Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002036
Title: Hypolipidemic of ethanolic extract of Salam bark (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) from Indonesia (Preclinical study)
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this research to evaluate the effect of 70% ethanol extract of Salam bark (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) ethanolic extract of Salam bark (EESB) from Indonesia toward blood cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in male rats Wistar strain. Materials and Methods: This study was a preclinical experimental study with a pre- and post-test with control group design. A total of 25 white male rats Wistar strain were divided into five groups with simple random sampling. The groups were negative control (aquadest), positive control (simvastatin 0.2 mg/200 g bw/day), dose I (0.36 g/200 g bw/day), dose II (0.72 g/200 g bw/day), and dose III (1.44 g/200 g bw/day). Blood cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and HDL levels were measured before and after applying treatment. This study was held for 15 days and data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test followed by least significant difference test and Kruskal–Wallis followed by Mann–Whitney test. Results: The 70% EESB (S. polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) at dosage of 0.72 and 1.44 g/200 g bw/day can decrease blood cholesterol; triglyceride and LDL levels (P < 0.05), meanwhile, the extract at dosage of 0.36, 0.72, and 1.44 g/200 g bw/day can increase serum HDL levels (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The 70% EESB (S. polyanthum (Wight) Walp.) decreases the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase HDL levels significantly in hypercholesterolemia male rats Wistar strain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002032
Title: Comparison of gingival retraction produced by retraction cord and expasyl retraction systems - An in vivo study
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Statement of Problem: A gingival retraction system may be soft tissue friendly or could be easy to use or could be the tried and tested one. However, when compared to the results they produce, the clinical application is questioned. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the amount of gingival retraction produced by expasyl retraction paste and plain retraction cord. Methods and Materials: This study included 39 subjects. After abutment, teeth were prepared for fixed partial denture, plain retraction cord or expasyl retraction paste was placed into the sulcus of the prepared teeth, and time taken for application was recorded and bleeding was noted after removal of retraction material. Gingival sulcus width was measured by travelling microscope. The gingival recession was measured using digital caliper. Results: The mean gingival width of retracted sulcus in both the groups showed no statistically significant difference between the two (P < 0.05). The mean time taken for application and hemorrhage of expasyl paste (99.34 min, 5.1% bleeding) was significantly less than plain retraction cord (221.89 min, 74.4% bleeding). In both phases, the gingival index and gingival recession in the cord group were significantly higher than expasyl paste group. Conclusion: From the study results, amount of gingival retraction with the use of expasyl retraction paste is almost similar in comparison to plain retraction cord; expasyl retraction system appears to produce less hemorrhage and needs less clinical time for application. The effect of retraction system on soft tissue health (plaque index, bleeding on probing, and mean gingival recession) in the expasyl paste group was significantly better than cord group. Clinical Significance: Retraction with expasyl paste producing similar amount of lateral displacement of the gingival margin, therefore based on the beneficial effects, it may be recommended for absorption of intraoral fluids and exerting moderate pressure on gingival tissue.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002027
Title: Evaluation of quality of life and psychological condition of persons having undergone aortocoronary heart shunting
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: This paper deals with an estimation of the quality of life (QOL) and a psychological condition of the persons of different age having undergone aortocoronary heart shunting, in the course of physical rehabilitation. Organization and Methods of Research: The study was carried out on the basis of the Regional Hospital of Rehabilitation in the city of Arkhangelsk. Patients who had undergone both aortocoronary bypass surgery (ACBS) on the basis of MHI “First City Clinical Hospital” in the city of Arkhangelsk and rehabilitation on the basis of the Regional Hospital of Restorative Treatment in Arkhangelsk took part in the examination. The QOL survey was assessed using the Russian version of the World Health Organization questionnaire (100 questions), designed to assess the QOL of an adult Russian-speaking population of Russia and other countries (WHOQOL Group, 1993). Using the questionnaire, six major QOL areas were assessed: Physical functions, psychological functions, independence level, social relations, the environment and the spiritual sphere, as well as the respondents’ perception of their QOL and health in general. The level of situational and personal anxiety was assessed using the Spielberger–Khanin questionnaire. Results: The analysis of the QOL and psychological state in people having undergone ACBS in the course of rehabilitation was conducted, which revealed the features of the dynamics of the studied indicators in groups of people of middle and old age. It was established that the improvement of the psychological sphere of the QOL, situational, and personal anxiety is slower in elderly people in comparison with middle-aged people. Conclusion: This indicates the need to create individual approaches to physical and psychological rehabilitation in persons of different age at all stages of rehabilitation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002028
