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Journal of Pharmacy Research-JPR Solutions - jpronline | JPR Info online Journal | Drug Invention Today
Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
  Scopus Indexed ( link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100202909&tip=sid&clean=0)
Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001727
Title: Hepatoprotective activity of Bridelia retusa leaves against paracetamol-induced liver damage in Swiss albino mice
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The present study is aimed to evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of Bridelia retusa leaves extracts by paracetamol-induced liver damage in swiss albino mice.The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin.. Treatment with Bridelia retusa leaves extracts showed significant reduction in level of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and total bilirubin almost comparable to the Silymarin. The hepatoprotection confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue. From the result it can be concluded that Bridelia retusa leaves possesses hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol –induced liver damage in mice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-0000866
Title: Development and validation of a RP-HPLC method for quantification of rottlerin in Kamala (Mallotus philppinensis)
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Kamala is orange red powder consisting the glands and hair covering the fruit of Mallotus philppinensis Muell. (Euphorbiaceae), a small tree widely distributed throughout India up to an attitude of 1500 m. It is indigenous to southeastern Asia and find wild throughout tropical Asia, Australia and Philippines. In the indigenous system of medicine, Kamala is used as anthelminitic and cathartic. Kamala powder is used in external application for parasitic affection of the skin and also an aphrodisiac, lithotropic, and stypic. Kamala powder is also used as an antiseptic in blisters in the ears. The seed and fruit powder are generally used for urinary and menstrual disorders. A selective, precise and accurate Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the quantification of Rottlerin in kamala. The use of reverse phase C18 column using gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and water enabled the efficient separation of the chemical markers within a 22 minute analysis. Validation of method performs in order to demonstrate its selectivity, accuracy, precision, repeatability and recovery study. The proposed RP-HPLC method was found to be simple, precise and accurate and can be used for the quality control of the raw materials as well as formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000867
Title: Antifungal activity of stem bark of Helicteres isora Linn.
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The effect of petroleum ether and methanol extract of stem bark of Helicteres isora was investigated in five different fungus i.e. Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida tropicalis, Trychophyton rubrum, Microsporum furfure, Epidermophyton floccosum to evaluate the antifungal activity. For this evaluation Sabouraud’s glucose broth media was used. All the two extracts exhibited antifungal activity. The methanol extracts showed significant antifungal activity; where as the petroleum ether extract showed weak antifungal activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000868
Title: Antimycotic activity of the componenets of Abutilon indicum (Malvaceae)
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The search for novel antifungal agents relies in great part on ethnobotanical information and ethnopharmacologic exploration. Methanol extracts provide a more complete extraction, including less polar compounds, and many of these extracts have been found to possess antifungal properties. Methanolic extracts of various parts of Abutilon indicum were tested for their ability to inhibit the aetiological agents of dermal fungal infections in humans. The screening for the antimycotic activity was performed by testing Minimum Inhibitory concentration and Disc diffusion method. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of plant extract used to purify the flavonoid content of plant parts. Quercetin present in these extracts was separated. Methanolic extract of leaves of Abutilon indicum shows remarkable antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum. This study provides a sample large enough to determine the antimycotic properties of A. indicum and suggest further studies for a possible therapeutic use.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000869
Title: Optimization of mouth dissolving meloxicam tablets prepared by sublimation technique
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The aim of this investigation was to develop mouth dissolving tablets of Meloxicam. Granules containing Meloxicam, menthol, crospovidone and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of menthol and crospovidone. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that for obtaining mouth dissolving tablets; optimum amount of menthol and higher percentage of crospovidone should be used. Surface response plots are also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percentage friability and disintegration time. The validity of a generated mathematical model was tested by preparing a checkpoint batch. Sublimation of menthol from tablets resulted in rapid disintegration as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. Hence, it was concluded that mouth dissolving tablets with improved meloxicam dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing suitable subliming agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000870
Title: Analgesic, Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory Effect of the Whole Plant Extract of Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf (Poaceae) in Albino Rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Analgesic, Antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect of petroleum ether, benzene chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extract of the whole parts of Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf (Poaceae) was investigated in albino rats. Animals were given a subcutaneous injection of 12% w/v suspension of yeast (1ml /100gm Body weight) suspended in 0.5% w/v methylcellulose solution which leads to pyrexia. Oral administration of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extract of the whole parts of Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf (Poaceae) at a dose 300 mg/ kg body weight into six groups of animal for both the activities were shown significantly reduce the elevated body temperature of rat which was compared with standard paracetamol (marketed product) and diclofenac sodium respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using Digital plethysmometer. The study was carried out using dose of 300 mg/kg orally. All the extracts produced statistically significant and dose dependent inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at all doses when compared to the control groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-0000871
Title: RP-HPLC method for the estimation of tamsulosin hydrochloride in bulk and tablet dosage form
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The Present work describes a simple reverse phase HPLC method for the estimation of Tamsulosin hydrochloride in bulk and tablet dosage form. The estimation was carried out on ODS,Phenomonex,C-18 (250x4.6 mm,5μ) column using a mobile phase consisting of sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer-Acetonitrile (70:30).The eluent was monitored at 280 nm. The results have been validated statistically and recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of proposed method.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 8, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00001217
Title: Smart functionalization cotton preparation using synergistic drug for enhanced bioefficacy against nosocomial pathogens
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Objective: This study focus on smart functionalization cotton fabric preparation by using the synergistic antimicrobial agents like, the antibiotic cefixime trihydrate and the biopolymer chitosan. The analysis provides a reliable method of coating the selected drugs permanently with the cotton fabric surface for reuse. Methods: The synergistic effect of the polymer chitosan and the antibiotic cefixime trihydrate were analysed using checker board method against nosocomial pathogens Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The cotton fabrics were coated with the synergistic drug using the reactive dye exhaust method to prepare a permanent antimicrobial finished cotton fabric. The antibiotic cefixime was made reactive using cyanuric chloride which was an efficient linker of chitosan with cellulosic units in cotton fabrics. The antimicrobial efficiency of the finished cotton was analysed using the AATCC 124-1996 and AATCC 100 test methods. To ensure its biocompatibility, the coated cotton fabric was implanted in chorio-allantoic membrane of the embryonated eggs and analysed.Results and Conclusion: The qualitative and quantitative microbial analysis of the coated cotton fabric produced reliable results against the used pathogens. The bacterial reduction percentage after every wash of coated cotton was increasing and provides a proof for the permanent coating of synergistic drugs.

Cite this article as: S. Vanitha Malathy, R. Joycy Jay Manoharam, B. Venkatrajah,Smart functionalization cotton preparation using synergistic drug for enhanced bioefficacy against nosocomial pathogens,Drug Invention Today 2016,8(1),1-5.

 

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-CR(D)-0000909
Title: Prescribing Patterns of antihypertensive drugs in a South Indian tertiary care hospital
Category: Case Reports (Drugs)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Introduction:.The choice of drug for the treatment of hypertension changes at short intervals. Drug utilization studies conducted at regular intervals help to guide the physician in prescribing drugs rationally. The present study was done to analyze the prescribing patterns of antihypertensive drugs in a South Indian tertiary care hospital. Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional analysis of prescriptions of antihypertensive cases admitted in Medicine in-patient wards of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Attavar, Mangalore, India during the period of January 2010 to July 2010 was conducted. All the prescription files with diagnosis of essential hypertension (ICD-9CM: 401-405, WHO international code: A 26) were analyzed. Prescriptions for hypertension with other co-morbid conditions were also included. Frequency and proportions of utilization of antihypertensive medications were charted and figured. Results: During the study period, there were 200 prescriptions for essential hypertension. The most frequently prescribed antihypertensive medications were: Calcium channel blockers (49%) followed by diuretics (43.5%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (29.5%) beta blockers (29%)and angiotensin receptor blockers (21%). 51% of patients were on multiple drug therapy, the most favored fixed drug combination being diuretics with angiotensin receptor blockers (25.4%). Among the hypertensive cases with co-existing diabetes mellitus type II, the most prescribed class of drugs was diuretics (43.8%) followed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (40.4%). Conclusion:The present study represents the current prescribing trend for antihypertensive agents. It implies that calcium channel blockers are the leading group of antihypertensive agents followed by diuretics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000907
Title: Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic, Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Methanolic Extract of “Ata-Ofa” Polyherbal Tea (APolyherbal) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Methanolic extract of “Ata-Ofa Polyherbal tea” (A-Polyherbal) was evaluated for hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Compared to the untreated diabetic rats, administration of methanolic extract of A-Polyherbal at 50mg/kg dose for 7 days caused a statistically significant (P < 0.05) percentage reduction in fasting blood glucose level (55.43±3.50%), significantly boosted the activities of superoxide dismutases and catalases, HDLcholesterol, packed cell volume and hemoglobin, and significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), total cholesterol, total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These results strongly demonstrate that “Ata-Ofa Polyherbal tea” (A-Polyherbal) has strong potential in the alleviation and management of diabetes and related complications, including hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, development of micro and macro vascular diabetic complications arising from elevated plasma lipids and decreased levels of antioxidant defense systems, as well as reduced erythrocyte survival rate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000896
Title: Antibacterial study of silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Objectives

The present study has been undertaken to synthesize silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles, with pharmaceutical importance. The synthesized particles have been evaluated to study the effect of silver doping on grain size and further on antibacterial activities against the microorganismsBacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

Methods

Silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by the solution route spin-coating process, using zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) as host and dopant precursors respectively. The antibacterial activity of the silver doped zinc oxide were studied against S. auerus and B. subtilis via using agar well diffusion method.

Results & discussion

: The structure of the powder samples was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of silver doping on grain size and further on antibacterial activity against the microorganisms B. subtilis and S. auerus is discussed.

Conclusion

It was clear from X-ray investigations that its structure is wurtzite type and that an increase in Ag-doping resulted in decrease in the grain size of the ZnO nanoparticles. Antimicrobial study against the microorganisms B. subtilis and S. auerus shows that in case of S. auerus the MIC varies with increase in Ag content but in case of B. subtilis the MIC remained constant for all concentration of Ag.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000875
Title: Orally Disintegrating Tablets: A Review
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Editorial
Country: India
View Article

Over a decade, the demand for development of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) has enormously increased as it has significant impact on the patient compliance. Orally disintegrating tablets offer an advantage for populations who have difficulty in swallowing. Prescription ODT products initially were developed to overcome the difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets with water among pediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. Today, ODTs are more widely available as over-the-counter products for the treatment of allergies and cold and flu symptoms. Technologies used for manufacturing of orally disintegrating tablets are either conventional technologies or patented technologies. In conventional freeze drying, tablet molding, sublimation, spray drying etc. and in patented Zydis technology, Orasolv technology, Durasolv technology, Wowtab technology, Flashdose technology are important. Important ingredients that are used in the formulation of ODTs should allow quick release of the drug, resulting in faster dissolution. Evaluation of these tablets are done by following weight variation, friability, tensile strength, wetting time, water absorption ratio, In vitro dispersion time and dissolution test.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000900
Title: Formulation and evaluation of topical gel of diclofenac sodium using different polymers
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A wide choice of vehicles ranging from solids to semisolids form has been used for skin care and topical treatment of dermatological disease, High molecular weight water soluble polymers of Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), Carbapol 934P, Sodium alginate that possess very high viscosity, transparency, film forming properties at low concentration, are reported to useful in formation of gel. In the present investigation Diclofenac sodium gels were prepared for topical drug delivery by using different concentration of HPMC, Sodium alginate, Carbapol 934P, with an objective to increase transparency and spreadability. From the study it was concluded that HPMC gel containing Diclofenac sodium showed good consistency, homogeneity, spreadability and stability and has wider prospect for topical preparations as compared to Sodium alginate, Carbapol 934P gel containing Diclofenac sodium.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000901
Title: Insights into Polymers: Film Formers in Mouth Dissolving Films
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Mouth dissolving films is a new drug delivery system for oral route. This delivery system consists of a very thin oral strip, which is simply placed on the patients tongue or any oral mucosal tissue, instantly wet by saliva, film rapidly hydrates and then disintegrates and/or dissolve to release the medication. In the formulation of oral film, the most important ingredient is polymer which helps in film formation. Mainly hydrophilic polymers are used in mouth dissolving films. The present article highlights various natural and synthetic polymers, their properties and applications in oral film delivery system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000856
Title: Oral disintegrating tablets: A future compaction
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
View Article

Recent advances in novel drug delivery (NDDS) aims to enhance safety and efficacy of drug molecule by formulating a convenient dosage form for ease of administration and to achieve better patient compliance. One such approach is oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs). ODTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrates or dissolves rapidly in the mouth without the general requirement for swallowing, the chewing and water. An oral disintegrating tablet provides an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations and is who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review depicts the various formulation aspects, technologies developed, ingredients used, evaluation tests and marketed formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000903
Title: Fast Dissolving Tablet: As A Potential Drug Delivery System
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
View Article

Tablet is the most popular dosage form among from all existing dosage form. but in some instances due to the large size of dosage forms, and in case of uncooperative, pediatric and dysphasia patients, it may create some problems, to overcome this problems, a new form of dosage form is developed, which is known as first dissolving tablet or mouth dissolving tablet. These tablets are the advanced dosage form which is dissolve with in few seconds after placing on the tongue. Fast dissolving tablets have gained considerable attention as a preferred alternative to conventional tablets and capsules due to better patient compliance. Preparing pharmaceuticals acceptable dosage form demands clear understanding details about the Fast dissolving tablet or Mouth dissolving tablet. This review discusses the method of preparation, properties, advantages, mechanisms; drugs to be incorporated in the mouth dissolving tablet and evaluation of the mouth dissolving tablet are emphasized.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-0000918
Title: A review on Calotropis procera Linn and its Ethnobotany, Phytochemical, Pharmacological profile
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Calotropis procera Linn is small, erect and compact shrubs, which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. This shrub has been known to posses’ Analgesic, Antitumor, Antihelmintic, Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Inflammatory, Antidiarrhoeal, Anticonvulsant, Antimicrobial, Oestrogenic, Antinociceptive, and Antimalarial activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including Benzoyllineolone, benzoylisolinelone and ß-amyrin. The root bark contains the calotropoleanyl ester, proceroleanenol A and proceroleanenol B. The latex contains the calactin, calotropin, uscharin, sitosterol, and calotoxin. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the ethnobotany, pharmacological, phytochemistry, biological activity and toxicity of the calotropis procera shrubs.

