Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002092
Title: Analgesic effectiveness of opioid agonists in post-operative pain after endosseous dental implant placement – A split- mouth randomized control trial
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the analgesic effectiveness of opioid agonists in post-operative pain after endosseous dental implant placements. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 patients requiring the placement of endosseous dental implants were considered in this study for comparing the two drug interventions, namely, the tramadol (opioid analgesic) and aceclofenac administered orally. The identified patients were randomly allocated into two groups, with odd numbers following group A and even numbers following group B and procedure was performed vice versa. Followed by which the procedure was performed and the experimental drug was administered. After a period of 1 week, the implant will be placed on contralateral side and the experimental drug will be administered. The patients graded the pain for both the drugs after 2 hours of dental implant placement with a 100-point visual analog scale. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that according to Mann–Whitney tests performed with this non-parametric population at 5% confidence interval, both the groups showed no statistically significant difference with P = 0.533 retaining the null hypothesis. Conclusion: Both the drugs showed equal effectiveness, and hence, opioid analgesics can be administered in situations where patients are intolerant to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002093
Title: Effectiveness of acupuncture-induced anesthesia in controlling tooth hyperesthesia during tooth preparation
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Dentine hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response to stimuli. In this split-mouth randomized clinical study, we investigated acupuncture as an effective way of providing anesthesia to relieve dentinal hypersensitivity. A total of 15 patients, 20 bilateral maxillary and mandibular vital teeth (40 sites) indicated for tooth preparation, were selected for the study and randomly allocated to two groups, A and B. Patients in Group A underwent tooth preparation with acupuncture on the right side and with subperiosteal infiltration on the left side, while vice versa was followed for Group B. Following tooth preparation, patients interpreted their sensation during the procedure using the Heft–Parker VAS score. The result of the Mann–Whitney U-test showed that the two techniques had no statistical significant difference (P = 0.330, > 0.05). Hence, it was proved that both the techniques are equally effective in providing adequate anesthesia for tooth preparation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002094
Title: Significance of various clinical parameters as early indicators of myocardial infarction - A retrospective study
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Objective: This study is to determine the prognostic significance of blood pressure (BP), hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c), blood glucose, and lipid profile assessment and its relation with the cardiac biomarkers in patients who developed myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital from November 2016 to April 2017. Medical records of 185 MI patients for the past 2 years were collected and analyzed. The laboratory parameters such as BP, HbA1c, blood sugar, and lipid profile values were collected from the case sheets 3 months before the occurrence of MI. The cardiac biomarkers such as troponin T, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and CPK- muscle/ brain (MB) were obtained after the occurrence of MI. The Spearman rank correlation was used to correlate the age, gender, BP, blood sugar, and lipid profile with the cardiac biomarkers. Results: 77.29% of patients were male and 22.71% of patients were female; the average age group of the study population was 57.81 ± 13.82 years. Hypertension was observed in 88% of MI patients. Troponin T and CPK had a significant correlation with diastolic BP (DBP), systolic BP, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and total cholesterol (TC). CPK-MB had significant correlation only with DBP and body mass index. Conclusion: MI risk was found to be high in diabetic, hypertensive, and dyslipidemic patients. Thus, BP, HbA1c, and TC altogether can be used as a prognostic marker in MI.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00002095
Title: Forced degradation studies: Regulatory guidance, characterization of drugs, and their degradation products - a review
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to consolidate the literature available on regulatory aspects and protocols for forced degradation studies of various drug substances and their products into a comprehensive review. Background: Forced degradation is a process in which different stress conditions are applied over drug substances and which in turn different degradation products are produced. These studies are mainly used for the determination of stability of molecule under accelerated conditions. It is known that regulatory documentation process, selection of proper storage and package conditions, and selection of formulation are dependent on the stability of molecules. Objective: The present review discusses about various regulatory aspects, methodology for forced degradation studies, and degradation profiles for various drugs. Method: In forced degradation process, the drug substance and drug products are subjected to severe accelerated conditions to determine their stability. For determination of specificity of stability methods, it is necessary to determine the stability under forced degradation conditions. Conclusion: For determination of degradation pathways and structural elucidation of degradants produced, these forced degradation studies are helpful. It is also used to select the storage conditions and improve the manufacturing process of formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002096