Title: Pharmacological evaluation of curcumin for its nephroprotective activity in 5/6 nephrectomized rat model
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Plants with renal protective activities provide important sources for the development of new drugs in the treatment of renal failure. The protective effect of curcumin isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa was studied on experimental renal failure rats. Experiment: The study was planned to investigate the effect of curcumin in Wistar rats in 5/6 nephrectomy. The curcumin was administered at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg orally for 60 days. After 60 days parameters such as creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and calcium were estimated. Results: Treatment with curcumin 200 mg/kg showed significantly reduced creatinine, urea, and uric acid compared to nephrectomized control. Moreover, the significant decrease in calcium, sodium, and potassium was observed at 200 mg/kg curcumin (P < 0.01). Conclusion: In conclusion, curcumin that is obtained from the rhizome C. longa is having multiple therapeutic benefits and is a potential herbal medicine in curing renal failure in 5/6 nephrectomized rat model.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002029
Title: Preclinical pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity and single ascending dose tolerability of GBO-006 nanosuspension, a selective polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) inhibitor
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present work was executed to develop a biocompatible parenteral formulation for pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicology studies of GBO-006, a highly selective polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) inhibitor that demonstrated significant tumor regression in xenograft models on intraperitoneal alternate day dosing with the DMSO. Methods: Different technologies such as cosolvency, complexation, and micelle solubilization have been explored but failed to improve the aqueous solubility at higher concentrations. Crystalline and lipid-based nanosuspensions using different surfactants were developed and evaluated for both solubility and stability. Nanosuspensions were prepared by Ultra-Turrax homogenization followed by bead milling and microfluidics evaluated for particle size reduction and morphology. The optimized formulation was checked for pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity, and tolerability. Conclusions: Nanosuspensions prepared by bead milling were stable for more than 2 weeks and showed reduced particle size of 0.26–0.3 μ. Rat and mouse intravenous and intraperitoneal pharmacokinetic studies showed a significant improvement in Cmax, AUC and systemic clearance of the compound. We have developed a biologically compatible parenteral formulation for a first-in-class, novel anticancer agent that will be progressed toward IND enabling studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002030
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on various disinfectants used for impression materials among dental students and dental practitioners
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Impression materials taken directly from a patient’s mouth are often contaminated with saliva and blood; making it an agent for cross contamination. Thus, it can act as a mode of transmission for many viruses and other microorganisms. Although it is common to only rinse these impressions, no specific methods of disinfection have been used during dental practice. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the knowledge and understanding of dentists on the various disinfectants that are used for dental impressions. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 15 questions were distributed to 100 participants, in which includes undergraduates and dentists at Saveetha Dental College. The sample size of this questionnaire-based study is 132 population. This study was conducted with 100 participants, thus it is sufficient for the required sample size. Results: A vast majority of them agree that the main importance of disinfecting is to prevent cross- contamination (65%, n = 65), following that is to protect the impression from any physical changes (18%, n = 18), to produce a more detailed registration of the dentition (12%, n = 12), and to produce a more detailed registration of the dentition (5%, n = 5). The majority of the participants said that the most preferred method of disinfecting using chemical disinfectants is by immersing the impression (60%, n = 60) while some believe that spraying the surface is much more preferred (31%, n = 31). Conclusion: It was, thus, concluded that both students and graduates are well aware regarding the importance of disinfection of impression materials. In the future, it would be better to further and continuously practice these methods of disinfection as a regular practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002031
Title: Comparative evaluation of acupuncture and anesthetic efficacy in preventing tooth hypersensitivity
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Acupuncture is an important component of traditional Chinese medicine that consists of applying pressure, needling, heat, and electrical stimulation. The theory of acupuncture anesthesia and analgesia was put forward by the Chinese in 1960, and it emerged as a popular treatment for pain relief in the 1990s. Aim and Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of acupuncture and infiltration of local anesthesia in preventing tooth hypersensitivity. Materials and Methods: The study involved 30 healthy individuals in the age group, 20–40 years. For 15 subjects (LA group), local anesthetic - lidocaine 2% with adrenaline 1:200,000 was administered as a nerve block. Heat test was done after 2 min on a sound, vital tooth. Teeth with restoration or caries were excluded from the study. Response to heat was noted down by means of a visual analog scale every 2 min for up to 6 min. For the other 15 subjects (ACU group), the acupuncture needles were placed in the acupuncture points - SI 18 (Quan Liao), ST 3 (Juliao), GV 26 (Shui Gou), and LI 4 (He Gu). Heat test was done every 2 min up to 6 min and the response was noted. Results were statistically evaluated. Results and Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in effectiveness of lidocaine and acupuncture in preventing dentin hypersensitivity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002033
