Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002206
Title: Risk factors, susceptibility, and machine learning techniques for cancer prediction
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Machine learning (ML) based techniques are being widely applied in the field of cancer prediction. Predictive analytics applied to health care has a huge scope in this particular domain. Data from the real world pertaining to cancerous cases have the abundant potential for enabling the realization of better performing predictive techniques since timely diagnosis and prediction of the advanced stage is extremely important for cancer detection and recovery. However, incorporation of correct and appropriate features is extremely important for accurate prediction models. This paper gives an account of the recent trends in ML techniques applied in the field of cancer detection. The various techniques reported have been compared in terms of the features selected and the performance parameters. Various databases used in different researches have also been reported. The major shortcomings found in the reported approaches have also been highlighted. In view of the same, the importance of considering various miscellaneous features and creation of a comprehensive, automated, and data-driven prediction tool has been discussed in the future scope. Significance statement: This study gives a comprehensive survey of the risk factors pertaining to different forms of cancer. It also highlights the importance of utilizing predictive data analytics to extract knowledge from these factors for early prognosis. This study will thus help the researchers to uncover the risk factors as predictors to contraction of cancer. Thus, as a specific region-based study, a new paradigm in understanding the quality of life and predicting it for better assessment of cancer treatment and its after effects can be arrived at.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-BMa-00002183
Title: Anti-inflammatory Activity of Bioactive Flavonoid Apigenin- 7-O-β-D- Glucuronide Methyl Ester from Ethyl Acetate Leaf Extract of Manilkara zapota on Lipopolysaccharide- induced Pro-inflammatory Medi
Category: Biological Macromolecules
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (AG) is a bioactive flavonoid isolated from the leaves of ethyl extract of Manilkara zapota, it is well known to exhibit significant in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of AG against nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods: Measurement of pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2 in the RAW 264.7 macrophages using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: AG, exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the isolated bioactive AG, act as potent anti-inflammatory agents, it can be used for the treatment of inflammatory related diseases without having any side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00002160
Title: Microbial contamination of dental care clothing - a quantitative study
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Scrubs and white coats are worn by health-care professionals in clinical environment as a part of personal protective equipment. Scrubs, white coats, and uniforms of dental personnel are spattered by saliva, aerosols, and blood, and there is definite risk of infection through various transmissible pathogens. The main aim of this study was to determine the level of bacterial contamination presents on disposable surgical dental care clothing worn over scrubs of dental students to assess the risk of spread of nosocomial infection in our dental institution. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among postgraduate dental students who performed various dental procedures including extraction and minor oral surgical procedures such as impaction, transalveolar extractions, and alveoloplasty in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. A total of 45 participants who were treated in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery were included in the study. Several samples were collected from different regions of disposable surgical dental care clothing of the students and sent for microbiological analysis. Results: Bacterial colony counts were greater in cultures obtained from the sleeve cuffs of the surgical dental care clothing compared with the neck region (collar region). Bacterial colony counts cultured following alveoloplasty procedure were greater in number when compared to transalveolar extraction procedure. Conclusion: From our study, it is concluded that disposable dental care clothing is highly contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and the results of the study strictly mandate the use of personal protective surgical dental care clothing before minor surgical procedures to prevent cross infection in the dental clinic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-CT-00002161
Title: Evaluation of dental students’ (interns) perception and level of confidence regarding fixed partial denture procedures for successful prosthodontic treatment
Category: Clinical trials
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The ability to self-assess is a critical skill that all health professionals must be able to do, to achieve competence. This is essential for the dental students that their education and practice apply for different clinical and paraclinical procedures and to assess proper knowledge of fixed partial denture (FPD) are necessary among working dental students. Aim: The aim of this study is to obtain information about dental students, perceptions, and self-confidence levels regarding FPD procedures. Materials and Method: A self-administered questionnaire with 20 questions was prepared and circulated among 100 dental interns of two different colleges. Level of confidence was rated using five-point rating scale. Data collection and analysis will be done based on frequencies and percentage values using SPSS software. Results: Of 100 dental interns, 33.18% were confident, 20.56% were very confident, 27.64% were little confident, 16% were very little confident, 2.64% had no confident in FPD procedures, and the results were significant statistically. Conclusion: Awareness among the dental interns about FPD procedure can help in eliminating any negative image of the FPD procedure in patient’s mind due to lack of knowledge.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002162
Title: Perception and knowledge of dental interns regarding implant procedure for successful prosthodontic treatment
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The ability to self-assess is a critical skill that all health professionals must be able to do, to achieve competence. This is essential for the dental students that their education and practice apply for different clinical and paraclinical procedures. A dental implant is an artificial tooth root that is placed into your jaw to hold a replacement tooth or bridge, and proper knowledge of implant procedure is necessary among working dental students. Aim: The aim of this study is to obtain information about dental students’ perceptions and self-confidence levels regarding implant procedures. Materials And Methods: A self-administered questionnaire with 20 questions were prepared and circulated among 50 dental interns of two different colleges (n = 100). Level of confidence will be rated using five-point rating scale. Data collection and analysis will be done based on frequencies and percentage values using the SPSS software. Results: In this present study, 39.11% of the dental interns were very confident regarding the knowledge of implant procedures, 34.43% of them were confident in convincing the patient for implant, 11.68% of them were still finding a way to convince the patient, 0.31% of them had very little confident, whereas 4.47% had no confidence on implant procedures at all. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that though implantology has become an important part of the undergraduate teaching program in most of the institutions, the level of understanding and complete awareness among the students regarding implant therapy is poor. Necessary changes should be undertaken to standardize the teaching curriculum in dental institution.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002163