Cite this article as: Ajay K. Meena , Ajay K. Yadav , Uttam S. Niranjan , Brijendra Singh , Amit K. Nagariya, Kiran Sharma , Anand Gaurav , Surabhi Sharma and M.M.Rao, A review on Calotropis procera Linn and its Ethnobotany, Phytochemical, Pharmacological profile, Drug Invention Today, Vol.2.Issue 2.February 2010,185-190

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 12.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001097
Title: Multiple-Unit-Pellet System (MUPS): A Novel Approach for Drug Delivery
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
View Article

MUPS (Multiple Unit Pellet Systems) are multi-particulate pellet formulations that, easily administered as tablets, disintegrate into their subunits directly after swallowing, so as to disperse into their subunits across the stomach and the small intestine, that combine the advantages of both tablets and pellet-filled capsules in one dosage form. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages and preparation, key variables for production of MUPS Tablets and all literatures related to MUPS Tablets.

Cite this article as : Ozarde Y S*., Serri Sarvi . Polshettiwar S A., Kuchekar B S, Multiple-Unit-Pellet System (MUPS): A Novel Approach for Drug Delivery, Drug Invention Today, 2012, 4(12), 603-609.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00001096
Title: Versatile Applications of Bryonia laciniosa: A Herbal Drug
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The plant extracts derived from various medicinal plants have been drawing the attention of the scientific community continuously owing to their wide uses in the treatment of several clinical diseases. Bryonia laciniosa commonly known as Shivlingi that belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae, is known to have many pharmacological actions. The leaves, fruits and seeds have been employed as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antipyretic, anti-asthmatic, anticonvulsant and antimicrobial agent in the traditional ayurvedic system of medicine. Further, the extract obtained from the seeds of the plant has been proved to be a potent medicine to improve the quality and quantity of rasa and in the treatment of impotency. This review collectively discusses nearly all the literature reports advocating the medicinal efficacy of Bryonia laciniosa (Linn.).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001095
Title: Hookworm Infestation, Anaemia and Pregnancy
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Hookworm infestatiation is among the major causes of anaemiain developing countries. It is a common problem, but its importance causing maternal anaemia is little understood. It is an important risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. Hookworm infestation is a leading cause of maternal and child morbidity in the developing countries of the tropics and subtropics. It is rarely fatal, though anaemia can be significant in the heavily infested individuals. Consequences of hookworm infestation associated with anaemia in pregnancy are cardiovascular symptoms, reduced physical and mental performance, reduced immunity, fatigue, reduced peripartal blood reserve in mothers and intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, and low birth weight in newborns. Thus, importance for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages in India based on WHO recommendation is a requirement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001094
Title: Effect of electron beam radiations on memory in experimental animal models
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Exposures to ionizing radiation have been an inevitable part of the environment. This type of radiation can disrupt atoms, creating positive and negative charged particles, and cause biological harm. Ionizing radiation includes x-rays, gamma rays, alpha particles, beta particles and neutrons. They have the potential to cause both beneficial and harmful effects. There are concerns about these radiations as they are widely used in hospitals for treatment and diagnosis of various diseases. The present work was designed to test the effect of whole body electron beam radiation on memory in mice using the Hebb Williams Maze, Elevated Plus Maze and Jumping apparatus, the commonly used exteroceptive models for cognitive tests in rodents. Mice were irradiated with three different doses (2Gy, 4Gy and 6Gy) of electron beam radiations. Statistical analysis revealed that whole body irradiation of the moderate dose range (2-6 Gy) of electron beam leads to a significant (p<0.001) loss of memory in irradiated mice. Electron beam induced memory loss can be due to radiation induced reactive oxygen species in brain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00001093
Title: Studies on the Phytochemistry, Antimicrobial Activity and Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles Using Cassia tora L.
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The field of nanotechnology is one of the most active areas of research in modern materials science and technology. An eco-friendly green mediated synthesis of inorganic nanoparticle is a fast growing research in the limb of nanotechnology. The present study synthesis from 1 mm AgNO3 solution through the leaf extract of Cassia tora L. as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV –vis absorption spectroscopy’s green synthesized silver nanoparticles showed the antibacterial against the isolated microorganisms. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. were isolated from clinical specimen. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extracts of Cassia tora L. showed the presence of anthraquniones, carbohydrates, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, amino acid, phytosterols, fixed oils and fats, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The silver nanopaticles was characterized by using UV –visible Spectrophotometer at the range of 200-800nm. Absorption spectrum (200-800nm) at the beginning of the reaction showed three distrinct peaks, centering around 220, 280 and 430nm. The absorption spectrum showed increase in intensity over a broad spectrum in the range of 350-600nm within 10min of contact time while the remaining part of the absorption spectrum in the range of 350- 600nm continued to increase with increasing incubation time till 60min. Each antibiotic resistant microorganism differs in the formation of zone of inhibition representing their sensitiveness to silver nanoparticles extracts of Cassia tora.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001092
Title: Prion Diseases: Combat of Genomes and Contest for the Survival of Fittest in Microbial World
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Prion diseases are incurable neurologic disorders, in contrast to Alzheimer, Parkinson and other neurodegenerative diseases, are transmissible from one individual to another .It is confrontation for both to medicine and neuroscience is the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases The infectious agent causing prion diseases has been proposed to consist exclusively of a protein. Currently a characteristic feature of these diseases is the conformational change of highly conserved cellular protein, the prion protein into pathogenic prion proteins such as scrape-associated prion protein. The exact mechanism by which the agent replicates is still unclear, Prion diseases still lack of effective treatment and are universally fatal. This paper will review some of the general background related to prion biology, the history and epidemiology of these diseases, and then focuses on important areas of current research & future prospect in prion disorders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001091
Title: Study of Antinociceptive Effect of Paroxetine and Elucidation of Its Mechanism of Action in Acute Pain in Albino Rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Pain is the most common reason patients seek medical care. Increased level of monoamines (serotonin and norepinephrine) in synaptic clefts lead to changes in pain threshold and induce antinociception. The study was carried out to evaluate antinociceptive effect of paroxetine in albino rats and to probe into its possible mechanism of action. Albino rats of either sex of average weight 100-200gms were used. The drugs used were paroxetine 5mg/Kg, pethidine 5mg/Kg(active control), naloxone 5mg/Kg, ondansetron 0.1mg/Kg and normal saline 1ml/Kg. Antinociceptive effect tested by using thermal method i.e. tail flick response. Statistical analyses indicate significant difference between value of control when compared with paroxetine i.e., paroxetine shows antinociceptive effect. The effects of paroxetine were comparable to that of pethidine. Naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist and Ondansetron, a 5HT-3 receptor antagonist when combined with paroxetine blocked its antinociceptive action. This finding suggests and involvement of serotonergic mechanisms (5-HT3 subtype), and the opioidergic system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00001090
Title: Antibacterial and antifungal screening of ethanol leaf extract of Wrightia tinctoria against some pathogenic microorganisms
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation focuses on the antimicrobial screening of leaf extract of Wrightia tinctoria against the selected bacterial and fungal strains. Leaf extract of Wrightia tinctoria was more potent in inhibiting the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli with different degree of inhibition. Wrightia tinctoria completely inhibited Trichophyton floccosum at 500- 1000ppm. The results support that the plant extract containing compound that can form the basis for the development of novel broad spectrum antimicrobial formulations against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Trichophyton floccosum.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001089
Title: Pharmacological Intervention of Pre-Eclampsia and Eclampsia: A case study of a tertiary health institution in Jos, Nigeria
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