Title: A review on clinical association of serum magnesium and serum fibrinogen levels with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Acute exacerbations (AEs) are a leading cause of worsening chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in terms of lung function decline, quality of life, and survival. The most important concept of this article is the positive correlation between serum magnesium levels during AE and annual number of COPD-AE episodes. Low serum magnesium is a modifiable risk factor. It is generally believed that due to its bronchodilating effect, a decreased level of magnesium increases COPD exacerbations. Plasma fibrinogen may be an ideal blood biomarker for the existence of systemic inflammation. Those with the high fibrinogen levels had increased admission rates with COPD exacerbations during the follow-up period. This article deals with the association of both serum magnesium and serum fibrinogen levels with AE-COPD.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002097
Title: Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Feronia limonia
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Traditional drugs can be used as a novel alternative for synthetic agents. All the synthetic agents possess risk of multiple side effects. Hence, a previously traditionally used drug, Feronia limonia is studied for its antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of different concentrations were tested for antidiabetic capabilities on streptozotocin (500 mg/kg I.P)-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, body weight, lipid profile test, and preliminary phytochemical screening for extracts were also carried out. Results: Significant antidiabetic activity characterized by significant reduction in blood glucose level and glycosylated hemoglobin was observed with ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) at 14 days of treatment compared with glibenclamide (500 mcg/kg, I.P). Both these extracts showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low- density lipoproteins and also on certain liver markers. Conclusion: The study concludes that F. limonia leaf extracts show a significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity. Hence, the constituents are isolated for further research.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002098
Title: A review on association of serum homocysteine in diabetic neuropathy
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose or blood sugar levels are too high. Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur with diabetes. Symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness in the hands, arms, feet, and legs were noted in diabetic neuropathy patients. Roughly, 50% patients with diabetes suffer from diabetic neuropathy. Homocysteine is a non- protein forming sulfur amino acid. Homocysteine is a common amino acid in blood. Homocysteine is biosynthesized from methionine. Homocysteine levels are typically higher in men than women and increase with age. Elevated homocysteine levels can cause increased inflammation, irritation of the blood vessels, heart disease, neurological troubles, etc. Homocysteine levels are checked through blood tests. Homocysteine is a sensitive biomarker for both folate deficiency and cardiovascular disease. Hyperhomocysteinemia was an independent risk factor for the occurrence of diabetic neuropathy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00002099
Title: Method development and validation for the assay of dipyridamole extended-release capsules by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the current study is to develop and validate a novel analytical method for the assay of dipyridamole (DPM) extended-release capsules by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. Materials and Methods: The current study describes an optimized assay method and forced degradation studies (acid, alkaline, thermal, peroxide, and water) for this drug. A RP-HPLC has been developed in an optimized way. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Agilent Eclipse plus C18 (100 × 4.6 mm × 5 µm) column with phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and methanol:0.01N HCl (50:50% v/v) which was used as a mobile phase with an effluent flow rate of 1.2 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 295 nm. Results and Discussion: The retention time was found to be 8.59 min. This method has been validated for linearity, accuracy, and precision. Linearity was found to be in the concentration range of 0.2–0.8 mg/ml. The drug percentage recovery was found to be in the range of 99.34–100.92% of the test concentration. The results of the limit of detection and limit of quantification were within the acceptance limits. Conclusion: DPM is widely used to prevent strokes and vascular thrombosis. The developed RP-HPLC method was found to be accurate, precise, selective, and sensitive for the analysis of DPM extended-release capsules 200 mg.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002100