Title: Fabrication and evaluation of polylactic acid membrane for drug delivery system
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect. There are some common ways of drug delivery system that are oral, sublingual, rectal, urogenital, nasal, ophthal, transmucosal, parenteral, and inhalation. Aim: The aim of this study is the fabrication and evaluation of polylactic acid (PLA) membrane for newer drug releasing system. Materials and Methods: PLA (0.5 g, 1.0 g, and 1.5 g) was dissolved in n-methyl pyrrolidone and 50 mg of oxacillin was added to each of these solutions. The PLA solutions containing oxacillin were transferred to 3 Petri dishes, and the solvent was evaporated by keeping the samples in a hot air oven at a temperature of 60°C. The drug release was estimated using ultraviolet spectrophotometer at 24 h intervals at a wavelength of 365. Results: During the 1st h, there exists a burst effect, which may be due to drug lying beneath the surface of the membrane dissolving faster than drug crystals embedded in the center of the spheres, and for every 24 h, the drug released from the membrane has been calculated. Conclusion: Here, the bulk of drug was entrapped within the membrane. Hence, more porous PLA forms such as sponges, microspheres, and electrospun fibers would need to be explored as suitable carriers for drug delivery system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002164
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice about post-implant prescription of analgesics - A survey among clinicians in Chennai
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental implants are the most sort treatment modality in recent days. There is little guidance available regarding pre- and post-operative pain management. Although it is accepted that majority of patients will experience mild- to-moderate pain, following implant surgery, a degree of such pain is anticipated post-operatively. It is crucial that the clinician provides effective analgesia in this period. Aim: The aim of our study is to assess the knowledge, awareness, and practice, among Indian dentists, on the prescription pattern of analgesic drugs during routine oral implant surgery in normal healthy patients. Materials and Methods: A well-structured online multiple choice-based structured questionnaire was formulated with 14 questions. The sample size was chosen by simple randomized sampling as 100 dentists in Chennai, practising dental implant surgery as a treatment modality. The questionnaire was circulated to 100 participants including postgraduate students, staffs in institutions, and private practitioners, and results were tabulated. Results: The data acquired from this survey exhibited that 96% of dentists prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for analgesic effects and post-implant placement. Most commonly, they were prescribed after stage - I of implant therapy (80%). Most dentists reported prescribing NSAIDs, orally (86%) for twice a day (71%), for almost a week (60%). Dentists also preferred prescribing combination analgesic (66%). Of the population studied, 87% of dentists did not encounter any side effects. Only, 65% of dentists prescribed medications, by specifically targeting the side effects. Adjunctive prescription of steroids was done by only 47%. The data were compiled and represented graphically. Conclusion: Pain management in dentistry can be a challenging task. Hence, the necessity for prescription of analgesics becomes mandatory. The survey conducted highlights the need for bolstering awareness among dentists with respect to proper prescription of analgesics in the course of implant treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00002165
Title: In vitro anticancer activity of extract fractions resulted from fermented endophytic fungi on Taxus sumatrana
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Objectives: This study aims to determine the effects of anticancer, the effective concentration of extract fractions, and which type of bacteria produce the best activity in inhibiting the growth of T47D cancer cells. Methods: A total of seven endophytic bacteria isolated from Taxus sumatrana plant. Each bacterium was fermented and then extracted using three different solvents, i.e., n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol. These extracts tested its anticancer activity using T47D cell line with cisplatin as a positive control. Results: It was found that not all fermented extracts of bacterial endophytic plants T. sumatrana were able to inhibit the growth of T47D cancer cells. The active extracts were n-hexane extracts from the bacterium TsC1, ethyl acetate extract from the bacterium TsC2, n-hexane extract from the bacterium TsC3, butanol extract from the bacterium TsC4, n-hexane extract from the bacterium TsC5, ethyl acetate extract from the bacteria, and extract of ethyl acetate and butanol extract from bacterium TsC7. The results obtained were statistically tested using a Random Complete Block Design with a 95% confidence level. Conclusions: The best effective extract, when compared with cisplatin, is the fraction of ethyl acetate and butanol from the bacterium TsC7.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002166
Title: Recent advances in the management of dry socket - A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Alveolar osteitis is a well-known post-extraction complication. It is commonly known as “dry socket,” a common post- operative problem that results in severe pain. The prevention methods include avoiding smoking before and after surgery, atraumatic surgery, the use of antibiotics, such as, azithromycin, chlorhexidine rinse or gel, use of sutures and local hemostatic, low level laser, Alvogyl and the Salicept patch, eugenol on a gauze strip, and a thermosetting gel containing 2.5% prilocaine and 2.5% lidocaine. Plasma rich in growth factors can also be effective in the reduction of dry socket incidence. This article reviews about the new advances, drugs, and materials used for dry socket management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002167
Title: Full mouth rehabilitation of a patient with mandibular implant screw-retained fp-3 prosthesis opposing maxillary natural dentition: A case report
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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A hybrid denture is one that is fabricated over a metal framework and retained by screws threaded into the implant abutments. The anterior part of a mandibular hybrid denture is fixed on implants, while the posterior part of the denture is extended and cantilevered from implants producing a passive-fitting substructure for a fixed removable screw-retained hybrid prosthesis which is arguably one of the most technically complex tasks in implant dentistry. The technique presented may not initially produce a perfectly passive framework, but the use of disclosing media and adjusting the internal aspect of the casting can result in nonbinding, fully seated prostheses. The rehabilitation of edentulous patients with hybrid dentures has been observed to achieve greater masticatory function and psychological satisfaction than with conventional complete dentures. This article presents the fabrication of a mandibular implant retained hybrid prosthesis opposing a maxillary natural dentition.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00002168