Blood pressure is an important parameter in monitoring pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are major causes of poor gestational outcome in tropical Africa. This research was carried out to ascertain if the management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Nigeria is in line with global recent advances. A retrospective data collection and evaluation protocol was used. Eighty-eight patient files (sixty-two with eclampsia and twenty-six with pre-eclampsia) presented over a period of four years (Jan 2004- Dec 2007). Parity, age, stage of pregnancy, occupation, blood pressure range (before and after pharmacological intervention) and drugs used in managing both conditions were evaluated. The highest incidence occurred in first pregnancies, young maternal age, third trimester and full-time house wives. Blood pressures were observed to decrease with drug use and after delivery of the fetus and placenta. The study was in line with global recent advances. It revealed the need for closer evaluation of pharmacological intervention for eclampsia and pre-eclampsia to ensure better fetal and maternal health outcomes as stated in the 4th and 5th Millennium Development Goals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00001084
Title: In- silico analysis of pyrazinamide resistance of Mycobacterium sp.
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Pyrazinamide (PZA), a prodrug used for the treatment of tuberculosis, requires conversion into its active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA), by the bacterial enzyme pyrazinamidase (PZase), which is encoded by the 561- nucleotide pncA gene. The present study was aimed at predicting the active site and drug binding characteristics of mycobacterial PZase by constructing homology models and docking with PZA. Despite 99% identity in the amino acid sequences of PZases from M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, significant variations in their three dimensional structure was observed. PZase of M. kansasii also differed from all other PZases. Active sites of PZases were identified by docking studies and were found to be partially conserved in the PZases. These results suggest that PZA resistance of these organisms is not necessarily due to a non-functional PZase but by alternate mechanism. On comparing with reported mutations responsible for PZA resistance in M. tuberculosis, the mutations His51Gln, Trp68Arg, His71Glu, Tyr103His and Cys138Tyr might have direct role in the enzyme activity as these occur in the active site whereas the other mutations cause resistance by bringing structural changes in the functional PZase.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00001082
Title: Overview on medicinal plant used in anthelmintic
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Plant-derived compounds have played very crucial role in the field of anthelmintic drugs. The knowledge of most ‘Medicinal plants’ used in the treatment of helminthic. Plants are always an exemplary source of drugs; in fact many of the currently available drugs were derived either directly or indirectly from them. Medicinal plant is sensitive to the majority of anthelmintic drugs that are used against parasitic worm infections of humans and livestock. In addition, there are numerous examples of anthelmintic drugs providing exceptionally useful pharmacological tools to delineate fundamental aspects of cell signaling. So this review provides a platform for the researcher and gives them an opportunity to prepare such herbal formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000931
Title: Evaluation of wound-healing activity of Eichornia crassipes: A novel approach
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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There are no experimental reports on wound healing activities of Eichornia crassipes in literature. In this article, we report for the first time, the efficacy of Eichornia crassipes extract in the treatment of wounds. The methanolic extract of Eichornia crassipes leaves were investigated for the evaluation of their wound healing potential on excision experimental model of wounds in rats. The methanolic extract of leaves of Eichornia crassipes, in the form of an ointment with two different concentrations (10% and 15% w/w ointment of leaf extract in simple ointment base) was evaluated for wound healing potential in an excision wound model in rats. It is observed that the wound contraction ability of the ointment containing Eichornia crassipes extract in different concentrations was significantly greater than that of the control (simple ointment). The 15%w/w extract containing ointment group showed significant wound healing from the fourth day onwards which was comparable to that of the nitrofurazone ointment treated animals. The wound closure time was less and the percentage of wound contraction was much more with the 15%w/w extract ointment treated group. On 18th day 100% contraction was observed which was almost similar to that of the nitrofurazone ointment group. 10%w/w extract ointment group of animals showed significant wound contraction from the 18th day onwards and achieved 100% with the wound closure time of 20th days. Both concentrations of the methanolic extract of Eichornia crassipes ointment showed significant responses when compared with the control group. The effect produced by the extract ointment, in terms of wound contracting ability, wound closure time, regeneration of tissues at wound site, and histopathological characteristics were comparable to those of a standard drug nitrofurazone ointment. Thus, this investigation confirms the use of the Eichornia crassipes ointment as a wound-healing agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000932
Title: Antibacterial activity of aqueous plant extracts against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Spices are the key ingredients of the Indian food. Inspite of enhacing flavour of food, these are found to have medicinal importance too which is shown in our study. In this study, the antibacterial activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Mentha arvensis (Mint), Curcuma longa (Turmeric), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis by agar well diffusion method. The maximum antimicrobial activity expressed in terms of zone of inhibition was shown by aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale followed by Curcuma longa and Azadirachta indica. However, aqueous extract of Piper nigrum was only effective against B. subtilis and Mentha arvnesis did not show any activity against both the test organisms. This study scientifically validates the use of plants as a potent antibacterial agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000911
Title: Antimicrobial Spectrum and Phytochemical Study of Ficus Tsiela L. (Moreceae)
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study deals with the antimicrobial activity of the diethyl ether, ethanol, and acetone extracts of the plant Ficus tsiela using disc diffusion method against human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present investigation, all the extracts were found to be effective against the four selected bacterial species tested and are sensitive to all the plant extracts used. The study suggests that the extracts of the plant possesses potential broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of the diethyl ether extract was found to be higher than that of other extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-000062
Title: Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) Analysis of Ichnocarpus frutescens Plant Parts
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Ichnocarpus frutescens (Apocynaceae) commonly known as Thapalaha (Syamolata). Its leaf, stem and root were investigated for its metal mineral content by using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Elemental analysis was performed on eleven elements (C, O, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn). The analysis of EDX showed that root possesses all the tested elements. However, Leaf was found deficient in Fe and Al and stem deficient in Mg.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-000063
Title: Control of phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola using medicinal plant methanolic extracts
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The antifungal activity of forty nine medicinal plants belonging to different families was tested in vitro on phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. In which methanolic extracts of forty two plants exhibited varying degrees of inhibition activity against C. graminicola. The results revealed that extract of Terminalia chebula was highly effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of C. graminicola at 75μg/50μL. The following six plants Acalypha indica, Eichhornia crassipes, Gyanandropsis gyanandra, Suaeda maritime, Tephrosia pumila and Tinospora cordifolia did not exhibit antifungal activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-000064
Title: [Antibacterial and Antineoplastic Effect of Root of Euphorbia hirta L] ----------- [vol1 issue 1 2009Jan DIT]
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This dissertation describes the antibacterial and antineoplastic effect (against Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma; EAC) of methanol extract of root of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol extract showed moderate activity against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus megaterium) and Gram negative (Escherchia coli, Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella sonnei) bacteria. In vivo the root extract resulted 45% and 54.4% Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell growth inhibition at the dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The root extract also showed moderate cytotoxic effect (LC50 37.07 μg.ml-1) against Artemia salina (brine shrimp nauplii) in respect to ampicillin trihydrate (LC50 16.87 μg.ml-1).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-TPS-000065
Title: In-vitro release, Thermodynamics and Pharmacodynamic Studies of Aceclofenac Transdermal Eudragit Patches
Category: Thermodynamics and Pharmacodynamic Studies
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aceclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug has been formulated into transdermal Eudragit patches. The drug was first characterized for its physicochemical properties by studying its solubility and its partition coefficient at different pH values. Formulation of Aceclofenac into transdermal patches using three acrylic resin polymers like Eudragit L100, L100-55 and S100 was done. The effect of different plasticizers, like propylene glycol (PG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) in concentrations of 5% and 10%, on the in-vitro drug release was investigated. Thermodynamics of the in-vitro release of Aceclofenac from Eudragit patches were also studied. The anti-inflammatory effect of the selected Aceclofenac Eudragit patches was determined in male albino rats, using paw edema method. The results of the in-vitro release show that, Eudragit patches of Aceclofenac had an acceptable % drug release after 60 minutes and the increase of hydrophilic plasticizers PG or PEG concentrations form 5% to 10% is accompanied by an increase in drug release. The release of drug from all investigated Eudragit patches follows zero order kinetic and it increases linearly as a function of temperature. The free energy (rG) values of drug release are negative for all Eudragit patches and the best thermodynamically stable patch was L100+10% PG, which was chosen for further pharmacodynamic evaluation of Aceclofenac anti-inflammatory activity. The results show that in all treated rat groups there are significant inhibition in edema thickness, produced by carrageenan when compared with the non-treated group. This inhibition in edema is statistically significant at P < 0.05. It was also observed, that the group pretreated with water for 30 hours prior to the experiment showed the highest percent edema inhibition, followed by group pretreated with isopropyl myristate (IPM). This study demonstrates the feasibility of formulating Aceclofenac into transdermal patches using Eudragit L100+10% PG to deliver it as part of inflammatory management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-000066
Title: Sedative and anticonvulsant activities of the methanol leaf extract of Ficus hispida Linn.---- vol1 issue 1 2009 [DIT]
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The central nervous system (CNS) depressant and anticonvulsant activities of the methanol leaf extract of Ficus hispida Linn (FH) were investigated on various animal models including pentobarbitone sleeping time and hole-board exploratory behaviour for sedation tests, and strychnine, picrotoxin, and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. FH (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.), like chlorpromazine HCl (1mg/kg, i.m.), produced a dose-dependent prolongation of pentobarbitone sleeping time and suppression of exploratory behaviour. FH (200 and 400mg/kg) produced dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) increases in onset to clonic and tonic convulsions, and at 400mg/kg, showed complete protection against seizures induced by strychnine and picrotoxin but not with pentylenetetrazole. Acute oral toxicity test, up to 14 days, did not produce any visible signs of toxicity. These results suggest that potencially antiepileptic compounds are present in leaf extract of FH that deserve the study of their identity and mechanism of action.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-000067
Title: Protective effect of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats------------VOL1 ISSUE 1,2009,[DIT]
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa, Roxb. in Wister albino rats by inducing liver damage by carbon tetra chloride (CCl4). The ethanolic extract at a oral dose of 200mg/kg exhibited significant (p<0.001) hepatoprotective effect by lowering serum enzyme levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TB). These observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver section. Silymarin was used as positive control.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-000069
Title: Synthesis and Screening of Some New 2-Amino Substituted Benzothiazole Derivatives for Antifungal Activity
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Some new 2-Amino substituted- benzothiazole (A1-7) were synthesized by treating with KSCN in presence of glacial acetic acid and with different Substituted aniline. Structures of the synthesized compounds were established on the basis of Melting Point, TLC, and IR spectral data. The anti-fungal activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by disc diffusion method.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-000070
Title: In silico prediction of selected pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties of some neuroactive steroids
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Selected pharmacokinetic and toxic properties of some neuroactive steroids derived from pregnanolone and alphaxalone were predicted by in silico methods.Pregnanolone and alphaxalone were selected as lead molecules and a series of drug-like molecules derived from them were generated. Their pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties were calculated through the ADME and Tox boxes web version of pharma algorithms and ACD labs Chem. Sketch software version 12.0.All drug-like neuroactive steroids were predicted to be less toxic(LD50900 to 1020 mg/kg and 940 to 1020 mg/kg) with an enhancement in lipophilicity (c log P 3.31 to 4.73 and 5.06 to 6.41),protein binding (64% to 91% and 56%to 92%) and oral bioavailability(64% to 88% and 52% to 90%).From this study, it can be concluded that all the drug-like neuroactive steroids possess marked lipophilicity, rate of absorption, volume of distribution, protein binding and oral bioavailability.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 7, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000694
Title: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Evaluations of Aceclofenac Matrix sustained release Tablets using Natural gum
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: This study was undertaken to develop and formulate aceclofenac matrix sustained release tablets using a natural gum and to conduct its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation. Methods: Sustained release matrix tablets of aceclofenac were prepared by using a direct compression technique, using Salmalia malabarica gum as matrix forming material while microcrystalline cellulose was as filler. All the ingredients were passed through a # 20 sieve, weighed, and blended. These formulations were compressed with a single station tablet compression machine using 9 mm flat faced punches. Results and discussion: The drug–polymer interactions were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy which indicated the absence of interactions. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the surface morphology of the tablets and confirm drug release mechanisms. The stability studies were performed using ICH guidelines for a period of six months and found that the developed formulation was stable. In-vivo studies for anti-inflammatory activity and pharmacokinetics were performed in wistar rats and young male rabbits respectively. The in-vivo results showed that the optimized tablet (F-5) exhibited significant difference in the drug release in comparison to that of pure drug and marketed formulation. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the developed formulation shows sustained release and is of cost effective for the formulation development of aceclofenac tablets.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-0000853
Title: Vitex agnus castus Molecular Marker Compounds Extraction and Optimization Using HPLC with ELS Detector
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Vitex agnus castus extracts in different solvent ratios were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (ELSD). The markers of our interest in Vitexagnus castus are Agnuside, Casticin and Vitexyl acetone. To correlate the retention time of the molecular marker compounds with Vitex agnus castus extract were compared with standard molecular markers of Agnuside, Casticin and Vitexyl acetone using same conditions of that of extract and were analyzed statistically. Apart from the results ELS Detector is regarded as a valuable alternative to UV detection system for liquid chromatographic analysis of substances that does not contain a strong chromophore. As the markers do not contain strong chromophore, it is difficult to identify it UV detection system in High performance liquid chromatography. So an alternative is the Evaporative Light scattering Detector which is an effective tool for the identification of the compounds which do not contain chromophores. Present study concludes that ELS Detection system is more efficient than the UV/Vis detection system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000854
Title: Antioxidant potential of a polyherbal formulation (Diabet) on alloxan induced oxidative stress in rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Diabet, a polyherbal formulation intended to use for diabetic patients has been screened for antioxidant activity. For antioxidant studies, Diabet was administered orally for 30 days at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight to alloxan induced diabetic male Wistar rats. All the animals were sacrificed on the 31st day and the levels of LPO, SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in kidney and liver of control and experimental rats were studied. The formulation exhibited significant antioxidant activity showing increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and decreased level of lipid peroxidation. These results showed that treatment with Diabet lowers Alloxan induced LPO and alters SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH enzymes to reduce oxidative stress.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000855
Title: Evaluation of Nephroprotective and antioxidant potential of Tragia involucrata
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Tragia involucrata (TI) Linn is a shrub belongs to family Ephorbiaceae widely distributed in the Indian subcontinent. TI is used for treatment of various diseases including eczema, inflammation, superficial skin infections. Juice from its leaves is commonly used for illnesses including liver and renal conditions in the Asian subcontinent. The aim of this study was to investigate the nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of TI at two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg B/W on acetaminophen (APAP) induced toxicity in male albino rats. APAP significantly increased levels of serum urea, hemoglobin (Hb), total leukocyte count, packed cell volume,creatinine, , DLC, and mean corpuscular volume, raised body weight, and reduced levels of neutrophils, mean corpuscular Hb content, mean corpuscular hematocrit, granulocytes, uric acid, and platelet Concentration. TI inhibited the hematological effects of APAP. TI significantly increased activities of renal superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase and decreased malondialdehyde content of APAP-treated rats. Apart from these, histopathological changes also showed the protective nature of the TI extract against APAP induced necrotic damage of renal tissues. In conclusion it was observed that the ethanol extract of AC conferred nephroprotective and antioxidant activities by histopathological and biochemical observations against APAP induced renal damage in rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000858
Title: Antifungal activity of stem bark of Kigelia pinnata Linn.
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The effect of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extract of stem bark of Kigelia pinnata was investigated in different fungus i.e. Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida tropicalis, Trychophyton rubrum, Microsporum furfure, Epidermophyton floccosum to evaluate the antifungal activity. For this evaluation Sabouraud’s glucose broth media was used. All the three extracts exhibited antifungal activity. The chloroform extract showed significant antifungal activity; where as the petroleum ether and methanolic extract showed weak antifungal activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000859
Title: Free radical scavenging and insecticidal activity of Elaeagnus kologa Schldl.
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Free radicals contribute to more than one hundred disorders in humans. Mosquitoes are the most important single group of insects acting as vector for many tropical and subtropical diseases. The present study was conducted to screen various solvent extracts of Elaeagnus kologa Schldl. for Antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay and insecticidal activity against second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The extracts have exhibited concentration dependent radical scavenging activity. Among the extracts, methanol extract exhibited high free radical scavenging activity. A concentration dependent larval mortality was observed in all the extracts. The larval mortality was recorded as 100% in the case of 15 and 20mg/ml of methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts. The radical scavenging and insecticidal activity could be attributed to the presence of phytochemicals in the solvent extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000860
Title: Studies on diuretic and laxative activity of bark extracts of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The diuretic and laxative activity of various extracts of the barks of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser (Family: Rubiaceae) were studied in Wistar albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and agar-agar (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as reference standards respectively for activity comparison. The methanol extract significantly increased the urinary out put as well as urinary electrolyte concentration at the tested dosage regimen that is comparable with the reference standard except in increasing the urinary out put. The chloroform extract produced significant laxative activity. Presence of different phytoconstituents in various extracts of N. cadamba may be responsible for the specific activities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-0000861
Title: Impurity profile- A review
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Impurity profiling is the common name of a group of analytical activities, the aim of which is the detection, identification/structure elucidation and quantitative determination of organic and inorganic impurities, as well as residual solvents in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. Since this is the best way to characterize the quality and stability of bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations, this is the core activity in modern drug analysis. Due to the very rapid development of the analytical methodologies available for this purpose and the similarly rapid increase of the demands as regards the purity of drugs it is an important task to review a summary of the problems and the various possibilities offered by modern analytical chemistry for their solution. Various regulatory authorities like ICH, USFDA, Canadian Drug and Health Agency are emphasizing on the purity requirements and the identification of impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient’s (API’s). Qualification of the impurities is the process of acquiring and evaluating data that establishes biological safety of an individual impurity; thus, revealing the need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research. Identification of impurities is done by variety of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic techniques, either alone or in combination with other techniques. There are different methods for detecting and characterizing impurities with TLC, HPLC, HPTLC, AAS etc. Conventional Liquid Chromatography, particularly, HPLC has been exploited widely in field of impurity profiling; the wide range of detectors, and stationary phases along with its sensitivity and cost effective separation have attributed to its varied applications. Among the various Planar Chromatographic Methods; TLC is the most commonly used separation technique, for isolation of impurities; due to its ease of operation and low cost compared to HPLC. An advancement of thin layer chromatography HPTLC is a well-known technique for the impurity isolation.Headspace GC is one of the most preferred techniques for identification of residual solvents. The advent of hyphenated techniques has revolutionized impurity profiling, by not only separation but structural identification of impurities as well. Among all hyphenated techniques, the most exploited techniques, for impurity profiling of drugs are LC-MS-MS, LC-NMR, LCNMR- MS, GC-MS, and LC-MS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000862
Title: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract of Momordica charantia fruits
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The fruits of Momordica charantia have been traditionally used in India and other Asian countries. The methanol extract of Momordica charantia fruits (MCM) was evaluated for immunomodulatory activity using in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Effect of extract was evaluated at various concentrations (832 – 6.5 μg/ml) for secretion of mediators like nitric oxide, superoxide, lysosomal enzyme and myeloperoxidase activity of isolated murine peritoneal macrophages. The extract showed stimulation of nitric oxide, lysosomal enzyme and myeloperoxidase activity. The extract was also evaluated for in vivo phagocytic activity by carbon clearance assay in mice and it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg dose. The effect of the extract on delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody titre assay were evaluated in ovalbumin immunized mice. MCM showed no significant effect on DTH response but significant stimulation of antibody titer at 200 and 400mg/kg dose. The effect of the extract in cyclophosphamide induced myelosuppressed mice was not significant. The results suggest that the extract stimulated non-specific murine immune system, both in vitro and in vivo.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000863
Title: Anti-hyperglycemic activity of methanolic extract of Salacia fruticosa leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti hyperglycemic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Salacia fruticosa (Family:Hippocrataceae) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The hyperglycemic rats were divided into different groups and were treated with methanolic extract of S. fruticosa at a dose of 125 & 250mg/kg. Treatment with extract produced a significant dose dependent reduction in blood glucose levels and this anti hyperglycemic activity was comparable with the reference standard, metformin. The results of the present study revealed the anti-diabetic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Salacia fruticosa in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DRP-0000864
Title: Effect of manufacturing conditions on physico-chemical characteristics and drug release profiles of aceclofenac sodium microbeads
Category: Drug Release Profiles