Title: A Review on the in silico investigation of natural phytoconstituents on antitubercular plants
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Molecular docking is a procedure that calculates or estimate the liked action of the orientation of molecules when bound to each other to form stable complex. The binding orientation of small molecule drug candidates to their targets or receptor is often or regularly estimated using molecular docking method and also estimates the potency or affinity and activity of the small molecules. It is also used to study the stability of the compound. Computers and programs are used to estimate the interaction between two molecules based on their 3D structures. Docking is a crucial factor to a rational drug design. Docking can also be used in “lead optimization” process. In this review article, we discuss about Molecular docking, Types of docking, Docking approaches, Docking software, and List of docking performed for antituberculosis plants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00002101
Title: Physiochemical and preliminary phytochemical analysis on the leaves and volatile oil of Piper betle (L.) var. Sirugamani 1
Category: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: In traditional medicines and ritual practices paan or betel leaf has made its key role. We have taken Piper betle L. var. Sirugamani 1 (SGM1) (Piperaceae) which is widely available in Tamil Nadu. The present work summarizes the physiochemical, preliminary phytochemical study for the leaves of this plant as well as the physiochemical characters of the isolated volatile oil from the leaves. Methods: The physiochemical studies were done on the dried leaf, the preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed for the dried leaf and also using different solvents and with relevant fluorescent studies on the powder of leaf. The physicochemical analysis was also performed on volatile oil of the leaf. Results: The preliminary phytochemical analysis shows the presence of various secondary metabolites such as tannins, sterols, flavonoids, proteins, and amino acids. Conclusions: The study gives a way to perform the various pharmacological studies based on the presence of secondary metabolites. The chavibetol present in volatile oil is very unique in betel leaf.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00002102
Title: Validation of Cefpodoxime proxetil and Ambroxol hydrochloride by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: A simple, accurate, precise reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Cefpodoxime proxetil and hydrochloride HCl in tablet dosage form. Methods: Chromatogram was run through Phenomenex C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase consisting acetonitrile:methanol:water (30:30:40 v/v/v) at a flow rate 1 ml/min, 0.025M potassium dihydrogen phosphate as buffer, and pH 4.0 with orthophosphoric acid. UV-spectrometry detection was measured at 245 nm. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, linearity, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification, and solution stability. Results: The retention time of Cefpodoxime and Ambroxol HCl was found to be 2.35 min and 4.37 min and % RSD of Cefpodoxime proxetil and Ambroxol HCl was found to be 1.02% and 0.28%, respectively. The described method shows good linearity range of 30–150 μg/ml Cefpodoxime proxetil and 20–100 μg/ml for Ambroxol HCl. The correlation coefficient of Cefpodoxime proxetil and Ambroxol HCl was 0.999 and 0.999. The LOD was found to be 2.97 ppm and 3.04 ppm and the limit of quantitation values were 10.1 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. % assay was obtained as 99.6% and 101.4 % for Cefpodoxime proxetil and Ambroxol HCl. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the proposed reverse-phase high-performance chromatographic method was simple, rapid, precise, and accurate which is useful in the routine determination of Cefpodoxime proxetil and Ambroxol HCl bulk drug and its pharmaceutical dosage form.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002103
Title: Free radical scavenging of 4-benzylpiperidine by in vitro method
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Objective: The purpose of the study is to screen the free radical scavenging of 4-benzylpiperidine using the various in vitro method. Materials and Methods: In this research, various concentration of 4-benzylpiperidine was screened for in vitro antioxidant activity such as 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, reducing power assessment, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results and Discussion: Our study results show that 4-benzylpiperidine produced significant P < 0.05 inhibition in scavenging the free radicals when compared with the standard (ascorbic acid and curcumin) in DPPH, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, and exhibited maximum percentage scavenging of 89.24, 88.05, and 68.49 at 1 mg/ml, respectively. 4-benzylpiperidine also showed a significant increase in absorbance with an increase in concentration in reducing power assay. TAC result was found to be not significant but have maximum absorbance than standard which is expressed as a number of equivalents to Vitamin C. Conclusion: We conclude that 4-benzylpiperidine have potential antioxidant property and equipotent to the standard used. It may be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of radicals and regulate the pathological conditions of various diseases caused by excessive generation of free radical.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002104