Title: A review on anti-dengue activity of selected plant species from Meliaceae family
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Dengue is one of the most serious arthropod infections, which has become a life-threatening in India. Mosquitoes have become one of the major life-threatening parasites in Asian countries nowadays. Dengue virus which is spread by Aedes aegypti has become a challenging one to control its breed and the fever caused by it. Toona ciliata and Melia azadirachta of Meliaceae family have proved for its antiviral and antiparasitic activity is due to the secondary metabolites such as limonoids, polyphenols, and tannins from its experimental and clinical studies. Limonoids, a secondary metabolite from these plants, exhibit a wide range of biological properties including anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antiviral activities. Polyphenols are most abundant antioxidant found in these plants. The phenolic compounds are divided into phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, and stilbenes. Tannins may be employed medicinally in antidiarrheal, hemostatic, and antihemorrhoidal compounds. They have been also reported to have antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic effects. The aim of this review article is to discuss the importance of the plants belonging to the Meliaceae family which has potent action against the dengue virus which is found in abundant in India have to be used by following its traditional values.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002169
Title: Knowledge and awareness among undergraduate dental students regarding oral health of diabetes mellitus patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease which is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity affecting all the age group worldwide. Periodontal disease, xerostomia, and dental caries are the most common oral complications of DM. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of undergraduate dental students regarding the oral health of DM patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Saveetha Dental College, using a self-administered, closed-ended questionnaire with 18 questions to assess the knowledge and awareness of 150 undergraduate dental students regarding the oral health of DM patients. Data collected were statistically analyzed and the results were obtained. Results: 93.3% of the students were aware that fungal and bacterial infections are superadded in diabetes, and 80.6% of the students were aware that diabetes causes halitosis. 81.3% of the students were aware that diabetes causes dental caries and only 56% of the students routinely checked random blood sugar levels in patients before the start of dental procedure. Conclusion: According to the current study, the knowledge and awareness regarding the oral health of DM patients were good among majority of the undergraduate dental students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002170
Title: Extraction methods and varieties affect total anthocyanins content in acidified extract of papery skin of onion (Allium cepa L.)
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Anthocyanins are water-soluble red pigments. Anthocyanins have anticarcinogenic activity and reduce the risk of stroke and heart disease. Onion (Allium cepa L.) papery skin contains anthocyanin but rarely used. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of extraction methods and varieties on total anthocyanin content in acidified extract of onion papery skin varieties Bima Brebes and Maja Cipanas. Total anthocyanin contents are determinated by differential pH method. The anthocyanin was extracted with a mixture of 70% ethanol and 2N hydrochloric acid pH 1.0 by maceration, percolation, reflux extraction, and Soxhlet extraction. Total anthocyanin contents are more extracted in soaking method (maceration and reflux extraction) than flowing solvent method (percolation and Soxhlet extraction). Total anthocyanin contents of Maja Cipanas are more stable than Bima Brebes. The extraction method and onion varieties affect total anthocyanin contents.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002171
Title: Co-Administration of D Serine with Sodium Benzoate attenuates Ketamine Neurodegeneration in IMR 32 cell lines
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Ketamine is a commonly used veterinary anesthetic agent and it is abused since it is a recreational agent. It is being reported that ketamine-induced neurodegeneration is a common syndrome in ketamine abusing individuals. This drug being an NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor antagonist it causes the hypofunction in the receptor causing learning and memory impairment. The mechanism underlying in the ketamine-induced neurodegeneration was due to the formation of ketamine metabolite that actively decreases the D serine levels in the brain leading to neurodegeneration. Hence, the study was carried out to study the effect of D-serine and D-serine and sodium benzoate administration attenuated the neurodegeneration induced by ketamine. In the cell study, it was found that ketamine causes neurodegeneration in a dose-dependent manner. The dose-dependent effect of ketamine was attenuated using D-Serine and D-Serine and sodium benzoate concurrent administration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002172
Title: Malocclusion severity and orthodontic treatment needs in children – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Malocclusion is a developmental condition signifying a mal-relationship between the arches. The factors responsible for malocclusion include genetic and environmental factors, or a combination of both along with various local factors such as adverse or deleterious oral habits and anomalies in number, shape, and developmental position of teeth and dentition. Malocclusion has a profound influence on individual’s appearance and quality of life. Knowledge about the prevalence and severity of malocclusion is important for early diagnosis and planning of orthodontic services. Several indices are used for malocclusion registration to evaluate severity levels and orthodontic treatment needs. The dental esthetic index is an orthodontic index based on socially designed esthetic standards. It is used both in epidemiological surveys to identify unmet needs for orthodontic treatment and as a screening device to determine priority for subsidized orthodontic treatment. This study aims at creating awareness about the severity of malocclusion among schoolchildren and their requirement for orthodontic treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002173
Title: Barr bodies in pulpal tissue as a diagnostic tool for gender determination
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Gender can also be determined by the study of X and Y chromosomes in the cells which are not undergoing active division. The presence or absence of X chromosome can be studied from buccal smears, skin biopsy, blood, cartilage, hair root sheath, and tooth pulp. After death, it persists for variable periods depending on the humidity and temperature in which tissue has remained. X chromatin and intranuclear structure are also known as Barr body. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of X Barr body and Y Barr body observed in pulp tissue as a tool for gender determination. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted in 30 patients (15 male and 15 female). The tooth extracted was from the anteriors of maxilla and mandible. The removed pulpal tissue is stored in 5% formalin for 7 days, paraffin blocks are prepared and the block is cut at 5 µm thickness and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and is viewed under a trinocular microscope under ×100 magnification, and 50 cells are viewed for Barr bodies. Result: In females, the mean of Barr bodies was found to be 13 ± 2, and in the males, it was found to be 5 ± 3. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that the pulp tissues with a maximum number of Barr bodies belong to a female and pulp with a minimum number of Barr bodies belongs to a male.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002174
