further, isolation of active constituents from solvent extracts and determination of insecticidal efficacy of isolated constituents are to be carried.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000920
Title: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) seed extracts by using carrageenan induced rat paw edema
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of Trigonella foenum – graecum (TFG) seed extracts by using carrageenan induced rat paw edema in comparison to established anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac potassium (DIP, 10 mg/kg, p.o.). Successively extracted (aqueous and ethanol) extracts of TFG seeds were administered 1 h prior to inflammation induction in dose range of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg orally. The rat paw edema was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of 1 % w/v carrageenan solution, prepared with normal saline in subplantar region of left hind paw of the rats.Results of these study revealed that the ethanol extract at dose 200 mg/kg shows significant (p<0.01) reduction of inflammation as compared to aqueous extract group animals. Further series of investigations are, however, necessary to explore their mechanism(s) of action involved in this pharmacological activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000921
Title: Efficacy of Cynodon dactylon for immunomodulatory activity
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) commonly known as arugampul, is a perennial grass, forming thick mats by means of stolons and rhizomes. It is bitter, sharp, hot taste, good odour, laxative, brain and heart tonic, emetic, expectorant, carminative and useful against pains, inflammation and tooth ache. In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate Cynodon dactylon protein fraction immunomodulatory activity. Cynodon dactylon protein (Cdpf) was administered intraperitonealy at doses of ED50 to healthy Swiss albino mice. Assessment of immunomodulatory activity was carried out by testing the humoral (antibody titre) and cellular (foot pad swelling) immune responses to the antigenic challenges with sheep RBCs and by neutrophil adhesion test. Intraperitonealy administered Cdpf showed a significant increase of test parameters Viz., neutrophil test, Haemagglutinating Antibody Titre (HAT) and Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response. In mice immunized with sheep RBC, Cdpf enhanced the humoral antibody response to the antigen and significantly potentiated the cellular immunity by facilitating the food pad thickness response to sheep RBC in sensitized mice. There was increase in immunomodulation, there was significant improvement compared to control group and differences were statistically significant in Cdpf, therefore Cynodon dactylon protein fraction promises strong utility in clinical practice as an effective immunostimulant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000922
Title: Anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum in rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Anxiety is a normal emotional behaviour. When it is severe and/or chronic, however, it becomes pathological and can precipitate or aggravate cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders. Although many drugs are available in allopathic medicine to treat anxiety disorders, they produce various systemic side effects or exhibit tolerance upon chronic use. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the major class of compounds used in anxiety and they remain the most commonly prescribed treatment for anxiety. However BZDs have many unwanted side effects that prompted many researchers to evaluate new compounds in the hope of identifying other anxiolytics with fewer side effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the anxiolytic-like activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum(OS) in rats by employing the two pharmacologically validated models, elevated plus maze and bright and dark arena. The rats were divided into five groups, each group containing six animals. The effects of the test drug OS (at 1.75, 4.25 and 8.5 mg/kg doses), the standard anxiolytic, diazepam (1.0 mg/kg) and control group 1%gum acacia(10ml/kg) were assessed after single and repeated dose administration for ten days. The results suggest that, behavioural disinhibitory effects of OS exhibited anxiolytic like activity comparable to diazepam.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-0000923
Title: Method development for spherical crystallization of glibenclamide and evaluation of micromeritic properties
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Glibenclamide is an anti-diabetic drug with water insolubility and compressibility. The pure drug (Glibenclamide) was converted into spherical crystal agglomerates via the spherical crystallization technique using dichloromethane-water-chloroform solvent system. The various parameters optimized were type, amount and mode of addition of bridging liquid, temperature and agitation speed to get maximum amount of spherical crystals. These were characterized for micromeritic properties (particle size and shape, flow ability), pack ability (bulk density), wet ability (contact angle) and compressibility. It was revealed from the study that spherical agglomerates exhibited improved flow ability, wet ability and compaction behavior.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000924
Title: Formulation, Optimization and Evaluation of Matrix type Transdermal system of Lisinopril Dihydrate Using Permeation Enhancers.
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The Lisinopril dihydrate (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) is lysine derivative of enalaprilat and does not require hydrolysis to exert pharmacological activity. It is given orally; suffer severely from hepatic first pass metabolism resulting in bioavailability of 6-60%. To overcome the poor bioavailability of the drug, transdermal patches have been prepared. The present study also aims at optimization of the formulation by incorporating the penetration enhancers in different concentration and ratios. The patches were prepared employing Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) & Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in 1:1 ratio as polymeric matrix using glycerol as plasticizer in 6% concentration. Binary solvent system (Water: Methanol) in the ratio of 70: 30 was taken for the study. The Transdermal devices were fabricated on glass substrate using solvent casting technique. Iso propyl alcohol (IPA) & Oleic acid (OA) were added as the penetration enhancers individually and in blend in different concentrations and ratios. Various physico-chemical evaluatory parameters were carried over prepared patches to ascertain their integrity and physical stability at normal and accelerated temperature conditions.Optimization of the penetration enhancer’s concentration and ratio was done by performing in-vitro diffusion rate studies using Keshary-Chein diffusion cell on Goatskin. The best results in terms of C.P.R. obtained individually through OA & IPA patches were 54% & 70.65% respectively at the highest concentration (15 %) of enhancer employed individually. But when the blend of enhancers is used in lowest concentration of 5 %, they produce the C.P.R. of 84.33 %, which clearly dictates the synergistic effect of the enhancers if used in combination. The rate of drug permeation further increases on increasing the concentration of blend from 5 to 15 %. The drug release from the patches follows Higuchi’s kinetics and gives a linear relation between q (amount released) vs t1/2 (time).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-0000925
Title: Effect of Different Biological Membranes on In Vitro Bioadhesion Property
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The influence of biological membranes on in vitro bioadhesion property of Carbopol 934P (CP), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K90) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Cekol 10,000) was studied using a texture analyzer equipment. Polymer/biological membrane interaction was significantly influenced by the contact time used during the study. An increase in contact time also increased bioadhesion strength. An intermediate contact time of 180s was deemed to be the most suitable contact time. In addition, different polymers produced different values of bioadhesion strength. Moreover, polymer molecular weight is directly correlated with bioadhesion strength. Biological membrane, such as rabbit gastric mucosa, cow intestine, pig intestine or chicken pouch, is a less significant determinant in affecting the bioadhesion strength as compared to the type of polymer used. Chicken pouch, an easily available and uniform tissue, offers an attractive alternative to be employed as a model biological membrane in bioadhesion study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-Qs-0000926
Title: QSAR analysis of structurally similar 1, 3, 4 - oxadiazoles as enzyme tyrosinase inhibitors.
Category: QSAR studies
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of structurally similar 1, 3, 4-oxadiazoles with enzyme tyrosinase inhibitor activity have been subjected for QSAR analysis using V life MDS 3.5 software. The compounds were divided into training and test set. Best QSAR models were selected on the basis of various statistical parameters like square correlation coefficient (r2), cross validated square correlation coefficient (q2), standard error of estimation (SE) and sequential Fischer test (F). 2D QSAR study reveals that tyrosinase inhibitor activity is governed by Alignment Independent (AI) descriptors whereas as per 3D QSAR studies a new compounds, with more electronegative and less bulky substituent, from this series could have better tyrosinase inhibitor activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-0000927
Title: Standardisation of Desmodium gangeticum- A Tradition Ayurvedic Plant
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Desmodium gangeticum is a traditional Ayurvedic plant used for centuries as an anthelminthic, anti-catarrahal, diuretic, expectorant, astringent, febrifuge, nervine tonic, anti diarrheal, bronchiodilator, vasopressor, analgesic, antipyretic, cardio tonic, stimulant, antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent. The whole plant, its extract and isolates have been extensively investigated in several laboratories for their different biological activities. In addition researchers have evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and other pharmacological effects of Desmodium gangeticum preparations/extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-0000928
Title: Antileprotic Potential of Ethnomedicinal Herbs: A Review
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The World Health Organization estimates that about 80% of the population of most developing countries relies on herbal medicines for their primary health care needs. Presently there are many medicinal herbs under investigation for their potential health protection. Among the products under investigation are commonly consumed products like vegetables, fruits and condiments expected to protect health and possess disease inhibiting properties like leprosy which caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This review therefore attempts to bridge the existing literature and modern research and offers immense scope for researchers engaged in validation of the traditional claims and development of safe, effective and globally accepted herbal drugs for treatment of leprosy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000929
Title: Anticonvulsant Activity of whole parts of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Extract in Experimental Mice
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate anticonvulsant effect of the Petroleum ether, Benzene, Chloroform, Ethanol and triple distilled water extract of whole parts of the plant of the Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Compositae) on electrically and chemically induced seizures.Methods: The Petroleum ether, Benzene, Chloroform, Ethanol and water extract of the whole parts of the plant of S.indicus (200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect on maximal electroshock-induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole-, picrotoxin-, bicuculline- and N-methyl-dl-aspartic acid-induced seizures in mice. The latency of tonic convulsions and the number of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results: Ethanol extract (200- 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES). However, only 200 and 400mg/kg of the extract conferred protection (25 and 50%, respectively) on the mice. The same doses also protected animals from pentylenetetrazole-induced tonic seizures and significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures produced by picrotoxin and N-methyl-dl-aspartic acid. The extract had no effect on bicuculline-induced seizures. The aqueous extract (400mg/kg) significantly reduced the latency, but did not alter the incidence of seizures elicited by maximal electroshock to any significant extent. Conclusion: The data suggest that the ethanolic root extract of S.indicus may produce its anticonvulsant effects via non-specific mechanisms since it reduced the duration of seizures produced by maximal electroshock as well as delayed the latency of seizures produced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-0000930
Title: In vivo and in silico studies with the latex of the milk weed- Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The toxic milk weed-Calotropis procera has gained popularity in scientific research with the increased awareness of its uses in different areas of applications. Insufficient knowledge about the molecular mechanism of this plant’s latex in vivo limits the scope of their application and hinders the effort to design new drugs from Calotropis sp. To study first pass metabolic effect in vivo,plasma from Wistar albino rats (after dosing with aqueous extract of dried latex (DL) of C. procera at 300mg/kg bodyweight either alone or in combination with 10% Fructose in drinking water), were analyzed with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC-MS/MS) to obtain metabolite changes by global profiling of low molecular weight metabolites. To provide insight into assessing new initiatives required to manipulate human physiology in cases of accidental exposure to latex, in this study, compounds of Calotropis latex were docked with receptors of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) and the binding residues were identified. This study would facilitate our understanding of the role of these elicited low molecular metabolites in disease and toxicity and the identified binding amino acid residues would assist in drug development from Calotropis compounds.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000933
Title: Antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum ethanolic extract against food associated bacteria and fungi
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Allium sativum (garlic) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative food associated bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium, B. polymyxa, B. sphaericus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and molds (Penicillium oxalicum, Aspergillus flavus, A. luchuensis, Rhizopus stolonifer, Scopulariopsis sp. and Mucor sp.) assayed by agar well diffusion method and poisoned food technique, respectively. The growth inhibition zone in garlic ethanolic extract against bacteria was in the range of 20mm to 31mm and in molds the percent mycelial growth inhibition  ranged between 20% and 50%. The garlic extract was not effective against P. oxalicum. The MIC values of garlic ethanolic extract for different bacterial and fungal isolates ranged from 10 mg/ml to 20mg/ml. The value of MBC and MFC equaled the MIC. Based on this finding, it may be suggested that these extracts may be used as natural antimicrobial additives to reclaim the shelf-life of foods.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000934
Title: Multiparticlate drug delivery systems : Pellet & pelletization technique
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The present study aims at discussing the potential advantages of multiple unit dosage forms (pellets etc.) over the single unit dosage forms (Tablets).Review deals with the pellet and its ideal properties. The theory behind the pellet formation and its growth mechanism. There are various types of pelletization techniques like spheronization and extrusion, pelletization by layering, pelletization by solution layering & direct pelletization. The advantages, disadvantages & various applications of above mentioned techniques. Spheronization and extrusion, pelletization by layering are most widely used techniques. It also deals with novel mini tablet system and its processing for formulation. The different available marketed pellets and different excipients used in the pellet formulation are also discussed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-0000935
Title: Review on Stereospermum suaveolens DC : A Potential Herb
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diseases. Stereospermum suaveolens are known for their antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, and anti-inflammatory, puerperal fevers and affections of the brain. The present paper deals with the Phytochemistry and Pharmacological action of the plant Stereospermum suaveolens.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000936
Title: Impact of Helicobacter pylori on the prevalence of gastroduodenal diseases
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Helicobacter pylori is a virulent bacterium that colonizes in the protective mucous layer of human stomach. It is responsible for majority of gastric diseases such as peptic ulcers, gastro-oesophageal reflux diseases, chronic gastritis etc. Infection caused by this bacterium is one of the most common clinical setback occurring worldwide especially in the developing nations. The current article is focused on various aspects like structural characteristics, epidemiological features, routes of transmission and recent management strategies. Significant research findings of this infectious organism along with several pharmacotherapeutic vistas have also been discussed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-0000937
Title: A review on Rubia cordifolia: Its phyto constituents and therapeutic uses
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae) is also known as, Manjishtha, Indian madder known to contain substantial amounts of anthraquinones, especially in the roots which is responsible for anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, urinary disorders, antistress antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, radio protective, and anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, hypotensive, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antileukemic and mutagenic functions, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. The plant contains substantial amounts of anthraquinones, especially in the roots, which is responsible for its pharmacological activity. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the pharmacological, phytochemistry, biological activity of the Rubia cordifolia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000938
Title: Formulation and evaluation of matrix tablets of acarbose
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Monolithic matrix tablet of Acarbose were formulated as controlled release tablets employing Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and Eudragit in different concentration and combination, and sustained release behavior of the fabricated tablets were investigated. controlled released matrix tablets containing 350 mg Acarbose were developed using different drug : polymers combination. Tablet prepared by direct compression method were subjected to physical characterization. Formulation was optimized on the basis of acceptable properties and in-vitro drug release.In-vitro drug release was carried out using USP Type II at 50 rpm in 900 ml of acidic dissolution medium (pH 1.2) for 1hr, followed by 900 ml alkaline dissolution medium (pH 7.4) upto 12 hr. Standard curve and withdrawal samples were analyzed in UV-Vis spectrophotometery 625nm with alkaline potassium permagnate as coloring agent. formulations F1, F2, F3 wherein hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K 100 M was employed, it was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer resulted in linearization of drug release curve and formulation F3 gave satisfactory drug release pattern. Formulations F4, F5, F6 containing Eudragit S-100 showed quite non-linearity in drug release. The drug release rate was strongly influenced by the type of polymer and concentration of polymer. To analyze the release mechanism zero order, Higuchi model and Kosmeyer -Peppa’s model were used. The use of simplified methodology is demonstrated to evolve unified mathematical model.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000939
Title: In Vitro - In Vivo Correlation: A Review
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Correlation between in vitro and in vivo data have long been sought in biopharmaceutical as a mean of modeling the human organism and thereby monitor and optimize the dosage form with the fewest possible trial in man. One of the challenge of biopharmaceutics research is correlating in vitro drug release (dissolution) information of various types of drug formulations to the in vivo drug profile and to provide a regulatory perspective on its utility in product development and optimization. A successful correlation can assist in selection of appropriate dissolution acceptance and can be used as a surrogate for in vivo bioavailability and to support biowaivers. It can also assist in quality control for certain scale-up and post approval changes (SUPAC). With the proliferation of modified-release products, it becomes necessary to examine the concept of In vitro-In vivo Correlation (IVIVC) in greater depth. Investigations of IVIVC are increasingly becoming an integral part of extended release drug development. In addition, the Biopharmaceutical Classification System provides a science-based guidance on solubility and permeability drug issues, which are indicators of predictive IVIVC. The aim of this review article is to represents the various notions of IVIVC and its applications, Biopharmaceutical classification systems (BCS) & application of BCS in IVIVC development, Various type of dissolution media and their importance and methodology of dissolution have been highlighted.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000940
Title: In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of Phyllanthus reticulatus
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Many plants possess antioxidant ingredients that provided efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Phyllanthus reticulatus plant was a strong astringent, used for the treatment of liver, spleen diseases and rheumatism. Antioxidant activity of the methanol crude extract of entire plant of P. reticulatus was assessed using DPPH, superoxide anion and metal chelating assays at different concentrations. The potent extract of P. reticulatus was tested for in vivo efficacy. The methanol extract exhibited potent antioxidant activity compared to known antioxidant. In vivo studies on potent extract of P. reticulatus demonstrated dose dependent reduction in hepatic malondialdehyde (330.70, 279.40 and 383.79μMmg-1 protein) with simultaneous improvement in hepatic glutathione (7.03, 18.16
and 6.88μgmg-1 protein) and catalase levels (678.10, 787.00 and 522.00μgmg-1 protein) respectively for 50, 100mgkg-1 doses and control) compared to control group. Duet to its natural origin and potent free radical scavenging ability P. reticulatus could be used as a potential preventive intervention for free radical mediated diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000941
Title: Antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts of Chlorophycean seaweeds Ulva, Caulerpa and Spongomorpha sps. against clinical and phytopathogens
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Marine organisms are a rich source of structurally novel and biologically active metabolites. As a result of evolving resistance of microorganisms to existing antibiotics, there is an increasing need for newer antibiotics, the present study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial potentiality of the marine Chlorophycean algae Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa taxifolia and Spongomorpha indica against six strains of Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and Fungal organisms that cause diseases and disorders in man, animals and plants. Crude extracts revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens and further bacterial strains were more sensitive to the seaweed extracts when compared to the fungal organisms. The overall antimicrobial activity assessed from the above results indicates the presence of active constituents in the extractions of seaweeds which can be exploited for the production of lead molecules which are of use in pharmaceutical industry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000943
Title: Herbal help in Alzheimer’s type of cognitive disorders: A Comprehensive Review
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Alzheimer’s disease is the most frequent type of life threatening dementia which is characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation induced neuronal loss, impaired energy metabolism, and cholinergic deficits leading to severe cognitive impairments and other abnormal neuropsychiatric changes. Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer’s disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine and several nootropic agents are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. Indian system of medicine emphasizes use of herbs, nutraceuticals and life style changes for age related neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease. Current review sums up the plants that have shown the beneficial and encouraging results in treating ailments like Alzheimer’s disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000944
Title: A comprehensive review on floating oral drug delivery system
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Floating Oral Drug Delivery System (FODDS) is an extension of Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System. FODDS enable prolonged and continuous input of the drug to the upper part of the gastroretentinal tract and improve the bioavailability of medication that is characterized by a narrow absorption window. In recent years scientific and technological advancements have been made in the research and development of controlled release oral drug delivery systems by overcoming physiological adversities like short gastric residence times and unpredictable gastric emptying times.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-0000945
Title: Moringa Oleifera: A Review of There Medicinal and Economical Importance to the Health and Nation
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in the tropics and subtropics regions. It is known by such regional names as drumstick tree, Sajiwan, kelor, Murungai kaai, marango, mlonge, mulangay, saijhan, and sajna. It has a wide range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Various parts of this plant contain protein, vitamins, ß-carotene, amino acids, important minerals and various phenolic compounds. It has high nutritional value and very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods has a different types of biological activities like antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, cardiac and antifungal activities and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. This review focuses the published scientific evidence on phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree. This plant have broad spectrum activities so, further studies on other models and extensive clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00001083
Title: Gloriosa superba Linn – A Medicinally important plant
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Gloriosa superba linn. (Glory lily) is a medicinal plant belongs to the family Liliaceae. It is one of the important species which are used for several medicinal purposes. The phytochemical present in it lead to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, enzyme inhibitory, anti-venom and chemotherapeutic potential. This article focuses the traditional system of medicinal use for the local people as ayurveda and siddha.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00001085
Title: Insilico studies on the enhancing effect of anti-cancer phytochemicals of Moringa oleifera on cellular prostatic acid phosphatase activity
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The emergence of deadly diseases like cancer has led to novel therapies. Prostate cancer is one such disease. This study emphasizes the significance of natural products to solve pharmacological problems. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a valuable marker and the key enzyme involved in prostate cancer. Though its secretory level increases, its cellular form decreases in prostate cancer patients. Cellular Prostatic acid phosphatase (cPAP) functions as a tyrosine phosphatase of oncoproteins associated with prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, cPAP whose expression diminishes with the progression of prostate cancer is selected as the drug target. Ligands that can enhance the activity of cPAP may have potential applications for prostate cancer therapy. Moringa oleifera is a highly valued medicinal plant. It is an effective natural resource rich in phytochemicals that can act as anti-cancer agents. This work involves an insilico study on the enhancing effect of anti-cancer phytochemicals of Moringa oleifera on the activity of cPAP. The effect is compared with that of PAP activators collected from the database and the reported standard therapeutics for prostate cancer. Bioinformatics methods are adopted for Structural analysis, Docking and Toxicity studies. The results facilitate the understanding of the use of the anti-cancer phytochemicals of Moringa oleifera as the potent and safe natural agents to assist in prostate cancer drug design.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00001086
Title: Mitochondrial DNA and Inherited Diseases – A Comprehensive Review
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles located in the cytoplasm of the cell. They are the sites of cellular respiration which ultimately generates fuel for the cell's activities. Mitochondria are the only non-nuclear constituents of the cell with their own DNA (mtDNA) and machinery for synthesizing RNA and proteins. Mutations in the mitochondrial genome have been implicated with a wide range of age-related pathologies, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and in general, processes that regulate cellular and organismal aging. There has been considerable progress in understanding the role of mtDNA mutations in human diseases during the last two decades, but important mechanisms in mitochondrial genetics remain to be explained at the molecular level. This review gives an overview of mitochondrial DNA structure and function and then outlines more specifically the metabolic and molecular alterations in mitochondria, associated with human diseases and their clinical implications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001087
Title: Colon specific delivery systems: The local drug targeting
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can take place. Local delivery could, for example, allow topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. The delivery of drugs to the colon has a number of therapeutic implications in the field of drug delivery. In the recent times, the colon specific drug delivery system is also gaining importance not only for local drug delivery of drugs but also for the systemic delivery of protein & peptide drugs. The colon, as a site for drug delivery, is also beneficial for the treatment of disease sensitive to circadian rhythms and delivery of poorly absorbable drug. This review, mainly compares the primary approaches for CDDS (Colon Specific Drug Delivery) namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent systems, and microbially triggered systems, which achieved limited success and had limitations as compared with newer CDDS namely pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules, CODESTM, and osmotic controlled drug delivery which are unique in terms of achieving in vivo site specificity, and feasibility of manufacturing process.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00001088
Title: Antimicrobial screening of leaf extract of Psidium guajava and its isolated fraction against some pathogenic microorganisms
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation focuses on the antimicrobial screening of leaf extract of Psidium guajava and its isolated fraction against the selected bacterial strains. Ethnolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and its isolated fraction was more potent in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microorganism such as, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas species, Bacillus species and Proteus species with different degree of inhibition. The antibacterial activity was more effect in isolated fraction compound than the plant extract. The results support that the plant extract containing compound that can form the basis for the development of novel broad spectrum antimicrobial formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 7, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00001104
Title: Anticonvulsant And Antioxidant Actions Of Some Dibenzo-a-Pyrone Derivatives In Pentylene –Induced Kindling Model In Mice
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of Dibenzo-α-pyrone derivatives on the course of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced chemical kindling and oxidative stress markers in PTZ-kindled mice. Methods: Kindling was induced by repeated injections of a subconvulsive dose of PTZ (25mg/Kg, i.p.) on alternate days for 5 weeks or until stage 5 of the seizure score was evoked on three consecutive administrations. Butylamine, Diethylamine and Pyrrolidine Derivatives of Dibenzo-α-pyrone were administered daily in three doses (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) per orally (p.o.) along with alternate day PTZ. Following PTZ kindling , oxidative stress parameters , i.e. levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), were assessed in isolated homogenized whole brain tissue. Results: PTZ treatment progressively increased the seizure score in control mice. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in MDA levels and decreased GSH levels in the brain homogenate of PTZ-kindled mice. Daily treatment with Butylamine, Diethylamine and Pyrrolidine Derivatives of Dibenzo-α -pyrone in doses of 20 and 40mg/kg significantly decreased the PTZ-induced seizure score. However, a low dose (10mg/kg) failed to improve the seizure score. Pretreatment of derivatives in all doses showed an ameliorating effect on biochemical alteration induced by PTZ treatment. Conclusion: The present study indicate the potential anticonvulsant activity of Dibenzo-α-pyrone derivatives against PTZ-induced kindling in mice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00001779
Title: Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of metal complexes derived from nitro aniline and 3-aldehydosalicylic acid
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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 Objective: The aim of the present work was to synthesize different types of complex compounds of three Schiff base ligands with metal ions. Methods: New Schiff base ligands formed by the condensation of 3-Aldehydosalicylic acid with equimolar quantity of para, meta and ortho nitro aniline. The complexes of metal ions like Cu (II), Zn (II), Ni (II), Co (II)  with Schiff base ligands (ML2) have been synthesized at pH range7 . All the synthesized Schiff bases and metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1HNMR and mass spectral data. Results: Study reveals that the Schiff base ligands involved the donor COOH, OH and Nitrogen atom. The ligands ML2 in metal complexes behave as dibasic tridentate OON at pH range7. Spectral analysis indicates square pyramidal geometries for all the complexes.  The Schiff bases and metal complexes were screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. Conclusion: The Cu (II) and Zn (II) complexes exhibited good antimicrobial activity when compared to the free ligand.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00001971