Title: A prospective study on the efficacy of levetiracetam in seizure patients
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) in seizure patients and to compared between the monotherapy and polytherapy. Materials and Methods: The entire study was planned to be carried out for a period of 6 months. The selected study population was 60 patients. A separate data entry form for incorporating patient details was designed. The collected data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and GraphPad Prism Software. The unpaired t-test and ANOVA were used to compare, and the significant difference was determined. Results and Discussion: Out of the 60 number of patients in the study, 53% were male, and 47% were female. Majority of patients in the age group of 15–25 were affected with seizures. The major cause for epilepsy in our study is head trauma (33%). The seizure frequency at the end of the last month of the visit was noted, and it was compared with the baseline seizure frequency for patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), complex partial seizures (CPS), and for secondarily generalized seizure patients. The number of seizure episodes in the final visit was less as compared with those in the 1st month before the treatment with LEV. Conclusion: LEV was effective as monotherapy and polytherapy for all the three categories of patients-GTCS, CPS, and secondarily generalized seizures. The baseline seizure frequency, when compared with the final visit frequency, has improved after the treatment with LEV.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002105
Title: Role of zinc supplements in pediatric acute and persistent diarrhea: A prospective observational study in a tertiary care hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the therapeutic effect of zinc supplements in patients with acute and persistent diarrhea. To monitor the effect of supplemental zinc given along with oral rehydration therapy during acute and persistent diarrhea. To assess the number of episodes of diarrhea in acute and persistent diarrhea. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried for a time period of 6 months from November 2015 to April 2016 in a tertiary care hospital. Data were collected from the pediatric subjects diagnosed with acute and persistent diarrhea using self-designed patient pro forma. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee ref - IEC/ DOPI/2016/21. Results: In this study, 100 patients with diarrhea were selected. Out of 100 patients, 83 were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among the study population of 83, 22 patients (27%) were in the age group of 6–12 months, 18 patients (21%) were in the age group of 1–2 years, 17 patients (20%) were in the age group of 2–3 years, 14 patients (16%) were in the age group of 3–4 years, and 12 patients (14%) were in the age group of 4–5 years. It indicates that majority of people in age group of infants were most affected with diarrhea. In this prospective study comprising 83 diarrhea patients treated with zinc supplements, in that 38 (46%) were male child and 45 (54%) were female child, which confirms that female child was more likely to be affected with diarrhea than male subjects. Conclusion: From the current study, it was concluded that with zinc supplementation on acute and persistent diarrhea was more effective than oral rehydration salts. Zinc supplements reduced the duration, severity, and number of diarrheal episodes. Zinc supplements are given 20 mg per day for 14 days. It was extremely effective in patients with diarrhea.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00002106
Title: Toxicity evaluation of ifosfamide nanostructured lipid carriers designed for oral delivery in Wistar albino rats
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Ifosfamide nephrotoxicity is a serious adverse effect for one who undergoes cancer chemotherapy. Ifosfamide when administered orally as nanoparticles expected to minimize the ifosfamide‑induced nephrotoxicity at a clinically relevant concentration. To further validate this expectation, an animal model of ifosfamide‑induced nephrotoxicity was used to determine the protective effect of ifosfamide‑loaded nanostructured lipid carriers when administered orally. Materials and Methods: Adult male and female Wistar albino rats were subjected to acute and subacute toxicity studies administering orally with ifosfamide‑loaded nanostructured lipid carrier. Wister albino rats of either sex were administered with 0.5 ml of the vehicle, ifosfamide injection at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight, and ifosfamide NLC orally at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. Toxic manifestations and mortality were monitored daily. Both the serum and urine biochemical parameters and hematological parameters were determined using standardized laboratory method. Results: There was no mortality, or any signs of behavioral changes or toxicity observed after oral administration of ifosfamide NLC up to the dose level of 150 mg/kg body weight in rats. Ifosfamide NLCs, when administered orally, markedly reduce the severity of renal dysfunction induced by ifosfamide with a significant decrease in elevations of serum creatinine (47.82 ± 2.25 vs. 32.64 ± 1.28 mmol l − 1 ) as well as a reduced elevation of β2‑microglobulin excretion (25.54 ± 122 vs. 19.86 ± 1.22 nmol l − 1 ) and magnesium excretion (19.62 ± 1.56 vs. 16.12 ± 1.22 mmol l − 1 ). Conclusion: Our results suggest a potential therapeutic role for ifosfamide when administered as nanoparticle minimizing ifosfamide nephrotoxicity