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study reports the optimization of sustained release microbeads of aceclofenac sodium were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique, using different variables such as drug-polymer ratios, concentration of cross-linking agent, cross-linking time. The effects of these processing variables were evaluated on physicochemical properties and drug release potential of microbeads. .The shape and surface characteristics were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). While increasing in the concentration of sodium alginate dispersion increased sphericity, size distribution, flow properties, mean particle size, swelling ratio and drug entrapment efficiency. While increasing cross-linking time was significantly decreases the mean particle size. The mean particle sizes of microbeads were found to be in the range 596.45±1.04 to 880.10±0.13μm. The drug entrapment efficiency was obtained in the range of 63.24-98.90%w/v. No significant drug-polymer interactions were observed in FT-IR studies. In-vitro drug release profile of aceclofenac sodium from microbeads was examined in simulated gastric fluid pH1.2 for initial 2h, mixed phosphate buffer pH 6.8 up to 6h and simulated intestinal pH 7.2 at end of 24h. The release of drug from the microbeads was pH dependent, showed negligible drug release in pH1.2. Under neutral conditions the beads will swell and the drug release depend on swelling and erosion process resulting optimum level of drug released in a sustained manner and exhibited zero-order kinetics. Aceclofenac sodium microbeads prepared by ionotropic gelation method using natural polysaccharide like sodium alginate showed a satisfactory sustained release profile and minimizing dose related side effects. The entire process is feasible in an industrial scale and
demands pilot study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 1, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000865
Title: Antidepressant activity of the ethanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck (Linn) bark in animal models of depression
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant effects of Albizzia lebbeck bark in various animal depression models.Materials and Methods: The alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) of Albizzia lebbeck bark (200 & 400 mg/kg. p.o) was administered once daily for seven successive days to separate groups of young male swiss albino mice. The immobility periods of control and treated mice were recorded in two behavioral despair models forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and the effect of extract on locomotor function of mice was studied using actophotometer. The antidepressant-like effect of tested drug was compared to that of imipramine (15 mg/ kg. p.o) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg.p.o). Results: The bark extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in a dose dependent manner in both FST and TST. The extract did not show significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. The efficacy of tested extract was found to be comparable to that of imipramine and fluoxetine. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the ethanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck bark exerts antidepressant-like effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-0000872
Title: The oil Palm tree: A renewable energy in poverty eradication in developing countries
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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This paper highlights the role of the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) as a renewable energy in poverty eradication in developing countries. Many uses of the oil palm are known. This paper describes the processing of palm oil fruits for the extraction of both palm oil and palm kernel oil at the small-scale level. Palm oil and palm kernel oil are the primary major products of the oil palm tree. These oils also are raw materials for the production of a variety of products such as cooking oils, biodiesel, edible fats in the confectionery and bakery trades, ice-cream, mayonnaise, toilet soap, powder detergents, pomades, candles, etc. The palm kernel cake is a major ingredient in the livestock feed manufacture. Palm wine, an alcoholic beverage produced from the sap obtained by the tapping of the male inflorescence is sweet when fresh and sugar can be produced from it. Gin is distilled from the fermented wine. The trunk and the leaflet of the tree are also used for the production of various materials. The sale of all these products of the palm tree will yield cash (money) and social recognition for the oil palm tree farmer. It is also argued that adequate support from the government in terms of research in oil palm, training of farmers, provision of processing facilities, and social amenities will help to promote the quality of products and increase the earnings of the oil palm farmers and processors. In order to attract the land-less farmers, incentives are should be offered to them in the shape of land and seeds at an affordable price. They should also be provided road approach, drinking water facility, low cost sanitation, primary education, basic health facilities, oil extraction mill and market to the nearest township to enable them to sell the fruit, seed, oil and inter-cropped vegetables. These facilities if provided would be result oriented, functional and economically viable thereby eradicating poverty in the society.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000873
Title: Ocular Inserts : A Review
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist. The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye render this organ exquisitely impervious to foreign substances. The challenge to the formulator is to circumvent the protective barriers of the eye without causing permanent tissue damage. Newer delivery system is being explored to develop extended duration and controlled release strategy. Some of the newer, sensitive and successful ocular delivery system like inserts, biodegradable polymeric system, and collagen shields are being developed in order to attain better ocular bioavailability and sustained action of ocular drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000874
Title: Niosomes: The ultimate drug carrier
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Niosomes or non-ionic surfactant vesicles are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl or dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. The method of preparation of niosome is based on liposome technology. The basic process of preparation is the same i.e. hydration by aqueous phase of the lipid phase which may be either a pure surfactant or a mixture of surfactant with cholesterol. After preparing niosomal dispersion, unentrapped drug is separated by dialysis centrifugation or gel filtration. A method of in-vitro release rate study includes the use of dialysis tubing. Niosomes are unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles formed from synthetic non-ionic surfactants. Niosomal drug delivery is potentially applicable to many pharmacological agents for their action against various diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000876
Title: Bactericidal activities of different Medicinal plants extracts against Ocular pathogen viz Corynebacterium macginleyi
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In this contemporary investigation bio-control of ocular pathogen i.e. Corynebacterium macginleyi was achieved by methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts of forty different medicinal plants using agar well diffusion method. Among the forty selected plants, methanolic extracts of thirty six plants given remarkable bioactivity than chloroform and hexane extracts against C. macginleyi. The methanolic extracts from Terminalia catappa, Terminalia chebula, Rosa indica, Albizia lebbeck, Butea monosperma showed maximum activity. Hibiscus rosasinensis, Justicia adhatoda, Physalis minima and Pongamia pinnata did not exhibit antibacterial activity at the condition studied. Among the forty plants studied 90 % of the plants had antibacterial activity while the remaining 10% had no antibacterial activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-0000877
Title: Conservation of an endangered medicinal plant Centella asiatica through Plant Tissue culture
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Centella asiatica is an endemic herbaceous plant with great medicinal value. Medicinal properties of the plant has led to it’s over exploitation coupled with inadequate cultivation and unsatisfactory attempts for its replacement, the wild stock of this species has been markedly exhausted and now it is listed as threatened species. Hence, there is an urgent necessitate to safeguard this precious germplasm. Plant tissue culture has proved to be helpful in conserving threatened plant species. In this direction, in the present study, an efficient protocol was developed for callus induction and plantlet regeneration from nodal explants of Centella asiatica. Well-organized plant regeneration was achieved on MS medium containing different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators. MS medium supplemented with 4 mg/l and NAA in combination with 2 mg/l 2, 4-D proved effective for callus induction, with this combination we achieved a frequency of 92% and BAP 1.5 mg/l and KN 1.5 mg/l was effective for regeneration response.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000878
Title: A comparative study of Aloe, Kundru and Neem as an antidiabetic agent
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Natural products compounds discovered from medicinal plants (and their analogues there of) have provided numerous clinically useful drugs and still remain as an essential component in the search for new medicines. So, these traditionally used plants can be exploited effectively in order to find New Chemical Entity for treatment of diabetes. Present studies besides confirming hypoglycemic activities of the experimental herbal samples; help identify more potent indigenous hypoglycemic herbs (in crude extract) from the comparative study of the reported experimental results. Particularly in preparation of polyherbal antidiabetic formulation. Chronic administration of different plant extracts (200mg/kg)for 14 days reduces the blood glucose level of the diabetes induced animals as compared to diabetic control group. There was significant decrease in the blood glucose level in the 7th[p<0.01] and 14th [p<0.001] days of the diabetes induction, showing antidiabetic effect individually. The peak reduction in the blood glucose level was found by the MG-02 extract treated animal. Plant extracts were Chronically administered (200mg/kg ) to the diabetic induced animals shows significant decrease in the blood glucose level [p<0.001] and the effect was comparable to that of standard antidiabetic drug Glibenclamide. This shows the antidiabetic effect of the different plant extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000879
Title: Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of the aqueous extract of the Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats.
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Experimental evidences are suggesting that the plasma hypercholestrelomic state is a main contributor of the development of cardiovascular diseases like atherosclerosis.The present study an aqueous extract from Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves was designed to evaluated for its hypocholesterolaemic and hypotriglyceridemic activities. Artocarpus heterophyllus leaf extract has not shown any side effects during acute toxicity studies Hyperlipidaemia was developed by intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR – 1339 400mg/kg.The animals were divided into Normal (CG), Triton treated group (T), Triton plus Atorvastatin, Triton plus herb extract 200 mg/kg, Triton plus herb extract 400 mg/kg, treated groups. Oral administration of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaf extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) in both groups At 24 hrs after treatment with TRITON WR 1339 caused a significant decrease in serum lipid parameters like Triglycerides (TG), Cholesterol (CH), LDL- cholesterol, Atherogenic index (AI), LDL/HDL Ratio and Total proteins as like in atorvastatin treated groups. The both extract treated groups and atorvastatin treated group bought about a significant increase in HDL-Cholesterol levels levels. Significant reduction in lipid parameters indicates that this herb may contain products that lowers the Serum lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-0000880
Title: Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. root tubers
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (Amaryllidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant. The root tubers of the plant have been used extensively in India in indigenous medicine. Its root tubers were investigated for its metal mineral content by using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The elemental analysis was performed to estimate eleven numbers of elements (C, O, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu & Zn). The analysis of EDX showed that root tubers possesses only seven type of essential elements. The root tubers was found deficient in Mg, Al, Si and Fe.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000881
Title: Formulation and evaluation of Orodispersible tablets of terbutaline sulphate
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Terbutaline sulphate is widely used medicine of bronchial asthma. It is a beta 2 receptor agonist. Orodispersible tablets of Terbutaline sulphate were prepared using superdisintegrants, ac di sol, sod.cmc, alginic acid, chitosan, mcc, as diluents by direct compression method. Twelve formulations were prepared using the superdisintegrants at lower, intermediate, higher concentration. Mannitol is used to enhance the organoleptic properties of tablets. Tablets were evaluated for uniformity of wt, hardness, friability, content uniformity, wetting time, dispersion time, disintegration time and in vitro drug release. All the formulation s showed disintegration time less than less than 35 and drug release by dissolution (100% at the end of 10 mins).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000882
Title: Anti-oxidant activity of the aqueous extract of the Morinda citrifolia leaves in triton WR- 1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats.
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Different epidemiological studies have shown that the oxidative stress is one of the major contributor of the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. This study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Morinda citrifolia leaves against hyperlipidemic rats. Morinda citrifolia leaf extract has not shown any side effects during acute toxicity studies Hyperlipidemia was developed by intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR – 1339 400mg/kg.The animals were divided into Normal group, Triton treated group (T), Triton plus Atorvastatin, Triton plus herb extract 150 mg/kg, Triton plus herb extract 300 mg/kg, treated groups. Oral administration of Morinda citrifolia leaf extract (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) in both groups At 24 hrs after treatment with TRITON WR 1339 caused a significant decrease in Malondialdehyde levels and significant increase in Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Reduced glutathione, Catalase levels as like in atorvastatin treated groups. Significant reduction in above stated anti-oxidant parameters indicating that this herb may contain products that lowers the oxidative stress and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-0000883
Title: Carboplatin-mediated changes in the activity levels of steroidogenic marker enzymes, serum hormones and testicular architecture in male rats.
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Carboplatin (10 mg/ kg body weight) caused significant decrease in the activity levels of steroidogenic marker enzymes such as 3ß-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and 17ß-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase in experimental rats when compared to that of the control rats. In addition, activity levels of serum hormones including LH, FSH and Testosterone were also altered significantly in experimental animals. Besides, causing significant alterations in the activity levels of steroidogenic marker enzymes, and serum hormones, carboplatin treatment also caused changes in testicular architecture in rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-0000884
Title: In vitro Bioautography of different Indian Medicinal plants
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In vitro screening of ethanolic crude extracts of Indian medicinal plants Terminalia chebula, Centella asatica, Solanum xanthocarpum were studied that have been popularly used as folk medicines. The main characteristic of an antioxidant is its ability to trap free radicals and also reduce the risk of chronic diseases including cancer, central nervous system injury, arthritis and heart diseases. Scientific information on antioxidant properties of various natural sources is still rather scarce. A variety of free radical scavenging antioxidants are found in plants. The results provided evidence that the studied plants might indeed be potential sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000885
Title: Evaluation of binding properties of Moringa oleifera gum in the formulation of paracetamol tablets
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Plant gums and mucilage are being used in Pharmaceuticals and in other various industries due to their abundance in nature, safety and low cost. Binding agents are used to impart the structural strength required during the processing, handling and packaging of tablets. In view of the importance of binders in pharmaceuticals for the manufacture of tablets and capsules, gum isolated from the stem of Moringa oleifera have been evaluated for its binding properties in the formulation of conventional Paracetamol tablet (500mg) containing 8%, 10% and 12% binding concentration. The binding property of gum was evaluated in relation to conventional binder like gelatin at different parameter like percentage of fines, tablet hardness, disintegration time, dissolution and friability. Studies showed that increase in binding concentration of M.oleifera gum from 8% to 12% decreases the percentage of fine, increases the hardness, increases the disintegration time, decreases the percentage of friability and decreases % cumulative release. The binder-excipients interaction study was also carried out by using FTIR i.e. by KBr pellet method which showed that M.oleifera gum is compatible with drug and all excipients in the formulation. It may be concluded from the studies that increase in binding concentration decreases drug release hence this gum can be used to formulate sustained/controlled release tablet formulation, since it shows better tabletting characteristics have high potential for the substitution of expensive binder.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-0000886
Title: Characterization of marine Streptomyces from Visakhapatnam coast
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Six unidentified gram-positive, filamentous organisms recovered from the marine sediments of visakhapatnam coast were characterized by morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical studies and assessed for their antimicrobial activity. Chemotaxonomic investigations revealed the presence of L, L- diaminopimelic acid, glycine and xylose in whole-cell hydrolysates of isolates, which indicated cell wall type 1, consistent with the genus Streptomyces. Out of 6 isolates, 4 isolates exhibited broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and two isolates showed strong antifungal activity. As the isolates differed from the standard cultures in characteristics of the spore bearing apparatus and other taxonomic cultures in characteristics, they are classified as novel strains of the genus Streptomyces.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000887
Title: Nasal Drug Delivery Systems: Scope And Potential
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The administration of drugs through the nasal cavity is not a new method of delivering drugs. It has been used of the delivery of psychotherapeutic compounds in the ancient era, particularly for the systemic effects. The increasing research in the field of pharmaceutics has led to the development of a number of formulations for the systemic drug delivery. The drug delivery through the nasal mucosa provides a number of advantages like an large surface area for absorption, overcomes the first pass effect. The increasing research in the field of novel drug delivery system has led to the development of novel forms like the intranasal route which has been shown to have an equivalent efficacy to the intravenous route. The nasal drug delivery system is very advantageous in the delivery proteins, peptides and the novel research in the field has led to the development of nose to brain drug delivery systems. The use of the strategies which enhance the nasal bioavailability are being used to formulate a number of drugs for delivery via the nasal route. The present article focuses on the recent trends in the intranasal drug delivery, formulation approaces, bioavailability considerations and the evaluation parameters.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000888
Title: Hypoglycaemic activity of a polyherbal product in alloxan induced diabetic rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of medicine, mentions several plants that are useful in the correction of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Plants have been exemplary source of drugs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus [DM]. Many of the currently available drugs have been directly or indirectly derived from them. In spite of being hundreds of claimants none have gained enough momentum in clinical practice as most of them lack scientific validation. YXK12 is a commercially available polyherbal product recently introduced in the market and manufacturers claim the product to have anti diabetic properties. This study was undertaken to evaluate the hypoglycaemic effect of this drug in Alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and methods: Alloxan monohydrate is used to induce diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Hypoglycemic effect of two doses of the drug YXK12 is evaluated in these rats and the results are compared to the effects of a placebo and the standard hypoglycaemic drug Glibenclamide. Results: Blood glucose lowering effect of YXK12 in the higher dose of 2000mg/kg was found statistically significant [p=0.001]. Lower dose of 1000mg.kg did not show statistically significant hypoglycaemic effect when compared to placebo control. Conclusion: The dose which has produced hypoglycaemic effect in rats is equivalent to the highest doses of the product recommended for patients of diabetes mellitus. This dose [2000mg/kg in rats] if converted to human dose is equivalent to highest human dose recommended. As lower doses have not demonstrated any hypoglycemic activity, lower doses in humans needs to be evaluated.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000889
Title: Formulation and Evaluation of Gastro retentive Floating Drug Delivery System of Ofloxacin
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The objective of this present study is to formulate and evaluate the gastroretentive floating drug delivery system (GRFDDS) of ofloxacin prepared by using synthetic and natural polymers (polyethylene oxide and gum karaya). Formulations were prepared by wet granulation technique and sodium bicarbonate (10% w/w) was incorporated as gas generating agent. Tablets were evaluated for hardness, in vitro buoyancy, drug content and in vitro drug release studies. Release data obtained was subjected to analysis using different mathematical models namely – zero order flux, first order, erosion plot, Higuchi and Korsmeyer peppas equations. All formulated tablets irrespective of polymer used had hardness and friability values >5.0kg/cm2 and <0.68%. The in vitro lag time and total buoyancy time for all the formulations
were between 45 to 183secs and 5 to 16 hrs respectively. As the concentration of the polymers in the formulations increased the drug release decreased. Formulations made with gum karaya exhibited first order kinetics, non- fickian diffusion and the formulations like OGK3 and OGK4 followed first order and erosion mechanism. Whereas polyethylene oxide based formulations OP2,OP4 and OP5 exhibited zero order, non fickian diffusion and remaining formulations followed first order, erosion mechanism. GRFDDs of ofloxacin using synthetic (polyethylene oxide) and natural polymer (gum karaya) with drug to polymer ratio 1:0.5 and 1: 0.625 respectively are final optimized formulations. These were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which indicated that there was no interaction
between drug and polymers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000890
Title: Antioxidant activity of melanin pigment from Streptomyces species D5 isolated from Desert soil, Rajasthan, India
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study reports antioxidant activity of melanin pigment from actinomycete strain D5 isolated from Thar Desert soil, Rajasthan, India. Melanin production by the strain D5 was confirmed using tyrosine agar. Melanin production was carriedout by adopting solid state fermentation using wheat bran and rice bran medium and extracted using ethyl acetate. About 280 mg/10 gram and 192 mg of crude pigment were extracted from 10 gram of wheat bran and rice bran medium, respectively. The melanin pigment from crude extract was partially purified by preparative TLC and the purified melanin fraction showed good free radical scavenging activity in DPPH method. The actinomycete strain D5 was characterized and identified as Streptomyces girseorubiginosus (D5) based on their phenotypic characteristics. Further fermentation and purification of melanin pigment from strain D5 will leads to a development of pharmaceutically valuable antioxidant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000891
Title: Antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia tetraphylla (Apocyanaceae) and its bioactive compound reserpine
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In vitro antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia tetraphylla was studied against selected pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica by disc diffusion assay. Bioactive compound reserpine was isolated from the leaf. The results revealed that the ethanolic leaf extract and reserpine compound are potent in inhibiting these bacteria which cause gastroenteritis in human population. This work highlights that the inhibitory effect is on par with standard antibiotics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-0000892
Title: In Silico Screening of Drugs against Trypanosomes Using Blast
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Human African Trypanosomiasis and Chagas Disease are diseases of poor people in Africa and Latin America respectively. The traditional market-driven pathways to drug development are not available. One potentially rapid and cost-effective approach to identifying and developing new trypanocidal drugs would be in silico screening of existing drugs already approved for other uses. Here BLAST is used for screening drugs against Trypanosomes. From the 1470 drugs analyzed, 121 passed the in silico test performed with the help of BLAST. Out of the 121 drugs, 61 drugs proved to be effective against Trypanosomes, 15 were confirmed to have no effect on Trypanosomes and the effectiveness of 45 drugs remained unknown. One result indicated that the enzyme phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase, which was previously unknown in Trypanosoma brucei, might be present in it. Hence BLAST is a tool which can be used for in silico screening of existing drugs is a rapid, cheap and effective way.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CA-0000893
Title: Phytochemical and Pharmacognostical Studies on Murraya koenigii (L)spreng. Roots
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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The Murraya koenigii plant is widely used as herb, spice, condiments and also used to treat various types of ailments in Indian traditional system. Worlds about 80% population relies upon herbal products, because they have been considered as safe, effective and economical. The present study was aimed to set standard parameters for standardization of Murraya koenigii roots. In the present study microscopy of root and roots powder carried out, ash values, extractive values, fiber content, bitterness value, haemolytic activity, tannin content and roots powder fluorescence nature also observed using different chemical reagents. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts were screened for presence of amino acid and carbohydrates. The preliminary phytochemical screening of petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract, chloroform extract, ethanol extract and aqueous extract was performed. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sterol in various extracts were observed. This is first ever pharmacognostical study carried out on Murraya koenigii roots.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-0000894
Title: Spectrophotometric determination and thermodynamic studies of the charge transfer complexes of bambuteroleHCl
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective

The aim of the present work was to develop simple spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of bambuterol hydrochloride.

Method

Spectrophotometric method for determination of bambuterol hydrochloride after its conversion to bambuterol base by formation of charge transfer complexes as n-donor with π-acceptors, dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) and tetracyanobenzoquinodimethane (TCNQ) which were prepared in acetonitrile. They yield radical anions measured at 461 and 842 nm within concentration ranges of 36.7–183.7, 4.59–36.7 μg ml−1 with a good correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.9999–0.9998) respectively. The nature of the formed complexes was studied via determination of the association constant and the molar absorptivity using Bensi–Hildebrand equation. The free energy change (ΔG) and the enthalpy of formation (ΔH) as well as the entropy (ΔS) were determined for the reaction product with TCNQ. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of bambuterol hydrochloride in its pharmaceutical preparation where no interference could be observed from the additives commonly present as proven by good mean recoveries of 99.74% and 100.014%. There was no significant difference observed when the method was statistically compared with the pharmacopeial official method used for determination.

Conclusion

The proposed charge transfer complexation methods are rapid and simple and from the economical point of view, the analytical reagents used are inexpensive, have excellent shelf life and are available in any analytical laboratory. The suggested methods could be successfully applied for quality control and routine analysis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 5, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000895
Title: In vivo study of clobetasol propionate loaded nanoemulsion for topical application in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Objectives

Optimized formulations were subjected to various In vivo studies like anti-inflammatory activity, Nickel induced dermatitis and irritation study. Clobetasol propionate (CP) has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activity. The aim of the present work was to test the hypothesis that the addition CP in nanoemulsions would result in enhancement CP delivery and leading to better antipsoriatic activity.

Materials and methods

Nanoemulsions were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using eucalyptus oil, Tween 20, ethanol, and distilled water as the oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase, respectively.

Results and discussion

We developed a topical O/W nanoemulsion in which drug is incorporated in disperse phase of oil and evaluated its efficacy against different types ofin vivo studies. It was also found that the significantly increased their anti-inflammatory activity. It was reported that CP-loaded nanoemulsion significantly increased NTPDase (Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases) activity in lymphocytes. This membrane protein is responsible for the hydrolysis of extracellular ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) which is responsible for cell proliferation, differentiation and inflammatory processes.In vivo irritation studies did not show any irritation in spite of having high amount of surfactant.

Conclusion

On the basis of above in vivo study we conclude that developed nanoemulsion is safe for human use because it has good anti-inflammatory action and did not show any irritation to the skin. All though nanoemulsion contain high amount of surfactant in comparison to cream.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 6, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-0000897
Title: The Medicinal And Nutritional Role of Underutilized Citrus Fruit- Citrus hystrix (Kaffir Lime): A Review
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Citrus hystrix, commonly known as kaffir lime and medicinal lime as mentioned in ancient literature and belonging to Rutaceae family and it is native to everywhere within India and South East Asia. The fruits are green when raw and greenish yellow when fully ripe. They are used to prepare juice, pickles and as acidulant in curries. In the traditional Indian system of medicine the Ayurveda and various folk systems of medicine, the fruit peel and leaves are used to treat various inflammatory ailments. Chemical studies have shown that fruit contains various phytoconstituents like glycerolglycolipids, tannins, tocopherols, furanocoumarins and flavonoids and alkaloids. Preclinical studies have shown that some of its phytochemicals possess antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, chemopreventive, antioxidant, anticholinesterase, cardio and hepatoprotective effects. The present paper deals with review of phytoconstituents and pharmacological action of underutilized C. hystrix fruit.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000906
Title: Solid Dispersion: Approaches, Technology involved, Unmet need & Challenges
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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More than 60% of potential drug products suffer from poor water solubility. This frequently results in potentially important products not reaching the market or not achieving their full potential. Most of the chemical entities are being are discovered are lipophilic in nature and have poor aqueous solubility, thereby posing problems in their formulation into delivery system. Experience with solid dispersions over the last 20-30 years indicates that this is a very fruitful approach to improving the release rate and oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs and the availability of a wide variety of polymers that are themselves poorly soluble or which swell under aqueous conditions suggests that solid dispersions have tremendous potential in the area of controlled release dosage forms

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 11.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000908
Title: Antifungal Activity of Indigofera aspalathoides (Shivanar Vembu) Vahl ex Dc.
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study deals with the antifungal activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the plant Indigofera aspalathoides using agar diffusion method against human pathogens, such as Candida albicans; Candida parapsilosis; Candida tropicallis. In the present investigation, all the extracts were found to be effective against three human fungal species sensitive to all the plant extracts. The study suggests that the extract of the plant parts possesses potential broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of methanol extracts was found to be higher than that of other extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 7, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-0000910
Title: Phytochemical and Pharmacognostical Studies on Murraya koenigii (L)spreng. Roots
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
View Article