Title: Evaluation of variation in the systemic blood pressure among Indian population after placement of retraction cord with and without local anesthesia containing epinephrine
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Retraction cords are used after preparation of a tooth to push the gingiva away from the tooth to create enough space for recording an accurate impression. Retraction cords are placed with hemostatic agents to constrict the blood flow. Hemostatic agents used for retraction cords are said to have an effect on the systemic circulation, and hence, their use in cardiac patients is restricted. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 participants were divided into two groups of 20 and their normal blood pressure (BP) was checked. The BP of the Group I subjects was checked immediately after placing the retraction cord (without LA) and rechecked after a duration of 5 minutes and noted. The BP of the Group II subjects was also checked and recorded similar to that of Group I subjects, with retraction cord soaked in local anaesthesia containing epinephrine. Results: The mean systolic BP of the two groups was 116.8 ± 12.7 mmHg and diastolic was 74.45 ± 10.6 mmHg. The mean systolic BP of Group I subjects immediately after placing the retraction cord was 115.45 ± 14.21 mmHg and diastolic was 97.1 ± 12.46 mmHg. The mean systolic BP of Group I subjects after the removal of the retraction cord was found to be 114.85 ± 14 mmHg and diastolic was 72 ± 12.65 mmHg. The mean systolic BP of the Group II subjects immediately after placing retraction cord was 119.35 ± 9.6 mmHg and diastolic was 77.5 ± 8 mmHg. The mean systolic BP of Group II subjects after the removal of retraction cord was 116.3 ± 10.25 mmHg and diastolic was 77.15 ± 8 mmHg. Conclusion: There is an increase in the systolic and diastolic BP of the Group II subjects immediately after placing the retraction cord and systolic BP reaching to the normal level after the removal of the cord after a time duration of 5 min and no decrease in the diastolic BP on removal of retraction cord and no significant change in the BP of the Group I participants. The change in the BP on using epinephrine- soaked retraction cord could be of significance for their use in cardiovascular disease or hypertensive patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CT-00002034
Title: Gagging: A problem to prosthetic dentistry - Review
Category: Clinical trials
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Gagging is one of the complications faced by the dentist and the patient during a dental procedure. It can be due to physiological or psychological factors. The stimulation of the gagging reflex, or more accurately, the vomiting reflex, is a special problem in prosthodontic service. In daily practices, dentists routinely encounter many patients who have extreme oral sensitivity by which they are not capable to bear any foreign body in the oral cavity; such gagging patient seeks to delay needed treatment or to avoid it entirely until it is too late for the dental therapy to exert its maximum beneficial effects. The normal gag reflex is a defensive mechanism for the survival that is controlled mainly by parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. However, it can be an acquired, adapted by various stimuli such as visual, olfactory, acoustic, psychic, chemical, or toxic transmitted through the blood flow or the cerebrospinal fluid. This article describes a review of the management of patients with gagging and includes various strategies to assist clinicians.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002037
Title: A review on wound healing activity of different extracts and formulations of Shorea robusta resin
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Shorea robusta has been commonly used in Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as circulatory, digestive, endocrine, respiratory, and skeletal systems as well as in infectious diseases. Different parts of Indian ethnomedicinal plant S. robusta are traditionally used for several ailments including wounds and burn by different tribal groups. The phytochemical studies of S. robusta have shown the presence of many secondary metabolites belonging to terpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrate, lignans, phenols, and sterols. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from S. robusta show different pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, antibacterial, wound healing, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. The present review is on different extracts and formulations of S. robusta resin, which provides preliminary information for further studies for this potential medicinal plant. This is useful for the development of different new herbal formulations for wound healing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BI-00002067
Title: In silico molecular docking studies of compounds from Sargassum ilicifolium (Turner) C. agardh against biomarker enzymes in amnesia
Category: Bioinformatics
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Molecular docking is a bioinformatics tool used to study and analyze ligand-receptor interactions and used as a valuable tool in drug discovery. Marine algae are taxonomically diverse biologically active and unique chemically offers a great scope for the discovery of novel drugs. Phytochemists and drug developers are now interestingly working in developing new molecules that can act effectively than conventional drugs. Alzheimer’s is a worldwide health problem associated with amnesia and aphasia. Acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and beta-secretase are the enzymes that have the pathological role in amnesia. Inhibition of these enzymes plays a target role in treating Alzheimer’s. Methods: Sargassum ilicifolium Turner C. agardh belonging to Sargassaceae family has potential therapeutic uses in neuropharmacology. The compounds SCH1 and SCH2 were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction and subjected to mole grow software to study the molecular interaction between these ligands and the receptor site against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and beta-secretase enzymes. Results and Conclusions: Based on the docking scores and ligand interactions, the potency of the compounds was judged. The result concluded that both the compounds SC1 and SC2 have good binding interaction with biomarker enzymes and proved for its anti-amnesic activity in molecular modeling study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00002068