Title: Assessment of salivary PH and microbial growth in patients wearing complete denture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Oral cavity supports the growth of various microorganisms due to the moist condition that it offers. Denture being a foreign substance aid in increasing the microbial growth, this, in turn, will decrease the overall health of the oral cavity. PH also indirectly affects the growth of these micro-organisms. Hence, there comes a need to assess the microbial growth for a healthy oral environment. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the salivary PH and microbial growth in patients wearing complete dentures. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 completely edentulous patients desiring replacement with complete denture were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. The swab was used to collect the microbial sample in the lingual vestibular region in the mandibular arch and was cultured for different bacteria, and salivary PH was estimated using PH indicator strip. Patients were given CD and oral hygiene instruction. The microbial samples were obtained after 2 weeks of denture wearing, and same salivary PH and microbial parameters were estimated and compared. The microbial growth was expressed in colony functioning units. Results: A dependent sample t-test was used to estimate statistically significant differences. Results inferred a statistical significant difference between the Klebsiella, streptococcal, and Lactobacillus species before and after denture insertion with no statistical significance in PH. Conclusion: Microbial colonization increased after wearing denture with no drastic change in PH. Hence, proper oral hygiene measures are to be followed to maintain a healthy oral cavity in denture wearers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002175
Title: Assessment of salivary ph and microbial growth in full mouth rehabilitated patients
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The oral cavity is a moist environment with temperature (34–36°C) and a pH close to neutrality in most areas, and thus supports the growth of a wide variety of microorganisms. Dentures provide a protected habitat, especially beneath the fitting surface, which results in colonization and growth by a range of bacteria. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the salivary PH and microbial growth in full mouth rehabilitated (FMR) patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 dentulous patients with severe attrition desiring FMR–fixed partial denture (FPD) and temporary partial denture alone were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. The swab was used to collect the microbial sample in the lingual vestibular region in the mandibular arch, and was cultured for different bacteria and salivary pH was estimated using pH indicator strip. Patients were given FMR and oral hygiene instructions. The microbial samples were obtained after 2 weeks after FMR, and same salivary pH and microbial parameters were estimated and compared. The microbial growth was expressed in colony functioning units. Results: A statistical significance difference between the Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli species, Candida species, Spirochetes, Streptococcal species, and Lactobacillus species before and after FMR with no statistical significance in pH. Conclusion: This study observed increased microbial colonization following FMR. This could be attributed to compromised oral hygiene and surface texture of the prosthesis used (FPD). Hence, meticulous oral hygiene needs to be practiced to minimize microbial colonization, and thus could promote improved oral health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002176
Title: Newer local anesthetic drugs in dentistry
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Local anesthetics (LAs) are the safest and most effective drugs in medicine for the control and management of pain. They also represent the most important drugs in dentistry. LAs work by blocking the entry of sodium ions into their channels, thereby preventing the transient increase in permeability of the nerve membrane to sodium that is required for an action potential to occur. Even though there are LA drugs which are useful in clinics, some newer drugs have been developed with additional features and brought in clinical practice. The purpose of this review article is to enumerate the uses and mechanism of action of the newer LA drugs that are used in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00002177
Title: Microbiological examination of the implant abutments to evaluate the transfer of organisms from and to the laboratory
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: With the rise in the awareness about the mode of transmission of pathogens, the lights shifted onto the various procedures involving laboratory processing. The organisms transmitted from the impression to the cast and to the dental laboratory have been studied numerous times; however, the organisms transmitted back from the dental laboratory to the dental office to the patient’s mouth have not been reported or recorded. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the organisms transmitted from the laboratory to the dental office and vice versa transmitted from the dental office to the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Laboratories in and around the city of Chennai were chosen to collect the samples. The closed tray master impressions of the implant Stage II cases were collected. 20 samples were collected before the impressions were sent to the laboratory as well as once the dental prosthesis was received back from the laboratory. The samples were collected and cultured to study the organisms and identify the pathogenic organisms. Results: The samples sent from the dental clinic showed mainly Gram-positive cocci in clusters and pairs. However, when the same samples were received from the laboratory, some samples showed Gram-negative cocci and bacilli. However, none of the organisms found were pathogenic strains. Conclusion: Sterilization protocols should be performed, to eliminate any form of risk of infection, for the prosthesis received back from the laboratory and then inserted into the patient’s mouth; similarly, the objects sent to the dental laboratory should be sterilized before they come in contact with the technician to avoid any cross-contamination.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002178
Title: Reliability of intercommissural width in the determination of width of maxillary anterior teeth in Indian and Malaysian population