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002107
Title: Assessment of quality of life in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the quality of life (QoL) in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Methods: A total of 100 cancer patients were included in the present analysis. With the aid of nurses, the questionnaires were filled out during the interview. Each question had an equal value and the QoL was quantified as the sum of the scores for all domains. The 30 items of QLQ-C30 are multidimensional, made up of 30 items. Functional scale and symptom scale were computed using t-test method. Results: Of the selected 48 patients, 9 patients were in the age group of 35–45 years, 10 patients were in the group of 45–55 years, 13 patients were in the age of group 55–65 years, 7 patients were in the age group of 65–75 years, and 9 patients were in the age group of 75–85 years. 0 patients are underweight, 6 patients were normal in their body mass index, 16 were overweight, and remaining 26 patients were obese. From the total of 48 patients with breast cancer interviewed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C-30, it was found that symptoms scale was higher before chemotherapy and which became low after chemotherapy. Conclusion: Patients with breast cancer were interviewed using EORTC QLQ C-30 questionnaire, and according to the interview, the scores QoL were high in breast cancer patients after chemotherapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00002108
Title: Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide and Propranolol in bulk and Pharmaceutical dosage form
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: A simple, rapid, and precise reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for simultaneous analysis of Hydrochlorothiazide and Propranolol in a bulk and tablet dosage form in biorelevant dissolution medium has been developed and validated. Methods: The chromatographic separation was achieved using reverse phase C18 column; Symmetry C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5μm). The mobile phase used was a mixture of acetonitrile:potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution (0.01 M, pH 3.0 adjusting with Orthophosphoric acid) in a ratio of 60:40 at isocratic mode and eluents were monitored at 275 nm using PDA detector. Results: By the method, Hydrochlorothiazide and Propranolol were eluted with retention times of 2.033 min and 3.280 min, respectively. The method was continued and validated accordance with ICH guidelines. Validation revealed the method is rapid, specific, accurate, precise, reliable, and reproducible. Calibration curve plots were linear over the concentration ranges 20–60 μg/mL for Hydrochlorothiazide and 20–60 μg/mL for Propranolol. Limits of detection was 0.73 and 0.95 μg/ml and limits of quantification was 2.19 and 3.01 μg/mL for Hydrochlorothiazide and Propranolol, respectively. Conclusion: The statistical analysis was proves the method is suitable for the analysis of Hydrochlorothiazide and Propranolol as a bulk and tablet dosage form in biorelevant dissolution media (Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid-FaSSIF) without any interference from the excipients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002109
Title: Drug-induced parkinsonism: A review
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is the most common etiology in all aged group of people. Many patients with DIP may be misdiagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD) because the clinical feature of these both conditions is indistinguishable. DIP may be usually due to the depleted dopamine (DA) storage. DA deficiency is due to long-term use of typical antipsychotic drugs. In addition to, this DIP may be caused by gastrointestinal pro-kinetics, atypical antipsychotics, antiepileptics, and calcium channel blockers. Moreover, neurological deficits in patients with DIP are severe enough to affect the daily activities. DIP is generally characterized clinically as bilateral and symmetric parkinsonism without tremor at rest. However, about half of the patient shows asymmetrical parkinsonism with tremor at rest which makes it difficult to differentiate DIP from PD. The pathophysiology of DIP is related to the blockage of D2 receptors by antipsychotic drugs in the striatum, and encephalin- containing striatal neurons dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging is useful for diagnosing presynaptic parkinsonism. DAT uptake in the striatum is significantly decreased even in the early stage of PD, and this characteristic may help in differentiating PD from DIP. DIP may have a significant and longstanding effects on the patient. Hence, physicians should be cautious when prescribing dopaminergic receptor blockers and should monitor the patient’s neurological signs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002110