Title: Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for enhancement of oral bioavailability of losartan
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of the present study was to formulate self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) to enhance the oral bioavailability of losartan. Experimental: The solubility of losartan was determined in various vehicles, and pseudoternary phase diagrams were used to assess the micro-emulsification boundary. The losartan SMEDDS was prepared using Capmul MCM EP (oil), tween 80 (surfactant), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 (cosurfactant). Results: The SMEDDS was tested for microemulsifying properties, and the resultant microemulsions were evaluated for droplet size, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, and in vitro dissolution. The formulation development and screening were done on the basis of results obtained from phase diagrams and characteristics of resultant microemulsions. The selected formulation of Capmul MCM EP with surfactant and cosurfactant mixture (Smix) ratio of 1:1 (Tween-80: PEG-400) subjected to in vivo bioavailability study using rabbit. The results of drug release and oral bioavailability of losartan SMEDDS were compared with marketed formulation. The selected formulation enhanced the oral bioavailability of losartan by 1.49 folds than the marketed formulation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00002015
Title: Inhibitory spectra of isolated tannin-rich fraction and assessment of compounds using chromatographic techniques
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Tannins, secondary metabolites of plants, are mostly water-soluble phenolic compounds exhibit numerous biological and antibacterial-promoting and antioxidant effects. Objective: The aim of the study is to characterize the various classes of tannins and to screen their biological activity. Materials and Methods: Isolation of tannin-rich fraction was done by means of column chromatography and assessment of compounds was done using bioassay techniques. Characterization of compounds was analyzed by means of ultraviolet (UV)-visible, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Results: Antimicrobial screening reveals that Syzygium aromaticum fraction 2 (21.6 mm) and 3 (18.3 mm) exhibit broad spectrum of activity followed by Candida glabrata (17.5 mm). Screening of tannin-rich fraction indicates that Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and C. glabrata remained sensitive toward the fraction, whereas Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus Parasiticus, and Fusarium solani remained resistant toward the fraction possessing least inhibition zone. UV absorption spectrum reveals the presence of condensed tannin, gallotannin, and ellagic acid (EA). FTIR spectrum denotes the presence of fingerprint region of hydrolysable tannin. RPHPLC analysis indicates the presence of gallic acid, EA, epicatechin, and catechin. Conclusion: The plant materials such as S. aromaticum and Acorus calamus indicate the presence of hydrolysable, condensed, and gallotannins.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002016
Title: Kras, epidermal growth factor receptor, and p53, but not Nras or Braf, biomarkers are frequently altered in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and precursor lesions
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Pancreatic cancer is estimated to be the 12th most common cancer in men and the 11 most common in women worldwide. Materials and Method: As other cancers, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) accumulates genetic alterations in oncogenes and suppressor genes. In the present study, we analyzed five biomarkers status: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p53 using immunohistochemical labeling in 39 PDAC and Kras, Nras, and Braf, using pyrosequencing in 25 normal pancreatic tissues, 25 pancreatic intraductal neoplasia (PanIN), and 39 PDAC. Result and Discussion: Abnormal immunolabeling of p53 and EGFR was detected in 97.4% and 71.8%, respectively. There was a statistically significant progressive increment (P < 0.001) in the percentage of mutated cases through normal pancreas (8%), PanIN-1A (28.6%), PanIN-1B (33.3%), PanIN-2 (60%), and PanIN-3 (85.7%) to PDAC (94.8%). These mutations were arising in codons 12 and 61 of Kras and in codon 600 of Braf. Most frequent mutations were G12D (46%), G12A (23%), and G12V (18%) of Kras. No mutations were found in codons 13, 59, 117, and 146 of Kras or in codons 12, 13, 59, 61, 117, and 146 of Nras. Conclusion: We confirm that EGFR, Kras, and p53 are the most frequent altered biomarkers in PDAC with difference in predominated Kras mutations subtypes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002017
Title: Evaluation of neoangiogenesis and cell activation in hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis caused by chronic viral hepatitis
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: Evaluation of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation due to viral hepatitis in various stages of cirrhosis and fibrosis. We aimed to determine portal hypertension development by examining neoangiogenesis and fibrosis in the vascular epithelium. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 patients with chronic viral hepatitis before treatment and 40 hepatocirrhotic transplant patients were consented for this study. A modified histology activity index was used for fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity. 40 samples from all groups: The fibrosis 0-1 group, the fibrosis 2-3-4 group, and the cirrhosis group were taken. Samples embedded in paraffin were subjected to immunohistochemistry and stained for alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA). For microvascular counting, the Chalkley method was used, and an average of three different areas was taken. Results: A significant difference in SMA staining was detected in the three different groups (P < 0.001). Interestingly, fibrosis 2-3-4 was significantly higher compared to the fibrosis 0-1 group (P = 0.007). The cirrhosis group was higher compared to the fibrosis 0-1 group (P < 0.001) and the fibrosis 2-3-4 group (P < 0.001). Neoangiogenesis was significantly different between groups (P < 0.001), and neoangiogenesis was the highest in the cirrhosis group. Discussion: In conclusion, hepatic neoangiogenesis and fibrosis development are associated with each other. We show that neovascularization and HSC activation were augmented in the more progressive disease states. Future work should be focused on developing therapies targeting the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor or HSC activation may help prevent chronic hepatic diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002018
Title: Vitamin D is a suggested target in hypertensive Iraqi patients management
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Hypertension (HTN) is the leading attributable risk for cardiovascular disease. In the Middle East, the disease continues to be a worrying public health issue with modest blood pressure control rates. Vitamin D possesses antihypertensive acts through its negative regulation of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, antioxidant, and anti-angiogenic effects. Materials and Method: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 68 Vitamin D naive HTN Iraqi patients with a mean age (54.8 ± 13.2) were investigated in comparison to matched 31 normotensive apparently healthy individuals. Serum Vitamin D level estimation was done in both groups by immunofluorescence assay, and the dependency sufficiency (normal) values were those ≥30 ng/ml. Result and Discussion: Vitamin D sufficiency was less prevalent among the patients group versus controls (4.41% vs. 54.83%). The mean of Vitamin D serum levels among patients “unexpectedly” was 13.13 ± 8.86 ng/ml which were significantly (P = 0.000) lower than that of controls 36.44 ± 16.66 ng/ml. We also observed a significant (P = 0.007) inverse correlation between Vitamin D levels and the obesity index; waist to height ratio in HTN patients. Conclusion: It can be concluded that a deficient level of Vitamin D is highly prevalent in Iraqi HTN patients, and low levels tend to correlate with obesity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002027
Title: Evaluation of quality of life and psychological condition of persons having undergone aortocoronary heart shunting
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: This paper deals with an estimation of the quality of life (QOL) and a psychological condition of the persons of different age having undergone aortocoronary heart shunting, in the course of physical rehabilitation. Organization and Methods of Research: The study was carried out on the basis of the Regional Hospital of Rehabilitation in the city of Arkhangelsk. Patients who had undergone both aortocoronary bypass surgery (ACBS) on the basis of MHI “First City Clinical Hospital” in the city of Arkhangelsk and rehabilitation on the basis of the Regional Hospital of Restorative Treatment in Arkhangelsk took part in the examination. The QOL survey was assessed using the Russian version of the World Health Organization questionnaire (100 questions), designed to assess the QOL of an adult Russian-speaking population of Russia and other countries (WHOQOL Group, 1993). Using the questionnaire, six major QOL areas were assessed: Physical functions, psychological functions, independence level, social relations, the environment and the spiritual sphere, as well as the respondents’ perception of their QOL and health in general. The level of situational and personal anxiety was assessed using the Spielberger–Khanin questionnaire. Results: The analysis of the QOL and psychological state in people having undergone ACBS in the course of rehabilitation was conducted, which revealed the features of the dynamics of the studied indicators in groups of people of middle and old age. It was established that the improvement of the psychological sphere of the QOL, situational, and personal anxiety is slower in elderly people in comparison with middle-aged people. Conclusion: This indicates the need to create individual approaches to physical and psychological rehabilitation in persons of different age at all stages of rehabilitation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002028
Title: Pharmacological evaluation of curcumin for its nephroprotective activity in 5/6 nephrectomized rat model
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Plants with renal protective activities provide important sources for the development of new drugs in the treatment of renal failure. The protective effect of curcumin isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa was studied on experimental renal failure rats. Experiment: The study was planned to investigate the effect of curcumin in Wistar rats in 5/6 nephrectomy. The curcumin was administered at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg orally for 60 days. After 60 days parameters such as creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and calcium were estimated. Results: Treatment with curcumin 200 mg/kg showed significantly reduced creatinine, urea, and uric acid compared to nephrectomized control. Moreover, the significant decrease in calcium, sodium, and potassium was observed at 200 mg/kg curcumin (P < 0.01). Conclusion: In conclusion, curcumin that is obtained from the rhizome C. longa is having multiple therapeutic benefits and is a potential herbal medicine in curing renal failure in 5/6 nephrectomized rat model.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002029
Title: Preclinical pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity and single ascending dose tolerability of GBO-006 nanosuspension, a selective polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) inhibitor
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present work was executed to develop a biocompatible parenteral formulation for pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicology studies of GBO-006, a highly selective polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) inhibitor that demonstrated significant tumor regression in xenograft models on intraperitoneal alternate day dosing with the DMSO. Methods: Different technologies such as cosolvency, complexation, and micelle solubilization have been explored but failed to improve the aqueous solubility at higher concentrations. Crystalline and lipid-based nanosuspensions using different surfactants were developed and evaluated for both solubility and stability. Nanosuspensions were prepared by Ultra-Turrax homogenization followed by bead milling and microfluidics evaluated for particle size reduction and morphology. The optimized formulation was checked for pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity, and tolerability. Conclusions: Nanosuspensions prepared by bead milling were stable for more than 2 weeks and showed reduced particle size of 0.26–0.3 μ. Rat and mouse intravenous and intraperitoneal pharmacokinetic studies showed a significant improvement in Cmax, AUC and systemic clearance of the compound. We have developed a biologically compatible parenteral formulation for a first-in-class, novel anticancer agent that will be progressed toward IND enabling studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002030
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on various disinfectants used for impression materials among dental students and dental practitioners
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Impression materials taken directly from a patient’s mouth are often contaminated with saliva and blood; making it an agent for cross contamination. Thus, it can act as a mode of transmission for many viruses and other microorganisms. Although it is common to only rinse these impressions, no specific methods of disinfection have been used during dental practice. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the knowledge and understanding of dentists on the various disinfectants that are used for dental impressions. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 15 questions were distributed to 100 participants, in which includes undergraduates and dentists at Saveetha Dental College. The sample size of this questionnaire-based study is 132 population. This study was conducted with 100 participants, thus it is sufficient for the required sample size. Results: A vast majority of them agree that the main importance of disinfecting is to prevent cross- contamination (65%, n = 65), following that is to protect the impression from any physical changes (18%, n = 18), to produce a more detailed registration of the dentition (12%, n = 12), and to produce a more detailed registration of the dentition (5%, n = 5). The majority of the participants said that the most preferred method of disinfecting using chemical disinfectants is by immersing the impression (60%, n = 60) while some believe that spraying the surface is much more preferred (31%, n = 31). Conclusion: It was, thus, concluded that both students and graduates are well aware regarding the importance of disinfection of impression materials. In the future, it would be better to further and continuously practice these methods of disinfection as a regular practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002031
Title: Comparative evaluation of acupuncture and anesthetic efficacy in preventing tooth hypersensitivity
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Acupuncture is an important component of traditional Chinese medicine that consists of applying pressure, needling, heat, and electrical stimulation. The theory of acupuncture anesthesia and analgesia was put forward by the Chinese in 1960, and it emerged as a popular treatment for pain relief in the 1990s. Aim and Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of acupuncture and infiltration of local anesthesia in preventing tooth hypersensitivity. Materials and Methods: The study involved 30 healthy individuals in the age group, 20–40 years. For 15 subjects (LA group), local anesthetic - lidocaine 2% with adrenaline 1:200,000 was administered as a nerve block. Heat test was done after 2 min on a sound, vital tooth. Teeth with restoration or caries were excluded from the study. Response to heat was noted down by means of a visual analog scale every 2 min for up to 6 min. For the other 15 subjects (ACU group), the acupuncture needles were placed in the acupuncture points - SI 18 (Quan Liao), ST 3 (Juliao), GV 26 (Shui Gou), and LI 4 (He Gu). Heat test was done every 2 min up to 6 min and the response was noted. Results were statistically evaluated. Results and Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in effectiveness of lidocaine and acupuncture in preventing dentin hypersensitivity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002033
Title: Evaluation of variation in the systemic blood pressure among Indian population after placement of retraction cord with and without local anesthesia containing epinephrine
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Retraction cords are used after preparation of a tooth to push the gingiva away from the tooth to create enough space for recording an accurate impression. Retraction cords are placed with hemostatic agents to constrict the blood flow. Hemostatic agents used for retraction cords are said to have an effect on the systemic circulation, and hence, their use in cardiac patients is restricted. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 participants were divided into two groups of 20 and their normal blood pressure (BP) was checked. The BP of the Group I subjects was checked immediately after placing the retraction cord (without LA) and rechecked after a duration of 5 minutes and noted. The BP of the Group II subjects was also checked and recorded similar to that of Group I subjects, with retraction cord soaked in local anaesthesia containing epinephrine. Results: The mean systolic BP of the two groups was 116.8 ± 12.7 mmHg and diastolic was 74.45 ± 10.6 mmHg. The mean systolic BP of Group I subjects immediately after placing the retraction cord was 115.45 ± 14.21 mmHg and diastolic was 97.1 ± 12.46 mmHg. The mean systolic BP of Group I subjects after the removal of the retraction cord was found to be 114.85 ± 14 mmHg and diastolic was 72 ± 12.65 mmHg. The mean systolic BP of the Group II subjects immediately after placing retraction cord was 119.35 ± 9.6 mmHg and diastolic was 77.5 ± 8 mmHg. The mean systolic BP of Group II subjects after the removal of retraction cord was 116.3 ± 10.25 mmHg and diastolic was 77.15 ± 8 mmHg. Conclusion: There is an increase in the systolic and diastolic BP of the Group II subjects immediately after placing the retraction cord and systolic BP reaching to the normal level after the removal of the cord after a time duration of 5 min and no decrease in the diastolic BP on removal of retraction cord and no significant change in the BP of the Group I participants. The change in the BP on using epinephrine- soaked retraction cord could be of significance for their use in cardiovascular disease or hypertensive patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CT-00002034
Title: Gagging: A problem to prosthetic dentistry - Review
Category: Clinical trials
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Gagging is one of the complications faced by the dentist and the patient during a dental procedure. It can be due to physiological or psychological factors. The stimulation of the gagging reflex, or more accurately, the vomiting reflex, is a special problem in prosthodontic service. In daily practices, dentists routinely encounter many patients who have extreme oral sensitivity by which they are not capable to bear any foreign body in the oral cavity; such gagging patient seeks to delay needed treatment or to avoid it entirely until it is too late for the dental therapy to exert its maximum beneficial effects. The normal gag reflex is a defensive mechanism for the survival that is controlled mainly by parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. However, it can be an acquired, adapted by various stimuli such as visual, olfactory, acoustic, psychic, chemical, or toxic transmitted through the blood flow or the cerebrospinal fluid. This article describes a review of the management of patients with gagging and includes various strategies to assist clinicians.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002037
Title: A review on wound healing activity of different extracts and formulations of Shorea robusta resin
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Shorea robusta has been commonly used in Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as circulatory, digestive, endocrine, respiratory, and skeletal systems as well as in infectious diseases. Different parts of Indian ethnomedicinal plant S. robusta are traditionally used for several ailments including wounds and burn by different tribal groups. The phytochemical studies of S. robusta have shown the presence of many secondary metabolites belonging to terpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrate, lignans, phenols, and sterols. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from S. robusta show different pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, antibacterial, wound healing, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. The present review is on different extracts and formulations of S. robusta resin, which provides preliminary information for further studies for this potential medicinal plant. This is useful for the development of different new herbal formulations for wound healing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BI-00002067
Title: In silico molecular docking studies of compounds from Sargassum ilicifolium (Turner) C. agardh against biomarker enzymes in amnesia
Category: Bioinformatics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Molecular docking is a bioinformatics tool used to study and analyze ligand-receptor interactions and used as a valuable tool in drug discovery. Marine algae are taxonomically diverse biologically active and unique chemically offers a great scope for the discovery of novel drugs. Phytochemists and drug developers are now interestingly working in developing new molecules that can act effectively than conventional drugs. Alzheimer’s is a worldwide health problem associated with amnesia and aphasia. Acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and beta-secretase are the enzymes that have the pathological role in amnesia. Inhibition of these enzymes plays a target role in treating Alzheimer’s. Methods: Sargassum ilicifolium Turner C. agardh belonging to Sargassaceae family has potential therapeutic uses in neuropharmacology. The compounds SCH1 and SCH2 were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction and subjected to mole grow software to study the molecular interaction between these ligands and the receptor site against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and beta-secretase enzymes. Results and Conclusions: Based on the docking scores and ligand interactions, the potency of the compounds was judged. The result concluded that both the compounds SC1 and SC2 have good binding interaction with biomarker enzymes and proved for its anti-amnesic activity in molecular modeling study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00002068
Title: Compositional features of hydrocarbons of the oils sampled from oil fields of West Siberia Basin (Russia)
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The article presents the results of the systematization and analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of oils of the West Siberian Basin to identify common patterns and relationships between physical and chemical properties and product qualities of oils. Materials and method: It is shown that the reference data of a group composed of wide factions allow us to consider them as series-parallel rows of complementary boiling range. Results and discussion: Having an understanding about the patterns of change in such important characteristics of oil, as a hydrocarbon group and fractional compositions, you can count the content in the broad fractions of aromatic, naphthenic hydrocarbons, and alkanes. It removed the restrictions imposed on the group composition of wide fractions given in the reference. Ideas about the physical-chemical properties and group composition of oil and a wide oil fractions allow a more informed approach to the selection of the conditions of its production, transportation, recycling, and further processing. Conclusion: Knowledge of the physical and chemical properties and hydrocarbon type content of oil and the broad petroleum fractions will allow a more informed approach to the selection of the conditions of its production, transportation, recycling, and further processing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002070
Title: In vitro antibacterial activity of Zingiber officinale against pathogenic bacteria
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This examination intends to research the inhibitory effect of soaker roots extricates of Zingiber officinale on the increment of Staphylococcus aureus that has been secluded from vaginal contaminations in vitro, in which it ended up noticeably drawn of Z. officinale. Materials and Methods: Utilization of ethanol 95%, wherein the furrow equipment offer of extraction of 8% of the heaviness of dry powder has gone to a consideration slope of the drunk concentrate (10–100 ml/ml) had been picked successfully by agar gel diffusion method and utilization of microorganism S. aureus in examination with ethylene glycol. Result and Discussion: The outcomes confirmed that the breadths of the hindrance of advance of bacterial development raise with the consideration of alcoholic concentrate minimization, have been 10–20 mg/ml low productivity and concentrations 40–60 mg/ml medium conveying without hesitation, even as fixations 80–100 mg/ml changed into entirely effective and powerful contrary to the expansion of microorganism of “S. aureus.” Conclusion: The root extract put the emphasis of Z. officinale developed in Iraq has inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive microorganism, S. aureus. The optional search would assemble to identify the exact arrangement of activity by which takes away utilize their antimicrobial solution to diagnose that can be used in drug improvement for innocuous medical examination.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002071
Title: A brief review on current antifungal agents
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Nowadays, most of fungal infections such as candidoses can range from superficial mucous membrane infection to life- threatening systemic mycoses. Candida infections give significant clinical problem globally due to most rapid rise in compromised host populations including HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and patients those are on chemotherapy. In addition to this, a sharp increase in the aging populations which are susceptible to fungal infections is expected in next few decades. Antifungal drugs for these problems are relatively difficult to develop compared to the antibacterial drugs owing to the eukaryotic nature of the cells. Therefore, only a handful of antifungal agents are currently available to treat the myriad of fungal infections. Moreover, the rising antifungal resistance and host-related adverse reactions have limited the antifungal arsenal against fungal pathogens. In this review topic, we tried to update the theoretical aspects pertaining to the antifungal drug discovery, i.e., proposed novel mechanisms, new drug targets, and pathways. Here, we are reporting some new antifungal molecules.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002072
Title: Мellitus diabetes type 2 and congestive heart failure on ambulatory conditions
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The significance of the problem of congestive heart failure (CHF) is determined by its widespread prevalence, high mortality. The specific gravity of cardiovascular complications in the structure of mortality of patients with mellitus diabetes type 2 is very high. The diabetes mellitus and CHF acquire the status of the epidemic of the 21st century and require health-care costs for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. The using of modern pharmacological drugs and instrumental methods for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases life expectancy and improves the quality of life with CHF as with normal carbohydrate metabolism (CM) and with mellitus diabetes type 2 (MD2). However, the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with MD2, as compared with those with normal CM remains at the same level. The rapidly growing population of patients with MD2 will soon change the prevailing ideas in recent years to improve the prognosis of CVD treatment. Disturbance of myocardial remodeling with MD2 is due to a combination of factors associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy, a decreasing in the metabolic activity of cardiomyocytes, insufficient transport of glucose into cells, endothelial dysfunction, diabetic macro- and microangiopathy, and myocardial fibrosis by leading to a violation of the left ventricular filling and development of CHF. Insulin resistance (IR) and compensatory hyperinsulinemia (HI) have a key role in the pathogenesis of MD2. To improve the results of treatment aimed at reducing the risk of CHF in patients with MD2 and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), it is necessary to achieve a traditional primary goal, exactly, glycemic control. Since IR and compensatory HI have a key role in the pathogenesis of MD2 and are closely related to the risk of developing arterial hypertension and CVD caused by atherosclerosis, treatment of patients with MD2 and IGT with CHF requires the using of drugs that affect the IR.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00002073
Title: Immunogenic activity of chicken antibodies toward Anopheles dirus salivary gland antigens
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Immunogenic salivary proteins of Anopheles dirus were foremost studied for their allergenic properties. Most of the saliva antigens were found to be species specific as only weak cross-reactivity was predicted to depend on different host system for their survival. Aim: In this study, we have examined the applicability for IgY obtained from the screening of different kinds of hen eggs, for its capability to interact towards a mosquito antigenic protein. Methods: Due to the peculiar composition of the egg yolk, IgY are normally purified using complex and time-consuming procedures involving a combination of precipitation and chromatographic steps. Soluble proteins were separated from the lipidic fraction of egg yolk by various methods and loaded onto PEG column. Results: High recovery and purity of IgY was obtained for normal and brown eggs by water dilution and chloroform methods. Similarly, IgY is also purified in extend of 90% with chromatography and was tested against salivary gland antigens after various treatments. The active antibodies were found to be 178.57ug/ml for brown egg and 200ug/ml for normal egg towards the antigen. Conclusion: Although the difference in both egg source for the IgY is significant, normal egg antibodies has shown highest purity and interaction towards the antigen.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-FPE-00002074
Title: A review on cellulose and its utilization from agro‑industrial waste
Category: Food Processing and Engineering
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Agro-industrial waste removal is a serious issue of concerning in developing countries. Cellulose is a polysaccharide polymer. This present review explores cellulose history, structure, worldwide production, and extraction of cellulose from agro-waste. A wide spectrum of researches in the arena of properties of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; their degradation; sources and composition of cellulosic and its derivatives from agro-industrial wastes; present status of converting them into value-added products of food and pharmaceutical applications. Cellulose is a tremendous product due to its abundance and characteristic structural properties. The major industrial source of cellulose is vascular plants. The lignocellulosic materials, especially agro-industrial residues, are important as reinforcement products for building construction material industry, in terms of environmental preferences of the modern society. Most paper products generate from wood pulp, while textile fibers are commonly not isolated from woody fibers. The materials based on cellulose and its derivatives have been used for a wide variety of applications, such as food additives, paper manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, or other chemical engineering uses, such as chromatography, paints, and explosives.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BMa-00002075
Title: Chromatographic fingerprinting analysis of secondary metabolites present in ethanolic extract of Acokanthera schimperi leaves by high-performance thin-layer chromatography technique
Category: Biological Macromolecules
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Acokanthera schimperi belonging to the family Apocynaceae is well known in Ethiopia to treat skin infections and malaria, organic extracts of this plant exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activity properties, and it has a long history of being used as an herbal remedy. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to investigate the chemical fingerprint profile of glycosides, steroids, phenols, and tannins of ethanolic extract of A. schimperi using high- performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) technique. Methods: HPTLC profile of glycosides, steroids, phenols, and tannins of ethanolic extract of A. schimperi were done and profiles were developed using CAMAG LINOMAT- 5 instrument. Results: From the results, it is conformed that the ethanolic extract of A. schimperi showed the presence of secondary metabolites such as glycosides, steroids, phenols, and tannins. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of A. schimperi is the potential sources for pharmacology for devolvement of plant-derived bioactive novel drugs for curing various diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CD-00002076
Title: Status of heart rate variability and hemodynamic parameters of women-teachers according to age
Category: Cardiovascular diseases
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The high requirements for the teacher`s profession and the constant overload, stress, psychoemotional stress during the performance of work can be the reason for the failure of the adaptive mechanisms of the body, which can be diagnosed with the help of the study of regulation of the heart rhythm. Methods: 200 trained female teachers’ heart rate variability and peripheral hemodynamics parameters were studied in general education schools, resulting into determination the index of regulatory systems activity. Results: The study showed that with age there is gradual decrease in involuntary nervous system influences on the HR, reduction in the activity of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system; increase the stress of regulatory systems. Women of 55– 59 years old had the definite stress of regulatory systems significantly higher statistically. Furthermore, there was detected a trend toward improvement in systolic, diastolic, average, and pulse pressure values at the age of 40–59 years old. Conclusion: Women- educators 60 years and older have lower rates of heart rate variability and integral indicators of hemodynamics. It is associated with a decrease in the influence of the sympathetic link of rhythm regulation and a decrease in basal metabolism.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002081