Title: Compositional features of hydrocarbons of the oils sampled from oil fields of West Siberia Basin (Russia)
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The article presents the results of the systematization and analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of oils of the West Siberian Basin to identify common patterns and relationships between physical and chemical properties and product qualities of oils. Materials and method: It is shown that the reference data of a group composed of wide factions allow us to consider them as series-parallel rows of complementary boiling range. Results and discussion: Having an understanding about the patterns of change in such important characteristics of oil, as a hydrocarbon group and fractional compositions, you can count the content in the broad fractions of aromatic, naphthenic hydrocarbons, and alkanes. It removed the restrictions imposed on the group composition of wide fractions given in the reference. Ideas about the physical-chemical properties and group composition of oil and a wide oil fractions allow a more informed approach to the selection of the conditions of its production, transportation, recycling, and further processing. Conclusion: Knowledge of the physical and chemical properties and hydrocarbon type content of oil and the broad petroleum fractions will allow a more informed approach to the selection of the conditions of its production, transportation, recycling, and further processing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002070
Title: In vitro antibacterial activity of Zingiber officinale against pathogenic bacteria
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This examination intends to research the inhibitory effect of soaker roots extricates of Zingiber officinale on the increment of Staphylococcus aureus that has been secluded from vaginal contaminations in vitro, in which it ended up noticeably drawn of Z. officinale. Materials and Methods: Utilization of ethanol 95%, wherein the furrow equipment offer of extraction of 8% of the heaviness of dry powder has gone to a consideration slope of the drunk concentrate (10–100 ml/ml) had been picked successfully by agar gel diffusion method and utilization of microorganism S. aureus in examination with ethylene glycol. Result and Discussion: The outcomes confirmed that the breadths of the hindrance of advance of bacterial development raise with the consideration of alcoholic concentrate minimization, have been 10–20 mg/ml low productivity and concentrations 40–60 mg/ml medium conveying without hesitation, even as fixations 80–100 mg/ml changed into entirely effective and powerful contrary to the expansion of microorganism of “S. aureus.” Conclusion: The root extract put the emphasis of Z. officinale developed in Iraq has inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive microorganism, S. aureus. The optional search would assemble to identify the exact arrangement of activity by which takes away utilize their antimicrobial solution to diagnose that can be used in drug improvement for innocuous medical examination.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002071
Title: A brief review on current antifungal agents
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Nowadays, most of fungal infections such as candidoses can range from superficial mucous membrane infection to life- threatening systemic mycoses. Candida infections give significant clinical problem globally due to most rapid rise in compromised host populations including HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and patients those are on chemotherapy. In addition to this, a sharp increase in the aging populations which are susceptible to fungal infections is expected in next few decades. Antifungal drugs for these problems are relatively difficult to develop compared to the antibacterial drugs owing to the eukaryotic nature of the cells. Therefore, only a handful of antifungal agents are currently available to treat the myriad of fungal infections. Moreover, the rising antifungal resistance and host-related adverse reactions have limited the antifungal arsenal against fungal pathogens. In this review topic, we tried to update the theoretical aspects pertaining to the antifungal drug discovery, i.e., proposed novel mechanisms, new drug targets, and pathways. Here, we are reporting some new antifungal molecules.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002072
Title: Мellitus diabetes type 2 and congestive heart failure on ambulatory conditions