The Murraya koenigii plant is widely used as herb, spice, condiments and also used to treat various types of ailments in Indian traditional system. Worlds about 80% population relies upon herbal products, because they have been considered as safe, effective and economical. The present study was aimed to set standard parameters for standardization of Murraya koenigii roots. In the present study microscopy of root and roots powder carried out, ash values, extractive values, fiber content, bitterness value, haemolytic activity, tannin content and roots powder fluorescence nature also observed using different chemical reagents. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts were screened for presence of amino acid and carbohydrates. The preliminary phytochemical screening of petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract, chloroform extract, ethanol extract and aqueous extract was performed. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sterol in various extracts were observed. This is first ever pharmacognostical study carried out on Murraya koenigii roots.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-CA-0000912
Title: Green-synthesis and characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by aqueous Leaf extracts of Cardiospermum helicacabum L.
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The synthesis of nanoparticles from plant sources has proved to be an effective and alternate method for the novel production of nanoparticles. A number of synthesis techniques have been developed including the chemical reduction of silver ions in aqueous solutions, with or without stabilizing agents, thermal decomposition in inorganic solvent, and chemical and photo reduction. Our study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cardiospermum helicacabum leaf extracts mostly fresh. The samples consisted of the leaf extracts at two different temperatures 65°C (5min,10min,15 min) and 95°C for 5 min. The plant extract at 95°C, however showed better and accurate nanoparticles formation with AgNO3 with time. Thus showing that the extraction temperature plays an important role in formation of nanoparticles. Also U.V Spectrophotometer studies show a graph that shows gradual increase of nanoparticles concentration with time, temperature, and sample characteristics. From these results we can conclude that Cardiospermum helicacabum is a potential source for nanoparticles synthesis and have identified an optimum temperature for its efficient synthesis. Depending Upon the particle size application of the nanoparticles varies. Particle size, shape can be determined by characterization procedure SEM and XRD .Synthesizing Silver
nanoparticles by medicinal plants is echo friendly and good antimicrobial efficiency against bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms. Now days widely applicable in medicinal fields for Cancer treatments, AIDS, Epilepsy etc.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-0000913
Title: Combinatorial Chemistry: A review
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Combinatorial chemistry is a new technique which have been used for synthesis of defined compounds having screened for pharmacological activity. This technique leads to synthesis of pharmacologically, biologically active compounds and their QSAR studies.This article emphasizes the different methods of combinatorial chemistry concept and their methodology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000914
Title: Recent advances in self emulsifying drug delivery system - A review
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are usually used to improve the bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. Approximately 40% of new chemical entities exhibit poor aqueous solubility and present a major challenge to modern drug delivery system, because of their low bioavailability. From time to time many workers have claimed various rational applications of Self-emulsifying formulation for enhancing bioavailability and site-specific targeting of highly lipophilic drugs. SEDDS is ideally an isotropic mixture of oils and surfactants and sometimes co solvents. The multi-component delivery systems have optimized by evaluating their ability to self-emulsify when introduced to an aqueous medium under gentle agitation, and by determination of particle size of the resulting emulsion. Upon per oral administration, these systems form fine (micro) emulsions in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with mild agitation provided by gastric mobility. These articles
give an overview of the recent advances in the development of SEDDS and the dosage forms along with the associated problems and the possible future research directions in this field.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-0000915
Title: Review on antifungal activities of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Infectious diseases represent a critical problem to health and they are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The resistance to antibiotics and with the toxicity during prolonged treatment with several drugs due to this medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. During the past several years, there has been an increasing incidence of fungal infections due to a growth in immunocompromised population such as organ transplant recipients, cancer and HIV/AIDS patients. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the new profile of antifungal drugs obtaining from medicinal plants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-0000916
Title: A review on cataract and its herbal treatments
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Cataract, called in Sanskrit as linganaasha or timira, is one of the leading causes for blindness today. Cataract is the opacification (light impenetrability) of the lens. In this condition, the lens of the eyes interferes with the eye vision. Since light cannot enter the opaque lens, therefore the eyes fail to give the representation of the objects seen. Plants used in Ayurvedic eye drops formulation are rich source of tannin and tannin like compounds. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of ayurvedic eye drops are attributed to the presence of tannins and tannin like compounds. Now-a-days, people increasingly prefer ayurvedic eye drops because it is safe and relatively free from side effect and adverse reactions. Ayurvedic eye drops are known to show antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity due to their tannin content in aqueous extract. The anticataract efficacy of these preparations was mainly attributed to their antioxidant potential. Various herbal drugs such as Osmium sanctum, Emblica officinalis, Ginkgo biloba etc are used in cataract. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the new profile of anticataract drugs obtained from medicinal plants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000917
Title: Studies on Insecticidal activity and Nutritive composition of a macrolichen Parmotrema pseudotinctorum (des. Abb.) Hale (Parmeliaceae)
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was carried to determine the nutritive composition and insecticidal activity of a macrolichen Parmotrema pseudotinctorum (des. Abb.) Hale (Parmeliaceae) collected from forest area of Bhadra wildlife sanctuary. The nutritive parameters namely moisture, ash, fat, crude fiber, protein, carbohydrate and mineral contents were determined. The insecticidal efficacy of solvent extracts was determined against second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. P. pseudotinctorum was found to possess high crude fiber, carbohydrate and protein content. Nutritive value was found to be 336.1 cal/100g. Phosphorus was found to be in high concentration than potassium. A rich amount of iron was detected followed by manganese, copper and zinc. The insecticidal efficacy of solvent extracts was found to be concentration dependent. Among extracts, marked insecticidal activity was observed in case of methanol extract than other extracts. Phytochemical analysis detected tannins and steroids in the methanol extract. Thin layer chromatography revealed the presence of Atranorin and Lecanoric acid. The insecticidal activity of P. pseudotinctorum could be mainly due to constituents present in extracts. The results of this study highlighted the significance of the macrolichen P. pseudotinctorum studied in terms of its rich nutritive composition and justify the possible use of the lichen in reducing problems associated with malnourishment. The extracts of the lichen selected in this study could be used in the control of mosquitoes. Further studies on isolation of active principles and determination of insecticidal activity of them are to be carried out.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000919
Title: Antimosquito (Insecticidal) activity of extracts of Hemidesmus indicus and Swertia chirata against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae- A Comparative Study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was carried out to investigate antimosquito (insecticidal) activity of methanol, chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of two medicinal plants Hemidesmus indicus and Swertia chirata against second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The insecticidal activity of different concentrations of solvent extracts was found to be dose dependent. Among extracts, H. indicus showed more larvicidal efficacy when compared to S. chirata. Overall, it was found that the chloroform extract was more effective in killing larvae followed by ethanol and petroleum ether extracts. The larvicidal efficacy of solvent extracts may be due to the presence of phytochemicals in the extracts. Further, isolation of active constituents from solvent extracts and determination of insecticidal efficacy of isolated constituents are to be carried.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000920
Title: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) seed extracts by using carrageenan induced rat paw edema
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of Trigonella foenum – graecum (TFG) seed extracts by using carrageenan induced rat paw edema in comparison to established anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac potassium (DIP, 10 mg/kg, p.o.). Successively extracted (aqueous and ethanol) extracts of TFG seeds were administered 1 h prior to inflammation induction in dose range of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg orally. The rat paw edema was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of 1 % w/v carrageenan solution, prepared with normal saline in subplantar region of left hind paw of the rats.Results of these study revealed that the ethanol extract at dose 200 mg/kg shows significant (p<0.01) reduction of inflammation as compared to aqueous extract group animals. Further series of investigations are, however, necessary to explore their mechanism(s) of action involved in this pharmacological activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000921
Title: Efficacy of Cynodon dactylon for immunomodulatory activity
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) commonly known as arugampul, is a perennial grass, forming thick mats by means of stolons and rhizomes. It is bitter, sharp, hot taste, good odour, laxative, brain and heart tonic, emetic, expectorant, carminative and useful against pains, inflammation and tooth ache. In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate Cynodon dactylon protein fraction immunomodulatory activity. Cynodon dactylon protein (Cdpf) was administered intraperitonealy at doses of ED50 to healthy Swiss albino mice. Assessment of immunomodulatory activity was carried out by testing the humoral (antibody titre) and cellular (foot pad swelling) immune responses to the antigenic challenges with sheep RBCs and by neutrophil adhesion test. Intraperitonealy administered Cdpf showed a significant increase of test parameters Viz., neutrophil test, Haemagglutinating Antibody Titre (HAT) and Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response. In mice immunized with sheep RBC, Cdpf enhanced the humoral antibody response to the antigen and significantly potentiated the cellular immunity by facilitating the food pad thickness response to sheep RBC in sensitized mice. There was increase in immunomodulation, there was significant improvement compared to control group and differences were statistically significant in Cdpf, therefore Cynodon dactylon protein fraction promises strong utility in clinical practice as an effective immunostimulant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000922
Title: Anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum in rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Anxiety is a normal emotional behaviour. When it is severe and/or chronic, however, it becomes pathological and can precipitate or aggravate cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders. Although many drugs are available in allopathic medicine to treat anxiety disorders, they produce various systemic side effects or exhibit tolerance upon chronic use. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the major class of compounds used in anxiety and they remain the most commonly prescribed treatment for anxiety. However BZDs have many unwanted side effects that prompted many researchers to evaluate new compounds in the hope of identifying other anxiolytics with fewer side effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the anxiolytic-like activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum(OS) in rats by employing the two pharmacologically validated models, elevated plus maze and bright and dark arena. The rats were divided into five groups, each group containing six animals. The effects of the test drug OS (at 1.75, 4.25 and 8.5 mg/kg doses), the standard anxiolytic, diazepam (1.0 mg/kg) and control group 1%gum acacia(10ml/kg) were assessed after single and repeated dose administration for ten days. The results suggest that, behavioural disinhibitory effects of OS exhibited anxiolytic like activity comparable to diazepam.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-0000923
Title: Method development for spherical crystallization of glibenclamide and evaluation of micromeritic properties
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Glibenclamide is an anti-diabetic drug with water insolubility and compressibility. The pure drug (Glibenclamide) was converted into spherical crystal agglomerates via the spherical crystallization technique using dichloromethane-water-chloroform solvent system. The various parameters optimized were type, amount and mode of addition of bridging liquid, temperature and agitation speed to get maximum amount of spherical crystals. These were characterized for micromeritic properties (particle size and shape, flow ability), pack ability (bulk density), wet ability (contact angle) and compressibility. It was revealed from the study that spherical agglomerates exhibited improved flow ability, wet ability and compaction behavior.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000924
Title: Formulation, Optimization and Evaluation of Matrix type Transdermal system of Lisinopril Dihydrate Using Permeation Enhancers.
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The Lisinopril dihydrate (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) is lysine derivative of enalaprilat and does not require hydrolysis to exert pharmacological activity. It is given orally; suffer severely from hepatic first pass metabolism resulting in bioavailability of 6-60%. To overcome the poor bioavailability of the drug, transdermal patches have been prepared. The present study also aims at optimization of the formulation by incorporating the penetration enhancers in different concentration and ratios. The patches were prepared employing Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) & Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in 1:1 ratio as polymeric matrix using glycerol as plasticizer in 6% concentration. Binary solvent system (Water: Methanol) in the ratio of 70: 30 was taken for the study. The Transdermal devices were fabricated on glass substrate using solvent casting technique. Iso propyl alcohol (IPA) & Oleic acid (OA) were added as the penetration enhancers individually and in blend in different concentrations and ratios. Various physico-chemical evaluatory parameters were carried over prepared patches to ascertain their integrity and physical stability at normal and accelerated temperature conditions.Optimization of the penetration enhancer’s concentration and ratio was done by performing in-vitro diffusion rate studies using Keshary-Chein diffusion cell on Goatskin. The best results in terms of C.P.R. obtained individually through OA & IPA patches were 54% & 70.65% respectively at the highest concentration (15 %) of enhancer employed individually. But when the blend of enhancers is used in lowest concentration of 5 %, they produce the C.P.R. of 84.33 %, which clearly dictates the synergistic effect of the enhancers if used in combination. The rate of drug permeation further increases on increasing the concentration of blend from 5 to 15 %. The drug release from the patches follows Higuchi’s kinetics and gives a linear relation between q (amount released) vs t1/2 (time).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-0000925
Title: Effect of Different Biological Membranes on In Vitro Bioadhesion Property
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The influence of biological membranes on in vitro bioadhesion property of Carbopol 934P (CP), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K90) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Cekol 10,000) was studied using a texture analyzer equipment. Polymer/biological membrane interaction was significantly influenced by the contact time used during the study. An increase in contact time also increased bioadhesion strength. An intermediate contact time of 180s was deemed to be the most suitable contact time. In addition, different polymers produced different values of bioadhesion strength. Moreover, polymer molecular weight is directly correlated with bioadhesion strength. Biological membrane, such as rabbit gastric mucosa, cow intestine, pig intestine or chicken pouch, is a less significant determinant in affecting the bioadhesion strength as compared to the type of polymer used. Chicken pouch, an easily available and uniform tissue, offers an attractive alternative to be employed as a model biological membrane in bioadhesion study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-Qs-0000926
Title: QSAR analysis of structurally similar 1, 3, 4 - oxadiazoles as enzyme tyrosinase inhibitors.
Category: QSAR studies
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A series of structurally similar 1, 3, 4-oxadiazoles with enzyme tyrosinase inhibitor activity have been subjected for QSAR analysis using V life MDS 3.5 software. The compounds were divided into training and test set. Best QSAR models were selected on the basis of various statistical parameters like square correlation coefficient (r2), cross validated square correlation coefficient (q2), standard error of estimation (SE) and sequential Fischer test (F). 2D QSAR study reveals that tyrosinase inhibitor activity is governed by Alignment Independent (AI) descriptors whereas as per 3D QSAR studies a new compounds, with more electronegative and less bulky substituent, from this series could have better tyrosinase inhibitor activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-0000927
Title: Standardisation of Desmodium gangeticum- A Tradition Ayurvedic Plant
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Desmodium gangeticum is a traditional Ayurvedic plant used for centuries as an anthelminthic, anti-catarrahal, diuretic, expectorant, astringent, febrifuge, nervine tonic, anti diarrheal, bronchiodilator, vasopressor, analgesic, antipyretic, cardio tonic, stimulant, antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent. The whole plant, its extract and isolates have been extensively investigated in several laboratories for their different biological activities. In addition researchers have evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and other pharmacological effects of Desmodium gangeticum preparations/extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-0000928
Title: Antileprotic Potential of Ethnomedicinal Herbs: A Review
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The World Health Organization estimates that about 80% of the population of most developing countries relies on herbal medicines for their primary health care needs. Presently there are many medicinal herbs under investigation for their potential health protection. Among the products under investigation are commonly consumed products like vegetables, fruits and condiments expected to protect health and possess disease inhibiting properties like leprosy which caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This review therefore attempts to bridge the existing literature and modern research and offers immense scope for researchers engaged in validation of the traditional claims and development of safe, effective and globally accepted herbal drugs for treatment of leprosy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000929
Title: Anticonvulsant Activity of whole parts of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Extract in Experimental Mice
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate anticonvulsant effect of the Petroleum ether, Benzene, Chloroform, Ethanol and triple distilled water extract of whole parts of the plant of the Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Compositae) on electrically and chemically induced seizures.Methods: The Petroleum ether, Benzene, Chloroform, Ethanol and water extract of the whole parts of the plant of S.indicus (200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect on maximal electroshock-induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole-, picrotoxin-, bicuculline- and N-methyl-dl-aspartic acid-induced seizures in mice. The latency of tonic convulsions and the number of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results: Ethanol extract (200- 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES). However, only 200 and 400mg/kg of the extract conferred protection (25 and 50%, respectively) on the mice. The same doses also protected animals from pentylenetetrazole-induced tonic seizures and significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures produced by picrotoxin and N-methyl-dl-aspartic acid. The extract had no effect on bicuculline-induced seizures. The aqueous extract (400mg/kg) significantly reduced the latency, but did not alter the incidence of seizures elicited by maximal electroshock to any significant extent. Conclusion: The data suggest that the ethanolic root extract of S.indicus may produce its anticonvulsant effects via non-specific mechanisms since it reduced the duration of seizures produced by maximal electroshock as well as delayed the latency of seizures produced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-0000930
Title: In vivo and in silico studies with the latex of the milk weed- Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The toxic milk weed-Calotropis procera has gained popularity in scientific research with the increased awareness of its uses in different areas of applications. Insufficient knowledge about the molecular mechanism of this plant’s latex in vivo limits the scope of their application and hinders the effort to design new drugs from Calotropis sp. To study first pass metabolic effect in vivo,plasma from Wistar albino rats (after dosing with aqueous extract of dried latex (DL) of C. procera at 300mg/kg bodyweight either alone or in combination with 10% Fructose in drinking water), were analyzed with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC-MS/MS) to obtain metabolite changes by global profiling of low molecular weight metabolites. To provide insight into assessing new initiatives required to manipulate human physiology in cases of accidental exposure to latex, in this study, compounds of Calotropis latex were docked with receptors of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) and the binding residues were identified. This study would facilitate our understanding of the role of these elicited low molecular metabolites in disease and toxicity and the identified binding amino acid residues would assist in drug development from Calotropis compounds.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 4.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000933
Title: Antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum ethanolic extract against food associated bacteria and fungi
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Allium sativum (garlic) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative food associated bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium, B. polymyxa, B. sphaericus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and molds (Penicillium oxalicum, Aspergillus flavus, A. luchuensis, Rhizopus stolonifer, Scopulariopsis sp. and Mucor sp.) assayed by agar well diffusion method and poisoned food technique, respectively. The growth inhibition zone in garlic ethanolic extract against bacteria was in the range of 20mm to 31mm and in molds the percent mycelial growth inhibition  ranged between 20% and 50%. The garlic extract was not effective against P. oxalicum. The MIC values of garlic ethanolic extract for different bacterial and fungal isolates ranged from 10 mg/ml to 20mg/ml. The value of MBC and MFC equaled the MIC. Based on this finding, it may be suggested that these extracts may be used as natural antimicrobial additives to reclaim the shelf-life of foods.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000934
Title: Multiparticlate drug delivery systems : Pellet & pelletization technique
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The present study aims at discussing the potential advantages of multiple unit dosage forms (pellets etc.) over the single unit dosage forms (Tablets).Review deals with the pellet and its ideal properties. The theory behind the pellet formation and its growth mechanism. There are various types of pelletization techniques like spheronization and extrusion, pelletization by layering, pelletization by solution layering & direct pelletization. The advantages, disadvantages & various applications of above mentioned techniques. Spheronization and extrusion, pelletization by layering are most widely used techniques. It also deals with novel mini tablet system and its processing for formulation. The different available marketed pellets and different excipients used in the pellet formulation are also discussed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-0000935
Title: Review on Stereospermum suaveolens DC : A Potential Herb
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diseases. Stereospermum suaveolens are known for their antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, and anti-inflammatory, puerperal fevers and affections of the brain. The present paper deals with the Phytochemistry and Pharmacological action of the plant Stereospermum suaveolens.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000936
Title: Impact of Helicobacter pylori on the prevalence of gastroduodenal diseases
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Helicobacter pylori is a virulent bacterium that colonizes in the protective mucous layer of human stomach. It is responsible for majority of gastric diseases such as peptic ulcers, gastro-oesophageal reflux diseases, chronic gastritis etc. Infection caused by this bacterium is one of the most common clinical setback occurring worldwide especially in the developing nations. The current article is focused on various aspects like structural characteristics, epidemiological features, routes of transmission and recent management strategies. Significant research findings of this infectious organism along with several pharmacotherapeutic vistas have also been discussed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-0000937
Title: A review on Rubia cordifolia: Its phyto constituents and therapeutic uses
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae) is also known as, Manjishtha, Indian madder known to contain substantial amounts of anthraquinones, especially in the roots which is responsible for anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, urinary disorders, antistress antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, radio protective, and anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, hypotensive, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antileukemic and mutagenic functions, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. The plant contains substantial amounts of anthraquinones, especially in the roots, which is responsible for its pharmacological activity. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the pharmacological, phytochemistry, biological activity of the Rubia cordifolia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 5.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000938
Title: Formulation and evaluation of matrix tablets of acarbose
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Monolithic matrix tablet of Acarbose were formulated as controlled release tablets employing Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and Eudragit in different concentration and combination, and sustained release behavior of the fabricated tablets were investigated. controlled released matrix tablets containing 350 mg Acarbose were developed using different drug : polymers combination. Tablet prepared by direct compression method were subjected to physical characterization. Formulation was optimized on the basis of acceptable properties and in-vitro drug release.In-vitro drug release was carried out using USP Type II at 50 rpm in 900 ml of acidic dissolution medium (pH 1.2) for 1hr, followed by 900 ml alkaline dissolution medium (pH 7.4) upto 12 hr. Standard curve and withdrawal samples were analyzed in UV-Vis spectrophotometery 625nm with alkaline potassium permagnate as coloring agent. formulations F1, F2, F3 wherein hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K 100 M was employed, it was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer resulted in linearization of drug release curve and formulation F3 gave satisfactory drug release pattern. Formulations F4, F5, F6 containing Eudragit S-100 showed quite non-linearity in drug release. The drug release rate was strongly influenced by the type of polymer and concentration of polymer. To analyze the release mechanism zero order, Higuchi model and Kosmeyer -Peppa’s model were used. The use of simplified methodology is demonstrated to evolve unified mathematical model.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000939
Title: In Vitro - In Vivo Correlation: A Review