Title: Prevalence of partial edentulism according to Kennedy’s classification based on age, gender, and arch
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The purpose of classification of partial edentulous arches provides communication between dental colleagues, students, technician about the case, for planning good treatment and to design the partial denture. It also predicts the difficulties commonly occurring with particular removable partial denture design. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of partial edentulism according to Kennedy classification. Aim: This study aims to evaluate and compare the frequency of prevalence of various partial edentulism based on Kennedy’s classification in relation to arch, age, and gender of the patients. Methodology: The study was conducted in patients attending outpatient clinic in Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. The survey was done in 200 patients based on age groups (20–30 years, 30–40 years, 40–50 years, and 50– 60 years), arch (maxilla and mandible), and genders (male and female). The survey was done by doing visual examination for determining the prevalence of partial edentulism. Result: Based on the data collected, the prevalence of Class III was more in both the genders of about 70% followed by the prevalence of Class I accounting for about 16% in female and 11% in males. Conclusion: Kennedy’s Class III was the most common in both dental arches. Gender had no effect on the prevalence of various Kennedy’s classes, while age had a significant effect. Mandibular partial edentulism was found to be more common than maxillary partial edentulism.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002082
Title: Abutment selection in fixed partial denture - A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Fixed partial denture (FPD) replacements for teeth have taken a variety of designs throughout the years. Many principles involved in the preparation and construction of fixed prostheses are still dominating, although more compatible and resilient materials have been introduced in recent years. FPD transmits forces through the abutment to the periodontium. Failures are due to poor engineering, use of improper material, inadequate tooth preparation and faulty fabrications. Therefore, it is important to select abutment in FPD. The clinicians must recognize the forces developed by the oral mechanism and the resistance of the tooth and its supporting structures to them. This article will review the conditions and requisites for the selection of abutment for FPDs for the long-term success of fixed dental prosthesis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002083
Title: Role of acupuncture and acupressure in preventing gag reflex
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background: Acupressure and acupuncture were alternative methods of treatment, based on the concept of life energy which flows through “meridians” in the body. The treatment aims at clearing the blockages in these meridians. Handling gag reflex was always been a challenging aspect in the field of dentistry. The art and science of acupressure and acupuncture was believed that would alleviate the problem. The purpose of the study was to put forth the use of acupuncture and acupressure in controlling a profound gag reflex during dental treatment requiring an upper alginate impression. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effect of acupuncture and acupressure in preventing gag reflex during prosthodontics treatment. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 48 middle-aged patients (with a mean age of ±45 years) attending the OPD of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, located in south part of India, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The patients were agreed to try the acupuncture and acupressure to control gagging during dental treatment. Before the treatment, the severity of gagging was assessed. The patients with gagging severity index; Grade IV (severe gagging) and Grade V (very severe gagging) were chosen. Acupuncture and acupressure were carried out at three different points. The dental procedure was then carried out and the effectiveness of the treatment was assessed. The results were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t-test. Results: The one-way ANOVA shows no significant difference among the groups. Descriptive analysis shows that mean duration of time was 136.50 ± 30.68, wherein the mean onset of duration was 66.58 ± 12.31. When compared with paired t-test, there shows a significant value among all the six groups: Acupressure (Chenjiang n1 ≤0.05, Neiguan n2 ≤ 0.05, and Negus n3 ≤ 0.05); acupressure (Chenjiang n4 ≤ 0.05, Neiguan n5 ≤ 0.05, and Hegus n6 ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The use of acupuncture and acupressure in preventing gag reflex was found to productive. This method of controlling the gag reflex is simple, fast, and easier technique if the clinicians were trained in it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002092
Title: Analgesic effectiveness of opioid agonists in post-operative pain after endosseous dental implant placement – A split- mouth randomized control trial
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of opioid agonists in post-operative pain after endosseous dental implant placements. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 patients requiring the placement of endosseous dental implants were considered in this study for comparing the two drug interventions, namely, the tramadol (opioid analgesic) and aceclofenac administered orally. The identified patients were randomly allocated into two groups, with odd numbers following group A and even numbers following group B and procedure was performed vice versa. Followed by which the procedure was performed and the experimental drug was administered. After a period of 1 week, the implant will be placed on contralateral side and the experimental drug will be administered. The patients graded the pain for both the drugs after 2 hours of dental implant placement with a 100-point visual analog scale. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that according to Mann–Whitney tests performed with this non-parametric population at 5% confidence interval, both the groups showed no statistically significant difference with P = 0.533 retaining the null hypothesis. Conclusion: Both the drugs showed equal effectiveness, and hence, opioid analgesics can be administered in situations where patients are intolerant to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002093
Title: Effectiveness of acupuncture-induced anesthesia in controlling tooth hyperesthesia during tooth preparation
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Dentine hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response to stimuli. In this split-mouth randomized clinical study, we investigated acupuncture as an effective way of providing anesthesia to relieve dentinal hypersensitivity. A total of 15 patients, 20 bilateral maxillary and mandibular vital teeth (40 sites) indicated for tooth preparation, were selected for the study and randomly allocated to two groups, A and B. Patients in Group A underwent tooth preparation with acupuncture on the right side and with subperiosteal infiltration on the left side, while vice versa was followed for Group B. Following tooth preparation, patients interpreted their sensation during the procedure using the Heft–Parker VAS score. The result of the Mann–Whitney U-test showed that the two techniques had no statistical significant difference (P = 0.330, > 0.05). Hence, it was proved that both the techniques are equally effective in providing adequate anesthesia for tooth preparation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002094
Title: Significance of various clinical parameters as early indicators of myocardial infarction - A retrospective study
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Objective: This study is to determine the prognostic significance of blood pressure (BP), hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c), blood glucose, and lipid profile assessment and its relation with the cardiac biomarkers in patients who developed myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital from November 2016 to April 2017. Medical records of 185 MI patients for the past 2 years were collected and analyzed. The laboratory parameters such as BP, HbA1c, blood sugar, and lipid profile values were collected from the case sheets 3 months before the occurrence of MI. The cardiac biomarkers such as troponin T, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and CPK- muscle/ brain (MB) were obtained after the occurrence of MI. The Spearman rank correlation was used to correlate the age, gender, BP, blood sugar, and lipid profile with the cardiac biomarkers. Results: 77.29% of patients were male and 22.71% of patients were female; the average age group of the study population was 57.81 ± 13.82 years. Hypertension was observed in 88% of MI patients. Troponin T and CPK had a significant correlation with diastolic BP (DBP), systolic BP, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and total cholesterol (TC). CPK-MB had significant correlation only with DBP and body mass index. Conclusion: MI risk was found to be high in diabetic, hypertensive, and dyslipidemic patients. Thus, BP, HbA1c, and TC altogether can be used as a prognostic marker in MI.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00002095
Title: Forced degradation studies: Regulatory guidance, characterization of drugs, and their degradation products - a review
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to consolidate the literature available on regulatory aspects and protocols for forced degradation studies of various drug substances and their products into a comprehensive review. Background: Forced degradation is a process in which different stress conditions are applied over drug substances and which in turn different degradation products are produced. These studies are mainly used for the determination of stability of molecule under accelerated conditions. It is known that regulatory documentation process, selection of proper storage and package conditions, and selection of formulation are dependent on the stability of molecules. Objective: The present review discusses about various regulatory aspects, methodology for forced degradation studies, and degradation profiles for various drugs. Method: In forced degradation process, the drug substance and drug products are subjected to severe accelerated conditions to determine their stability. For determination of specificity of stability methods, it is necessary to determine the stability under forced degradation conditions. Conclusion: For determination of degradation pathways and structural elucidation of degradants produced, these forced degradation studies are helpful. It is also used to select the storage conditions and improve the manufacturing process of formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002096
Title: A review on clinical association of serum magnesium and serum fibrinogen levels with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Acute exacerbations (AEs) are a leading cause of worsening chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in terms of lung function decline, quality of life, and survival. The most important concept of this article is the positive correlation between serum magnesium levels during AE and annual number of COPD-AE episodes. Low serum magnesium is a modifiable risk factor. It is generally believed that due to its bronchodilating effect, a decreased level of magnesium increases COPD exacerbations. Plasma fibrinogen may be an ideal blood biomarker for the existence of systemic inflammation. Those with the high fibrinogen levels had increased admission rates with COPD exacerbations during the follow-up period. This article deals with the association of both serum magnesium and serum fibrinogen levels with AE-COPD.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002097
Title: Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Feronia limonia
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Traditional drugs can be used as a novel alternative for synthetic agents. All the synthetic agents possess risk of multiple side effects. Hence, a previously traditionally used drug, Feronia limonia is studied for its antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of different concentrations were tested for antidiabetic capabilities on streptozotocin (500 mg/kg I.P)-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, body weight, lipid profile test, and preliminary phytochemical screening for extracts were also carried out. Results: Significant antidiabetic activity characterized by significant reduction in blood glucose level and glycosylated hemoglobin was observed with ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) at 14 days of treatment compared with glibenclamide (500 mcg/kg, I.P). Both these extracts showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low- density lipoproteins and also on certain liver markers. Conclusion: The study concludes that F. limonia leaf extracts show a significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity. Hence, the constituents are isolated for further research.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002098
Title: A review on association of serum homocysteine in diabetic neuropathy
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose or blood sugar levels are too high. Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur with diabetes. Symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness in the hands, arms, feet, and legs were noted in diabetic neuropathy patients. Roughly, 50% patients with diabetes suffer from diabetic neuropathy. Homocysteine is a non- protein forming sulfur amino acid. Homocysteine is a common amino acid in blood. Homocysteine is biosynthesized from methionine. Homocysteine levels are typically higher in men than women and increase with age. Elevated homocysteine levels can cause increased inflammation, irritation of the blood vessels, heart disease, neurological troubles, etc. Homocysteine levels are checked through blood tests. Homocysteine is a sensitive biomarker for both folate deficiency and cardiovascular disease. Hyperhomocysteinemia was an independent risk factor for the occurrence of diabetic neuropathy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00002099
Title: Method development and validation for the assay of dipyridamole extended-release capsules by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the current study is to develop and validate a novel analytical method for the assay of dipyridamole (DPM) extended-release capsules by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. Materials and Methods: The current study describes an optimized assay method and forced degradation studies (acid, alkaline, thermal, peroxide, and water) for this drug. A RP-HPLC has been developed in an optimized way. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Agilent Eclipse plus C18 (100 × 4.6 mm × 5 µm) column with phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and methanol:0.01N HCl (50:50% v/v) which was used as a mobile phase with an effluent flow rate of 1.2 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 295 nm. Results and Discussion: The retention time was found to be 8.59 min. This method has been validated for linearity, accuracy, and precision. Linearity was found to be in the concentration range of 0.2–0.8 mg/ml. The drug percentage recovery was found to be in the range of 99.34–100.92% of the test concentration. The results of the limit of detection and limit of quantification were within the acceptance limits. Conclusion: DPM is widely used to prevent strokes and vascular thrombosis. The developed RP-HPLC method was found to be accurate, precise, selective, and sensitive for the analysis of DPM extended-release capsules 200 mg.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002100
Title: A Review on the in silico investigation of natural phytoconstituents on antitubercular plants
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Molecular docking is a procedure that calculates or estimate the liked action of the orientation of molecules when bound to each other to form stable complex. The binding orientation of small molecule drug candidates to their targets or receptor is often or regularly estimated using molecular docking method and also estimates the potency or affinity and activity of the small molecules. It is also used to study the stability of the compound. Computers and programs are used to estimate the interaction between two molecules based on their 3D structures. Docking is a crucial factor to a rational drug design. Docking can also be used in “lead optimization” process. In this review article, we discuss about Molecular docking, Types of docking, Docking approaches, Docking software, and List of docking performed for antituberculosis plants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00002101
Title: Physiochemical and preliminary phytochemical analysis on the leaves and volatile oil of Piper betle (L.) var. Sirugamani 1
Category: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: In traditional medicines and ritual practices paan or betel leaf has made its key role. We have taken Piper betle L. var. Sirugamani 1 (SGM1) (Piperaceae) which is widely available in Tamil Nadu. The present work summarizes the physiochemical, preliminary phytochemical study for the leaves of this plant as well as the physiochemical characters of the isolated volatile oil from the leaves. Methods: The physiochemical studies were done on the dried leaf, the preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed for the dried leaf and also using different solvents and with relevant fluorescent studies on the powder of leaf. The physicochemical analysis was also performed on volatile oil of the leaf. Results: The preliminary phytochemical analysis shows the presence of various secondary metabolites such as tannins, sterols, flavonoids, proteins, and amino acids. Conclusions: The study gives a way to perform the various pharmacological studies based on the presence of secondary metabolites. The chavibetol present in volatile oil is very unique in betel leaf.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00002102
Title: Validation of Cefpodoxime proxetil and Ambroxol hydrochloride by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: A simple, accurate, precise reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Cefpodoxime proxetil and hydrochloride HCl in tablet dosage form. Methods: Chromatogram was run through Phenomenex C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase consisting acetonitrile:methanol:water (30:30:40 v/v/v) at a flow rate 1 ml/min, 0.025M potassium dihydrogen phosphate as buffer, and pH 4.0 with orthophosphoric acid. UV-spectrometry detection was measured at 245 nm. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, linearity, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification, and solution stability. Results: The retention time of Cefpodoxime and Ambroxol HCl was found to be 2.35 min and 4.37 min and % RSD of Cefpodoxime proxetil and Ambroxol HCl was found to be 1.02% and 0.28%, respectively. The described method shows good linearity range of 30–150 μg/ml Cefpodoxime proxetil and 20–100 μg/ml for Ambroxol HCl. The correlation coefficient of Cefpodoxime proxetil and Ambroxol HCl was 0.999 and 0.999. The LOD was found to be 2.97 ppm and 3.04 ppm and the limit of quantitation values were 10.1 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. % assay was obtained as 99.6% and 101.4 % for Cefpodoxime proxetil and Ambroxol HCl. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the proposed reverse-phase high-performance chromatographic method was simple, rapid, precise, and accurate which is useful in the routine determination of Cefpodoxime proxetil and Ambroxol HCl bulk drug and its pharmaceutical dosage form.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002103
Title: Free radical scavenging of 4-benzylpiperidine by in vitro method
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Objective: The purpose of the study is to screen the free radical scavenging of 4-benzylpiperidine using the various in vitro method. Materials and Methods: In this research, various concentration of 4-benzylpiperidine was screened for in vitro antioxidant activity such as 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, reducing power assessment, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results and Discussion: Our study results show that 4-benzylpiperidine produced significant P < 0.05 inhibition in scavenging the free radicals when compared with the standard (ascorbic acid and curcumin) in DPPH, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, and exhibited maximum percentage scavenging of 89.24, 88.05, and 68.49 at 1 mg/ml, respectively. 4-benzylpiperidine also showed a significant increase in absorbance with an increase in concentration in reducing power assay. TAC result was found to be not significant but have maximum absorbance than standard which is expressed as a number of equivalents to Vitamin C. Conclusion: We conclude that 4-benzylpiperidine have potential antioxidant property and equipotent to the standard used. It may be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of radicals and regulate the pathological conditions of various diseases caused by excessive generation of free radical.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002104
Title: A prospective study on the efficacy of levetiracetam in seizure patients
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) in seizure patients and to compared between the monotherapy and polytherapy. Materials and Methods: The entire study was planned to be carried out for a period of 6 months. The selected study population was 60 patients. A separate data entry form for incorporating patient details was designed. The collected data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and GraphPad Prism Software. The unpaired t-test and ANOVA were used to compare, and the significant difference was determined. Results and Discussion: Out of the 60 number of patients in the study, 53% were male, and 47% were female. Majority of patients in the age group of 15–25 were affected with seizures. The major cause for epilepsy in our study is head trauma (33%). The seizure frequency at the end of the last month of the visit was noted, and it was compared with the baseline seizure frequency for patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), complex partial seizures (CPS), and for secondarily generalized seizure patients. The number of seizure episodes in the final visit was less as compared with those in the 1st month before the treatment with LEV. Conclusion: LEV was effective as monotherapy and polytherapy for all the three categories of patients-GTCS, CPS, and secondarily generalized seizures. The baseline seizure frequency, when compared with the final visit frequency, has improved after the treatment with LEV.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002105
Title: Role of zinc supplements in pediatric acute and persistent diarrhea: A prospective observational study in a tertiary care hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the therapeutic effect of zinc supplements in patients with acute and persistent diarrhea. To monitor the effect of supplemental zinc given along with oral rehydration therapy during acute and persistent diarrhea. To assess the number of episodes of diarrhea in acute and persistent diarrhea. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried for a time period of 6 months from November 2015 to April 2016 in a tertiary care hospital. Data were collected from the pediatric subjects diagnosed with acute and persistent diarrhea using self-designed patient pro forma. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee ref - IEC/ DOPI/2016/21. Results: In this study, 100 patients with diarrhea were selected. Out of 100 patients, 83 were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among the study population of 83, 22 patients (27%) were in the age group of 6–12 months, 18 patients (21%) were in the age group of 1–2 years, 17 patients (20%) were in the age group of 2–3 years, 14 patients (16%) were in the age group of 3–4 years, and 12 patients (14%) were in the age group of 4–5 years. It indicates that majority of people in age group of infants were most affected with diarrhea. In this prospective study comprising 83 diarrhea patients treated with zinc supplements, in that 38 (46%) were male child and 45 (54%) were female child, which confirms that female child was more likely to be affected with diarrhea than male subjects. Conclusion: From the current study, it was concluded that with zinc supplementation on acute and persistent diarrhea was more effective than oral rehydration salts. Zinc supplements reduced the duration, severity, and number of diarrheal episodes. Zinc supplements are given 20 mg per day for 14 days. It was extremely effective in patients with diarrhea.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00002106
Title: Toxicity evaluation of ifosfamide nanostructured lipid carriers designed for oral delivery in Wistar albino rats
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Ifosfamide nephrotoxicity is a serious adverse effect for one who undergoes cancer chemotherapy. Ifosfamide when administered orally as nanoparticles expected to minimize the ifosfamide‑induced nephrotoxicity at a clinically relevant concentration. To further validate this expectation, an animal model of ifosfamide‑induced nephrotoxicity was used to determine the protective effect of ifosfamide‑loaded nanostructured lipid carriers when administered orally. Materials and Methods: Adult male and female Wistar albino rats were subjected to acute and subacute toxicity studies administering orally with ifosfamide‑loaded nanostructured lipid carrier. Wister albino rats of either sex were administered with 0.5 ml of the vehicle, ifosfamide injection at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight, and ifosfamide NLC orally at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. Toxic manifestations and mortality were monitored daily. Both the serum and urine biochemical parameters and hematological parameters were determined using standardized laboratory method. Results: There was no mortality, or any signs of behavioral changes or toxicity observed after oral administration of ifosfamide NLC up to the dose level of 150 mg/kg body weight in rats. Ifosfamide NLCs, when administered orally, markedly reduce the severity of renal dysfunction induced by ifosfamide with a significant decrease in elevations of serum creatinine (47.82 ± 2.25 vs. 32.64 ± 1.28 mmol l − 1 ) as well as a reduced elevation of β2‑microglobulin excretion (25.54 ± 122 vs. 19.86 ± 1.22 nmol l − 1 ) and magnesium excretion (19.62 ± 1.56 vs. 16.12 ± 1.22 mmol l − 1 ). Conclusion: Our results suggest a potential therapeutic role for ifosfamide when administered as nanoparticle minimizing ifosfamide nephrotoxicity

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002107
Title: Assessment of quality of life in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the quality of life (QoL) in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Methods: A total of 100 cancer patients were included in the present analysis. With the aid of nurses, the questionnaires were filled out during the interview. Each question had an equal value and the QoL was quantified as the sum of the scores for all domains. The 30 items of QLQ-C30 are multidimensional, made up of 30 items. Functional scale and symptom scale were computed using t-test method. Results: Of the selected 48 patients, 9 patients were in the age group of 35–45 years, 10 patients were in the group of 45–55 years, 13 patients were in the age of group 55–65 years, 7 patients were in the age group of 65–75 years, and 9 patients were in the age group of 75–85 years. 0 patients are underweight, 6 patients were normal in their body mass index, 16 were overweight, and remaining 26 patients were obese. From the total of 48 patients with breast cancer interviewed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C-30, it was found that symptoms scale was higher before chemotherapy and which became low after chemotherapy. Conclusion: Patients with breast cancer were interviewed using EORTC QLQ C-30 questionnaire, and according to the interview, the scores QoL were high in breast cancer patients after chemotherapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00002108
Title: Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide and Propranolol in bulk and Pharmaceutical dosage form
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: A simple, rapid, and precise reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for simultaneous analysis of Hydrochlorothiazide and Propranolol in a bulk and tablet dosage form in biorelevant dissolution medium has been developed and validated. Methods: The chromatographic separation was achieved using reverse phase C18 column; Symmetry C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5μm). The mobile phase used was a mixture of acetonitrile:potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution (0.01 M, pH 3.0 adjusting with Orthophosphoric acid) in a ratio of 60:40 at isocratic mode and eluents were monitored at 275 nm using PDA detector. Results: By the method, Hydrochlorothiazide and Propranolol were eluted with retention times of 2.033 min and 3.280 min, respectively. The method was continued and validated accordance with ICH guidelines. Validation revealed the method is rapid, specific, accurate, precise, reliable, and reproducible. Calibration curve plots were linear over the concentration ranges 20–60 μg/mL for Hydrochlorothiazide and 20–60 μg/mL for Propranolol. Limits of detection was 0.73 and 0.95 μg/ml and limits of quantification was 2.19 and 3.01 μg/mL for Hydrochlorothiazide and Propranolol, respectively. Conclusion: The statistical analysis was proves the method is suitable for the analysis of Hydrochlorothiazide and Propranolol as a bulk and tablet dosage form in biorelevant dissolution media (Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid-FaSSIF) without any interference from the excipients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002109
Title: Drug-induced parkinsonism: A review
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is the most common etiology in all aged group of people. Many patients with DIP may be misdiagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD) because the clinical feature of these both conditions is indistinguishable. DIP may be usually due to the depleted dopamine (DA) storage. DA deficiency is due to long-term use of typical antipsychotic drugs. In addition to, this DIP may be caused by gastrointestinal pro-kinetics, atypical antipsychotics, antiepileptics, and calcium channel blockers. Moreover, neurological deficits in patients with DIP are severe enough to affect the daily activities. DIP is generally characterized clinically as bilateral and symmetric parkinsonism without tremor at rest. However, about half of the patient shows asymmetrical parkinsonism with tremor at rest which makes it difficult to differentiate DIP from PD. The pathophysiology of DIP is related to the blockage of D2 receptors by antipsychotic drugs in the striatum, and encephalin- containing striatal neurons dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging is useful for diagnosing presynaptic parkinsonism. DAT uptake in the striatum is significantly decreased even in the early stage of PD, and this characteristic may help in differentiating PD from DIP. DIP may have a significant and longstanding effects on the patient. Hence, physicians should be cautious when prescribing dopaminergic receptor blockers and should monitor the patient’s neurological signs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002110
Title: Metformin-induced lactic acidosis: A review
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Metformin is an oral anti-diabetic drug that is widely used alone or in combination with other drugs with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin increases insulin sensitivity, enhances peripheral glucose utilization and decreases glucose uptake in the gastrointestinal tract. Lactic acidosis is characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, which results in an excessively low pH in the bloodstream. Lactic acidosis is about 20 times less frequent with metformin than phenformin. Lactate is produced by the gut, liver, and peripheral tissues during glycolysis and can accumulate during hypoxic conditions. Lactate can either be oxidized to carbon dioxide and water by mitochondria to generate energy or converted back to glucose (gluconeogenesis) in the liver and kidney. When metformin is administered orally, approximately 40% of the dose is absorbed. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is more likely to occur in patients who acutely develop renal impairment from dehydration, vomiting or diarrhea, surgery, etc., especially in elderly subjects who have a reduced glomerular filtration rate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002111
Title: Proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemia - A review
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for prevention and treatment of acid-related diseases. Hypomagnesemia has been recommended as one of the rare effects of the long-term use of PPIs. Hypomagnesemia occurs as a result of impaired magnesium absorption in the intestine. Prolonged hypomagnesemia can result in various systemic defects such as cardiac arrhythmias, tetany, seizures, and electrolytic imbalances such as hypocalcemia and hypokalemia. Magnesium supplement administration provides temporary relief and withdrawal or intermittent use of PPI on long-term therapy (≥1 year) can reduce hypomagnesemia. Monitoring the serum Mg2+ routinely on long-term therapy helps to prevent the occurrence of hypomagnesemia to a great extent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002112
Title: Efficacy of zinc administration in pulmonary tuberculosis patients - A review
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium TB. Low serum concentrations of Vitamin A and zinc are common in TB and may have an adverse effect on host cell-mediated responses. The role of adjunctive micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes is uncertain. The deficiency of zinc observed in patients with TB might have contributed to the development of TB disease in them. Zinc is known to be essential for all highly proliferating cells in the human body, especially the immune system. All kinds of immune cells show decreased function after zinc depletion. Zinc supplementation of patients with pulmonary TB and bacterial pneumonia was shown to increase immune function. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in TB patients. This article brings about the role of zinc and its efficacy in pulmonary TB patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002113
Title: A review on drug-induced nephrotoxicity
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Drug-induced nephrotoxicity (DIN), which is the toxicity in the kidneys, accounts for up to 60% of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury with considerable morbidity and mortality. Nephrotoxicity displays symptoms such as decreased urine output, fluid retention, fatigue, and nausea. One of the chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin, is used to treat cancer in numerous treatments, and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is a common side effect, affecting cancer treatment. Several other drugs such as methotrexate, vancomycin, calcineurin inhibitors, amphotericin B, and aminoglycosides may also lead to nephrotoxicity. Anticancer drugs cause high toxicity leading kidney dysfunction and irreparable kidney injury. Risk for kidney injury is increased by increase in dose and duration of potentially nephrotoxic drugs. Identification of DIN and rapid dose reduction of the offending agents are critical to maximize kidney function recovery.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002114