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this article was to assess the reliability of intercanine distance and intercommissural width in determining the width of maxillary anterior teeth in Indian and Malaysian populations. Materials and Methods: The study included 39 dentate subjects with Angles Class I molar and canine relationships. The patients who visited a private dental college were selected for this study, and an informed consent was obtained from these patients who were included in this study. The exclusion criteria for this study were patients with malocclusions, those who have undergone orthodontic treatments, periodontally compromised patients, missing teeth, or any gross skeletal or facial deformities. The intercommissural width was measured in mm with the patient seated on dental chair in a relaxed posture with a divider and scale. The intercanine distance was measured in mm using stone models poured with a non-elastic thread and scale. Results: This study showed that the mean value for intercanine width (55.4 mm and 54.3 mm) and intercommissural width (53.4 mm and 55.4 mm) for Indian and Malaysian populations, respectively, was determined and was found to be comparatively equal. The Pearson’s coefficient index “r” was calculated which showed a positive correlation between the two parameters in both the populations. The r value for intercanine distance and intercommissural width for Indian and Malaysian population was found to be 0.8514 and 0.8136, respectively. Conclusion: Anterior teeth selection plays a major role in the fabrication of complete denture. The major difficulty lies in the selection of anterior teeth when pre-extraction records are not available. Hence, this study was done to emphasize the importance of intercommissural width in the determination of width of anterior teeth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002179
Title: Comparison of dimensional accuracy of implant cast of multiple angled implants by splinted and non-splinted methods - an in vitro study
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Despite researches were done on the accuracy of splinted and non-splint in open tray impression techniques, very less information exists on accuracy of these techniques of multi-angled implants. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of implant cast by splinting and non-splinting technique in open tray technique on 5°, 15°, and 30° angled implants. Materials and Methods: A mandibular acrylic reference model is fabricated following which four Adin implants were placed with two in anterior being perpendicular as A2, A3, and two in the posterior region being 15° and 30° angulations of divergence in A1, A4 position. Six custom trays were fabricated with light cure acrylic resin sheets. After 24 h impressions using medium body polyether using open tray technique Group A: 3 samples splinted and Group B: 3 non-splinted. Accuracy was analyzed by coordinated measuring machine device. Multivariate two-way ANOVA and one sample t-test was used. Results: According to data analyzed showed there was significant difference noted in A1, A3, and A4 positions whose P = 0.0001, 0.005, and 0.005, respectively. According to changes in transfer of implant in A1, A2, A3, and A4 positions mean and standard deviation in splinted group were 19.02 ± 0.04, 15.675 ± 0.01, 65.623 ± 0.05, 51.019 ± 0.05, and 17.896 ± 0.05, 15.772 ± 0.01, 65.614 ± 0.02, and 54.051 ± 0.02, respectively. Conclusion: Significant difference was noted among the groups (P < 0.05) suggesting splinted impression technique is recommended for multiple angled implants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002180
Title: KAP on use of facebow in fabrication of complete denture among Indian prosthodontist
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Accurate mounting of dental casts on the articulator is one of the key procedures enabling careful analysis, diagnosis and treatment planning for edentulous patient. Some researchers believed that a facebow is indispensable, bringing along many advantages. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the use of facebow and attitude toward it among prosthodontists in complete denture fabrication. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 10 questions was prepared to assess and evaluate the knowledge on Facebow in fabrication of complete dentures, along with additional information on the education and experience background of prosthodontists, the attitude toward facebow in complete denture fabrication, patient satisfaction, reason behind not using the facebow and their knowledge about jaw relationship and occlusal adjustment in complete denture fabrication. This questionnaire was sent to 50 private dental practioners who were prosthodontist in Chennai regardless of age, sex and experience. The questionnaire was sent through e-mails. Clear instructions were given in the questionnaire form about the aim of this survey and answering the questions. Name, contact details, mail id, place and educational qualification of the participants were kept very confidential. Results: About 32% of prosthodontists are seldom using facebow for complete denture fabrication. Among that, 95.2% of them are using arbitrary facebow. 43% do not think facebow is necessary for complete denture fabrication, 55% of them report that facebow transfer in complete denture fabrication is time consuming. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that there is not much significant difference in post-insertion visits of complete denture made with and without facebow record. The majority of prosthodontists believed that most of their patients were satisfied with their complete denture seldom used a facebow.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002181
Title: Evaluation of color stability of temporary crown materials with artificial staining – an in vitro study
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Provisional restorations in fixed partial dentures are best used for to protect pulp and thereby providing thermal stimulation preventing leakage by forming an intimate seal with the teeth that are prepared during the process of the fabrication of a definite prosthesis. Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the color stability of three provisional materials (1) polymethyl methacrylate (DPI), (2) Bis-acryl composite (Protemp TM II- 3M ESPE), and (3) light polymerized composite resin (Revotek LC-GC). Materials and Methods: A total of 120 specimens were prepared using three provisional materials were subjected to four subgroups of artificial stains such as tea and coffee solution, coca cola, and turmeric solution with distilled water as a control group. Color measurements were made using reflectance spectrophotometer with CIELAB system at time intervals at 2, 5, 7, 10, and 15 days. 6 samples were randomly selected. After 10 repeated measurements, mean values were compared using one-way analysis of variance with 5% confidence interval and multiple range Tukey honest significant difference to identify the statistical difference at 5% level where P ≤ 0.05 was considered. The reliability of values was obtained by the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: Revotek LC showed clinically accepted color change whose value was ∆E < 3.7 with all the staining solutions except the turmeric solution over the 15 day period. The staining potential of turmeric solution was maximum followed by coffee, tea, and coco cola at all time intervals. The results showed high reproducibility as l* = 1.000, a* = 0.9342, b* = 1.000. Conclusion: Revotek LC is the most stable materials in term of color followed by Protemp and DPI. Among the staining materials used turmeric proved to be having the highest staining potential followed by coffee, tea, and coca cola.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002182
Title: Reliability of pterygomaxillary notch in determination of width of maxillary anterior in Indian and Malaysian population