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Correlation between in vitro and in vivo data have long been sought in biopharmaceutical as a mean of modeling the human organism and thereby monitor and optimize the dosage form with the fewest possible trial in man. One of the challenge of biopharmaceutics research is correlating in vitro drug release (dissolution) information of various types of drug formulations to the in vivo drug profile and to provide a regulatory perspective on its utility in product development and optimization. A successful correlation can assist in selection of appropriate dissolution acceptance and can be used as a surrogate for in vivo bioavailability and to support biowaivers. It can also assist in quality control for certain scale-up and post approval changes (SUPAC). With the proliferation of modified-release products, it becomes necessary to examine the concept of In vitro-In vivo Correlation (IVIVC) in greater depth. Investigations of IVIVC are increasingly becoming an integral part of extended release drug development. In addition, the Biopharmaceutical Classification System provides a science-based guidance on solubility and permeability drug issues, which are indicators of predictive IVIVC. The aim of this review article is to represents the various notions of IVIVC and its applications, Biopharmaceutical classification systems (BCS) & application of BCS in IVIVC development, Various type of dissolution media and their importance and methodology of dissolution have been highlighted.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000940
Title: In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of Phyllanthus reticulatus
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Many plants possess antioxidant ingredients that provided efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Phyllanthus reticulatus plant was a strong astringent, used for the treatment of liver, spleen diseases and rheumatism. Antioxidant activity of the methanol crude extract of entire plant of P. reticulatus was assessed using DPPH, superoxide anion and metal chelating assays at different concentrations. The potent extract of P. reticulatus was tested for in vivo efficacy. The methanol extract exhibited potent antioxidant activity compared to known antioxidant. In vivo studies on potent extract of P. reticulatus demonstrated dose dependent reduction in hepatic malondialdehyde (330.70, 279.40 and 383.79μMmg-1 protein) with simultaneous improvement in hepatic glutathione (7.03, 18.16
and 6.88μgmg-1 protein) and catalase levels (678.10, 787.00 and 522.00μgmg-1 protein) respectively for 50, 100mgkg-1 doses and control) compared to control group. Duet to its natural origin and potent free radical scavenging ability P. reticulatus could be used as a potential preventive intervention for free radical mediated diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-0000941
Title: Antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts of Chlorophycean seaweeds Ulva, Caulerpa and Spongomorpha sps. against clinical and phytopathogens
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Marine organisms are a rich source of structurally novel and biologically active metabolites. As a result of evolving resistance of microorganisms to existing antibiotics, there is an increasing need for newer antibiotics, the present study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial potentiality of the marine Chlorophycean algae Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa taxifolia and Spongomorpha indica against six strains of Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and Fungal organisms that cause diseases and disorders in man, animals and plants. Crude extracts revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens and further bacterial strains were more sensitive to the seaweed extracts when compared to the fungal organisms. The overall antimicrobial activity assessed from the above results indicates the presence of active constituents in the extractions of seaweeds which can be exploited for the production of lead molecules which are of use in pharmaceutical industry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-0000943
Title: Herbal help in Alzheimer’s type of cognitive disorders: A Comprehensive Review
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Alzheimer’s disease is the most frequent type of life threatening dementia which is characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation induced neuronal loss, impaired energy metabolism, and cholinergic deficits leading to severe cognitive impairments and other abnormal neuropsychiatric changes. Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer’s disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine and several nootropic agents are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. Indian system of medicine emphasizes use of herbs, nutraceuticals and life style changes for age related neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease. Current review sums up the plants that have shown the beneficial and encouraging results in treating ailments like Alzheimer’s disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-0000944
Title: A comprehensive review on floating oral drug delivery system
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Floating Oral Drug Delivery System (FODDS) is an extension of Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System. FODDS enable prolonged and continuous input of the drug to the upper part of the gastroretentinal tract and improve the bioavailability of medication that is characterized by a narrow absorption window. In recent years scientific and technological advancements have been made in the research and development of controlled release oral drug delivery systems by overcoming physiological adversities like short gastric residence times and unpredictable gastric emptying times.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 2, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-0000945
Title: Moringa Oleifera: A Review of There Medicinal and Economical Importance to the Health and Nation
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in the tropics and subtropics regions. It is known by such regional names as drumstick tree, Sajiwan, kelor, Murungai kaai, marango, mlonge, mulangay, saijhan, and sajna. It has a wide range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Various parts of this plant contain protein, vitamins, ß-carotene, amino acids, important minerals and various phenolic compounds. It has high nutritional value and very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods has a different types of biological activities like antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, cardiac and antifungal activities and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. This review focuses the published scientific evidence on phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree. This plant have broad spectrum activities so, further studies on other models and extensive clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 6.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00001083
Title: Gloriosa superba Linn – A Medicinally important plant
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Gloriosa superba linn. (Glory lily) is a medicinal plant belongs to the family Liliaceae. It is one of the important species which are used for several medicinal purposes. The phytochemical present in it lead to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, enzyme inhibitory, anti-venom and chemotherapeutic potential. This article focuses the traditional system of medicinal use for the local people as ayurveda and siddha.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 8.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00001085
Title: Insilico studies on the enhancing effect of anti-cancer phytochemicals of Moringa oleifera on cellular prostatic acid phosphatase activity
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The emergence of deadly diseases like cancer has led to novel therapies. Prostate cancer is one such disease. This study emphasizes the significance of natural products to solve pharmacological problems. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a valuable marker and the key enzyme involved in prostate cancer. Though its secretory level increases, its cellular form decreases in prostate cancer patients. Cellular Prostatic acid phosphatase (cPAP) functions as a tyrosine phosphatase of oncoproteins associated with prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, cPAP whose expression diminishes with the progression of prostate cancer is selected as the drug target. Ligands that can enhance the activity of cPAP may have potential applications for prostate cancer therapy. Moringa oleifera is a highly valued medicinal plant. It is an effective natural resource rich in phytochemicals that can act as anti-cancer agents. This work involves an insilico study on the enhancing effect of anti-cancer phytochemicals of Moringa oleifera on the activity of cPAP. The effect is compared with that of PAP activators collected from the database and the reported standard therapeutics for prostate cancer. Bioinformatics methods are adopted for Structural analysis, Docking and Toxicity studies. The results facilitate the understanding of the use of the anti-cancer phytochemicals of Moringa oleifera as the potent and safe natural agents to assist in prostate cancer drug design.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 9.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00001086
Title: Mitochondrial DNA and Inherited Diseases – A Comprehensive Review
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles located in the cytoplasm of the cell. They are the sites of cellular respiration which ultimately generates fuel for the cell's activities. Mitochondria are the only non-nuclear constituents of the cell with their own DNA (mtDNA) and machinery for synthesizing RNA and proteins. Mutations in the mitochondrial genome have been implicated with a wide range of age-related pathologies, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and in general, processes that regulate cellular and organismal aging. There has been considerable progress in understanding the role of mtDNA mutations in human diseases during the last two decades, but important mechanisms in mitochondrial genetics remain to be explained at the molecular level. This review gives an overview of mitochondrial DNA structure and function and then outlines more specifically the metabolic and molecular alterations in mitochondria, associated with human diseases and their clinical implications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 3, Issue: 10.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001087
Title: Colon specific delivery systems: The local drug targeting
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can take place. Local delivery could, for example, allow topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. The delivery of drugs to the colon has a number of therapeutic implications in the field of drug delivery. In the recent times, the colon specific drug delivery system is also gaining importance not only for local drug delivery of drugs but also for the systemic delivery of protein & peptide drugs. The colon, as a site for drug delivery, is also beneficial for the treatment of disease sensitive to circadian rhythms and delivery of poorly absorbable drug. This review, mainly compares the primary approaches for CDDS (Colon Specific Drug Delivery) namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent systems, and microbially triggered systems, which achieved limited success and had limitations as compared with newer CDDS namely pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules, CODESTM, and osmotic controlled drug delivery which are unique in terms of achieving in vivo site specificity, and feasibility of manufacturing process.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 4, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00001088
Title: Antimicrobial screening of leaf extract of Psidium guajava and its isolated fraction against some pathogenic microorganisms
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present investigation focuses on the antimicrobial screening of leaf extract of Psidium guajava and its isolated fraction against the selected bacterial strains. Ethnolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and its isolated fraction was more potent in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microorganism such as, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas species, Bacillus species and Proteus species with different degree of inhibition. The antibacterial activity was more effect in isolated fraction compound than the plant extract. The results support that the plant extract containing compound that can form the basis for the development of novel broad spectrum antimicrobial formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 7, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00001104
Title: Anticonvulsant And Antioxidant Actions Of Some Dibenzo-a-Pyrone Derivatives In Pentylene –Induced Kindling Model In Mice
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of Dibenzo-α-pyrone derivatives on the course of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced chemical kindling and oxidative stress markers in PTZ-kindled mice. Methods: Kindling was induced by repeated injections of a subconvulsive dose of PTZ (25mg/Kg, i.p.) on alternate days for 5 weeks or until stage 5 of the seizure score was evoked on three consecutive administrations. Butylamine, Diethylamine and Pyrrolidine Derivatives of Dibenzo-α-pyrone were administered daily in three doses (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) per orally (p.o.) along with alternate day PTZ. Following PTZ kindling , oxidative stress parameters , i.e. levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), were assessed in isolated homogenized whole brain tissue. Results: PTZ treatment progressively increased the seizure score in control mice. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in MDA levels and decreased GSH levels in the brain homogenate of PTZ-kindled mice. Daily treatment with Butylamine, Diethylamine and Pyrrolidine Derivatives of Dibenzo-α -pyrone in doses of 20 and 40mg/kg significantly decreased the PTZ-induced seizure score. However, a low dose (10mg/kg) failed to improve the seizure score. Pretreatment of derivatives in all doses showed an ameliorating effect on biochemical alteration induced by PTZ treatment. Conclusion: The present study indicate the potential anticonvulsant activity of Dibenzo-α-pyrone derivatives against PTZ-induced kindling in mice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00001779
Title: Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of metal complexes derived from nitro aniline and 3-aldehydosalicylic acid
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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 Objective: The aim of the present work was to synthesize different types of complex compounds of three Schiff base ligands with metal ions. Methods: New Schiff base ligands formed by the condensation of 3-Aldehydosalicylic acid with equimolar quantity of para, meta and ortho nitro aniline. The complexes of metal ions like Cu (II), Zn (II), Ni (II), Co (II)  with Schiff base ligands (ML2) have been synthesized at pH range7 . All the synthesized Schiff bases and metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1HNMR and mass spectral data. Results: Study reveals that the Schiff base ligands involved the donor COOH, OH and Nitrogen atom. The ligands ML2 in metal complexes behave as dibasic tridentate OON at pH range7. Spectral analysis indicates square pyramidal geometries for all the complexes.  The Schiff bases and metal complexes were screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. Conclusion: The Cu (II) and Zn (II) complexes exhibited good antimicrobial activity when compared to the free ligand.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001826
Title: Validation of water system: A review
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Water is essential for industrial, pharmaceutical, and hospital purposes, in the preparation and processing of medicines and other health products and for cleaning and hygiene purposes. A supply of clean water is an essential requirement for the establishment and maintenance of diverse human activities. Water resources provide valuable food through aquatic life and irrigation for agriculture production. Steps involved in the validation of the pharmaceutical water system are; design qualification, installation qualification, operational qualification, and performance qualification. Validation of the water system should be performed time to time so as to prove its reliability and robustness of the system for producing water of specified quality with a high degree of assurance and every report should be documented for better work. This review is an attempt to discuss about the various aspects of validation of water system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001827
Title: In vivo antiplasmodial evaluation of syzygium jambos L. Alston by four day suppressive test
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The unexplored region of Western Ghats possesses natural source of noble therapeutic floras for many diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of Syzygium jambos from Western Ghats. Methods: The four extracts acetone, chloroform, methanol and aqueous were explore their antiplasmodial activity by Peter’s four day test. Results: In Peter’s four day test significant parasite suppression 99.24% (P<0.001) was observed in Chloroquine (CQ 25mg/kg b.wg.) group prolonging the mean survival time of animals ≥30 days, whereas no average parasitaemia suppression (44.33±0.94) was observed in the negative control group. An effective parasite suppression (P<0.01) of 72.93% and 72.18% was identified in methanol and acetone extracts respectively at 600 mg/kg b.wt. The acetone and methanol extracts prolonged the mean survival days of mice groups up to 27.8 ± 0.68 and 26.0 ± 1.29 days respectively. Conclusion: Among the four extracts tested methanol and acetone extracts exhibited antimalarial activity. The present study report establishes, Syzygium jambos leaf extracts were effective with an assorted range of antiplasmodial activity and could be a potential source in the discovery of antimalarial drug.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001828
Title: Infusion of adrenomedullin22-52 antagonist causes uteroimplantation growth restriction during early gestation in rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The present study exploited whether antagonism of endogenous Adrenomedullin (ADM) in rats during early gestation period resulted in diminished uterus and implantation growth and explored whether this causes through induction of apoptosis. Rats on gestational day 2 were implanted subcutaneously with osmotic (ALZET) minipumps delivering 125 and 250 µg/rat/day/of ADM22-52 and were killed on gestational day 9. On gestational day 9, both in the control group rats and ADM antagonist-treated rats, 5-bromo 2´deoxyuridine labeling dye is injected in the tails of rats with a concentration of 1 ml/100 g body weight and then sacrificed the animal. We have demonstrated that the uterus growth and implantation development are seriously compromised by this modest decrease in expression and the implanted sites were shown prominently by blue-/purple-colored spots both in control and ADM-treated groups. Results: Apoptotic variations were more evident in stromal trophoblastic cells in the uteroimplantation sites of ADM22-52-treated rats when compared with vehicle control rats. Immunoreactivity to active caspase-3, Bax, Bcl2 protein was abundant in the uteroimplantation regions of the ADM22-52-treated group. Conclusion: These findings, however, show that antagonism of ADM in rats during early pregnancy caused uteroimplantation growth restriction and increased fetal resorption through the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 2.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001830
Title: Evaluation of combined wound healing activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Murraya koenigii and Nyctanthes arbortristis on rats
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present work was executed to evaluate the wound healing potency of a combined preparation of two plant extracts. The objective of this study is to induce experimental wounds using excision and incision wound model in normal albino wistar rats and to study the wound healing activity of prepared combined formulation by comparison of changes in wound healing between experimental and placebo controlled rats. Methods: The individual ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii and Nyctanthus arbortrstis was investigated for preliminary phytochemical study. Then the effect of combined ointment formulation containing equal quantity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Murraya koenigii and Nyctanthus arbortrstis was investigated by using excision and incision wound model in rats. Results: Both the extracts show presence of phytochemicals responsible for wound healing activity. The herbal ointment formulation 3 was found to be significantly reducing wound area, epithelization period and wound contraction rate. Similarly this formulation also shows significant increase in wound breaking strength. Conclusions: The study shows capability of both the extracts to promote accelerated wound healing activity by dose dependant manner when compared with placebo control.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001892
Title: Comparison of open and closed biopsies in the diagnosis of breast lumps
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The breast cancer diagnosis and treatment is based on a less invasive, more accurate and effective strategybut the key factor in respect of these new standards is to confirm cancer before going to the operating room. Closedbiopsies by means of Tru-cut biopsy needle have replaced the more traditional incisional or excisional biopsies for the diagnosis of palpable breast lumps and have a definite role in the histological diagnosis of majority of palpable breastlumps. These biopsies can be performed under local anesthesia in the office or in outpatient setup. The technique is reliable,simple, and reproducible, and inexpensive; it can be adapted even for low-income developing countries. Objective:This study is designed mainly to compare the diagnostic accuracy of Tru-cut needle biopsy with that of excision biopsy.Materials and Methods: The original study is carried from July to December 2014 in Surgical Unit-1, Baqai Medical University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Among women with palpable breast lumps came to the outpatient, 140 patientsselected and Tru-cut needle biopsy along with excision biopsy was performed and the result of both the modalities recorded
and compared with each other. Results: The diagnosis given by Tru-cut needle biopsy is confirmed by means of excision biopsies. Therefore, it may be said that out of 49 malignant lumps 45 (91.83%) and out of 91 benign lumps 87 (95.60%)are correctly diagnosed with a total of 132 (94.28%) correct diagnosis. Conclusion: As the diagnostic accuracy of closed biopsies is considerable and very close to that of excision biopsies, the closed biopsies can be performed routinely on anoutpatient basis on women with palpable breast lumps.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00001935
Title: A review on antimicrobial activities of important thiazines based heterocycles
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Nowadays, a number of thiazine-based heterocycles were prepared or extracted from natural sources such as plants and animals, using various approaches and examined for their biologically important activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antihypertensive to apply them as a possible pharmacological and chemical agents in a range of medicinal fields. Although several dynamic antimicrobial agents have since been developed, a allocated co-occurrence through the employ of current drugs as a single agent has developed drug resistance. This has made use to investigate for novel thiazine derivatives for ruling more effective antimicrobial agents. Thus, the present review was designed to provide a sequence of work going on the development of potential antimicrobial agents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001936
Title: The influence of sleep disorders on cognitive functions of a brain at patients with Type 2 diabetes
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The results of neuropsychological and sleep examination with the use of validated tests and questionnaires at 136 patients with the verified Type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis are presented in this article. The average age of the examined patients was 59.19± 5.649. The patients were in decompensated condition on indicators of carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and Methods: A totalof 136 patients older than 40 years with clinically and laboratory proved Type 2 diabetes were examined. The research included the participants of both genders living in Astana with a different national and ethnic origin to be convinced that the research advantage and burden are distributed evenly. Results and Discussion: By results of neuropsychological testing, cognitive functions of a brainwere reduced in all age groups at patients with Type 2 diabetes and were characterized by retardation of intellectual activity rate, the reduction of speech fluency, the depression of concentration of attention, memory disturbances of dynamic character. 77.9% of patients had sleep disorders, including, mild degree - 28% of patients; moderate - 30.9% of patients. Conclusion: The intrasomnic disorders including frequent night awakenings with the subsequent difficulty of sleep initiation prevailed. It is revealed that insomnia negatively influences on such cognitive functions of a brain as attention and visual-constructive skills.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001937
Title: Morphological characteristics of the rats brain under hypergravity
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The objective of the research was to study the morphological changes in the most sensitive areas of the brain under hypergravity, using standard general histological and histochemical, as well as immunohistochemical methods with antibodies to glial fibrillary acid protein, neurofilament protein, Ki67 proliferation markers, and p53 apoptosis. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed on 40 white Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: 1st - control, 2nd - rats exposed to hypergravity for 8 min at a centrifuge rotation rate of 5,000 rpm, 3rd - rats exposed to hypergravity 3 times during the 1st day for 5 min and at a rotation rate of 4,000 rpm, and 4th - rats exposed to hypergravity 3 times for 5 min and a rotation speed of 4,000 rpm for 3 days.After the end of the experiment, morphological changes in the brain were examined. Results: It was established that the animals of the first
group died from compression and dislocation of the brain resulted from overloads. Rats from the second group had clinical signs, such as weakness, one- and two-sided paresis, which completely passed within an hour. The histological picture of the brain had no specific features. In the third and fourth groups, the clinical symptoms were more pronounced, remaining until the end of the 1st day. Morphological picture of the immunohistochemical examination had no features but showed severe microcirculation disorders when stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Conclusion: Thus, the hypergravitational model of cerebral ischemia allows
obtaining circulatory hypoxia of the brain, which is confirmed by clinical data and general histological methods.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001938
Title: Minimally invasive access for open heart surgery - Relevance for modern cardiac surgical practice
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Today in the modern medicine, the quality of life takes on great importance, what determined significantly by the cosmetic effect of the surgery. Together with it, the variety of combinations of types of the constitution and the options of heart diseases requires the surgeon’s ability to possess different variants of mini approaches. Minimally invasive access without sternotomy was considered as the main method which reduces the duration of hospital stay after surgery; early activation of the patient and the rapid recovery of physical functions. There should be noted that the minimally invasive open-heart surgery using thoracoscopic equipment with cardiopulmonary bypass demonstrates that is a feasible method that can be performed safely and effectively, especially in the hands of experienced surgeons.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00001939
Title: Cardiac mechanisms of chronic heart failure development in patients with ischemic heart disease, postman arcticcardiosclerosis of the elderly
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The objective of this study was to study the formation of myocardial remodeling in elderly patients with CHF of ischemic genesis. Materials and Methods: The object of our study was 140 elderly men suffering from CHF with a history of myocardial infarction more than 4 months ago; the average age of the examined persons was 68.4 ± 7.8 years. Results: It was determined that hypertrophic remodeling develops in most elderly patients with IHD, postinfarction cardiosclerosis, and a smaller number of patients have dilated myocardial remodeling. Thus, the morphometric study of myocardial tissue
in patients with eccentric hypertrophy of the LV revealed a significant reduction in the size of the cardiomyocyte nuclei (94.08 ± 16.41, P = 0.0057) in comparison with patients with concentric hypertrophy with a group without signs of remodeling and control group. Conclusion: It was established that structural changes occur in the formation of postinfarction cardiosclerosis. Morphological studies revealed an increase in size and a decrease in the number of myocytes and an increase in the connective tissue matrix. The density of the myocardium increases accompanied by a diastolic LV disturbance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00001940
Title: Mathematical modeling of the in-stent restenosis risk of patients with coronary heart disease
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aims: This article presents the mathematical modeling of the in-stent restenosis risk of patients with coronary heart disease, which is also known as ischemic heart disease. Methods: The mathematical model was developed based on an artificial neural network and regression analysis. Results: The results identified increased in-stent restenosis risk in patients with the following genotypes: [Hp 1-2; Gc 1-2; Tf CB; C’s SS], [Hp 2-2; Gc 1-1; Tf CC; C’s FF], [Hp 2-2; Gc 1-2; Tf CB; C’s SS], [Hp 2-2; Gc 1-1; Tf CC; C’s SS]. Conclusion: The coefficients of determination of ANN (0.21) and linear regression (0.11) were calculated. The resulting values of the coefficient of determination were <0.5, suggesting that the simulation was unacceptable. Analysis revealed that the presence or absence of restenosis was possible with the same set of phenotypes