Title: Knowledge, attitude, practice, behavior, and barrier of community pharmacists toward adverse drug reactions reporting in India: A review
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: We have understood that the Community Pharmacists (CPs) would play a major role in identification, detection, prevention, and management of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as they are highly interacting and dealing with patients. In India, suspected ADR reporting form (red form) has been available since July 2010 for ADR reporting by health-care professionals including pharmacists. We wanted to review knowledge, attitude, practice, behavior, and barrier of CPs toward spontaneous reporting of ADRs in India. Methods: We searched PubMed and Google to identify the results of Indian CPs knowledge, attitude, practice, behavior, and barrier toward spontaneous reporting of ADRs. We used the common survey questionnaire from the selected articles for different topics of interest. Results: A total of 11 articles were taken into consideration for review in which the surveys of 1623 Indian CPs were assessed. The average response rate was observed as 57.66%. 744 (46%) respondents had heard about ADRs. 577 (35.16%) were aware of the National Pharmacovigilance (PV). 562 (70.65%) respondents felt that ADRs should be reported. 258 (29.84%) felt that they are adequately trained on reporting ADRs. 442 (30%) respondents felt that ADR reporting was time-consuming. Only 157 (12.1%) respondents reported ADRs. Conclusion: Awareness of ADR reporting was poor among CPs in India. It is highly recommended to make CPs aware of the National PV Program of ADR reporting in India and educate them the importance of reporting ADRs for the benefit of public in the nation and train them on ADR reporting.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002115
Title: Drug utilization review of bisphosphonates in a tertiary care hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of the study is to present a drug utilization evaluation of bisphosphonates in the postmenopausal women in a tertiary care hospital. The main objective is to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bisphosphonate therapy among the osteoporosis patients. Materials and Methods: A specially designed pro forma was prepared to collect data including patients’ details, physical and laboratory investigation, medical history, and medication history. Informed consent has been obtained from the patients in both English and their local language. Results: Ibandronic acid was the most prescribed bisphosphonates in the study and though 150 mg was prescribed to more number of patients. The PDD in the total population of 200 patients was found to be 5 mg. Conclusion: This study indicates that antiresorptive agents were used in accepted dose regimens.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002116
Title: A review on role of Vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia that is increased blood sugar level, resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs, including eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Vitamin E has antioxidant activity. It may also have antiatherogenic, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, neuroprotective, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cell membrane stabilizing, and antiproliferative actions. Vitamin E is a collective term used to describe eight separate forms, the best-known form being alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and is an important antioxidant. It acts to protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body’s metabolism. Antioxidants such as Vitamin E help protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, complications in DM. It also protects other fat-soluble Vitamins (A and B group vitamins) from destruction by oxygen. Low levels of Vitamin E have been linked to increased incidence of long-time complications in DM. A comprehensive literature search has been carried out in PubMed and Google Scholar, and articles pertaining to complications of intravenous drug use were selected for review.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002117
Title: A single-blinded randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of N-acetyl cysteine over metformin in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of metformin and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on clinical, hormonal, and fertility aspects in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Materials and Methods: Through a prospective randomized study on women with a diagnosis of PCOS without any comorbidity conditions were enrolled and assigned into two groups. Group A with metformin 500 mg thrice a day and Group B with NAC 600 mg thrice a day were prescribed and duration of the treatment was fixed as 12 weeks. After the prescribed duration of treatment, the following parameters such as fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, glucose-insulin ratio, LH, FSH, and LH/FSH ratio were measured and compared between two groups. Results and Discussion: Fifty women of each group completed the study, and it was found those age groups between 25 and 30 years are more prone to have PCOS. Among the two groups, there was a significant difference in body weight, body mass index, and clinical parameters such as FBS, fasting insulin, and hormonal parameters such as LH, FSH, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, and infertility got reduced and it was observed that LH/FSH ratio and glucose/insulin ratio got reduced in both the group but the difference between the two groups were insignificant. Conclusion: The present study concludes that NAC found to improves some clinical features, biochemical markers of insulin resistance and hormonal levels and long-term health of women with PCOS through improvement in peripheral insulin and fewer side effects; thus NAC can be considered as a substitute for insulin-reducing medications in the treatment of PCOS patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002118
Title: A prospective study of drug utilization pattern of cardiac inotropes in cardiac intensive care unit at a tertiary care hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Objective: Inotropes have been fundamental for the resuscitation of acute cardiogenic shock for decades. There are two types of inotropes: Positive inotrope and negative inotrope. Positive inotrope increases the force of contraction of the heart, and negative inotrope weakens the heart beats. There is a marked difference in the usage pattern of inotrope in the treatment of hospitalized patients for various cardiovascular diseases. The main of the study was to analyze the prescribing patterns of cardiac inotropes in the cardiac intensive care unit (CTICU). Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out for the duration of 6 months in the department of CTICU at a tertiary hospital, Chennai. A total of 91 patients were selected for the study. Patient case sheets (including patient demographic details, drug therapy, and laboratory investigations) were used to extract the necessary data. The percentage of data was calculated with the help of Microsoft Excel sheet, and the sample size was calculated using the formula. Results: Of the 91 patients enrolled in the study, majority were male (67) and were found in the age group of 51–60 years. Adrenaline 50 (54.95%) was most commonly prescribed positive inotrope, followed by noradrenaline 37 (40.66%) and dobutamine 35 (38.46%). Amiodarone 18 (19.78%) was most commonly prescribed negative inotropes, followed by propranolol 5 (5.59%) and nicorandil 3 (3.30%). The mean duration of stay in the hospital was 7.42 days. The average number of inotropes prescribed per prescription was 1.71. The average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 13.34. Conclusion: Positive inotropes were the most frequently prescribed drug. Mean number of drugs per prescription were high. The prescribing pattern could be improved by reducing number of drugs in prescription and varies in between positive and negative inotropes to a greater extent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002119
Title: Design and development of dexibuprofen loaded chitosan nanoparticles
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of the present research was formulation and evaluation of anti-inflammatory drug dexibuprofen loaded chitosan-based polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for the controlled release of dexibuprofen using different concentrations of chitosan and surfactant. Materials and Methods: Dexibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug was encapsulated with the polymer by emulsion-droplet coalescence method (DNP1-DNP5). The NPs were characterized by drug content, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Result: DNP3 was selected as best formulation due to its ideal particle size (437.6 nm), high entrapment efficiency (88.54%), and desirable drug release (99.81 ± 0.92% at the end of 24 h). Conclusion: The present study can be concluded that the newly formulated controlled release nanoparticulate drug delivery system of dexibuprofen may be ideal and effective in the management of pain due to arthritis by allowing the drug to release continuously for 24 h.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002120
Title: Evaluation of quercetin‑loaded poly‑lactide‑co‑glycolide acid silver nanoparticles from the ethanolic extract of Mallotus philippensis fruits
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aims and Objectives: Simple approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the ethanolic extract of Mallotus philippensis fruits. Materials and Methods: Quercetin isolated from the fruits of M. philippensis was loaded with poly‑lactide‑co‑glycolide acid (PLGA) by nanoprecipitation technique since nanoparticles improve solubility in aqueous phase and increase its bioavailability. Results and Discussion: About 10 mg of quercetin isolated from the ethanolic fruit extract of M. philippensis was dissolved in acetone and was added with 100 mg of PLGA with the copolymer poloxamer. The physical characterization such as ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform‑infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X‑ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out. The UV results showed the maximum absorption peak at the range of 356–436 nm. FTIR showed the presence of alcohol group, alkane group, and hydroxyl and ether groups. SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 70–339 nm. The XRD pattern revealed that the sample contains crystalline structures of silver nanoparticles. Conclusion: It proves to be an eco‑friendly green novel technology, cost‑effective efficient way for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant extract for protecting human health and environment, leading to lesser waste and safer products

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002121
Title: Screening methods for antihyperlipidemic activity: A review
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Hyperlipidemia is characterized by increased level of cholesterol in the form of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), chylomicrons, very LDL (VLDL), etc. Development of new antihyperlipidemic drugs is a challenging job of researchers because most of the screening procedures are tedious and time-consuming. The present techniques for screening methods for antihyperlipidemic activity could be classified under in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vivo methods include Triton-, PTU-, and high-fat diet- induced hyperlipidemic models. In contrast, the reported in vitro methods are limited and include assay using Caco-2 cell lines and inhibitory activity on 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. There is a lack of simple but sufficiently reproducible and sensitive in vitro technique for screening of antihyperlipidemic activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002122
Title: Evaluation of in vitro rheumatoid arthritis activity of polyherbal ethanolic extract containing formulations for selected potential Indian herbs
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Arthritis has emerged to be a very common disorder affecting statistically one-third of the population. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a polyherbal formulation Polygonum glabrum, Canthium dicoccum, Ochna obtusata, and Argyreia nervosa in treating the disorder arthritis. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of different portions are used to investigate by in vitro inhibition of protein denaturation method using bovine serum, inhibition of protein denaturation method using egg albumin, and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method. Results: The result revealed that the formulations F2 and F4 possessed significant anti-arthritic activity by protein denaturation inhibition and HRBC membrane stabilization comparing with diclofenac sodium, the standard drug used. Conclusion: The study concluded that the above two formulations are an effective inhibitor of protein denaturation and HRBC membrane stabilization which can be used potent anti-arthritic activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002123
Title: A perspective studies on marine Red algae – Hypnea valentiae
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Seaweeds are the potential marine living resources in the world. More than 20,000 seaweeds are distributed throughout the world, of which only 221 (1.1%) are commercially utilized, which includes 145 species for food and 110 species for phycocolloid production (Sahoo, 2000). The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new active substances in the field of the development of bioactive products. Carrageenans are galactans extracted mainly from species belonging to Gigartinales. These sulfated galactans, consist of linear chains of D-galactopyranoses linked. Seaweeds constitute some of the most important reservoirs of new therapeutic compounds for humans. Several of them have been shown to have many biological activities, including anticancer activity, in this present review study is mainly focused on Hypnea valentiae.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00002124
Title: Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of some new quinolinyl chalcone derivatives
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the present study is to synthesize, characterize, and biologically evaluate some new quinolinyl chalcone derivatives. Materials and Methods: In the present study, synthesis of different quinolinyl chalcones is done by synthesizing quinoline moiety by Friedlander synthesis, then it is condensed with different aromatic aldehydes by acid or base catalyzed aldol condensation to form new quinolinyl chalcones derivatives using appropriate purifying techniques such as recrystallization and column chromatography. Results and Discussion: All the compounds were characterized by physical (melting point and thin-layer chromatography) and spectral data (infrared, MASS, and H1 nuclear magnetic resonance). The antibacterial activity of these compounds was tested against two Gram-positive strains Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus and two Gram-negative strains Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli, and the antifungal activity of these compounds was tested against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using Ciprofloxacin and Miconazole nitrate, respectively, as standards at a concentration of 50 µg/ml. Conclusion: The result shows that the presence of fluorine at 4th position, hydroxyl at 2nd , and nitro at 5th position exhibited better activity and considered as lead compounds for generation of new potential antimicrobial agents in future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002125
Title: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism MTHFR A1298C and Rheumatoid arthritis in south indian population
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present study evaluated the influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C polymorphisms on safety and efficacy of methotrexate (MTX). Objective: In this study, the distribution of this polymorphism was assessed in healthy and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients of South India, and then, subset of patients with RA was studied for response and emergence of adverse effects. Methods: A total of 100 RA patients and 50 healthy subjects were participated in the study. The genotype frequencies of different alleles of MTHFR 1298C were assessed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The efficacy parameters were mitigation of morning stiffness, reduction in pain scale, tender and swollen joint counts, improvement in health assessment questionnaire, and disease activity score (DAS), calculated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The adverse effects identified liver transaminases and gastrointestinal adverse effects, during follow-up visit, scheduled at the 3rd month. Results: The genotype frequencies of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism revealed difference in distribution of the alleles AA, AC, and CC were different in healthy and RA patients. It was also found that the distribution was significantly different in comparison to worldwide population reports. The 1298AA allele was found to have significant improvement in efficacy variables and less prone to harmful effects of MTX, whereas 1298CC genotypes were found to be non-responders and more susceptible to adverse effects, despite folate supplementation. Conclusion: The assessment of genotype frequencies reveals differences in distribution of alleles, and closer observation of 1298CC genotypes is warranted to the physicians, as they could emerge as non-responders and prone to adverse effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002126
Title: Formulation and evaluation of hesperidin-loaded chitosan nanosuspension for brain targeting
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neuron in the substantia nigra. Hesperidin is a free radical scavenger that has been shown to have a protective effect against oxidative insults. An antioxidant can neutralize the free radical by accepting or donating an electron to eliminate the unpaired condition. Materials and Methods: Hesperidin- loaded chitosan nanosuspension was prepared by ionic gelation method using tripolyphosphate and chitosan. There was no incompatibility observed between the drug and polymer through Fourier-transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetric. Various other parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, scanning electron microscope, drug content, drug entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release have been utilized for the characterization of nanoparticles. Results and Discussion: The average particle size of 188 nm, zeta potential of 48.7 mV, drug content of 0.470 ± 0.25 mg/ml, and entrapment efficiency of 78.2% are obtained with HPN3 formulation. The HPN1 shows the highest drug release followed by HPN2 due to the low concentration of polymer, and HPN4 and HPN5 show less drug release due to the high concentration of polymer. The in vitro release of HPN3 85.2% showed an initial burst release of approximately 60% in the 1st 8 h, followed by a slow and much reduced additional release for about 24 h. Conclusion: HPN3 was chosen as the best formulation due to its reduced particle size and controlled release at optimum polymer concentration which may be taken for the effective treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002127
Title: A review on applications of natural polymers in gastroretentive drug delivery system
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The objective of this review is to provide the overview of the role of natural polymers in gastroretentive drug delivery system (GRDDS), its characteristics, ongoing research, trend of future developments, and applications in the field. Appropriate articles were searched from Medline database using the search term “Natural Polymer and Gastric,” restricted search for the past 5 years and accessed only 21 open access articles to narrate this review. The approach of various natural polymers in industrial applications such as medicine, agriculture, and similar areas is growing rapidly in this era. It was observed biodegradable and non-toxic materials like the natural polymers are evident by the mounting level of its use in the pharmaceutical field. Using various natural polymers have been aiding the drug delivery systems for prolongation of time as the drug transporters with the objective of improving bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. The use of natural polymers in novel drug delivery like GRDDS to possess floating or mucoadhesive in the gastric system for the benefit of increasing gastric resident time and to improve therapeutic efficacy, particularly those drugs are having narrow therapeutic index such as carvedilol, itopride, and glipizide. The physical characteristics of natural polymers facilitates sustained, swelling, and mucoadhesive nature based on literature reviewed, therefore, natural polymers also suitable to GRDDS as like synthetic or semi-synthetic polymers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002129
Title: An overview on novel approach of transdermal drug delivery systems
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDSs) are polymeric patches with drugs are designed to deliver a therapeutically active agent through the skin. TDDS provides better patient acceptability and compliance over the oral route of administration. The system has improved therapeutic efficacy and safety of the drugs because it deliverers through the skin layer of the patient at a controlled and predetermined rate. As skin is an effective medium from which absorption of the drug takes place and it enters the circulatory system to maintain steady-state blood concentration. The system is a desirable form of drug delivery because of the merits such as pain-free self-administration for patients and avoids the first-pass metabolism over other routes of delivery systems. In this article, an outline of the TDDS, merits over conventional drug delivery system, skin layers, various components of transdermal systems, permeability enhancers, applications, and evaluation parameters of transdermal system were discussed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002130
Title: Effect of patient-specific variables on rifampicin peak serum concentration
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a common infectious disease with high mortality rate across the globe. In spite of effective strategies and treatment modalities, it remains a global burden due to emergence of drug-resistant bacillary strains. Rifampicin is a potent bactericidal agent used in the antitubercular regimen whose altered pharmacokinetic profile, and decreased systemic bioavailability has been strongly associated with treatment failure and emergence of drug-resistant strains. In our current study, peak serum concentration of rifampicin was studied in pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients with PTB who volunteered participation were enrolled into the study. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and drug concentration was determined using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Logistic regression models were used to determine the effect of patient-specific variables on rifampicin serum concentrations. Results: Interindividual variability was observed in serum rifampicin concentrations. Serum concentrations of rifampicin were found to be decreased in diabetic patients. Body weight, serum albumin, and blood glucose were found to be inversely correlated with rifampicin concentrations. Conclusion: Dosing individualization of rifampicin should be considered in patients with the identified factors so as to decrease the incidence of treatment failures, drug-resistant bacilli emergence, and adverse drug reactions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00002131
Title: Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of some novel derivatives of Benzoin
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The main objective of the present study is to synthesize some derivatives of Benzoin that shows promising antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity. Methods: In the current research work, some derivatives of benzoin were synthesized by targeting its ketone group by reacting with various hydrazines, semi carboxamide, and hydroxylamine. The purity of the synthesized derivatives and completion of reaction were confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and was characterized by infrared studies. The pure derivatives are then screened for antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis at various concentrations (25–200 µl) and anthelmintic activity against Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) at the concentrations (100–500 µl). Results: The synthesized derivatives B2, B3, B5, NB3, NB4, and NB5 showed good–to-moderate antibacterial activity comparable with the standard drug and compounds B5, NB3, and NB5 exhibited promising anthelmintic activity when compared with standard. Conclusion: All the synthesized derivatives of benzoin were found to have good antimicrobial activity and anthelmintic activity when compared with standard.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002132
Title: Formulation and evaluation of budenoside loaded PLGA nanoparticles
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate the nanoparticulate drug delivery system for the controlled release of budesonide to control asthma, inflammatory bowel diseases and its associated disease condition. Materials and Methods: To achieve the above objective, budesonide nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by solvent displacement technique using various concentrations of PLGA (PNP1-PNP5). The effects of increase in polymer concentration in various parameters like particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release profile were studied. Results: The results showed that the in vitro drug release for PNP1, PNP2, PNP3, PNP4 and PNP5 were found to be 99.57 ± 0.29, 99.61 ± 0.32, 99.54 ± 0.21, 99.58 ± 0.38 and 99.61 ± 0.28 respectively. Based on the in vitro drug release profile of budesonide NP formulations (PNP1-PNP5) the trail PNP5 was selected as the best formulation in which the particle size was 170.3 nm and drug: Polymer in the ratio of 1:3 (budesonide 100 mg: 300 mg of PLGA).The in vitro % drug release of PNP5 formulation was 99.61 ± 0.28 and it was found to be desirable for the controlled release of budesonide. Conclusion: The present study can be concluded that the newly formulated controlled release nanoparticulate drug delivery systems of Budesonide may be ideal and effective to control the asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and other associated disease condition by allowing the drug release continuously for 24 h.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002133
Title: Design, formulation, and in vitro evaluation of sustained release tablets for losartan potassium
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The purpose of the present research investigation was to formulate sustained release (SR) formulations for losartan potassium using 32 factorial designs. Methods: Losartan potassium is an antihypertensive agent, non-peptide angiotensin-II receptor (type AT1) blocker, and BCS class-III agent. SR tablet formulations of losartan potassium were formulated using variable quantities of hydroxymethyl propyl cellulose (HPMC) K100M and xanthan gum in combinations by direct compression technique. The amount of polymers, HPMC K100M, and xanthan gum required to achieve the drug release was selected as independent variables, X1 and X2 , respectively, whereas time required to release 10% (t 10%), 50% (t 50%), 75% (t 75%), and 90% (t 90%) of drug from formulation was selected as dependent variables. Nine formulations were prepared and evaluated for various pharmacopoeial tests. Results: The results reveal that all formulations were found to be with in the pharmacopoeial limits and in vitro drug release profiles of all formulations were subjected to kinetic modeling. The statistical parameters such as intercept, slope, and correlation coefficient were determined. Polynomial equations were developed for dependent variables. Validity of developed polynomial equations was checked by designing two checkpoint formulations (C1 and C2 ). According to SUPAC guidelines, formulation (F4 ) containing mixture of 15% HPMC K100M and 20% xanthan gum is the most identical formulation (similarity factor f2 = 86.747, dissimilarity factor f1 = 1.760, and no significant difference, t = 0.0477) to marketed product (LOSACAR). Conclusion: Best Formulation F4 follows the first-order, Higuchi kinetics, and the mechanism of drug release was found to be non-Fickian diffusion anomalous transport (n = 0.825).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002134
Title: Formulation and evaluation of non-effervescent floating tablets of linagliptin using low-density carriers
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Objective: The objective of the present work was to formulate floating tablets containing linagliptin to provide a prolonged effect and improve bioavailability in the treatment of type II diabetes. Materials and Methods: Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme inhibitor used in the treatment of type-II diabetes. It is rapidly absorbed after oral intake and has 30% of bioavailability while remaining drug is excreted unchanged in urine and enterohepatic system. Due to its lower bioavailability and absorption is more at acidic pH conditions, it is selected as a suitable drug for the design of a gastroretentive floating drug delivery system with a view to improve its bioavailability. Linagliptin non-effervescent floating tablets can be prepared by direct compression method using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K15, HPMC E15, and chitosan as polymers and Accurel, Gelucire as low-density carriers. Results and Discussion: The Fourier transform-infrared spectra revealed that there was no interaction between polymers an drug; hence, they are compatible. The formulations were evaluated for pharmacopoeial quality control tests and all the physical parameters evaluated were within the acceptable limits. Linagliptin non-effervescent floating tablets were remained buoyant for more than 20 h. The optimized formulation F1 gave 98% of drug release in 20 h with floating lag time of 22 s and total floating time more than 20 h. Conclusion: This study shows that optimum concentration of polymer and low-density carrier increases bioavailability. Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulation F1 for 3 months at 40°C/75% RH. Finally, it was observed that there was no change in physiochemical and physical properties as well as in drug release profile even after storage at 45°C and 75% for 3 months.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002136
Title: Comparison of safety and effectiveness of ondansetron and domperidone in patients with gastrointestinal problems
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the safety and effectiveness of ondansetron and domperidone in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) problems. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational comparative study design was used with the help of data entry forms and regular ward round participation. The numeric scoring system was used to evaluate the efficacy assessment of ondansetron and domperidone in time interval 0–24 h. Results: The study was conducted in 100 patients. 50 patients were treated with ondansetron. 50 patients were treated with domperidone. 20% was suffering from peptic ulcer. 20% was suffering from GERD. 20% was suffering from duodenal ulcer. 30% was suffering from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced ulcer. 10% was suffering from other GI problems. Conclusion: In the management of GI disturbance patients, ondansetron was found to be more effective than domperidone, and hence, it is considered better than domperidone as ondansetron shows better efficacy than domperidone.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002137
Title: Ifosfamide drug stability: A formulation challenge
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Although ifosfamide is usually formulated as a sterile solution and delivered as intravenous injection, major efforts in both academic and industrial laboratories have been directed toward developing effective oral formulations and increasing the oral absorption of ifosfamide through the use of formulations that protect the drug and/or enhance its uptake into the intestinal mucosa. However, in spite of these major attempts, relatively little progress has been made. For the efficient delivery of ifosfamide by non-parenteral route, in particular through the gastrointestinal tract, novel concepts are needed to overcome significant diffusion barriers. The properties of ifosfamide, which are of major interest in oral delivery, are highlighted in the article. This article reviews the various problems associated and novel approaches for formulation and development of oral ifosfamide delivery systems.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002138
Title: Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice of pharmacist in providing patient counseling on urinary tract infection and its treatment
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most commonly occurring bacterial infections and accounts for 8 million patient visits annually to the hospital and clinics. Health-care professional plays main role in the community health. Objective: Of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of pharmacists in providing patient counseling on UTIs. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study with 100 sample sizes of pharmacist and pharmacy students. Questionnaires were prepared and validated after conducting pilot study. The finalized questionnaire was used to assess the KAP of community pharmacist and pharmacy students. The data were collected, scored and then the results were statistically analyzed and compared. Results: KAP score shows that 4.56, 5.34, and 3.88 and 7.02, 6.68, and 6.72 of pharmacist and internship student for their KAP, respectively. Conclusion: From the present study, an unwelcomed result which shows that community pharmacist scored low when compared to the pharmacy internship students. Community pharmacists were directly involved in dispensing the medicines to public, their knowledge to be upgraded is a prerequisite. Academic conclaves involving faculty from universities and customer educating concerts by pharmaceutical marketing teams educating them would improve their current level of knowledge and makes them competent enough for the public health-care service in future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002139
Title: A prospective study on the effect of sodium intake on renal function in hypertensive patients
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The association between salt intake and renal outcome in subjects with preserved kidney functions in hypertension patients remains unclear. However, high salt intake might adversely affect blood pressure (BP) and renal function. The objective of the study was to assess the association between sodium (salt) intake and renal function in patients with hypertension. Methods: About 100 patients (male 76% and female 33%) of mean age 43 ± 8 years diagnosed with hypertensive (systolic BP 140–160 mmHg and diastolic 90–100 mmHg) in a tertiary care hospital were assessed. BP, 24 h urinary salt, and creatinine (Cr) excretion levels were measured. Results: The level of Cr clearance was significantly increased (P = 0.003**) in line with the increase of sodium intake. The study revealed that there was an association between the amounts of sodium intake and reservation of renal function in hypertension state was observed. Conclusion: The results suggest that the high salt intake promotes a decline in renal function in hypertensive patients, and thus, salt restriction is encouraged to prevent renal damage in higher degrees of hypertension.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002140
Title: Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn.