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Compared to other intraoral landmarks, pterygomaxillary notch (PMN) is a highly significant structure, as it can be easily identified on the casts and not subject to any soft tissue changes. With regard to choosing the dentate casts, it is justified that the measurements from artificial teeth may be misleading when compared to the natural teeth. Therefore, dentate casts are considered as the better option in measuring the width of maxillary anterior. Aim: The main objective of this study is to determine the width of maxillary anterior in dentate casts of Indian and Malaysian population, using PMN as the anatomical landmark. Materials and methods: The study comprises 17 Indian and 17 Malaysian population of 18– 30 years of age with Angle’s Class 1 maxillomandibular relationship. The exclusion criteria are patients with carious lesions, periodontal problems, edentulous spaces, history of orthodontic treatment, malocclusion, and other congenital dental defects. Impression was made using irreversible hydrocolloid impression material. Casts were obtained after pouring the impression with hard setting dental stone. The six anterior tooth width measurements from each of the casts were summed up to give a total width of maxillary anterior on each cast. The distance between the PMN was measured using a Vernier Caliper to determine its correlation with the width of maxillary anterior. The level of significance was established at α = 0.01 for Indian population and α = 0.05 for Malaysian population. Results: The mean mesiodistal width of the six maxillary anterior teeth was 45.35 mm, and the mean distance of the inter PMN was 43.18 mm in Indian population. In the Malaysian population, the mean mesiodistal width of maxillary anterior teeth was 47.00 mm, and the mean distance of the inter PMN was 45.25 mm. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the inter PMN distance and total mesiodistal width of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Conclusion: It is concluded that the PMN can be used as a putative guide in determining the width of maxillary anterior, irrespective of different group populations. However, further research is recommended in this field, to establish a method that is universally accepted in maxillary anterior width measurement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002184
Title: Release of titanium ions in titanium alloys used in dentistry - A systematic review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental appliances and prosthesis are made from alloys containing different metals. Concerns exist over the release of metal ions such as Ni from dental alloys, mainly due to corrosion. The released metal ions can enter the bloodstream and can cause varying degrees of health ailments. In the present work, a systematic review on release of titanium ions from titanium dental appliances is described. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the release of titanium ions from dental alloys in saliva. Materials and Methods: The PubMed search identified 83 studies among which four met the selection criteria. PICO analysis. Population: Individuals with Dental appliances and prosthesis. Intervention: Role of Titanium alloys in dental appliances and prosthesis. Comparison: Nickel alloys in dental appliances and prosthesis were compared. Outcome: The outcome was quantity of nickel and titanium ions released. Conclusion: All the studies concluded that there is a significant increase in the amount of nickel ions, whereas there was no significant increase in the amount of titanium ions from the measure before the intervention. Biocompatibility of titanium is a well-known thing. The fact that there is minimal release of titanium ions in artificial saliva also supports the biocompatibility of titanium. The obtained results may not correspond to metal ions release in in vivo conditions. Analyzing the results of both in vitro and in vivo tests, it seems that there is a necessity to elaborate standardized procedures, with detailed methodology provided. Only then, the results will be comparable.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002185
Title: Knowledge attitude and practice of dental practitioners in the management of traumatic neuroma - a survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Traumatic neuroma is a rare disorder that occurs due to damage to the peripheral nerves. It is not a tumor that is malignant. It is a swelling that occurs due to trauma to a nerve during surgery, accidental damage to nerves during anesthetic administration. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dentists in the management of traumatic neuroma. Materials and Methodology: The study was done among 100 dental practitioners in Chennai who were interested in taking part in the survey. Result: In this study, it was found that 89.1% of dentist knew the cause of traumatic neuroma. 58% of dentist was aware that the most common site was in mental foramen region. Most commonly encountered complication while administering local anesthesia was found to be 88.1% mostly around 70% in inferior alveolar region. The most common treatment of choice chosen by the dentist was found to be prosthetic stents. Conclusion: The study inferred that a vast majority were not aware of management strategies, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients with a traumatic neuroma. Hence, vigorous dental awareness programs may need to be conducted addressing this issue.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002186
Title: Variation in location of the nasopalatine foramen in dry human skulls
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The position of the incisive foramen in relation to the central incisors varies in different standard textbooks. This study was aimed at bringing in a standard value for the distance between the incisive foramen and central incisors in male and female skulls. Aim: This study aims to measure the variation in position of the incisive foramen in relation to the interproximal region of the central incisors in dry human skull. Materials and Methodology: A total of 61 adult dry human skulls were selected, with full complement of teeth with fully erupted third molars. Measurements were made from the interproximal region of the central incisors to the incisive foramen using a digital Vernier caliber. Results: The study inferred the location of incisive foramen to be about 0.99 cm from the interproximal region of the central incisors.Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the average values of the male and female skulls. The study was not significant statistically due to limited study samples.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002187
Title: Effect of edentulism on general health and quality of life
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The theoretical link between food choice and masticatory efficiency has long been established in literature. The recent evidences have confirmed this association, indicating a progressive alteration in food choice with decreasing number of teeth with the greatest effect being among those who are edentulous. The elderly population have a typical set of mind regarding the oral health. The data on oral health of elderly depict a worrying situation, with an increased prevalence of caries and periodontal disease. When it is not treated, the final stage of caries and periodontal disease is the loss of tooth and leads to complete edentulism, which is frequent nowadays, but represents a failure of overall dental care system. Furthermore, it is essential to know if the dental problem, general health, and dental treatment have a correlation, which may subsequently have an impact on the overall quality of life of the elderly. The effect of edentulism on daily functions of the oral cavity and interactions in social situations has significant plausibility and has been described using various dimensions before. However, evidence of general health associated with complete loss of teeth is limited. To highlight the importance of oral health to general well-being and its interrelated dependencies, this paper summarizes the source of literature relevant to the inappropriate intake of food and its correlation with general health and systemic diseases. It identifies areas where altered food choice leads to consequences such as reduced masticatory efficiency and behavior pattern due to tooth loss, suggestive of change in the quality of life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002188