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The significance of the problem of congestive heart failure (CHF) is determined by its widespread prevalence, high mortality. The specific gravity of cardiovascular complications in the structure of mortality of patients with mellitus diabetes type 2 is very high. The diabetes mellitus and CHF acquire the status of the epidemic of the 21st century and require health-care costs for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. The using of modern pharmacological drugs and instrumental methods for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases life expectancy and improves the quality of life with CHF as with normal carbohydrate metabolism (CM) and with mellitus diabetes type 2 (MD2). However, the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with MD2, as compared with those with normal CM remains at the same level. The rapidly growing population of patients with MD2 will soon change the prevailing ideas in recent years to improve the prognosis of CVD treatment. Disturbance of myocardial remodeling with MD2 is due to a combination of factors associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy, a decreasing in the metabolic activity of cardiomyocytes, insufficient transport of glucose into cells, endothelial dysfunction, diabetic macro- and microangiopathy, and myocardial fibrosis by leading to a violation of the left ventricular filling and development of CHF. Insulin resistance (IR) and compensatory hyperinsulinemia (HI) have a key role in the pathogenesis of MD2. To improve the results of treatment aimed at reducing the risk of CHF in patients with MD2 and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), it is necessary to achieve a traditional primary goal, exactly, glycemic control. Since IR and compensatory HI have a key role in the pathogenesis of MD2 and are closely related to the risk of developing arterial hypertension and CVD caused by atherosclerosis, treatment of patients with MD2 and IGT with CHF requires the using of drugs that affect the IR.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00002073
Title: Immunogenic activity of chicken antibodies toward Anopheles dirus salivary gland antigens
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Immunogenic salivary proteins of Anopheles dirus were foremost studied for their allergenic properties. Most of the saliva antigens were found to be species specific as only weak cross-reactivity was predicted to depend on different host system for their survival. Aim: In this study, we have examined the applicability for IgY obtained from the screening of different kinds of hen eggs, for its capability to interact towards a mosquito antigenic protein. Methods: Due to the peculiar composition of the egg yolk, IgY are normally purified using complex and time-consuming procedures involving a combination of precipitation and chromatographic steps. Soluble proteins were separated from the lipidic fraction of egg yolk by various methods and loaded onto PEG column. Results: High recovery and purity of IgY was obtained for normal and brown eggs by water dilution and chloroform methods. Similarly, IgY is also purified in extend of 90% with chromatography and was tested against salivary gland antigens after various treatments. The active antibodies were found to be 178.57ug/ml for brown egg and 200ug/ml for normal egg towards the antigen. Conclusion: Although the difference in both egg source for the IgY is significant, normal egg antibodies has shown highest purity and interaction towards the antigen.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-FPE-00002074
Title: A review on cellulose and its utilization from agro‑industrial waste
Category: Food Processing and Engineering
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Agro-industrial waste removal is a serious issue of concerning in developing countries. Cellulose is a polysaccharide polymer. This present review explores cellulose history, structure, worldwide production, and extraction of cellulose from agro-waste. A wide spectrum of researches in the arena of properties of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; their degradation; sources and composition of cellulosic and its derivatives from agro-industrial wastes; present status of converting them into value-added products of food and pharmaceutical applications. Cellulose is a tremendous product due to its abundance and characteristic structural properties. The major industrial source of cellulose is vascular plants. The lignocellulosic materials, especially agro-industrial residues, are important as reinforcement products for building construction material industry, in terms of environmental preferences of the modern society. Most paper products generate from wood pulp, while textile fibers are commonly not isolated from woody fibers. The materials based on cellulose and its derivatives have been used for a wide variety of applications, such as food additives, paper manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, or other chemical engineering uses, such as chromatography, paints, and explosives.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-BMa-00002075
Title: Chromatographic fingerprinting analysis of secondary metabolites present in ethanolic extract of Acokanthera schimperi leaves by high-performance thin-layer chromatography technique
Category: Biological Macromolecules
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Acokanthera schimperi belonging to the family Apocynaceae is well known in Ethiopia to treat skin infections and malaria, organic extracts of this plant exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activity properties, and it has a long history of being used as an herbal remedy. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to investigate the chemical fingerprint profile of glycosides, steroids, phenols, and tannins of ethanolic extract of A. schimperi using high- performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) technique. Methods: HPTLC profile of glycosides, steroids, phenols, and tannins of ethanolic extract of A. schimperi were done and profiles were developed using CAMAG LINOMAT- 5 instrument. Results: From the results, it is conformed that the ethanolic extract of A. schimperi showed the presence of secondary metabolites such as glycosides, steroids, phenols, and tannins. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of A. schimperi is the potential sources for pharmacology for devolvement of plant-derived bioactive novel drugs for curing various diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-CD-00002076
Title: Status of heart rate variability and hemodynamic parameters of women-teachers according to age
Category: Cardiovascular diseases