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dichrostachys cinerea (Family - Mimosaceae), known as “Viddathalai” in Tamil, is well-known plant used in the traditional system of medicines such as Ayurveda and Siddha. The traditional plant is commonly used by tribal of India and South Africa. The plant is claimed to possess more therapeutic medicinal uses such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic also used in rheumatism, urinary calculi, and in diarrhea, which is evident from traditional knowledge. Methods: Based on the literature review, the proposed study is intended to validate scientifically the folklore claims for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity. Therein, an attempt has been made for screening the various inflammation-associated activities as per standard protocols to prove its efficacy on support of folklore uses. Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of leaf, stem bark, and root revealed that petroleum ether extract showed the presence of terpenoid and steroid. Chloroform extract has shown the presence of glycosides, the alcoholic extract showed the presence of tannin, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds. Aqueous extract showed positive test for saponin and tannins. The acute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of D. cinerea leaf (EDCL), ethanolic extract of D. cinerea bark (EDCB), and ethanolic extract of D. cinerea root (EDCR) carried out revealed that all the extracts were not toxic up to 2000 mg/kg. Hence, the tested extracts were found to be within the safe margin. The results of the different parameter carried out for 28 days in subacute toxicity studies of EDCL, EDCB, and EDCR did not reveal any toxic effect in the two dose levels tested by biochemical and histopathological examination and have wide safety margin. The test extracts, namely, leaf, stem bark, and root extract were found to show significant analgesic activity in both centrally and peripherally mediated analgesia. Anti-inflammatory screening indicates that stem bark, leaf, and root were effective in acute model, whereas stem bark is ineffective in chronic model. The results of antioxidant activity act as a prelude for anti-inflammatory study and these are attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents tested in our extracts. Conclusion: The data retrieved from the observations have been formulated into a diagnostic protocol of Dichrostachys cinerea. The promising biological activities will definitely lead to develop a new drug from the plant and also form the foundation for a future research work in bioactivity-guided isolation of active principles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00002141
Title: Application of phytochemicals for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Neurodegeneration is defined as the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons which includes amyotrophic sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. Many neurodegenerative diseases are caused by genetic mutations; however, multiple biological processes can cause neurodegeneration. Synthetic drugs are widely used for the treatment of most neurodegenerative disorders which are reported to cause side effects during the treatment. Researchers identified some naturally occurring chemical compounds in plants, i.e., phytochemical through various research programs, and these are used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases. Phytochemicals are generally accepted to be safe with minimal side effects. In this review, we comprehensively compiled the plant-derived compounds such as polyphenol, isothiocyanate, alkaloid, and cannabinoid, and other important phytochemicals reported possess beneficial effect in neurodegenerative disorders. These phytochemical compounds have various effects such as neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions. In the case of phytochemical studies, different plants and plant parts containing many valuable constituents such as lignans, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenes, and sterols, and these constituents are exhibit neuroregeneration or neuroprotective effect. Many Ayurvedic formulations prepared from various plants are claimed to possess neurostimulant activity, thus improving the symptomatic conditions in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. The folklore medicine has also possessed a significant contribution identifying neurotonic and nerve stimulants. The systematic ethanopharmacological studies had yielded highly reliable results in exploring the phytochemical agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. This review article will provide the researchers comprehensive information about the plants and the mechanisms elucidated by them through in vivo or in vitro studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002142
Title: A review on the role of estrogen, estrogen receptor and signaling pathways in breast carcinogenesis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Estrogens were one of the primary female sex hormones, and it plays an important role in both reproductive and non-reproductive systems. It can also be synthesized in non-reproductive tissue as liver, heart, muscle, bone, and brain. The estradiol (E2) was considered to be a major estrogen hormone which is involved in the progression of breast cancer, and a majority of the human breast cancers start out as estrogen dependent and express the estrogen receptor (ER). Interruption of ER function mainly (ER)-α in breast cancer is an effective therapeutic strategy. HOXB13, IL17BR, and CHDH are estrogen-regulated genes where their prognostic utility is likely to impact on their regulation through both ER- and HER2-dependent pathways. Genomic and extranuclear signaling pathways are the main two estrogen signaling pathway where estradiol acts on the ER. In the genomic pathway, estradiol (E2) binds to ER-α and relocalizes estrogen to estrogen-responsive elements and promotes target genes expression. In the extranuclear signaling pathways, rapid E2 signaling activates PI3K/Akt/mTOR and eRK/mitogen-activating protein kinase pathway. Thus, estrogen signal regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle, following control cell or tissue growth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002143
Title: Docetaxel-loaded chitosan nanoparticles to enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy in lung cancer
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: The purpose of the research is to prepare an optimized chitosan nanoparticle for Docetaxel. Method: Docetaxel- loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by water in oil emulsion cross-linking method. Response surface methodology using the Box–Behnken design was used to optimize the formulations of docetaxel-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Results: The drug entrapment efficiency, drug loading efficiency, particle size, and zeta potential of docetaxel-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were 93.10%, 8.17%, 100 nm, and −24.17 mV, respectively. Transmission electron microscope of the optimized nanoparticles showed spherical particles. Furthermore, docetaxel-loaded chitosan nanoparticles displayed the highest cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells. The result indicated that the docetaxel nanoparticle had sustained release efficacy. The results indicated that the nanoparticles could deliver docetaxel mainly to lung after iv. injection to mice and the concentration of docetaxel in lung (781.4 ng/g, 0.25 h) was significantly higher than those in other tissue and plasma. Conclusion: The nanoparticle formulation demonstrated a promising perspective for the targeted delivery of docetaxel for lung cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002144
Title: A retrospective study on drug utilization evaluation of analgesics for palliative pain management
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this present study is to evaluate the use of analgesics for the management of pain in the palliative care patients. The secondary objective was to evaluate the choice of analgesic selection for the management of various kinds of pain in these patients. Objective: The perception of pain is always a point of concern. Chronic malignant pain occurs in a potentially life-threatening illness. The aim of this present study is to evaluate the use of analgesics for the management of pain in palliative care patients. Study Design: A retrospective study has been carried out with the help of patient’s case sheets. Case sheets of 200 patients had been obtained for the study. Data were collected from the case sheets between the years 2012 and 2015. Results: It can be seen that 56.09% patients had lung carcinoma. The most common drug being given for palliative pain management is Morphine. The other drug that was given predominantly was Tramadol. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac and ibuprofen were also been given to the patients. Corticosteroids such as dexamethasone were also given, sodium valproate is also given for the management of neuropathic pain. Opioids were found to be much efficient than non-opioid analgesics (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study concludes that the goal of physicians is “to cure sometimes, to relieve often, and to comfort always.” Careful attention to the science and art of pain management and comfort is every bit as important as cure. Death is inevitable; suffering is not.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002154
Title: Effectiveness of chlorhexidine and warm saline mouth rinses against bacterial colonization on silk suture material in third molar surgery - A clinicomicrobiological study
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Sutures are used for approximation of wound margins and to promote wound healing. Post-operative wound care is essential for uneventful wound healing. Normal saline rinse, chlorhexidine mouthwashes, and hydrogen peroxide diluted with saline or fresh tap water are some of the frequently used mouth rinses used to maintain clean sutured wounds in intraoral surgery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine and warm saline mouth rinses against bacterial colonization on silk suture material in third molar surgery through microbiological analysis. Methods: This was a split-mouth prospective randomized clinical study involving a total of 25 patients requiring lower third molar surgery bilaterally. After the extraction of the third molar on the left side, all the participants were instructed to use warm saline mouth rinse (Group 1) from the 2nd post-operative day to the 7th post-operative day. 15 days later, the third molar surgery was done on the contralateral side followed by the use of 0.2% concentration of chlorhexidine mouth rinse (Group 2) from the 2nd post-operative day to the 7th post-operative day. Microbial analysis from silk suture was performed; data were analyzed in SPSS software and results obtained. Results: Bacterial adherence to sutures (colony-forming units of bacteria) was more in Group 1 compared to Group 2, and the results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Wound healing was complete and satisfactory in both the groups on the 15th post-operative day, and none of the patients developed suture site infection. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that chlorhexidine mouth rinse following third molar surgery plays a promising role in reducing the amount of bacterial colonization on silk suture.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002155
Title: Review on a herbal anticoagulant - Indian Musa species
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The genus Musa compresses of 70 species. It is a large herb with false stem compound inflorescence with large leaves belong to Musaceae family. It is largely cultivated and used as staple food around the world. In India, it is largely consumed for many therapeutic values. Its medicinally used to treat laxative, constipation, intestinal lesions, diabetes, bladder stone, anticoagulant activity on blood. It was shown that it has been much evaluated for anticoagulant properties. Hence, the present study was aimed to focus for the collection of scientific data to merge together the anticlotting properties of Indian Musa species extract and its isolated phytocompounds. The present review work was concluded.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002156
Title: A review docking studies: In silico methodologies for a better computational approach
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Molecular docking methodology explores the behavior of small molecules in the binding site of a target protein. As more protein structures are determined experimentally using X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, molecular docking is increasingly used as a tool in drug discovery. Docking against homology-modeled targets also becomes possible for proteins whose structures are not known. With the docking strategies, the druggability of the compounds and their specificity against a particular target can be calculated for further lead optimization processes. Molecular docking programs perform a search algorithm, in which the conformation of the ligand is evaluated recursively until the convergence to the minimum energy is reached. Finally, an affinity scoring function, ΔG (U total in kcal/mol), is employed to rank the candidate poses as the sum of the electrostatic and Van der Waals energies. The driving forces for these specific interactions in biological systems aim toward complementarities between the shape and electrostatics of the binding site surfaces and the ligand or substrate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002157
Title: Assessment of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive and non-hypertensive postmenopausal women in a tertiary care hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the cardiovascular risk in hypertension and non-hypertensive postmenopausal women and impart pharmacist education in hypertension management. Methodology: A prospective observational study was conducted at the tertiary care hospital in Chennai providing comprehensive medical care in all areas. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect patient data including their demographic details and lipid profile. The patient was initially assessed for cardiovascular risk followed by their blood pressure using mercury sphygmomanometer. Then, pharmacist education for the management of hypertension was provided and followed up for their next visit. Results and Conclusion: On assessing the cardiovascular risk, 52 (52.92%) hypertensive women are in moderate risk whereas only 12 (11.08%) of non-hypertensive women are in moderate risk. During the measurement of baseline blood pressure before intervention, 54 (51.9%) were in pre-hypertensive stage, 26 (25.0%) were in Stage-1, 6 (5.8%) were in Stage-I, and 18 (17.3%) were non-hypertensive. After intervention 34 (32.7%) were in pre-hypertensive stage, 19 (18.3%) were in Stage-1, and non-hypertensive cases were 51 (49.0%). The Chi-square value was found to be 27.417, and the study was significant (P = 0.000).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002158
Title: Development of eco-friendly mosquito repellents with emphasis on herbal formulation and evaluation
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Objective: Traditional plants are safe and non-toxic alternative to synthetic chemicals against mosquito- borne diseases. The present investigation is aimed to evaluate the mosquito repellent activity of Ricinus communis oil (seeds), Eugenia caryophyllus (flower buds), Foeniculum vulgare (fruits), and Vitex negundo (leaves) in plant natural form of herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: The plant materials (R. communis oil [seeds], E. caryophyllus [flower buds], F. vulgare [fruits], and V. negundo [leaves]) were collected and subjected to cold maceration for 7 days using castor oil as solvent. The obtained extract were formulated into repellent coil, repellent cream, and repellent candle. These formulations were evaluated for repellent activity using standard methods under proper laboratory conditions. Results: The maximum efficacy was observed in candle when compared with coil and cream formulation. The candle formulation gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person. The Aedes aegypti showed prominent highest mortality rate, at the candle formulation with **P < 0.05 statistically significant value. These results established a correlation between the protection percentages with increasing concentration. Conclusion: Discovery of natural products, with potent phytoconstituents that have insecticidal properties, may help overcome problems of chemical insecticide resistance. However, the present study showed that all the three formulations do not harm the subjected persons during the study time.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002159
Title: Pharmacist-patient interaction and medication history interview on psoriasis patients
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Psoriasis is a common, chronic skin disease labeling from both the community and individuals due to its effects on appearance. Objectives: The main objective of this study is to describe and explain the percentage of the people affected with psoriasis. The present research is a study of patients aimed to evaluate the pharmacist-patient interactions and medication history interview on psoriasis at Limat Multispeciality Hospital, Padur, Chennai. Methods: A total of 100 patients were selected randomly and were interviewed for the psoriasis, in two sessions (morning and evening). Results: After the interview, it was seen that most of the people affected were from semi-urban areas who are earning 1000–3000 mid-aged persons and mostly married male persons are affected with the disease. In most of the people, the detection of the disease is between 1 and 5 years of time period, according to the affected people survey, most of the people were affected on their body with moderate severity. For the psoriasis, the treatment can be through topical, UVB, and oral; nowadays, the treatment mostly used is topical. Conclusion: All the patients are needed a further awareness on the psoriasis and need advanced treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00002160
Title: Microbial contamination of dental care clothing - a quantitative study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Scrubs and white coats are worn by health-care professionals in clinical environment as a part of personal protective equipment. Scrubs, white coats, and uniforms of dental personnel are spattered by saliva, aerosols, and blood, and there is definite risk of infection through various transmissible pathogens. The main aim of this study was to determine the level of bacterial contamination presents on disposable surgical dental care clothing worn over scrubs of dental students to assess the risk of spread of nosocomial infection in our dental institution. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among postgraduate dental students who performed various dental procedures including extraction and minor oral surgical procedures such as impaction, transalveolar extractions, and alveoloplasty in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. A total of 45 participants who were treated in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery were included in the study. Several samples were collected from different regions of disposable surgical dental care clothing of the students and sent for microbiological analysis. Results: Bacterial colony counts were greater in cultures obtained from the sleeve cuffs of the surgical dental care clothing compared with the neck region (collar region). Bacterial colony counts cultured following alveoloplasty procedure were greater in number when compared to transalveolar extraction procedure. Conclusion: From our study, it is concluded that disposable dental care clothing is highly contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and the results of the study strictly mandate the use of personal protective surgical dental care clothing before minor surgical procedures to prevent cross infection in the dental clinic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-CT-00002161
Title: Evaluation of dental students’ (interns) perception and level of confidence regarding fixed partial denture procedures for successful prosthodontic treatment
Category: Clinical trials
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The ability to self-assess is a critical skill that all health professionals must be able to do, to achieve competence. This is essential for the dental students that their education and practice apply for different clinical and paraclinical procedures and to assess proper knowledge of fixed partial denture (FPD) are necessary among working dental students. Aim: The aim of this study is to obtain information about dental students, perceptions, and self-confidence levels regarding FPD procedures. Materials and Method: A self-administered questionnaire with 20 questions was prepared and circulated among 100 dental interns of two different colleges. Level of confidence was rated using five-point rating scale. Data collection and analysis will be done based on frequencies and percentage values using SPSS software. Results: Of 100 dental interns, 33.18% were confident, 20.56% were very confident, 27.64% were little confident, 16% were very little confident, 2.64% had no confident in FPD procedures, and the results were significant statistically. Conclusion: Awareness among the dental interns about FPD procedure can help in eliminating any negative image of the FPD procedure in patient’s mind due to lack of knowledge.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002162
Title: Perception and knowledge of dental interns regarding implant procedure for successful prosthodontic treatment
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The ability to self-assess is a critical skill that all health professionals must be able to do, to achieve competence. This is essential for the dental students that their education and practice apply for different clinical and paraclinical procedures. A dental implant is an artificial tooth root that is placed into your jaw to hold a replacement tooth or bridge, and proper knowledge of implant procedure is necessary among working dental students. Aim: The aim of this study is to obtain information about dental students’ perceptions and self-confidence levels regarding implant procedures. Materials And Methods: A self-administered questionnaire with 20 questions were prepared and circulated among 50 dental interns of two different colleges (n = 100). Level of confidence will be rated using five-point rating scale. Data collection and analysis will be done based on frequencies and percentage values using the SPSS software. Results: In this present study, 39.11% of the dental interns were very confident regarding the knowledge of implant procedures, 34.43% of them were confident in convincing the patient for implant, 11.68% of them were still finding a way to convince the patient, 0.31% of them had very little confident, whereas 4.47% had no confidence on implant procedures at all. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that though implantology has become an important part of the undergraduate teaching program in most of the institutions, the level of understanding and complete awareness among the students regarding implant therapy is poor. Necessary changes should be undertaken to standardize the teaching curriculum in dental institution.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002163
Title: Fabrication and evaluation of polylactic acid membrane for drug delivery system
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect. There are some common ways of drug delivery system that are oral, sublingual, rectal, urogenital, nasal, ophthal, transmucosal, parenteral, and inhalation. Aim: The aim of this study is the fabrication and evaluation of polylactic acid (PLA) membrane for newer drug releasing system. Materials and Methods: PLA (0.5 g, 1.0 g, and 1.5 g) was dissolved in n-methyl pyrrolidone and 50 mg of oxacillin was added to each of these solutions. The PLA solutions containing oxacillin were transferred to 3 Petri dishes, and the solvent was evaporated by keeping the samples in a hot air oven at a temperature of 60°C. The drug release was estimated using ultraviolet spectrophotometer at 24 h intervals at a wavelength of 365. Results: During the 1st h, there exists a burst effect, which may be due to drug lying beneath the surface of the membrane dissolving faster than drug crystals embedded in the center of the spheres, and for every 24 h, the drug released from the membrane has been calculated. Conclusion: Here, the bulk of drug was entrapped within the membrane. Hence, more porous PLA forms such as sponges, microspheres, and electrospun fibers would need to be explored as suitable carriers for drug delivery system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002164
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice about post-implant prescription of analgesics - A survey among clinicians in Chennai
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental implants are the most sort treatment modality in recent days. There is little guidance available regarding pre- and post-operative pain management. Although it is accepted that majority of patients will experience mild- to-moderate pain, following implant surgery, a degree of such pain is anticipated post-operatively. It is crucial that the clinician provides effective analgesia in this period. Aim: The aim of our study is to assess the knowledge, awareness, and practice, among Indian dentists, on the prescription pattern of analgesic drugs during routine oral implant surgery in normal healthy patients. Materials and Methods: A well-structured online multiple choice-based structured questionnaire was formulated with 14 questions. The sample size was chosen by simple randomized sampling as 100 dentists in Chennai, practising dental implant surgery as a treatment modality. The questionnaire was circulated to 100 participants including postgraduate students, staffs in institutions, and private practitioners, and results were tabulated. Results: The data acquired from this survey exhibited that 96% of dentists prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for analgesic effects and post-implant placement. Most commonly, they were prescribed after stage - I of implant therapy (80%). Most dentists reported prescribing NSAIDs, orally (86%) for twice a day (71%), for almost a week (60%). Dentists also preferred prescribing combination analgesic (66%). Of the population studied, 87% of dentists did not encounter any side effects. Only, 65% of dentists prescribed medications, by specifically targeting the side effects. Adjunctive prescription of steroids was done by only 47%. The data were compiled and represented graphically. Conclusion: Pain management in dentistry can be a challenging task. Hence, the necessity for prescription of analgesics becomes mandatory. The survey conducted highlights the need for bolstering awareness among dentists with respect to proper prescription of analgesics in the course of implant treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00002165
Title: In vitro anticancer activity of extract fractions resulted from fermented endophytic fungi on Taxus sumatrana
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Objectives: This study aims to determine the effects of anticancer, the effective concentration of extract fractions, and which type of bacteria produce the best activity in inhibiting the growth of T47D cancer cells. Methods: A total of seven endophytic bacteria isolated from Taxus sumatrana plant. Each bacterium was fermented and then extracted using three different solvents, i.e., n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol. These extracts tested its anticancer activity using T47D cell line with cisplatin as a positive control. Results: It was found that not all fermented extracts of bacterial endophytic plants T. sumatrana were able to inhibit the growth of T47D cancer cells. The active extracts were n-hexane extracts from the bacterium TsC1, ethyl acetate extract from the bacterium TsC2, n-hexane extract from the bacterium TsC3, butanol extract from the bacterium TsC4, n-hexane extract from the bacterium TsC5, ethyl acetate extract from the bacteria, and extract of ethyl acetate and butanol extract from bacterium TsC7. The results obtained were statistically tested using a Random Complete Block Design with a 95% confidence level. Conclusions: The best effective extract, when compared with cisplatin, is the fraction of ethyl acetate and butanol from the bacterium TsC7.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002166
Title: Recent advances in the management of dry socket - A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Alveolar osteitis is a well-known post-extraction complication. It is commonly known as “dry socket,” a common post- operative problem that results in severe pain. The prevention methods include avoiding smoking before and after surgery, atraumatic surgery, the use of antibiotics, such as, azithromycin, chlorhexidine rinse or gel, use of sutures and local hemostatic, low level laser, Alvogyl and the Salicept patch, eugenol on a gauze strip, and a thermosetting gel containing 2.5% prilocaine and 2.5% lidocaine. Plasma rich in growth factors can also be effective in the reduction of dry socket incidence. This article reviews about the new advances, drugs, and materials used for dry socket management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002167
Title: Full mouth rehabilitation of a patient with mandibular implant screw-retained fp-3 prosthesis opposing maxillary natural dentition: A case report
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A hybrid denture is one that is fabricated over a metal framework and retained by screws threaded into the implant abutments. The anterior part of a mandibular hybrid denture is fixed on implants, while the posterior part of the denture is extended and cantilevered from implants producing a passive-fitting substructure for a fixed removable screw-retained hybrid prosthesis which is arguably one of the most technically complex tasks in implant dentistry. The technique presented may not initially produce a perfectly passive framework, but the use of disclosing media and adjusting the internal aspect of the casting can result in nonbinding, fully seated prostheses. The rehabilitation of edentulous patients with hybrid dentures has been observed to achieve greater masticatory function and psychological satisfaction than with conventional complete dentures. This article presents the fabrication of a mandibular implant retained hybrid prosthesis opposing a maxillary natural dentition.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00002168
Title: A review on anti-dengue activity of selected plant species from Meliaceae family
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Dengue is one of the most serious arthropod infections, which has become a life-threatening in India. Mosquitoes have become one of the major life-threatening parasites in Asian countries nowadays. Dengue virus which is spread by Aedes aegypti has become a challenging one to control its breed and the fever caused by it. Toona ciliata and Melia azadirachta of Meliaceae family have proved for its antiviral and antiparasitic activity is due to the secondary metabolites such as limonoids, polyphenols, and tannins from its experimental and clinical studies. Limonoids, a secondary metabolite from these plants, exhibit a wide range of biological properties including anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antiviral activities. Polyphenols are most abundant antioxidant found in these plants. The phenolic compounds are divided into phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, and stilbenes. Tannins may be employed medicinally in antidiarrheal, hemostatic, and antihemorrhoidal compounds. They have been also reported to have antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic effects. The aim of this review article is to discuss the importance of the plants belonging to the Meliaceae family which has potent action against the dengue virus which is found in abundant in India have to be used by following its traditional values.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002169
Title: Knowledge and awareness among undergraduate dental students regarding oral health of diabetes mellitus patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease which is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity affecting all the age group worldwide. Periodontal disease, xerostomia, and dental caries are the most common oral complications of DM. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of undergraduate dental students regarding the oral health of DM patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Saveetha Dental College, using a self-administered, closed-ended questionnaire with 18 questions to assess the knowledge and awareness of 150 undergraduate dental students regarding the oral health of DM patients. Data collected were statistically analyzed and the results were obtained. Results: 93.3% of the students were aware that fungal and bacterial infections are superadded in diabetes, and 80.6% of the students were aware that diabetes causes halitosis. 81.3% of the students were aware that diabetes causes dental caries and only 56% of the students routinely checked random blood sugar levels in patients before the start of dental procedure. Conclusion: According to the current study, the knowledge and awareness regarding the oral health of DM patients were good among majority of the undergraduate dental students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002170
Title: Extraction methods and varieties affect total anthocyanins content in acidified extract of papery skin of onion (Allium cepa L.)