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00001948
Title: Reverse engineering ancient cu based drugs, their synthesizing methods and evolution using Vedic mind tools
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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These days reverse engineering has gathered much attention due to its diversified applications. It is a unique approach involving an entirely afresh perception of a product as a combination of parts and structure. This concept can be felt back to Plato, Vedic Maths inventive principles and even up to modern TRIZ methodology of problem-solving. Reverse engineering sometimes called back engineering extracts valuable design information or knowledge from anything human-made and reportrait same thing or anything based on the extracted information. It involves, and its applications often involved are mechanical components, electronic, computer devices, programs, biological, and chemical and biological matter. The applications it serves are broad, and its objectives are priceless, however, only a few researchers have worked on its innate concepts and applied it in the field of traditional drugs. The present work aims at reverse engineering ancient Cu based Indian drugs using Vedic inventive and alchemical mind tools. The novelty of work is using aforementioned tools in exploring what Carse calls “Anomalies you cannot account for by any of the laws known to you.” Regarding which several modern tools such as scanning electron microscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, in vitro, and ex vivo analysis were also involved to carry the drug evolution forward in an innovative way.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 9, Issue: 3.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00001949
Title: A review: Different approach of bioactive pyrimidobenzothiazoles synthesis
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Due to structural specificity, heterocyclic compounds such as pyrimidobenzothiazoles are unique with biological activities and can be utilize as potential pharmaceutical material. Pyrimidobenzothiazoles are well-known agents for different activities such as antihypertensive anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumor, antiviral, antihypotensive, antimalarial, antimicrobial, and anticancer, make them more leader in their class. At present, benzothiazoles and their derivatives attracted the scientific community. The present work is a review of the newest work carried out by researchers in the finding and synthesis of new biological active pyrimidobenzothiazoles.