Title: Metformin-induced lactic acidosis: A review
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Metformin is an oral anti-diabetic drug that is widely used alone or in combination with other drugs with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin increases insulin sensitivity, enhances peripheral glucose utilization and decreases glucose uptake in the gastrointestinal tract. Lactic acidosis is characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, which results in an excessively low pH in the bloodstream. Lactic acidosis is about 20 times less frequent with metformin than phenformin. Lactate is produced by the gut, liver, and peripheral tissues during glycolysis and can accumulate during hypoxic conditions. Lactate can either be oxidized to carbon dioxide and water by mitochondria to generate energy or converted back to glucose (gluconeogenesis) in the liver and kidney. When metformin is administered orally, approximately 40% of the dose is absorbed. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is more likely to occur in patients who acutely develop renal impairment from dehydration, vomiting or diarrhea, surgery, etc., especially in elderly subjects who have a reduced glomerular filtration rate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002111
Title: Proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemia - A review
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for prevention and treatment of acid-related diseases. Hypomagnesemia has been recommended as one of the rare effects of the long-term use of PPIs. Hypomagnesemia occurs as a result of impaired magnesium absorption in the intestine. Prolonged hypomagnesemia can result in various systemic defects such as cardiac arrhythmias, tetany, seizures, and electrolytic imbalances such as hypocalcemia and hypokalemia. Magnesium supplement administration provides temporary relief and withdrawal or intermittent use of PPI on long-term therapy (≥1 year) can reduce hypomagnesemia. Monitoring the serum Mg2+ routinely on long-term therapy helps to prevent the occurrence of hypomagnesemia to a great extent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002112
Title: Efficacy of zinc administration in pulmonary tuberculosis patients - A review
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium TB. Low serum concentrations of Vitamin A and zinc are common in TB and may have an adverse effect on host cell-mediated responses. The role of adjunctive micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes is uncertain. The deficiency of zinc observed in patients with TB might have contributed to the development of TB disease in them. Zinc is known to be essential for all highly proliferating cells in the human body, especially the immune system. All kinds of immune cells show decreased function after zinc depletion. Zinc supplementation of patients with pulmonary TB and bacterial pneumonia was shown to increase immune function. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in TB patients. This article brings about the role of zinc and its efficacy in pulmonary TB patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002113
Title: A review on drug-induced nephrotoxicity
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Drug-induced nephrotoxicity (DIN), which is the toxicity in the kidneys, accounts for up to 60% of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury with considerable morbidity and mortality. Nephrotoxicity displays symptoms such as decreased urine output, fluid retention, fatigue, and nausea. One of the chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin, is used to treat cancer in numerous treatments, and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is a common side effect, affecting cancer treatment. Several other drugs such as methotrexate, vancomycin, calcineurin inhibitors, amphotericin B, and aminoglycosides may also lead to nephrotoxicity. Anticancer drugs cause high toxicity leading kidney dysfunction and irreparable kidney injury. Risk for kidney injury is increased by increase in dose and duration of potentially nephrotoxic drugs. Identification of DIN and rapid dose reduction of the offending agents are critical to maximize kidney function recovery.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002114
Title: Knowledge, attitude, practice, behavior, and barrier of community pharmacists toward adverse drug reactions reporting in India: A review
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: We have understood that the Community Pharmacists (CPs) would play a major role in identification, detection, prevention, and management of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as they are highly interacting and dealing with patients. In India, suspected ADR reporting form (red form) has been available since July 2010 for ADR reporting by health-care professionals including pharmacists. We wanted to review knowledge, attitude, practice, behavior, and barrier of CPs toward spontaneous reporting of ADRs in India. Methods: We searched PubMed and Google to identify the results of Indian CPs knowledge, attitude, practice, behavior, and barrier toward spontaneous reporting of ADRs. We used the common survey questionnaire from the selected articles for different topics of interest. Results: A total of 11 articles were taken into consideration for review in which the surveys of 1623 Indian CPs were assessed. The average response rate was observed as 57.66%. 744 (46%) respondents had heard about ADRs. 577 (35.16%) were aware of the National Pharmacovigilance (PV). 562 (70.65%) respondents felt that ADRs should be reported. 258 (29.84%) felt that they are adequately trained on reporting ADRs. 442 (30%) respondents felt that ADR reporting was time-consuming. Only 157 (12.1%) respondents reported ADRs. Conclusion: Awareness of ADR reporting was poor among CPs in India. It is highly recommended to make CPs aware of the National PV Program of ADR reporting in India and educate them the importance of reporting ADRs for the benefit of public in the nation and train them on ADR reporting.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002115