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Anthocyanins are water-soluble red pigments. Anthocyanins have anticarcinogenic activity and reduce the risk of stroke and heart disease. Onion (Allium cepa L.) papery skin contains anthocyanin but rarely used. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of extraction methods and varieties on total anthocyanin content in acidified extract of onion papery skin varieties Bima Brebes and Maja Cipanas. Total anthocyanin contents are determinated by differential pH method. The anthocyanin was extracted with a mixture of 70% ethanol and 2N hydrochloric acid pH 1.0 by maceration, percolation, reflux extraction, and Soxhlet extraction. Total anthocyanin contents are more extracted in soaking method (maceration and reflux extraction) than flowing solvent method (percolation and Soxhlet extraction). Total anthocyanin contents of Maja Cipanas are more stable than Bima Brebes. The extraction method and onion varieties affect total anthocyanin contents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002171
Title: Co-Administration of D Serine with Sodium Benzoate attenuates Ketamine Neurodegeneration in IMR 32 cell lines
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Ketamine is a commonly used veterinary anesthetic agent and it is abused since it is a recreational agent. It is being reported that ketamine-induced neurodegeneration is a common syndrome in ketamine abusing individuals. This drug being an NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor antagonist it causes the hypofunction in the receptor causing learning and memory impairment. The mechanism underlying in the ketamine-induced neurodegeneration was due to the formation of ketamine metabolite that actively decreases the D serine levels in the brain leading to neurodegeneration. Hence, the study was carried out to study the effect of D-serine and D-serine and sodium benzoate administration attenuated the neurodegeneration induced by ketamine. In the cell study, it was found that ketamine causes neurodegeneration in a dose-dependent manner. The dose-dependent effect of ketamine was attenuated using D-Serine and D-Serine and sodium benzoate concurrent administration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002172
Title: Malocclusion severity and orthodontic treatment needs in children – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Malocclusion is a developmental condition signifying a mal-relationship between the arches. The factors responsible for malocclusion include genetic and environmental factors, or a combination of both along with various local factors such as adverse or deleterious oral habits and anomalies in number, shape, and developmental position of teeth and dentition. Malocclusion has a profound influence on individual’s appearance and quality of life. Knowledge about the prevalence and severity of malocclusion is important for early diagnosis and planning of orthodontic services. Several indices are used for malocclusion registration to evaluate severity levels and orthodontic treatment needs. The dental esthetic index is an orthodontic index based on socially designed esthetic standards. It is used both in epidemiological surveys to identify unmet needs for orthodontic treatment and as a screening device to determine priority for subsidized orthodontic treatment. This study aims at creating awareness about the severity of malocclusion among schoolchildren and their requirement for orthodontic treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002173
Title: Barr bodies in pulpal tissue as a diagnostic tool for gender determination
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Gender can also be determined by the study of X and Y chromosomes in the cells which are not undergoing active division. The presence or absence of X chromosome can be studied from buccal smears, skin biopsy, blood, cartilage, hair root sheath, and tooth pulp. After death, it persists for variable periods depending on the humidity and temperature in which tissue has remained. X chromatin and intranuclear structure are also known as Barr body. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of X Barr body and Y Barr body observed in pulp tissue as a tool for gender determination. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted in 30 patients (15 male and 15 female). The tooth extracted was from the anteriors of maxilla and mandible. The removed pulpal tissue is stored in 5% formalin for 7 days, paraffin blocks are prepared and the block is cut at 5 µm thickness and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and is viewed under a trinocular microscope under ×100 magnification, and 50 cells are viewed for Barr bodies. Result: In females, the mean of Barr bodies was found to be 13 ± 2, and in the males, it was found to be 5 ± 3. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that the pulp tissues with a maximum number of Barr bodies belong to a female and pulp with a minimum number of Barr bodies belongs to a male.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002174
Title: Assessment of salivary PH and microbial growth in patients wearing complete denture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Oral cavity supports the growth of various microorganisms due to the moist condition that it offers. Denture being a foreign substance aid in increasing the microbial growth, this, in turn, will decrease the overall health of the oral cavity. PH also indirectly affects the growth of these micro-organisms. Hence, there comes a need to assess the microbial growth for a healthy oral environment. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the salivary PH and microbial growth in patients wearing complete dentures. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 completely edentulous patients desiring replacement with complete denture were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. The swab was used to collect the microbial sample in the lingual vestibular region in the mandibular arch and was cultured for different bacteria, and salivary PH was estimated using PH indicator strip. Patients were given CD and oral hygiene instruction. The microbial samples were obtained after 2 weeks of denture wearing, and same salivary PH and microbial parameters were estimated and compared. The microbial growth was expressed in colony functioning units. Results: A dependent sample t-test was used to estimate statistically significant differences. Results inferred a statistical significant difference between the Klebsiella, streptococcal, and Lactobacillus species before and after denture insertion with no statistical significance in PH. Conclusion: Microbial colonization increased after wearing denture with no drastic change in PH. Hence, proper oral hygiene measures are to be followed to maintain a healthy oral cavity in denture wearers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002175
Title: Assessment of salivary ph and microbial growth in full mouth rehabilitated patients
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The oral cavity is a moist environment with temperature (34–36°C) and a pH close to neutrality in most areas, and thus supports the growth of a wide variety of microorganisms. Dentures provide a protected habitat, especially beneath the fitting surface, which results in colonization and growth by a range of bacteria. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the salivary PH and microbial growth in full mouth rehabilitated (FMR) patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 dentulous patients with severe attrition desiring FMR–fixed partial denture (FPD) and temporary partial denture alone were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. The swab was used to collect the microbial sample in the lingual vestibular region in the mandibular arch, and was cultured for different bacteria and salivary pH was estimated using pH indicator strip. Patients were given FMR and oral hygiene instructions. The microbial samples were obtained after 2 weeks after FMR, and same salivary pH and microbial parameters were estimated and compared. The microbial growth was expressed in colony functioning units. Results: A statistical significance difference between the Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli species, Candida species, Spirochetes, Streptococcal species, and Lactobacillus species before and after FMR with no statistical significance in pH. Conclusion: This study observed increased microbial colonization following FMR. This could be attributed to compromised oral hygiene and surface texture of the prosthesis used (FPD). Hence, meticulous oral hygiene needs to be practiced to minimize microbial colonization, and thus could promote improved oral health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002176
Title: Newer local anesthetic drugs in dentistry
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Local anesthetics (LAs) are the safest and most effective drugs in medicine for the control and management of pain. They also represent the most important drugs in dentistry. LAs work by blocking the entry of sodium ions into their channels, thereby preventing the transient increase in permeability of the nerve membrane to sodium that is required for an action potential to occur. Even though there are LA drugs which are useful in clinics, some newer drugs have been developed with additional features and brought in clinical practice. The purpose of this review article is to enumerate the uses and mechanism of action of the newer LA drugs that are used in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00002177
Title: Microbiological examination of the implant abutments to evaluate the transfer of organisms from and to the laboratory
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: With the rise in the awareness about the mode of transmission of pathogens, the lights shifted onto the various procedures involving laboratory processing. The organisms transmitted from the impression to the cast and to the dental laboratory have been studied numerous times; however, the organisms transmitted back from the dental laboratory to the dental office to the patient’s mouth have not been reported or recorded. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the organisms transmitted from the laboratory to the dental office and vice versa transmitted from the dental office to the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Laboratories in and around the city of Chennai were chosen to collect the samples. The closed tray master impressions of the implant Stage II cases were collected. 20 samples were collected before the impressions were sent to the laboratory as well as once the dental prosthesis was received back from the laboratory. The samples were collected and cultured to study the organisms and identify the pathogenic organisms. Results: The samples sent from the dental clinic showed mainly Gram-positive cocci in clusters and pairs. However, when the same samples were received from the laboratory, some samples showed Gram-negative cocci and bacilli. However, none of the organisms found were pathogenic strains. Conclusion: Sterilization protocols should be performed, to eliminate any form of risk of infection, for the prosthesis received back from the laboratory and then inserted into the patient’s mouth; similarly, the objects sent to the dental laboratory should be sterilized before they come in contact with the technician to avoid any cross-contamination.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002178
Title: Reliability of intercommissural width in the determination of width of maxillary anterior teeth in Indian and Malaysian population
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this article was to assess the reliability of intercanine distance and intercommissural width in determining the width of maxillary anterior teeth in Indian and Malaysian populations. Materials and Methods: The study included 39 dentate subjects with Angles Class I molar and canine relationships. The patients who visited a private dental college were selected for this study, and an informed consent was obtained from these patients who were included in this study. The exclusion criteria for this study were patients with malocclusions, those who have undergone orthodontic treatments, periodontally compromised patients, missing teeth, or any gross skeletal or facial deformities. The intercommissural width was measured in mm with the patient seated on dental chair in a relaxed posture with a divider and scale. The intercanine distance was measured in mm using stone models poured with a non-elastic thread and scale. Results: This study showed that the mean value for intercanine width (55.4 mm and 54.3 mm) and intercommissural width (53.4 mm and 55.4 mm) for Indian and Malaysian populations, respectively, was determined and was found to be comparatively equal. The Pearson’s coefficient index “r” was calculated which showed a positive correlation between the two parameters in both the populations. The r value for intercanine distance and intercommissural width for Indian and Malaysian population was found to be 0.8514 and 0.8136, respectively. Conclusion: Anterior teeth selection plays a major role in the fabrication of complete denture. The major difficulty lies in the selection of anterior teeth when pre-extraction records are not available. Hence, this study was done to emphasize the importance of intercommissural width in the determination of width of anterior teeth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002179
Title: Comparison of dimensional accuracy of implant cast of multiple angled implants by splinted and non-splinted methods - an in vitro study
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Despite researches were done on the accuracy of splinted and non-splint in open tray impression techniques, very less information exists on accuracy of these techniques of multi-angled implants. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of implant cast by splinting and non-splinting technique in open tray technique on 5°, 15°, and 30° angled implants. Materials and Methods: A mandibular acrylic reference model is fabricated following which four Adin implants were placed with two in anterior being perpendicular as A2, A3, and two in the posterior region being 15° and 30° angulations of divergence in A1, A4 position. Six custom trays were fabricated with light cure acrylic resin sheets. After 24 h impressions using medium body polyether using open tray technique Group A: 3 samples splinted and Group B: 3 non-splinted. Accuracy was analyzed by coordinated measuring machine device. Multivariate two-way ANOVA and one sample t-test was used. Results: According to data analyzed showed there was significant difference noted in A1, A3, and A4 positions whose P = 0.0001, 0.005, and 0.005, respectively. According to changes in transfer of implant in A1, A2, A3, and A4 positions mean and standard deviation in splinted group were 19.02 ± 0.04, 15.675 ± 0.01, 65.623 ± 0.05, 51.019 ± 0.05, and 17.896 ± 0.05, 15.772 ± 0.01, 65.614 ± 0.02, and 54.051 ± 0.02, respectively. Conclusion: Significant difference was noted among the groups (P < 0.05) suggesting splinted impression technique is recommended for multiple angled implants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002180
Title: KAP on use of facebow in fabrication of complete denture among Indian prosthodontist
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Accurate mounting of dental casts on the articulator is one of the key procedures enabling careful analysis, diagnosis and treatment planning for edentulous patient. Some researchers believed that a facebow is indispensable, bringing along many advantages. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the use of facebow and attitude toward it among prosthodontists in complete denture fabrication. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 10 questions was prepared to assess and evaluate the knowledge on Facebow in fabrication of complete dentures, along with additional information on the education and experience background of prosthodontists, the attitude toward facebow in complete denture fabrication, patient satisfaction, reason behind not using the facebow and their knowledge about jaw relationship and occlusal adjustment in complete denture fabrication. This questionnaire was sent to 50 private dental practioners who were prosthodontist in Chennai regardless of age, sex and experience. The questionnaire was sent through e-mails. Clear instructions were given in the questionnaire form about the aim of this survey and answering the questions. Name, contact details, mail id, place and educational qualification of the participants were kept very confidential. Results: About 32% of prosthodontists are seldom using facebow for complete denture fabrication. Among that, 95.2% of them are using arbitrary facebow. 43% do not think facebow is necessary for complete denture fabrication, 55% of them report that facebow transfer in complete denture fabrication is time consuming. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that there is not much significant difference in post-insertion visits of complete denture made with and without facebow record. The majority of prosthodontists believed that most of their patients were satisfied with their complete denture seldom used a facebow.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002181
Title: Evaluation of color stability of temporary crown materials with artificial staining – an in vitro study
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Provisional restorations in fixed partial dentures are best used for to protect pulp and thereby providing thermal stimulation preventing leakage by forming an intimate seal with the teeth that are prepared during the process of the fabrication of a definite prosthesis. Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the color stability of three provisional materials (1) polymethyl methacrylate (DPI), (2) Bis-acryl composite (Protemp TM II- 3M ESPE), and (3) light polymerized composite resin (Revotek LC-GC). Materials and Methods: A total of 120 specimens were prepared using three provisional materials were subjected to four subgroups of artificial stains such as tea and coffee solution, coca cola, and turmeric solution with distilled water as a control group. Color measurements were made using reflectance spectrophotometer with CIELAB system at time intervals at 2, 5, 7, 10, and 15 days. 6 samples were randomly selected. After 10 repeated measurements, mean values were compared using one-way analysis of variance with 5% confidence interval and multiple range Tukey honest significant difference to identify the statistical difference at 5% level where P ≤ 0.05 was considered. The reliability of values was obtained by the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: Revotek LC showed clinically accepted color change whose value was ∆E < 3.7 with all the staining solutions except the turmeric solution over the 15 day period. The staining potential of turmeric solution was maximum followed by coffee, tea, and coco cola at all time intervals. The results showed high reproducibility as l* = 1.000, a* = 0.9342, b* = 1.000. Conclusion: Revotek LC is the most stable materials in term of color followed by Protemp and DPI. Among the staining materials used turmeric proved to be having the highest staining potential followed by coffee, tea, and coca cola.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002182
Title: Reliability of pterygomaxillary notch in determination of width of maxillary anterior in Indian and Malaysian population
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Compared to other intraoral landmarks, pterygomaxillary notch (PMN) is a highly significant structure, as it can be easily identified on the casts and not subject to any soft tissue changes. With regard to choosing the dentate casts, it is justified that the measurements from artificial teeth may be misleading when compared to the natural teeth. Therefore, dentate casts are considered as the better option in measuring the width of maxillary anterior. Aim: The main objective of this study is to determine the width of maxillary anterior in dentate casts of Indian and Malaysian population, using PMN as the anatomical landmark. Materials and methods: The study comprises 17 Indian and 17 Malaysian population of 18– 30 years of age with Angle’s Class 1 maxillomandibular relationship. The exclusion criteria are patients with carious lesions, periodontal problems, edentulous spaces, history of orthodontic treatment, malocclusion, and other congenital dental defects. Impression was made using irreversible hydrocolloid impression material. Casts were obtained after pouring the impression with hard setting dental stone. The six anterior tooth width measurements from each of the casts were summed up to give a total width of maxillary anterior on each cast. The distance between the PMN was measured using a Vernier Caliper to determine its correlation with the width of maxillary anterior. The level of significance was established at α = 0.01 for Indian population and α = 0.05 for Malaysian population. Results: The mean mesiodistal width of the six maxillary anterior teeth was 45.35 mm, and the mean distance of the inter PMN was 43.18 mm in Indian population. In the Malaysian population, the mean mesiodistal width of maxillary anterior teeth was 47.00 mm, and the mean distance of the inter PMN was 45.25 mm. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the inter PMN distance and total mesiodistal width of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Conclusion: It is concluded that the PMN can be used as a putative guide in determining the width of maxillary anterior, irrespective of different group populations. However, further research is recommended in this field, to establish a method that is universally accepted in maxillary anterior width measurement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002184
Title: Release of titanium ions in titanium alloys used in dentistry - A systematic review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental appliances and prosthesis are made from alloys containing different metals. Concerns exist over the release of metal ions such as Ni from dental alloys, mainly due to corrosion. The released metal ions can enter the bloodstream and can cause varying degrees of health ailments. In the present work, a systematic review on release of titanium ions from titanium dental appliances is described. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the release of titanium ions from dental alloys in saliva. Materials and Methods: The PubMed search identified 83 studies among which four met the selection criteria. PICO analysis. Population: Individuals with Dental appliances and prosthesis. Intervention: Role of Titanium alloys in dental appliances and prosthesis. Comparison: Nickel alloys in dental appliances and prosthesis were compared. Outcome: The outcome was quantity of nickel and titanium ions released. Conclusion: All the studies concluded that there is a significant increase in the amount of nickel ions, whereas there was no significant increase in the amount of titanium ions from the measure before the intervention. Biocompatibility of titanium is a well-known thing. The fact that there is minimal release of titanium ions in artificial saliva also supports the biocompatibility of titanium. The obtained results may not correspond to metal ions release in in vivo conditions. Analyzing the results of both in vitro and in vivo tests, it seems that there is a necessity to elaborate standardized procedures, with detailed methodology provided. Only then, the results will be comparable.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002185
Title: Knowledge attitude and practice of dental practitioners in the management of traumatic neuroma - a survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Traumatic neuroma is a rare disorder that occurs due to damage to the peripheral nerves. It is not a tumor that is malignant. It is a swelling that occurs due to trauma to a nerve during surgery, accidental damage to nerves during anesthetic administration. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dentists in the management of traumatic neuroma. Materials and Methodology: The study was done among 100 dental practitioners in Chennai who were interested in taking part in the survey. Result: In this study, it was found that 89.1% of dentist knew the cause of traumatic neuroma. 58% of dentist was aware that the most common site was in mental foramen region. Most commonly encountered complication while administering local anesthesia was found to be 88.1% mostly around 70% in inferior alveolar region. The most common treatment of choice chosen by the dentist was found to be prosthetic stents. Conclusion: The study inferred that a vast majority were not aware of management strategies, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients with a traumatic neuroma. Hence, vigorous dental awareness programs may need to be conducted addressing this issue.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002186
Title: Variation in location of the nasopalatine foramen in dry human skulls
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The position of the incisive foramen in relation to the central incisors varies in different standard textbooks. This study was aimed at bringing in a standard value for the distance between the incisive foramen and central incisors in male and female skulls. Aim: This study aims to measure the variation in position of the incisive foramen in relation to the interproximal region of the central incisors in dry human skull. Materials and Methodology: A total of 61 adult dry human skulls were selected, with full complement of teeth with fully erupted third molars. Measurements were made from the interproximal region of the central incisors to the incisive foramen using a digital Vernier caliber. Results: The study inferred the location of incisive foramen to be about 0.99 cm from the interproximal region of the central incisors.Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the average values of the male and female skulls. The study was not significant statistically due to limited study samples.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002187
Title: Effect of edentulism on general health and quality of life
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The theoretical link between food choice and masticatory efficiency has long been established in literature. The recent evidences have confirmed this association, indicating a progressive alteration in food choice with decreasing number of teeth with the greatest effect being among those who are edentulous. The elderly population have a typical set of mind regarding the oral health. The data on oral health of elderly depict a worrying situation, with an increased prevalence of caries and periodontal disease. When it is not treated, the final stage of caries and periodontal disease is the loss of tooth and leads to complete edentulism, which is frequent nowadays, but represents a failure of overall dental care system. Furthermore, it is essential to know if the dental problem, general health, and dental treatment have a correlation, which may subsequently have an impact on the overall quality of life of the elderly. The effect of edentulism on daily functions of the oral cavity and interactions in social situations has significant plausibility and has been described using various dimensions before. However, evidence of general health associated with complete loss of teeth is limited. To highlight the importance of oral health to general well-being and its interrelated dependencies, this paper summarizes the source of literature relevant to the inappropriate intake of food and its correlation with general health and systemic diseases. It identifies areas where altered food choice leads to consequences such as reduced masticatory efficiency and behavior pattern due to tooth loss, suggestive of change in the quality of life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002188
Title: Anticancer and antibacterial potential of green silver nanoparticles synthesized from Maytenus senegalensis (L.) leaf extract and their characterization
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Metal nanoparticles are explored in recent years as an alternative approach to effectively kill drug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms. The present research study enumerates the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the n-hexane leaf extract of Maytenus senegalensis (L.). Methods: The synthesized AgNPs were initially noticed through visual color and also monitored using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs at 439 nm was observed. The synthesized nanoparticles further characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for functional group identification, morphology, and sizes of NPs were identified by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope; SAED and X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of highly crystalline and face-centered cubic structure AgNPs and elemental composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Results: The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria, with minimum bactericidal concentrations. Conclusion: It could be concluded that AgNPs based on M. senegalensis leaf extract can be used efficiently in the production of potential anticancer and antimicrobial for commercial application.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002202
Title: Evaluation and correlation between the upper lip length and philtrum length to size of the upper incisors
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: A lot of research on interalar distance, intercanthal distance, bizygomatic width, and intercanine width has been done for selecting the size of the anterior teeth, but there is no reliable method for selection of anterior teeth. In this article, the upper lip length and philtrum length are evaluated to check the correlation with anterior teeth size. Aim: The aim is to examine the relationship of upper lip length and philtrum length to maxillary central and lateral incisors teeth proportions in dentate patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 males and 25 females with the age of 18–21 years were selected for the study. They were seated in an upright position, and a flexible ruler was used to measure their upper lip length and philtrum length. A Vernier caliper was used to measure the height and width of the central and lateral incisors. The results were tabulated and significant correlations were studied. Results: In females, the upper lip length coincides with twice the height and width of the lateral incisors, whereas philtrum length coincides with width of the central incisors. In males, the mean height and width of both the central and lateral incisors are statistically significant with philtrum length and upper lip length. Conclusion: In the study, philtrum length can be taken as guide for selecting width of the central incisor in females. It can also use as guide for height and width of the both incisors in males. Lip length can be used as guide for selecting the size of both central and lateral incisors in males, whereas in females it can be used only for selecting lateral incisor size.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002203
Title: Recommended cementation for monolithic zirconia crowns
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Currently, there is not any best adhesion protocol for zirconia in the field of dentistry, especially in the restorations, where there is a reduced mechanical retention. There is less literature available on which cement is the recommended cement for the cementation of monolithic zirconia crowns. Zirconia-based ceramics show excellent mechanical strength and superior fracture resistance due to an inherent transformation toughening mechanism. Various cement have been used to lute the monolithic zirconia crowns, namely, the zinc phosphate cement, resin cement, glass ionomer cement, and the polycarboxylate cement. Every cement has its own pros and cons. The purpose of this study was to perform a review of the literature about the cementation of monolithic zirconia crowns, evaluating the properties of the luting cement most commonly used. The review was performed through PubMed, and a bibliographic search on the international literature of the past 10 years was made.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002204
Title: Efficiency of the closed contour of the artificial circulation in coronary artery bypass grafting
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: From 2014 to 2015, studies were conducted on the use of a closed contour of artificial circulation on the basis of the National Research Center for Cardiac Surgery in the city of Astana, Kazakhstan.\The purpose of this study was to evaluate how effective the closed and open contours of artificial circulation in reducing the risk of post-operative complications. Methods: The study included 100 patients who underwent surgery for stable angina pectoris of coronary heart disease; they underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. Group 1 included 50 patients, with an average age of 62 ± 8 years, undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using a closed contour of artificial circulation. Group 2 included 50 patients, with an average age of 62 ± 7 years, underwent aortocoronary bypass using an open contour of artificial circulation. For all the initial indices of the group were homogeneous. The time of aortic clamping in both groups was the same, indicating that the same surgeons performed the operation. Total time of artificial circulation was less in the first group than in the second group (57 min ± 12.5 and 64 min ± 16.7, respectively; P = 0.04), because the reperfusion time was less in Group 1 (20.2 min ± 7 and 23.9 min ± 9, respectively; P = 0.04). The average number of grafts was 3 ± 0.67 in the control group, 3 ± 0.53 in the comparative group. Post-operative analysis of laboratory indicators was taken 6 h after operation. Results: The level of erythrocytes in the first group by the end of 6 h after operation was higher, than in the second group 4.13 × 1012 ± 0.59 and 3.38 × 1012 ± 0.52 (P = 0.001), respectively; the level of hemoglobin (Hb) was 115.04 g/L ± 14.7 and 104.1 g/L ± 11.26 (P = 0.05), respectively; the level of hematocrit was 33.1 ± 3.89 and 29.89 ± 4.06 (P = 0.001), respectively; the level of platelets was 246 ±52 and 199 ± 40 (P = 0.001), respectively; leukocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, body temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate are reduction in the first group: The level of leukocytes was 11.67 × 109 ± 3.8 and 14.02 × 109 ± 4.3 (P = 0.03), respectively; the level of CRP was 1.4 mg/dl ± 2.4 and 2.2 mg/dl ± 1.9 (P = 0.04), respectively; body temperature was 36.7 ± 0.33 and 38.1±0.7 (P = 0.01), respectively; respiratory rate in 1 min was 17 ± 1.6 and 20 ± 2.02 (P = 0.01), respectively; and heart rate in 1 min was 69 ± 11 and 75 ± 15 (P = 0.02), respectively. Stay by day of the patient in the hospital in the first group was also less and was 10.14 ± 3.8 and 11.32 ± 4.2 (P = 0.04), respectively. The time the patient spent on artificial ventilation in the first group was less, 486 min ± 125 and 646 ± 213 (P = 0.01), respectively. Conclusion: The closed contour can be confidently applied to patients with complex concomitant diseases, as the risk of a systemic inflammatory response decreases, and the level of red blood remains higher in comparison with the open contour of the artificial circulation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002205
Title: Radiologic response evaluation after conventional whole-brain radiation therapy plus concurrent oral administration of losartan versus radiation therapy alone in patients with brain metastases
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present study aims to comparatively investigate the radiologic response to conventional whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) with and without oral losartan in the patients with brain metastases. Methods: This was a single-blinded clinical trial conducted on patients (n = 60) diagnosed with brain metastasis referred to Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, during 2017. The patients were randomly divided into intervention and control groups: The control group was treated with WBRT (30 Gy per 10 fractions over 2 weeks) and the placebo of losartan. The intervention group was treated with WBRT concomitant with oral administration of losartan (25 mg), 1 h before each fraction. To measure the radiologic response rate, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were compared before and 6 weeks after treatments in terms of metastasis size according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumor (RECIST V1.1). According to the response evaluation criteria, the patients were divided into four groups: Complete response, partial response, progressive disease, and stable disease. Finally, data were analyzed by Chi-square and regression tests using statistical package of SPSS (version 20, Windows). Results: In the intervention group, 9 cases showed radiological response (complete radiologic response + partial radiologic response), and in the control group, 7 cases had radiologic response, which were not significant (P = 0.20) difference. Conclusion: Administration of losartan simultaneously with WBRT in patients with brain metastasis did not have a significant positive effect on the radiologic response rate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002207