Title: Anticancer and antibacterial potential of green silver nanoparticles synthesized from Maytenus senegalensis (L.) leaf extract and their characterization
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Metal nanoparticles are explored in recent years as an alternative approach to effectively kill drug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms. The present research study enumerates the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the n-hexane leaf extract of Maytenus senegalensis (L.). Methods: The synthesized AgNPs were initially noticed through visual color and also monitored using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs at 439 nm was observed. The synthesized nanoparticles further characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for functional group identification, morphology, and sizes of NPs were identified by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope; SAED and X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of highly crystalline and face-centered cubic structure AgNPs and elemental composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Results: The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria, with minimum bactericidal concentrations. Conclusion: It could be concluded that AgNPs based on M. senegalensis leaf extract can be used efficiently in the production of potential anticancer and antimicrobial for commercial application.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002202
Title: Evaluation and correlation between the upper lip length and philtrum length to size of the upper incisors
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: A lot of research on interalar distance, intercanthal distance, bizygomatic width, and intercanine width has been done for selecting the size of the anterior teeth, but there is no reliable method for selection of anterior teeth. In this article, the upper lip length and philtrum length are evaluated to check the correlation with anterior teeth size. Aim: The aim is to examine the relationship of upper lip length and philtrum length to maxillary central and lateral incisors teeth proportions in dentate patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 males and 25 females with the age of 18–21 years were selected for the study. They were seated in an upright position, and a flexible ruler was used to measure their upper lip length and philtrum length. A Vernier caliper was used to measure the height and width of the central and lateral incisors. The results were tabulated and significant correlations were studied. Results: In females, the upper lip length coincides with twice the height and width of the lateral incisors, whereas philtrum length coincides with width of the central incisors. In males, the mean height and width of both the central and lateral incisors are statistically significant with philtrum length and upper lip length. Conclusion: In the study, philtrum length can be taken as guide for selecting width of the central incisor in females. It can also use as guide for height and width of the both incisors in males. Lip length can be used as guide for selecting the size of both central and lateral incisors in males, whereas in females it can be used only for selecting lateral incisor size.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002203
Title: Recommended cementation for monolithic zirconia crowns
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Currently, there is not any best adhesion protocol for zirconia in the field of dentistry, especially in the restorations, where there is a reduced mechanical retention. There is less literature available on which cement is the recommended cement for the cementation of monolithic zirconia crowns. Zirconia-based ceramics show excellent mechanical strength and superior fracture resistance due to an inherent transformation toughening mechanism. Various cement have been used to lute the monolithic zirconia crowns, namely, the zinc phosphate cement, resin cement, glass ionomer cement, and the polycarboxylate cement. Every cement has its own pros and cons. The purpose of this study was to perform a review of the literature about the cementation of monolithic zirconia crowns, evaluating the properties of the luting cement most commonly used. The review was performed through PubMed, and a bibliographic search on the international literature of the past 10 years was made.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002204
Title: Efficiency of the closed contour of the artificial circulation in coronary artery bypass grafting
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: From 2014 to 2015, studies were conducted on the use of a closed contour of artificial circulation on the basis of the National Research Center for Cardiac Surgery in the city of Astana, Kazakhstan.\The purpose of this study was to evaluate how effective the closed and open contours of artificial circulation in reducing the risk of post-operative complications. Methods: The study included 100 patients who underwent surgery for stable angina pectoris of coronary heart disease; they underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. Group 1 included 50 patients, with an average age of 62 ± 8 years, undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using a closed contour of artificial circulation. Group 2 included 50 patients, with an average age of 62 ± 7 years, underwent aortocoronary bypass using an open contour of artificial circulation. For all the initial indices of the group were homogeneous. The time of aortic clamping in both groups was the same, indicating that the same surgeons performed the operation. Total time of artificial circulation was less in the first group than in the second group (57 min ± 12.5 and 64 min ± 16.7, respectively; P = 0.04), because the reperfusion time was less in Group 1 (20.2 min ± 7 and 23.9 min ± 9, respectively; P = 0.04). The average number of grafts was 3 ± 0.67 in the control group, 3 ± 0.53 in the comparative group. Post-operative analysis of laboratory indicators was taken 6 h after operation. Results: The level of erythrocytes in the first group by the end of 6 h after operation was higher, than in the second group 4.13 × 1012 ± 0.59 and 3.38 × 1012 ± 0.52 (P = 0.001), respectively; the level of hemoglobin (Hb) was 115.04 g/L ± 14.7 and 104.1 g/L ± 11.26 (P = 0.05), respectively; the level of hematocrit was 33.1 ± 3.89 and 29.89 ± 4.06 (P = 0.001), respectively; the level of platelets was 246 ±52 and 199 ± 40 (P = 0.001), respectively; leukocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, body temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate are reduction in the first group: The level of leukocytes was 11.67 × 109 ± 3.8 and 14.02 × 109 ± 4.3 (P = 0.03), respectively; the level of CRP was 1.4 mg/dl ± 2.4 and 2.2 mg/dl ± 1.9 (P = 0.04), respectively; body temperature was 36.7 ± 0.33 and 38.1±0.7 (P = 0.01), respectively; respiratory rate in 1 min was 17 ± 1.6 and 20 ± 2.02 (P = 0.01), respectively; and heart rate in 1 min was 69 ± 11 and 75 ± 15 (P = 0.02), respectively. Stay by day of the patient in the hospital in the first group was also less and was 10.14 ± 3.8 and 11.32 ± 4.2 (P = 0.04), respectively. The time the patient spent on artificial ventilation in the first group was less, 486 min ± 125 and 646 ± 213 (P = 0.01), respectively. Conclusion: The closed contour can be confidently applied to patients with complex concomitant diseases, as the risk of a systemic inflammatory response decreases, and the level of red blood remains higher in comparison with the open contour of the artificial circulation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002205