Title: Drug utilization review of bisphosphonates in a tertiary care hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of the study is to present a drug utilization evaluation of bisphosphonates in the postmenopausal women in a tertiary care hospital. The main objective is to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bisphosphonate therapy among the osteoporosis patients. Materials and Methods: A specially designed pro forma was prepared to collect data including patients’ details, physical and laboratory investigation, medical history, and medication history. Informed consent has been obtained from the patients in both English and their local language. Results: Ibandronic acid was the most prescribed bisphosphonates in the study and though 150 mg was prescribed to more number of patients. The PDD in the total population of 200 patients was found to be 5 mg. Conclusion: This study indicates that antiresorptive agents were used in accepted dose regimens.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002116
Title: A review on role of Vitamin E supplementation in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia that is increased blood sugar level, resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs, including eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Vitamin E has antioxidant activity. It may also have antiatherogenic, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, neuroprotective, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cell membrane stabilizing, and antiproliferative actions. Vitamin E is a collective term used to describe eight separate forms, the best-known form being alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and is an important antioxidant. It acts to protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body’s metabolism. Antioxidants such as Vitamin E help protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, complications in DM. It also protects other fat-soluble Vitamins (A and B group vitamins) from destruction by oxygen. Low levels of Vitamin E have been linked to increased incidence of long-time complications in DM. A comprehensive literature search has been carried out in PubMed and Google Scholar, and articles pertaining to complications of intravenous drug use were selected for review.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002117
Title: A single-blinded randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of N-acetyl cysteine over metformin in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of metformin and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on clinical, hormonal, and fertility aspects in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Materials and Methods: Through a prospective randomized study on women with a diagnosis of PCOS without any comorbidity conditions were enrolled and assigned into two groups. Group A with metformin 500 mg thrice a day and Group B with NAC 600 mg thrice a day were prescribed and duration of the treatment was fixed as 12 weeks. After the prescribed duration of treatment, the following parameters such as fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, glucose-insulin ratio, LH, FSH, and LH/FSH ratio were measured and compared between two groups. Results and Discussion: Fifty women of each group completed the study, and it was found those age groups between 25 and 30 years are more prone to have PCOS. Among the two groups, there was a significant difference in body weight, body mass index, and clinical parameters such as FBS, fasting insulin, and hormonal parameters such as LH, FSH, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, and infertility got reduced and it was observed that LH/FSH ratio and glucose/insulin ratio got reduced in both the group but the difference between the two groups were insignificant. Conclusion: The present study concludes that NAC found to improves some clinical features, biochemical markers of insulin resistance and hormonal levels and long-term health of women with PCOS through improvement in peripheral insulin and fewer side effects; thus NAC can be considered as a substitute for insulin-reducing medications in the treatment of PCOS patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002118