Title: Knowledge and attitude of dental students toward immediate implant placement and delayed loading
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental implants are alloplastic material which is placed surgically into residual alveolar bone. As there is increasing demand for implant placement, there is need to understand clinical difference between early and conventional loading protocols for dental implants. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice on immediate and delayed loading of implants among dental students. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dental students were asked about loading protocols of immediate and delayed implants using a questionnaire and collected from the respondents in the same visit. Filled questionnaire was collected and analyzed. The data were entered into Microsoft Excel, and descriptive analysis was done. Results were represented in the form of charts. Results: Among the respondents, 72.5% of the respondents are aware of loading protocols of immediate implants and delayed loading, and 27.5% were not aware about the loading protocols. When asked about factors that lead to immediate implant implacement in the anterior region, only 14% of the respondents quoted for the absence of anatomical constraints and 68% of the respondents quoted for esthetics as an important factor which was contradictory to a clinical study conducted by Pommer et al., in which it was found that immediate implants are mostly indicated in the anterior teeth region due to the absence of anatomical constraints such as maxillary sinus and inferior alveolar nerve. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that there are limited knowledge and awareness about loading protocols and clinical criteria for immediate and delayed implants among dental students of this institution, though their knowledge and awareness about implants are appreciable. These facilities the need for strengthening education in dental students to reinforce their knowledge and awareness about loading protocols of various types of implants in their curriculum implants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00002208
Title: Biotechnology applications in food processing and safety
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Biotechnology is a comparatively new science with direct applications to the food and agricultural sectors. Recent years have seen fabulous advances in food biotechnology, include improvements in industrial process technology and control systems, farming systems for growing and harvesting food, techniques to monitor food safety, and nutritional quality. Modern biotechnology broadens the scope of the genetic changes that can be made in food organisms and broadens the scope of possible sources of foods. Enhancement in new-product characteristics including better nutritive quality and safety will be the driving force of future research in food biotechnology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002209
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on impression materials used for implant placement among dental students and dental practitioners
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The growing demands from clinicians and patients to optimize the dental implant treatment protocols require the fabrication of a precisely fitting implant-supported prosthesis, the prerequisite of which is the accuracy of the implant impression. The objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental students and dental practitioners on impression materials for implant placement. In particular, this study investigated the most accepted impression material used for making impressions for dental implants among these practitioners and students and their opinions regarding the clinical factors that may influence the decision-making process for the selection of the impression material. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to dental students and practitioners in Saveetha Dental College. Returned responses were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Differences in groups were examined using Chi-squared test for linear trends across the rated questions and cross-tabulations to compare responses from different groups. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 100 dental implant practitioners responded to this survey. The majority of respondents (71%) preferred addition silicone and polyether as an impression material, and about an equal number of respondents believed that dimensional stability and elasticity are ideal requisites for impression materials (32%). Most of the clinicians (89%) felt that the most accurate impression material technique for subgingival implants is the usage of putty and light body combination vinyl polysiloxane impression material. In case of non-parallel multiple implants, the majority of dentists (46%) chose open tray technique with polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) as the choice of impression material and technique and 22% preferred closed tray with PVS. Significant relationships between the choice of impression material and the qualification of the respondents were noted. Conclusions: The current survey concludes that addition silicone and polyether are the most commonly used impression materials, the presence of angulated implants and subgingival implants affects the choice of impression material and technique, and elasticity and dimensional stability are the most important requisites of an impression material for implants. Therefore, it can be understood that most of the dental students and practitioners followed the well-documented techniques and proven materials.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002215
Title: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Various Impression Techniques Available for Dental Implants among Dental Students and Dental Practitioners - A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental implant is a surgical component that supports dental prosthesis such as crown, bridge, denture, and facial prosthesis to the bone or jaw of the skull. Osseointegration is a biologic process that acts as the basis for modern dental implant in which materials such as titanium form an intimate bond to bone. A variable impression technique can be used for this kind of procedure. Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of undergraduate students and dental practitioners toward different impression techniques used for implant procedure. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as a descriptive survey of private dental practitioners in the Chennai city, Tamil Nadu, India. A self- administered questionnaire of 12 questions with multiple choice questions was prepared to obtain information about knowledge, attitude, and practice toward various impression techniques for dental implants. A total of 100 people involving 50 dental students and 50 dental practitioners were chosen as the participants. The responses from all students were collected as soon as they filled the questionnaire that had been distributed. The questionnaires were distributed manually to them. Statistical analysis was done using G power analysis method. Result: The specific sample study on dental students was a poor reflection when compared to dental practitioners in terms of knowledge, attitude, and practice on various impression techniques for dental implant patients. A total of 50 undergraduate dental students and 50 dental practitioners participated in this current study. Conclusion: Getting a highly stable and retentive implant had always been a problem associated for most of the prosthodontists. Proper tray selection, proper implant angulation, proper impression techniques, and coping modification are the factors that might influence the accuracy of the dental implants. Therefore, it should be considered carefully before this procedure had been started.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002216
Title: Awareness of occlusal concepts in complete dentures among general dental practitioners: A knowledge, attitude, and practice survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Occlusion is an important factor which governs the retention and stability of the complete denture. The occlusal concepts should be selected carefully depending on the situation of the patient. Aim: The aim of this study focuses on evaluating the knowledge, attitude, and practice of occlusal concepts in complete dentures among general dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing questions on awareness of occlusal concepts in complete denture were given to a total of 100 general practitioners in Chennai. The data collected were computerized and analyzed statistically. The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics software 23.0 Version. To find the significant difference between the bivariate samples in the independent groups the unpaired sample t-test was used. For the multivariate analysis, the one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test was used. Results: For patients with U-shaped arches, the majority of general dental practitioners preferred balanced occlusion and for V-shaped arches they preferred canine guided occlusion. For patients with increased interarch space, they preferred balanced occlusion followed by lingualized occlusion, and for patients with decreased interarch space, they preferred canine guided occlusion and monoplane occlusion. For patients with highly resorbed as well as well-formed ridges, balanced occlusion was the choice. For patients with Skeletal Class I, balanced occlusion was preferred, for Skeletal Class II, Balanced and Canine Guided were preferred, and for Skeletal Class III, lingualized occlusion, and canine-guided occlusion and Balanced occlusion were equally preferred. Conclusion: The knowledge and awareness about occlusal concepts among general dental practitioners should be improved, and the occlusal concept should be selected depending on the situation of the patient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002217
Title: KAP survey on use of clinical photography by general dental practitioners
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Background: Photography is the science, art, and recording the images. It also finds an implementation for the purposes of dento-legal documentation, to improve the learning process, communication with laboratory technicians, educational motivation, and dental marketing. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge and the use of clinical photography by general dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was distributed to 100 randomly selected dentists in hospitals and dental colleges in Chennai. Some questions regarding the knowledge and their attitude toward the uses of photography in dentistry were asked. The data collected were computerized and analyzed statistically. Result: According to the survey conducted 43% of dentists who are enrolled in academics and 31% of private practitioners were more likely to use digital cameras for their case documentation. 35% of dentists use DSLR for their documentation, and 80% of them are documenting cases for <5 years. 40% of dentists think that digital camera is useful in treatment planning, 23% of dentists use for medico-legal reasons, and 21% of dentists are using digital photography for patient education.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002218
Title: Comparative evaluation of occlusal plane (ala-tragus line) in dentulous patient among South Indian and Malaysian population
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: A line from the lower border of the ala of the nose to the upper border of the tragus of the ear is called Ala- Tragus line. It is one of the most commonly used occlusal reference plane for complete denture construction. Ala-Tragus line consists of three different levels such as superior, middle, and inferior. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the occlusal plane (OP) (Ala Tragus line) in Dentulous patient among South Indian population and Malaysian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 participants, in which 20 South Indian and the other 20 Malaysian were participated in this study. The subjects were asked to sit in upright position and three lines were drawn from the inferior border of the ala of the nose to the three different level (Superior, Middle, and Inferior) of the tragus of the ear on both sides using dental plaster and finally check for the parallelism using fox plane. Results: The majority (87%) of the population shows OP was found to be parallel to the inferior level of the tragus, and there is no parallelism between the OP and the superior level of the tragus among both the population and there is no significant difference in OP relationship between South Indian and Malaysian population. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in OP relationship between South Indian and Malaysian population. And the inferior border of the ala tragal line is suggested as the best posterior reference point in younger age individuals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002219
Title: Drug-related problems in stroke patients at RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Drug-related problems may influence the therapeutic results in stroke patients during the treatment, and they can lead to failure in achieving the therapeutic objectives. Methods: The study was conducted to identify drug-related problems and their percentage, to find the relationship between drug-related problems with the drug types, comorbidity, and duration of hospital stay, and to recommend some solutions for the drug-related problems. The study used descriptive design to analyze samples that met the inclusion criteria. The data were collected from medical records and interviews with the physicians, pharmacists, and nurses. Results: Drug-related problems identified in this study were 54.0% due to drug interaction, 33.1% due to too high dosage, 7.3% due to unnecessary drugs, 1.6% due to too low dosage, 1.6% due to the need for additional therapy, 1.6% due to unmet drugs, and 0.8% due to wrong drug therapy. Analysis, which was done using Chi- square, found a relationship between the drug types and drug-related problems, no relationship between comorbidity in stroke patients and drug-related problems, and no relationship between the duration of hospital stay and the drug-related problems. Conclusions: The most common recommendation from the pharmacists to the health professionals was a modification in the interval/frequency/timing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002220
Title: Efficacy of eucalyptus oil over chlorhexidine mouthwash in dental practice
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Mouthwashes are often prescribed in dentistry for prevention and treatment of several oral conditions. Eucalyptus oil has many therapeutic properties such as antimicrobial effect and anti-inflammatory effect. It possesses strong cytotoxic effect and also have antibacterial effect against several pathogens. However, its efficacy as a mouthwash in oral hygiene maintenance needs to be investigated further. Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the therapeutic effect of chlorhexidine and eucalyptus oil mouthwashes in oral hygiene maintenance. Materials and Methods: A total of 74 human subjects selected were randomly allocated into two groups, Group I and Group II. The subjects in Group I were instructed to use 10 ml of chlorhexidine mouthwash for 14 days and Group II were instructed to use eucalyptus oil mouthwash for 14 days twice daily. Oral hygiene status was assessed by measuring the plaque and gingival scores. The plaque formation was assessed using erythrosine disclosing agent, and their scores were recorded using the Loe and Silness index and gingival index was calculated using Silness and Loe index at the baseline and 14 days. The results were then statistically analyzed. Results: A decrease of plaque level was seen in both mouthwashes without any adverse effects. The plaque index and gingival index scores for Group I and Group II after 14 days were 1.012 ± 0.25, 1.008 ± 0.27 and 1.254 ± 0.58, 1.233 ± 0.72 respectively. There was no statistical significant difference between chlorhexidine and eucalyptus mouthwashes (P ˃ 0.05). Conclusion: An effective alternative to chlorhexidine, eucalyptus oil, can be used as mouthwash for effective oral hygiene maintenance. The present results, therefore, offer a scientific basis for traditional use and awareness about eucalyptus oil mouthwash.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002222
Title: In vitro antioxidant activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Moringa stenopetala leaves
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Moringa stenopetala, which is most common in Ethiopia and Kenya, has the second highest content of protein, calcium, and iron compared with the other species. It is stated that all four types have an enormous potential to contribute to improved diet and health, where M. stenopetala is the most important economic species. Objective: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activities of a methanolic and aqueous extract of M. stenopetala, from shire endaslassie (SE), and Abi Adi (AA) from Tigray region, Ethiopia, using the standard in vitro antioxidant methods. Materials and Methods: The antioxidants activities were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, nitric oxide, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay, and reducing power activity. Results: These antioxidant studies indicate that methanolic and aqueous extracts of M. stenopetala, from AA and methanolic extract of M. stenopetala, from SE, are a promising source of natural antioxidants. Conclusion: In vitro antioxidant activities of M. stenopetala exhibiting free radical scavenging activity. It supports that the traditional medicine system, of the M. stenopetala for their use in oxidative stress-related diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002223
Title: Why medication adherence in hypertensive patients?
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction and Objective: Hypertension is one of the major health problems in many countries. Medicinal treatments and lifestyle change have so far failed to effectively influence blood pressure control. One of the main reasons for such incompetence lies in non-adherence of patients to antihypertensive therapeutic regimen. Moreover, medication adherence may alter due to patient’s beliefs and convictions. Given the limited data available concerning the level of medication adherence and its relationship with belief about medicines, this study attempted to identify the relationship between medication adherence and belief about medicines among hypertensive patients in Zahedan during 2015. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive correlational study. The population consisted of all health centers and doctors’ offices for internal medicine and heart diseases based in Zahedan. The sample included a total of 385 hypertensive patients who were selected through convenience sampling. Data were collected through a medication adherence in hypertensive patients’ questionnaire and belief about medicines questionnaire. Furthermore, the findings were analyzed through the Spearman’s correlation coefficient, mean, and standard deviation. Findings: Based on the results, there was a significantly inverse relationship found between medication adherence and necessity-concern differential based on belief about medicines scale (P = 000.0, r = −0.2). Moreover, there was a significantly inverse relationship between medication adherence and belief about medicines. Hence, an increase in medication adherence at the sample subjects led to lower belief about medicines. Furthermore, there was a significantly positive correlation between medication adherence and belief concern (P = 051.0, r = 0.1). In other words, an increase in medication adherence of participants led to their higher concern about medicines. Conclusions: Overall, this study revealed a significantly inverse relationship between medication adherence and belief about medicines among hypertensive patients in Zahedan. This indicated this population, unlike most other populations, adhered to medication, while they either did not believe in medicines or refused to express their feelings about it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-CT-00002224
Title: Relationship between clinical depression and the types of periodontitis - A cross-sectional study
Category: Clinical trials
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: There are a multitude of factors such as environmental and psychosocial which pose a considerable risk toward the development of periodontal disease. Chronic and aggressive periodontitis may show variation in the onset and progression due to these risk factors. The aim of this present study was to assess the relationship between clinical depression and the different forms of periodontitis using clinical parameters and a depression rating scale. Materials and Methods: A total of 27 patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study, of which 10 patients were diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, 7 patients with aggressive periodontitis, and the rest were categorized into healthy controls. The clinical parameters assessed were the gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. A tentative diagnosis of depression was made using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Results: On comparing the three groups, the PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher in aggressive periodontitis subjects. Mann–Whitney test for pairwise comparison revealed that the mental status in aggressive periodontitis subjects was significantly altered in comparison to healthy and chronic periodontitis patients. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference in the mental status of chronic periodontitis subjects and healthy controls. Conclusion: Clinical depression could be a probable risk factor in the development of periodontal disease, especially aggressive periodontitis. There was no significant association with chronic periodontitis. Future studies can focus on corroborating the evidence obtained from this pilot study using longitudinal study design and employing biomarkers as a valuable aid.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002225
Title: Contributing factors for peri-implantitis in endosseous dental implants - A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate the role of the risk factor for peri-implantitis in patients receiving endosseous dental implants. Background: Failure of dental implants is a major concern in spite of its large success rates. Endo-osseous implants are those prosthesis placed to compensate the missing teeth in the oral cavity and restore the normal form and function of occlusion. Chronic alcoholism, smoking, poor oral hygiene, and other systemic disturbances interfere with the cellular and molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for bone growth around the prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Patients reporting to Saveetha Dental College, Department of Implantology from the January 2016 to November 2017 were assessed for alcohol and tobacco usage using AUDIT SCORE and Fagerstrom questionnaire and were also screened for peri-implantitis. The information with regard to the anatomical site, age, gender, and occupation were evaluated along with the clinical and radiographical examination. The data were extracted. Then a correlation analysis was initiated using multiple regression models and results analyzed. Result: There was the increase in the incidence of peri-implantitis in patients with the habit of smoking, poor oral hygiene, and those with implants placed in the maxillary bone.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002226
Title: The effect of hidden curriculum management program on the professional behavior of students in nursing and midwifery faculty
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Curriculum is the main element of the higher education system and is the most fundamental tool for providing students with the knowledge, experience, and skills needed to deliver community services. Students are familiarized with a variety of scientific, social, political, and so on skills and attitudes through curricula and in particular the hidden curriculum (HC). Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of HC management on the professional behavior of medical sciences students in Zabol. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with the participation of 69 students including nursing midwifery and emergency medicine At the beginning of each semester, the students received Goze’s professional behavior questionnaire to familiarize themselves with the assessment method and identify potential expectations. In addition, the Professional Ethics Workshop was conducted at a 6-h session per semester for professors and instructors, and the students’ assessment was explained to them at the meeting. The data obtained from professional behavior questionnaire were analyzed by SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The findings showed that the mean score of professional behavior in nursing students was 60.12 ± 0.70, in midwifery students 50.22 ± 8.75, and in emergency medicine students 40.23 ± 9.87, respectively, performed after three semesters and the transfer of HC in the internship reached 67.11 ± 13.10, 56.14 ± 12.16, and 50 ± 10.14, respectively. The results were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: This study indicated that the student is indirectly learning to adhere to the principles of ethical values and take commitment and responsibility for the care of the patient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-CR(D)-00002227
Title: Full mouth rehabilitation of a patient using multiple metal ceramic restorations: A case report
Category: Case Reports (Drugs)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This clinical case report describes the oral rehabilitation of a young adult female patient using metal ceramic crowns diagnosed with multiple missing teeth, some inadequate, deteriorated, and faulty restorations. The main objective of the treatment was to enhance the esthetics, restore masticatory function, and eliminate the teeth sensitivity. Fixed prosthodontics is used as treatment. Simultaneously, it is necessary to understand that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a key role in the maintenance of oral health. Articulated study casts and a mock wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the vertical dimension of occlusion should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration. 1-year recall examination disclosed patient’s esthetic and useful expectations were happy, and no pathology was related to the rehabilitation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002228
Title: Review on Incisive papilla: A solution to prosthetic dentistry
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Certain extra-oral landmarks such as the philtrum, ala of the nose, pupils, canthus of the eye, and various distances in the face have been related to the size and shape of teeth and arch form to obtain values which would guide in the selection and arrangement of teeth in the complete denture. In the maxillary complete denture, it is desirable to place the anterior teeth as close as possible to a position occupied in natural dentition to achieve “realism.” Several investigators have extensively studied the relationship of the incisive papilla to the labial surface of incisor teeth in the horizontal plane and suggested certain values which are useful to set the incisor teeth in dentures. In the past one of the pre-extraction landmarks, namely the incisive papilla has been shown to be a stable and definitive anatomic landmark as a guide to arranging artificial anterior teeth in an anterior-posterior position, and this is documented by the findings of several authors. Although several studies have been conducted earlier to investigate the horizontal relationship of the incisive papilla to the labial surfaces of maxillary central incisors, there is a paucity of data on the vertical relationship between the incisive papilla and the incisal edges of maxillary central incisors. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to find out the relationship of incisive papilla with artificial teeth arrangements in completely edentulous patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002229
Title: Low-level laser therapy in oral and maxillofacial surgery – A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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One of the basic needs in dental treatment is to impart a painless therapy for patients. This basic need may be achieved by the application of laser in dentistry. The laser has a wide range of applications in the medical and dental field. High dose of the laser has side effects on the dental tissues. To overcome this issue, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is used. LLLT is also known as soft laser therapy or biostimulation. It will significantly reduce pain, swelling, inflammation, and restores the normal function which decreases the requirement of post-operative analgesics. Many studies have proved that LLLT has an effective role in some surgical applications in dentistry. This review primarily gives an overview of LLLT and describes the applications of LLLT in oral surgery.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002230
Title: Needlestick Injuries in Dentistry - A Review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Needlestick injury is a percutaneous injury of any depth caused by a small, medium, or large hollow syringe needles which do or do not involve visible blood at the time of injury. The most common sharp injuries among dentists arise from needles (while giving injection and recapping), cleaning instruments and while using drilling instruments such as burs. Needlestick injuries (NSIs) facilitate transmission of blood-borne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus which leads to various health problems. Thus, precautions must be taken to prevent the spread of infections. NSIs are common in dentistry, and this review concentrates on various types of NSIs, transmission of infections, complications, prevention, and management of the injuries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002231
Title: A Prospective Observational Study on Evidence-Based and Unlicensed Indications for Proton Pump Inhibitors in Inpatients of a Tertiary Care Hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the licensed and off-label indications and duration of therapy for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) against established guidelines: British National Formulary, National Formulary of India, and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines 2014 update. Methods: An observational study was conducted in a sample of 300 patients with prescriptions for PPIs and to collect information about sociodemographic characteristics, drug indication, duration of treatment, number of drugs used for acid-related disorders, concomitant drugs, and diagnosis. The appropriateness is performed using the medication appropriateness index questionnaire. It contains 10 items to be evaluated, of which indication, dosage, duration of treatment, and absence of duplication of drugs were of much concern. The final score ranges from 10 (totally appropriate), 11–20 (marginally appropriate), and >20 (inappropriate). Results: A total of 300 patients receiving PPIs were recruited in the general medicine ward, and their mean age was 47.2 years and 180 (60%) were female. The prescriptions with licensed indications were 59.70% and unlicensed indications 40.30%. The patients with PPIs at discharge were 127, of which 45 were not indicated about the duration of medication to be taken. A statistically significant difference in prescribing PPIs was observed between licensed and unlicensed indication with P = 0.0068. The sociodemographic and drug therapy characteristic differences between licensed and unlicensed indications were found to statistically significant. The number of patients with appropriate PPI therapy was 44.3%, marginally appropriate PPI therapy was 18%, and inappropriate PPI therapy was 37.6%. Conclusion: Inappropriate or the unlicensed use of PPI is incomparably related to mean number of concomitant drugs used, irrespective of the gastro toxic drug combinations apart from the recommendation of guidelines.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002232
Title: Knowledge on impression techniques and materials used in fixed partial dentures - A survey among dental practitioners in Chennai
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Few studies have been done in Chennai to assess the trends of fixed partial denture practice done by private dental practitioners. According to many studies conducted, most of the dentists using commercial dental laboratories performed very unsatisfying tooth preparation and sent impressions that are unusable in nature. Aim: This study aims to integrate and evaluate the knowledge on impression techniques and materials used in fixed partial dentures among dental practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 questionnaires each consisting of 21 questions were sent to various practitioners in Chennai, out of which 100 questionnaires were filled. Results: The results showed that 93% dental practitioners use irreversible hydrocolloid for diagnostic impression and 7% use other materials with 90.7% using gingival retraction cord plainly and 9.3% using other methods like electrocautery, laser methods to accurately record the final impression followed by which is 88% addition silicone in 66% putty reline/dual mix technique without spacer followed by 14% using monophase technique with 86% providing provisional prosthesis before the final prosthesis. Furthermore, the reason of shortcomings was noted as 73% for laboratory error, clinical error, patients’ mental attitude, and oral hygiene practice were also noted. Conclusion: From the study results, the following conclusions were drawn. 93% of dental practitioners use irreversible hydrocolloid, 88% of them use addition silicone for final impressions in 66% putty reline/dual mix technique without spacer with almost 86% providing the provisional prosthesis. Thus, the appropriate technique, material, and armamentarium are required for long-term success for fixed partial denture.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002233
Title: Treatment of temporomandibular disorders-Knowledge, attitude, and practice among general practicing dentists - A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) account for the most common orofacial pains rising from musculoskeletal origins. Almost 80% of the general population suffers from temporomandibular joints (TMJ) diseases. The range of the signs and symptoms vary from person to person. The diagnosis of the TMJ disorder should be done by a dental practitioner. The multifactorial nature of the disease makes it difficult to diagnose and treat. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of TMD’s among general dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing questions on etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of TMD was given to a total of 100 general dental practitioners in Chennai. The responses were collected, and data analysis was done. Results: Our findings suggest that the general practicing dentists encounter TMD cases rarely and those excessive teeth grinding, and parafunctional habits have been widely acknowledged as the causative factor for TMD and TMJ imaging as the diagnostic tool. Majority of the practicing dentists prefer muscle relaxants as the first line of treatment. 92% of the general practitioners preferred referring the patient to a specialist. Among the practitioners who were confident in treating TMD occlusal splint was the treatment which most dentists felt confident. Conclusion: The gross domestic products felt more confident in TMD diagnostics, therapy decisions whereas they were not confident enough in treating a TMD patient even after they received a positive response after their first line of treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002234