Title: Radiologic response evaluation after conventional whole-brain radiation therapy plus concurrent oral administration of losartan versus radiation therapy alone in patients with brain metastases
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present study aims to comparatively investigate the radiologic response to conventional whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) with and without oral losartan in the patients with brain metastases. Methods: This was a single-blinded clinical trial conducted on patients (n = 60) diagnosed with brain metastasis referred to Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, during 2017. The patients were randomly divided into intervention and control groups: The control group was treated with WBRT (30 Gy per 10 fractions over 2 weeks) and the placebo of losartan. The intervention group was treated with WBRT concomitant with oral administration of losartan (25 mg), 1 h before each fraction. To measure the radiologic response rate, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were compared before and 6 weeks after treatments in terms of metastasis size according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumor (RECIST V1.1). According to the response evaluation criteria, the patients were divided into four groups: Complete response, partial response, progressive disease, and stable disease. Finally, data were analyzed by Chi-square and regression tests using statistical package of SPSS (version 20, Windows). Results: In the intervention group, 9 cases showed radiological response (complete radiologic response + partial radiologic response), and in the control group, 7 cases had radiologic response, which were not significant (P = 0.20) difference. Conclusion: Administration of losartan simultaneously with WBRT in patients with brain metastasis did not have a significant positive effect on the radiologic response rate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002207
Title: Knowledge and attitude of dental students toward immediate implant placement and delayed loading
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental implants are alloplastic material which is placed surgically into residual alveolar bone. As there is increasing demand for implant placement, there is need to understand clinical difference between early and conventional loading protocols for dental implants. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice on immediate and delayed loading of implants among dental students. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dental students were asked about loading protocols of immediate and delayed implants using a questionnaire and collected from the respondents in the same visit. Filled questionnaire was collected and analyzed. The data were entered into Microsoft Excel, and descriptive analysis was done. Results were represented in the form of charts. Results: Among the respondents, 72.5% of the respondents are aware of loading protocols of immediate implants and delayed loading, and 27.5% were not aware about the loading protocols. When asked about factors that lead to immediate implant implacement in the anterior region, only 14% of the respondents quoted for the absence of anatomical constraints and 68% of the respondents quoted for esthetics as an important factor which was contradictory to a clinical study conducted by Pommer et al., in which it was found that immediate implants are mostly indicated in the anterior teeth region due to the absence of anatomical constraints such as maxillary sinus and inferior alveolar nerve. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that there are limited knowledge and awareness about loading protocols and clinical criteria for immediate and delayed implants among dental students of this institution, though their knowledge and awareness about implants are appreciable. These facilities the need for strengthening education in dental students to reinforce their knowledge and awareness about loading protocols of various types of implants in their curriculum implants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00002208
Title: Biotechnology applications in food processing and safety
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Biotechnology is a comparatively new science with direct applications to the food and agricultural sectors. Recent years have seen fabulous advances in food biotechnology, include improvements in industrial process technology and control systems, farming systems for growing and harvesting food, techniques to monitor food safety, and nutritional quality. Modern biotechnology broadens the scope of the genetic changes that can be made in food organisms and broadens the scope of possible sources of foods. Enhancement in new-product characteristics including better nutritive quality and safety will be the driving force of future research in food biotechnology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: April
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002209
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on impression materials used for implant placement among dental students and dental practitioners
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The growing demands from clinicians and patients to optimize the dental implant treatment protocols require the fabrication of a precisely fitting implant-supported prosthesis, the prerequisite of which is the accuracy of the implant impression. The objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental students and dental practitioners on impression materials for implant placement. In particular, this study investigated the most accepted impression material used for making impressions for dental implants among these practitioners and students and their opinions regarding the clinical factors that may influence the decision-making process for the selection of the impression material. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to dental students and practitioners in Saveetha Dental College. Returned responses were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Differences in groups were examined using Chi-squared test for linear trends across the rated questions and cross-tabulations to compare responses from different groups. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 100 dental implant practitioners responded to this survey. The majority of respondents (71%) preferred addition silicone and polyether as an impression material, and about an equal number of respondents believed that dimensional stability and elasticity are ideal requisites for impression materials (32%). Most of the clinicians (89%) felt that the most accurate impression material technique for subgingival implants is the usage of putty and light body combination vinyl polysiloxane impression material. In case of non-parallel multiple implants, the majority of dentists (46%) chose open tray technique with polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) as the choice of impression material and technique and 22% preferred closed tray with PVS. Significant relationships between the choice of impression material and the qualification of the respondents were noted. Conclusions: The current survey concludes that addition silicone and polyether are the most commonly used impression materials, the presence of angulated implants and subgingival implants affects the choice of impression material and technique, and elasticity and dimensional stability are the most important requisites of an impression material for implants. Therefore, it can be understood that most of the dental students and practitioners followed the well-documented techniques and proven materials.