Title: A prospective study of drug utilization pattern of cardiac inotropes in cardiac intensive care unit at a tertiary care hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Objective: Inotropes have been fundamental for the resuscitation of acute cardiogenic shock for decades. There are two types of inotropes: Positive inotrope and negative inotrope. Positive inotrope increases the force of contraction of the heart, and negative inotrope weakens the heart beats. There is a marked difference in the usage pattern of inotrope in the treatment of hospitalized patients for various cardiovascular diseases. The main of the study was to analyze the prescribing patterns of cardiac inotropes in the cardiac intensive care unit (CTICU). Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out for the duration of 6 months in the department of CTICU at a tertiary hospital, Chennai. A total of 91 patients were selected for the study. Patient case sheets (including patient demographic details, drug therapy, and laboratory investigations) were used to extract the necessary data. The percentage of data was calculated with the help of Microsoft Excel sheet, and the sample size was calculated using the formula. Results: Of the 91 patients enrolled in the study, majority were male (67) and were found in the age group of 51–60 years. Adrenaline 50 (54.95%) was most commonly prescribed positive inotrope, followed by noradrenaline 37 (40.66%) and dobutamine 35 (38.46%). Amiodarone 18 (19.78%) was most commonly prescribed negative inotropes, followed by propranolol 5 (5.59%) and nicorandil 3 (3.30%). The mean duration of stay in the hospital was 7.42 days. The average number of inotropes prescribed per prescription was 1.71. The average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 13.34. Conclusion: Positive inotropes were the most frequently prescribed drug. Mean number of drugs per prescription were high. The prescribing pattern could be improved by reducing number of drugs in prescription and varies in between positive and negative inotropes to a greater extent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002119
Title: Design and development of dexibuprofen loaded chitosan nanoparticles
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of the present research was formulation and evaluation of anti-inflammatory drug dexibuprofen loaded chitosan-based polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for the controlled release of dexibuprofen using different concentrations of chitosan and surfactant. Materials and Methods: Dexibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug was encapsulated with the polymer by emulsion-droplet coalescence method (DNP1-DNP5). The NPs were characterized by drug content, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Result: DNP3 was selected as best formulation due to its ideal particle size (437.6 nm), high entrapment efficiency (88.54%), and desirable drug release (99.81 ± 0.92% at the end of 24 h). Conclusion: The present study can be concluded that the newly formulated controlled release nanoparticulate drug delivery system of dexibuprofen may be ideal and effective in the management of pain due to arthritis by allowing the drug to release continuously for 24 h.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002120
Title: Evaluation of quercetin‑loaded poly‑lactide‑co‑glycolide acid silver nanoparticles from the ethanolic extract of Mallotus philippensis fruits
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aims and Objectives: Simple approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the ethanolic extract of Mallotus philippensis fruits. Materials and Methods: Quercetin isolated from the fruits of M. philippensis was loaded with poly‑lactide‑co‑glycolide acid (PLGA) by nanoprecipitation technique since nanoparticles improve solubility in aqueous phase and increase its bioavailability. Results and Discussion: About 10 mg of quercetin isolated from the ethanolic fruit extract of M. philippensis was dissolved in acetone and was added with 100 mg of PLGA with the copolymer poloxamer. The physical characterization such as ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform‑infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X‑ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out. The UV results showed the maximum absorption peak at the range of 356–436 nm. FTIR showed the presence of alcohol group, alkane group, and hydroxyl and ether groups. SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 70–339 nm. The XRD pattern revealed that the sample contains crystalline structures of silver nanoparticles. Conclusion: It proves to be an eco‑friendly green novel technology, cost‑effective efficient way for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant extract for protecting human health and environment, leading to lesser waste and safer products

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Feb
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002121
Title: Screening methods for antihyperlipidemic activity: A review
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Hyperlipidemia is characterized by increased level of cholesterol in the form of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), chylomicrons, very LDL (VLDL), etc. Development of new antihyperlipidemic drugs is a challenging job of researchers because most of the screening procedures are tedious and time-consuming. The present techniques for screening methods for antihyperlipidemic activity could be classified under in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vivo methods include Triton-, PTU-, and high-fat diet- induced hyperlipidemic models. In contrast, the reported in vitro methods are limited and include assay using Caco-2 cell lines and inhibitory activity on 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. There is a lack of simple but sufficiently reproducible and sensitive in vitro technique for screening of antihyperlipidemic activity.