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The high requirements for the teacher`s profession and the constant overload, stress, psychoemotional stress during the performance of work can be the reason for the failure of the adaptive mechanisms of the body, which can be diagnosed with the help of the study of regulation of the heart rhythm. Methods: 200 trained female teachers’ heart rate variability and peripheral hemodynamics parameters were studied in general education schools, resulting into determination the index of regulatory systems activity. Results: The study showed that with age there is gradual decrease in involuntary nervous system influences on the HR, reduction in the activity of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system; increase the stress of regulatory systems. Women of 55– 59 years old had the definite stress of regulatory systems significantly higher statistically. Furthermore, there was detected a trend toward improvement in systolic, diastolic, average, and pulse pressure values at the age of 40–59 years old. Conclusion: Women- educators 60 years and older have lower rates of heart rate variability and integral indicators of hemodynamics. It is associated with a decrease in the influence of the sympathetic link of rhythm regulation and a decrease in basal metabolism.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002081
Title: Prevalence of partial edentulism according to Kennedy’s classification based on age, gender, and arch
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The purpose of classification of partial edentulous arches provides communication between dental colleagues, students, technician about the case, for planning good treatment and to design the partial denture. It also predicts the difficulties commonly occurring with particular removable partial denture design. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of partial edentulism according to Kennedy classification. Aim: This study aims to evaluate and compare the frequency of prevalence of various partial edentulism based on Kennedy’s classification in relation to arch, age, and gender of the patients. Methodology: The study was conducted in patients attending outpatient clinic in Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. The survey was done in 200 patients based on age groups (20–30 years, 30–40 years, 40–50 years, and 50– 60 years), arch (maxilla and mandible), and genders (male and female). The survey was done by doing visual examination for determining the prevalence of partial edentulism. Result: Based on the data collected, the prevalence of Class III was more in both the genders of about 70% followed by the prevalence of Class I accounting for about 16% in female and 11% in males. Conclusion: Kennedy’s Class III was the most common in both dental arches. Gender had no effect on the prevalence of various Kennedy’s classes, while age had a significant effect. Mandibular partial edentulism was found to be more common than maxillary partial edentulism.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002082
Title: Abutment selection in fixed partial denture - A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Fixed partial denture (FPD) replacements for teeth have taken a variety of designs throughout the years. Many principles involved in the preparation and construction of fixed prostheses are still dominating, although more compatible and resilient materials have been introduced in recent years. FPD transmits forces through the abutment to the periodontium. Failures are due to poor engineering, use of improper material, inadequate tooth preparation and faulty fabrications. Therefore, it is important to select abutment in FPD. The clinicians must recognize the forces developed by the oral mechanism and the resistance of the tooth and its supporting structures to them. This article will review the conditions and requisites for the selection of abutment for FPDs for the long-term success of fixed dental prosthesis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 1.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002083
Title: Role of acupuncture and acupressure in preventing gag reflex
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background: Acupressure and acupuncture were alternative methods of treatment, based on the concept of life energy which flows through “meridians” in the body. The treatment aims at clearing the blockages in these meridians. Handling gag reflex was always been a challenging aspect in the field of dentistry. The art and science of acupressure and acupuncture was believed that would alleviate the problem. The purpose of the study was to put forth the use of acupuncture and acupressure in controlling a profound gag reflex during dental treatment requiring an upper alginate impression. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effect of acupuncture and acupressure in preventing gag reflex during prosthodontics treatment. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 48 middle-aged patients (with a mean age of ±45 years) attending the OPD of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, located in south part of India, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The patients were agreed to try the acupuncture and acupressure to control gagging during dental treatment. Before the treatment, the severity of gagging was assessed. The patients with gagging severity index; Grade IV (severe gagging) and Grade V (very severe gagging) were chosen. Acupuncture and acupressure were carried out at three different points. The dental procedure was then carried out and the effectiveness of the treatment was assessed. The results were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t-test. Results: The one-way ANOVA shows no significant difference among the groups. Descriptive analysis shows that mean duration of time was 136.50 ± 30.68, wherein the mean onset of duration was 66.58 ± 12.31. When compared with paired t-test, there shows a significant value among all the six groups: Acupressure (Chenjiang n1 ≤0.05, Neiguan n2 ≤ 0.05, and Negus n3 ≤ 0.05); acupressure (Chenjiang n4 ≤ 0.05, Neiguan n5 ≤ 0.05, and Hegus n6 ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The use of acupuncture and acupressure in preventing gag reflex was found to productive. This method of controlling the gag reflex is simple, fast, and easier technique if the clinicians were trained in it.