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice survey on the concept of shortened dental arches
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: In general, every individual develops 28 (32) teeth or 14 (16) functional units, i.e., pairs of opposing teeth excluding the people with developmental disorders. The shortened dental arch (SDA) concept is a problem-oriented strategy to decrease complex restorative treatments in the posterior region of jaw. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the attitude and practice of this concept among the dentists in Chennai. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, self-designed-structured questionnaire was distributed among specialists, residents, and general dental practitioners in Chennai through electronic medium. The questionnaire enquired about dentists’ opinion regarding function, esthetic, and comfort in patients with SDA. It also evaluated about the risks associated with SDA treatment (tooth wear, temporomandibular dysfunction, and tooth migration). Results: The response rate was 64% with almost equal number of male and female dentists in the age range of 20–40 years. Only 40.6% of dentists were aware of the SDA concept and mere 17.2% among them had actually used it. Only 15.6 % felt that the chewing capacity as well as the patient comfort with SDA is satisfactory. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that although dentists are aware about the SDA concept, its use is very less in Chennai. Its awareness also needs to be spread through various Continuing Dental Education programs, workshops, and seminars highlighting its advantages.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002235
Title: Determination of right ventricular function in patients suffering from ischemic heart disease with cardiosurgical profile
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Coronary heart disease is one of the most frequent pathologies of the cardiovascular system, with a high incidence and mortality. The leading role in this pathology is played by the left ventricle (LV); however, more and more attention has been focused on the right ventricular dysfunction. Materials and method: Well known that, the right ventricle (RV) plays a key role in maintaining hemodynamics, and despite this, it remains a least studied part. Tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) is the most accurate method for diagnosing occult dysfunction of the right ventricular myocardium. Results: To determine the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie in the process of the development of right heart remodeling, we analyzed and compared features of geometry change of RV with functional state of the left heart. Conclusion: Nevertheless, there is a shortage of data about functions of RV; therefore, there is a need in further study of the functional state of RV with application of TDE metho.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002240
Title: Oral health status and prosthetic needs in elderly patient of Chennai resident
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Oral health is a state of being free from mouth and facial pain, oral and throat cancer, oral infection and sores, periodontal disease, tooth decay, tooth loss, and other diseases and disorders that limit an individual’s capacity in biting, chewing, smiling, speaking, and psychosocial well-being. Prosthesis is an artificial replacement of a part of the body, such as a tooth, a facial bone, the palate, or a joint. A prosthesis may be removable or even fixed. Aging phenomenon has been the rising concern faced in the 21st century. By the year 2050, it is projected that an increase in the population aged 60 years or over will be half of the total growth of the world population. Hence, treatment should be given to elderly patient to preserve their normal function of tooth. Aim: The present study is undertaken to study the oral health status and prosthetic needs in elderly patient of Chennai resident. Materials and methods: A decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) index form will be given to 50 elderly patients. 24 women and 26 male patients took part in this research. Each participants will be scored based on the oral health status of the patients which is DMFT. The result of data was tabulated. Result: Patient with an increase in a number of age tends to have increase in DMFT value, and hence, the need for using prosthesis in older age increases. Conclusion: The prevalence of denture wearing was low despite the higher prevalence of edentulousness in this study group. As teeth are essential for nutrition of elders, they must preserved first and replaced later on if required.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002241
Title: Comparison of accuracy of digital radiography and panoramic radiography in dental implants procedure - A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Appropriate treatment planning for replacement of lost teeth is required, and imaging plays an important role to ensure a beneficiary outcome that satisfies the patient desires and needs. Dental implants are gaining immense popularity and wide acceptance because they not only replace lost teeth but also provide permanent restorations that do not interfere with mastication or speech or compromise the self-esteem of a patient. Radiological examination is very necessary for evaluating the anatomy of the structures such as maxillary sinus, the mental foramen, and the inferior alveolar nerve canal in relation to the teeth that are to be replaced by implants. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely used in dental implanting. However, the local hospitals usually do not have access to CBCT due to the cost and medical investment. The doctors in local hospitals have to make reasonable dental planting using orthopantomography (OPG) to reduce risks. Therefore, it is clinically meaningful to determine the magnification rate of OPG to obtain correct diagnosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002242
Title: Prevalence of (alveolar ridge defect) using Seibert’s classification in fixed partial denture patient
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Alveolar ridge defect may occur due to injury, trauma, denture wears, and periodontitis. Based on Seibert’s Classification, it can be classified into three classes: Class I (buccolingual loss of tissue), Class II (apicocoronal loss of tissue), and Class III (both loss of tissue). It is important to close the ridge defect by replacing the tooth loss and to achieve good esthetic, phonetic, and mastication. According to the classification, proper treatment plan and alternative can be determined for successful outcomes. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of alveolar ridge defect using Siebert’s classification in fixed partial denture patient among Indian population. Materials and Method: This study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College. A total number of 55 of 60 patients with alveolar ridge defect are selected. Based on the Siebert’s Classification (Class I, Class II, and Class III), the amount of destruction is analyzed to determine the alveolar ridge defect using this classification. Therefore, the statistical analysis is performed using Chi-squared test. Results: Based on the result, the prevalence of alveolar ridge defect due to trauma is 91.6% (55 of 60). According to Siebert’s classification, the most common alveolar ridge destruction was Class III defect which is both buccolingual and apicocoronal loss of tissue of alveolar ridge, 24 (40.0%). This was followed by Class I defect which is buccolingual loss of tissue of alveolar ridge with 20 (33.3%) number of patients. Class II defect was the least with 11 (18.3%) which is apicocoronal loss of tissue of alveolar ridge. Conclusion: The prevalence of Siebert’s classification helps in suggestion of various management techniques or treatment planning to the patient to ensure that the prognosis and treatment outcomes turn out to successful.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002243
Title: Isolation and identification of chemical compounds from ethyl acetate fraction of Pohpohan (Pilea trinervia L.) leaves
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: This research aims to isolate and identify the chemical compound from ethyl acetate fraction of pohpohan (Pilea trinervia L.) leaves. Methods: Dry pohpohan leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. The ethanol extract was fractionated using liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane and aquadest. Furthermore, a fraction of aquadest was liquid- liquid extracted with ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate fraction was separated by vacuum liquid chromatography, then purified by column chromatography using mobile phase n-hexane and ethyl acetate (8:2). The isolate obtained was tested by thin layer chromatography in two directions using vanillin sulfate test and Liebermann–Burchard test. The isolate was tested with ultraviolet (UV)/visual spectrophotometer, IR spectrophotometer, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer.Results: The phytochemical screening of ethyl acetate fraction showed the presence of flavonoid, alkaloid, steroid, monoterpenoid, and sesquiterpenoid. Isolate no. EA1005-03 was selected from 22 groups of fractions and 32 isolates obtained from isolation and purification. Vanillin sulfate test and Liebermann–Burchard test on the thin-layer chromatogram of EA1005-03 isolate each produced a purple spot and a purplish-blue spot. UV spectrum of EA1005-03 isolate showed a maximum wavelength at 284 nm. Infrared spectrum EA1005-03 isolate indicated the existence of C=C, aliphatic C-H stretching, C-H bending, and aromatic C=C. Mass spectrum of EA1005-03 isolate gave m/z: 128, 102, 77, 64, 51, and 40.cc. Conclusion: Mass spectrum of EA1005-03 isolate gave m/z: 128, 102, 77, 64, 51, and 40 which showed 89% similarity degree to 1-methylene-1H-indene.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002244
Title: In silico approach of compounds in Cissus quadrangularis targeting multiproteins as anticancer agents
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) is a perennial medicinal plant of the family Vitaceae which has been used for various treatments such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant activity. The objective of this study was to find the G-quadruplex targets, binding energy of CQ biological active compounds, and drug likeliness by in silico techniques for anticancer activity. Metirials and Methods: The targets were retrieved from PDB bank, and plant data compounds are taken from literature survey and chosen seven compounds such as resveratrol, gallic acid, quercetin, stigmasterol, piceatannol, asarone, and luteolin for the study. These compounds are docked using G4LDB Database with the 6 PDB IDs such as 1L1H, 10OK, 2HRI, 3CE5, 3NYP, and 3SC8. Except for stigmasterol, the compounds have been showed good interactions and binding energy with the PDB ID-1L1H. Result and Discussion: From the docking results, four compounds such as resveratrol, quercetin, piceatannol, and luteolin show satisfactory dock score values of about 6.01, 7.14, 6.48, and 7.46, respectively. These compounds are visualized using Discovery Studio 4.1 Visualizer followed by DruLiTo software which satisfies the Lipinski’s properties for all the compounds. Conclusion: These results depict the phenolic and flavonoid derivatives having a significant role to design new compounds with these properties for anticancer activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002245
Title: Prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school & college girls and postpartum women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to measure the prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school girls, college girls, and postpartum women and to compare the severity of dysmenorrhea between school girls, college girls, and postpartum women. Background of the Study: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common and important health problems among females. It causes absence from classes and work. It badly affects the daily activities and quality of life. Differently aged females suffer accordingly to their age, anatomical, and physiological changes. Hence, this study aimed to measure the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and to compare the severity of dysmenorrhea among three differently aged females. Materials and Methods: Once the study is approved by the Institutional Review Board, 150 females were selected from 200 volunteers to participate in the study. The study setting was in and around the Chennai. The source population includes 50 school-going girls with the age of 12–15 years, 50 college-going girls with the age of 19–22 years, and 50 postpartum women with the age of 30–35 years. The study population excludes the female with secondary dysmenorrhea (dysmenorrhea due to disorder in women’s reproductive organ). The samples were fully explained about the benefits of participating in the study. They were asked to fill the consent form duly signed by the samples and therapist. Data regarding the female’s experience of dysmenorrhea were collected using Cox retrospective menstrual symptom scale and dysmenorrhea severity index (verbal multidimensional scoring system). Result: On comparing the prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school girls, college girls, and postpartum women, the collected data show that the prevalence of dysmenorrhea is more among the school girls with painful menstrual symptoms and severity, followed by the college girls and postpartum women.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002246
Title: Analysis of surface topography of dental implants coated with sulfonated poly ether ether ketone
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Osseointegration in patients with deficient bone quality is a challenge, especially in dental implants. Coating of the implants with a suitable material is considered as a method to enhance osseointegration. In this study, titanium implants were coated with sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and their surface roughness was evaluated. Fourier-transform infrared and scanning electron microscope images confirmed the coating of the implant with SPEEK. The higher surface roughness observed in SPEEK-coated implants could be useful for favorable bone cell attachment over the implant surface.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002247
Title: Seal and heal rather than drill and fill - A review on moisture-friendly pit-and-fissure sealants
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Pit–and-fissures are eight times vulnerable than the smooth surface caries. The sealants are found to be effective in preventing, arresting, and progression of occlusal caries. The failure of resin-based sealant retention will be moisture contamination. To overcome this drawback, moisture-friendly sealants/hydrophilic sealants have been introduced. Hence, this review presents the scientific background, concepts, principles, indications, contraindications, proper placement procedures, categorization of pit-and-fissure sealants with special note on the efficacy of moisture-friendly/hydrophilic sealants. The aim of this review is to present the scientific background, concepts, principles, indications, proper placement procedures, categorization of pit-and-fissure sealants with a special note on the efficacy of moisture-friendly/hydrophilic sealants. Moisture-tolerant resin- based sealant could be successfully used as a pit-and-fissure sealant because its hydrophilic chemistry makes it less technique sensitive and simplifies the sealant application procedure. The dental profession has long regarded dental sealants as a primary element in the prevention of dental caries. Sealants provide a physical barrier between the spaces created by anatomical pits and fissures of posterior teeth and the cariogenic bacteria, thereby halting incipient lesions and preventing cavitation. Proper techniques must be implemented when placing sealants for optimal retention and patient safety. Patients must understand that sealants are one element for overall preventive dentistry. This article will review the scientific background, concepts, principles, indications, contraindications, proper placement procedures, categorization of pit-and-fissure sealants with special note on the efficacy of moisture-friendly/hydrophilic sealants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002248
Title: The effect of smoking on the outcome of dental implant treatment: A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background: The use of osseointegrated implants as a foundation for the prosthetic replacement of missing teeth has become widespread in the last decade. Owing to the remarkable success of dental implants, there has been growing interest in identifying the factors associated with the failure of dental implants. Given the well-documented deleterious effect of smoking on wound healing after tooth extraction and its association with poor-quality bone and periodontal disease, a negative effect of tobacco use on implant success is to be expected. Aim: The aim of this literature review was to study the relationship between smoking and complications related to dental implant treatment. Objectives: The objectives of the study were (i) to find out the relationship between smoking and complication related to dental implant treatment; (ii) to study the relationship between smoking and success rate of dental implant; and (iii) to study the relationship between smoking and long-term survival of dental implants. Materials and Methods: A search of the literature of relevant clinical studies was carried out and to be reviewed. Results: The majority of the past and current literature implicates smoking as one of the prominent risk factors affecting the success rate of dental implants with only a handful of studies failing to establish a connection. Most of the studies report the failure rate of implants in smokers as being more than twice that in non-smokers. These findings are difficult to ignore. There is a statistically significant difference between smokers and non-smokers in the failure rates of dental implants. Smoking also has a strong influence on the complication rates of implants: it causes significantly more marginal bone loss after implant placement; it increases the incidence of peri-implantitis; and it affects the success rates of bone grafts. The failure rate of implants placed in the grafted maxillary sinuses of smokers is more than that of non-smokers. Conclusion: Smokers have higher failure rates and complications following dental implantation and implant-related surgical procedures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002249
Title: Association between the maxillary arch form and length, width, and depth of palate in Malaysian and Indian Population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Oral cavity composed of hard and soft palate. Proper development of soft and hard palate will help for the proper phonation and other functional activities along with the proper development of the teeth. In general, different people will have different arch form and length, width, and depth of palate. As this varies, the arch form and height palatine index of the individuals in different population will be differ. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the arch form of palate and length, width, and depth of palate in Malaysian and Indian population. Materials and Methods: The sample of this study consisted of a total of 30 adult individuals of both gender. 15 of them are Malaysian population and remaining 15 people are Indian population. The participants that were selected for study were either of Malaysian or Indian populations, which were among non-growing and post-pubertal adults. The length, width, and depth of palate as well as arch firmware were calculated for this study. Results: It shows that 73% of Indian subjects had tapered maxillary arches, whereas only 47% of Malaysian subjects had tapered maxillary arches. In addition to this, only 20% of Malaysian subjects had squared maxillary arch form and none of the Indian subjects had this type of arch form. The remaining 27% of Indian subjects and 33% of Malaysian subjects had ovoid arch form. Almost 50% of Indian population had the low type of palate and approximately 67% of Malaysian population had this type of height of palate too. Only 20% of Malaysian population had medium type of palate and remaining 13% had high palate, whereas, about 33% of Indian population had medium palate and 20% of them had high palate. Conclusion: Tapered shape was the most common maxillary arch shape in both Indian and Malaysian population, and low palate was the most common depth of palate in both population. Hence, there is no significant difference in relation to arch form and depth of palate in both population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00002250
Title: Effect of various polishing agents on the color stability of provisional crowns
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Provisional crowns and fixed partial dentures are a very significant part of prosthodontic treatment. A temporary restoration should protect the prepared teeth, provide comfort and function, and be esthetically acceptable and color stable. The prognosis of a fixed restoration depends on the quality of this interim restoration. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of different polishing methods on the color stability of provisional crowns. Materials and Methodology: A total of 15 samples of central incisor were made using autopolymerizing polymethylmethacrylate and putty index. Samples were divided into five groups of different polishing techniques, namely pumice (P), prophylaxis paste (PP), polishing discs (standard deviation), dental varnish (DV), and the control group (C). The specimens were dipped in coffee solution for 30 min. The shade of all specimens was measured before and after dipping in the coffee solution using VITA spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using SPSS software and paired t-test was conducted. Results: Significant difference in color was seen only in DV group and the control group. All other groups did not show any significant difference in the color. On comparing the other groups, group polished using PP showed least color change followed by DV group and then the pumice alone. Conclusions: The use of PP after polishing with pumice significantly reduced the staining in autopolymerizing resin. The highest color change values were obtained in groups polished with DV, polishing disks, and pumice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002252
Title: High-performance thin-layer chromatography fingerprinting analysis of bioactive compounds in hydro-alcoholic extracts of polyherbal formulation
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the fingerprinting profile of bioactive compounds present in hydro- alcoholic extract of polyherbal formulation (HAF). Materials and Methods: High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of HAF was performed and calculate Rf values at wavelength 580 nm. HAF consists of a hydro- alcoholic extract of 11 medicinal plants which have protective activity against cellular damage related activity. HPTLC method was performed to evaluate the presence of polyphenolics employing mobile phase n-hexane:ethyl acetate:formic acid (4:5:1, v/v/v). Results: Peaks were symmetrical in nature and no tailing was observed when plates were scanned at wavelength 580 nm. The Rf values of HAF at sample volume 25 µl (70 mg in 7 ml methanol + HCl) seen maximum in nos. with corresponding to percentage of peak area were observed to be 0.035 (1.23%), 0.113 (8.25%), 0.189 (7.57%), 0.254 (3.72%), 0.291 (5.37%), 0.381 (10.52%), 0.437 (11.18%), 0.547 (4.49%), 0.597 (5.99%), 0.64 (9.83%), 0.69 (27.35%), and 0.881 (3.22%). HPTLC was performed to confirm the quantitative presence of polyphenolics in extracts of HAF. Conclusions: The present standardization provides a specific and accurate tool to develop a confirmatory fingerprinting profile (HPTLC) of biomarkers present in HAFs for many curative activities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002253
Title: Application of nanotechnology for Ayurvedic drugs and formulations
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Nanotechnology is the newly emerging science in the medical field similarly Ayurvedic medications and therapies are getting in trend due to their safety and efficacy. However, delivery of Ayurvedic drugs requires modification for their global acceptance because traditional formulations are not preferred by the patients due to their dose, palatability, and mode of administration. Besides, these formulations have also been reported to have drawbacks related to bioavailability and stability. Hence, Ayurvedic formulations should be improved to address all such drawbacks. Moreover, application of nanocarriers for the delivery of Ayurvedic drugs can be a great initiative because such carriers are capable to cross the plasma membrane and deliver the drug in the desired concentration at the specific site of action. Integration of Ayurveda and nanotechnology may provide the best medicines to treat various life-threatening diseases. This review will cover recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery of Ayurvedic drugs and formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00002254
Title: Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic kidney disease patient
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease spectrum ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatosis and cirrhosis. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease mainly affects patients with metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease share the common risk factors and pathogenic mechanism which shows the increased relationship between CKD and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Aim: The aim of the study was to find out the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in CKD patient. Materials and Methods: Case sheets of patients who suffered from CKD were selected. The case sheets for the duration of 6 months from January 2016 to June 2016 were screened for the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with CKD. The association between NAFLD and CKD was then analyzed using SPSS (version 19.0). Results: The study shows that 18% of the CKD patients have nonalcoholic fatty liver, which is most common among people of age 55 years. Conclusion: CKD affects 4–13% of world population. CKD leads to renal failure, which will require kidney transplant and NAFLD, which, in turn, leads to cirrhosis which requires liver transplant as the treatment of choice. Hence, this research can be used for treatment strategies, and prevent morbidity and mortality.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002255
Title: To correlate and associate maxillary arch width with combined width of maxillary anterior teeth in south Indian and Malaysian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Arrangement of artificial teeth for completely edentulous has become a challenge due to esthetics concern. Most of the completely edentulous patients walk in without any records. Maxillary anterior teeth play an important role in esthetics, its correlation with maxillary arch width can provide vital information on the selection of teeth for the different population group. Aim: The aim of the study was to correlate and associate maxillary arch width with a combined width of maxillary anterior teeth in Indian and Malaysian population. Materials and Methods: A total number of 36 people from 18 Indians and 18 Malaysians participated in this study. The maxillary anterior arch measurement is from distal contact of canine to another distal contact of canine taken using a measuring tape. The maxillary arch width is taken by measuring the distances between buccal cusps of first premolars, buccal cusps of second premolars, mesiobuccal cusps of first molars, and mesiobuccal cusps of second premolars using a Vernier caliper. The correlation between maxillary arch width and width of maxillary anterior teeth in Indian and Malaysian population is determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: The overall parameter of South Indian population has a greater dimension than Malaysian parameter simple. The South Indian maxillary anterior width has shown a significant correlation in the maxillary anterior arch and interdental width of the first premolar, the interdental width of the second premolar, interdental width of the first molar and interdental width of the second molar in Malaysian. However, there is no correlation shown in the maxillary anterior arch and interdental width in either first premolars, second premolars, first molars, and second molars in South Indian. Conclusion: The maxillary dental arch of South Indians is relatively greater than Malaysians. In addition, there is a significant correlation in the maxillary anterior arch and maxillary interdental arch in Malaysian, but not in Indians.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002256
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding denture marking systems among dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Forensic odontology helps with proper handling and examination of dental evidence in and proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings in the interest of justice. Various methods are available for identification, and studies evaluating their reliability under drastic conditions are vital. Denture marking is accepted as a means of identifying dentures and persons in geriatric institutions or postmortem during war, crimes, and civil unrest, natural, and mass disasters. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of denture marking systems among dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among 100 dental practitioners in private institutions. The questionnaire had 18 questions on their knowledge, practice, and awareness regarding denture marking systems in their clinical practice. Dental practitioners who participated in the survey had a minimum of 1 year of clinical experience after their dental education. Results: About 95% of dental practitioners did not prefer denture marking in their career as they think it is unimportant. This also showed that they were unaware of its importance and hence were the reasons for the lack of awareness among general population. Conclusion: The results are in contrast to European studies wherein the majority of dental practitioners to do dentures routinely and would create awareness which may help in enhancing the perception about denture marking among patients; however, in Indian settings, the dental practitioners are not really eager to inform patients about the denture marking and are reluctant in making the denture marking a routine practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002257
Title: A review of instruments used in evaluating wear in restorative materials
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background: Increased patient demand for esthetic dentistry has generated interest in all-ceramic dental restorations. An overview of the types of wear simulating devices will allow us to better understand the multifactorial nature of wear. Aim: The aim of the review is to critically analyze the different wear simulators that are available in the market for dentistry and their capacity to mimic the wear conditions. Materials and Methods: A search on keywords highlights the most common in vitro wear simulators and their use in the laboratories for various simulation applications. Results: Wear is a complex process, which cannot be simulated in total while controlling all variables. Conclusion: Even the most sophisticated wear simulator would have limitations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002258
Title: Arriving at a definitive bone quality
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental implants are most opted treatment modality, especially in the last three decades because they not only replace lost teeth but also provide permanent restorations that do not interfere with oral function or speech or compromise the self-esteem of a patient. Aim: The aim of this study is to use gray scale value (GSV) obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan and derives a precise value of bone density in any region of jaw. This can aid in apt treatment planning and caution during the surgical placement of dental implants. Materials and Methods: A sample of 35 CBCT scans was chosen by randomized sampling method from collection of computerized database of the institution. The clinician’s interpretation about bone quality at site indicated for implant placement was taken before mathematical calculations (Group 1). The GSVs were noted at coronal site where the crest of implant is planned (Group 2) and at apical sites where the apical part of implant is expected to end (Group 3). A mathematical formula correlating Hounsfield unit (HU) and GSV was used: HU = −61.098 + 1.178 × GSV. All the three groups were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: The results of data of the present study showed a statistically significant difference between the groups when Kruskal–Wallis test was performed (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In this study, HU was derived from GSVs obtained from CBCT, using a mathematical formula derived by Razi et al. This provided the exact bone quality in region required. The estimation of exact bone quality at surgical site can help clinicians, interpret, and plan osteotomy before commencement of treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002259
Title: A review on the position of the internal evaluation in quality assurance
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: One of the main concerns of higher education institutions is quality. One way to the monitoring, development, and improvement of quality takes place within the organization is internal evaluation. The present study, in fact, is aimed to investigate the position of the internal evaluation in quality assurance. Methods: Searching key words such as accreditation, quality assurance, and internal evaluation. Related publications in Medline, CINAHL, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Scopus were undertaken a comprehensive investigation regardless of the time of publication. Then, the collected articles were scrutinized and processed. Results: Totally 28 studies were reviewed. In total, 28 studies were reviewed. The findings of the previous studies on evaluation confirmed that both external and internal evaluations are necessary components of quality assurance systems. Conclusion: Internal evaluation is potentially valuable. However, if this value is to be realized on a continuous basis, it needs to become an integral part of each organization and nationally accepted framework of quality assurance and management. Restructuring of university management, decision making, and cultural transformation for greater autonomy in structure and management systems is crucial for successful programs for the improvement of organizations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00002260
Title: Antibacterial and phytochemical analysis of condiments
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the antibacterial activity of condiments against multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms and its phytochemical properties. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Elettaria cardamomum, Coriandrum sativum, Curcuma longa, and Syzygium aromaticum were screened for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MTCC 40), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 7442), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 3384), and Enterobacter aerogenes (MTCC 7325). Phytochemical testing was carried out to these extracts followed by the estimation of the flavonoid and phenol concentration. Results: C. longa and S. aromaticum both showed maximum zone of inhibition against E. coli (13 ± 0.33 mm), C. sativum against S. aureus (16 ± 0.33 mm) and E. aerogenes (16 ± 0.33 mm), C. longa against B. subtilis (18 ± 0.33 mm), and S. aromaticum against K. pneumoniae (12 ± 0.33 mm). The aqueous extract of S. aromaticum showed the maximum amount of phytochemicals present having positive results for all 10 phytochemicals screened (alkaloids, carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, amino acids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and quinones). Highest flavonoid and phenolic content observed was 760 µg/ml and 885 µg/ ml in ethanolic plant extracts of E. cardamomum and S. aromaticum, respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that the four plant extracts screened species E. cardamomum, C. sativum, C. longa, and S. aromaticum have the potential to be used as drugs or agents against various infectious diseases as it already shows antibacterial activity against the selected pathogenic microorganisms.