Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002247
Title: Seal and heal rather than drill and fill - A review on moisture-friendly pit-and-fissure sealants
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Pit–and-fissures are eight times vulnerable than the smooth surface caries. The sealants are found to be effective in preventing, arresting, and progression of occlusal caries. The failure of resin-based sealant retention will be moisture contamination. To overcome this drawback, moisture-friendly sealants/hydrophilic sealants have been introduced. Hence, this review presents the scientific background, concepts, principles, indications, contraindications, proper placement procedures, categorization of pit-and-fissure sealants with special note on the efficacy of moisture-friendly/hydrophilic sealants. The aim of this review is to present the scientific background, concepts, principles, indications, proper placement procedures, categorization of pit-and-fissure sealants with a special note on the efficacy of moisture-friendly/hydrophilic sealants. Moisture-tolerant resin- based sealant could be successfully used as a pit-and-fissure sealant because its hydrophilic chemistry makes it less technique sensitive and simplifies the sealant application procedure. The dental profession has long regarded dental sealants as a primary element in the prevention of dental caries. Sealants provide a physical barrier between the spaces created by anatomical pits and fissures of posterior teeth and the cariogenic bacteria, thereby halting incipient lesions and preventing cavitation. Proper techniques must be implemented when placing sealants for optimal retention and patient safety. Patients must understand that sealants are one element for overall preventive dentistry. This article will review the scientific background, concepts, principles, indications, contraindications, proper placement procedures, categorization of pit-and-fissure sealants with special note on the efficacy of moisture-friendly/hydrophilic sealants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002253
Title: Application of nanotechnology for Ayurvedic drugs and formulations
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Nanotechnology is the newly emerging science in the medical field similarly Ayurvedic medications and therapies are getting in trend due to their safety and efficacy. However, delivery of Ayurvedic drugs requires modification for their global acceptance because traditional formulations are not preferred by the patients due to their dose, palatability, and mode of administration. Besides, these formulations have also been reported to have drawbacks related to bioavailability and stability. Hence, Ayurvedic formulations should be improved to address all such drawbacks. Moreover, application of nanocarriers for the delivery of Ayurvedic drugs can be a great initiative because such carriers are capable to cross the plasma membrane and deliver the drug in the desired concentration at the specific site of action. Integration of Ayurveda and nanotechnology may provide the best medicines to treat various life-threatening diseases. This review will cover recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery of Ayurvedic drugs and formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002259
Title: A review on the position of the internal evaluation in quality assurance
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Aim: One of the main concerns of higher education institutions is quality. One way to the monitoring, development, and improvement of quality takes place within the organization is internal evaluation. The present study, in fact, is aimed to investigate the position of the internal evaluation in quality assurance. Methods: Searching key words such as accreditation, quality assurance, and internal evaluation. Related publications in Medline, CINAHL, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Scopus were undertaken a comprehensive investigation regardless of the time of publication. Then, the collected articles were scrutinized and processed. Results: Totally 28 studies were reviewed. In total, 28 studies were reviewed. The findings of the previous studies on evaluation confirmed that both external and internal evaluations are necessary components of quality assurance systems. Conclusion: Internal evaluation is potentially valuable. However, if this value is to be realized on a continuous basis, it needs to become an integral part of each organization and nationally accepted framework of quality assurance and management. Restructuring of university management, decision making, and cultural transformation for greater autonomy in structure and management systems is crucial for successful programs for the improvement of organizations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002251
Title: Symmetry of gingival zenith: Defining esthetic outcome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The appearance of gingival tissues plays a critical role in the esthetics of maxillary anterior region. Location of gingival zenith in a medial-lateral position too long axis of teeth varies for each individual tooth. The position of lateral incisor teeth relative to gingival zeniths of adjacent proximal teeth that is the central incisor and canine also affects symmetry. Aim: The aim of the study was to quantify these clinical parameters useful as esthetic guidelines and to compare left and right sides of six maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: A sample population of 20 patients (6 males and 14 females) with a total of 240 teeth with healthy gingival tissue was selected by randomized sampling method. Two clinical parameters were evaluated on the right and left sides of maxillary anterior teeth-gingival zenith position (GZP) from the vertical bisected midline (VBM) of the tooth and gingival zenith level (GZL) of lateral incisors in an apical-coronal direction relative to line joining the tangents of the GZP of the adjacent central incisor and canine. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results: All incisors displayed a distal GZP from VBM, with a mean of 1.8 mm and 0.93 mm, on the right and left sides of central and 0.48 mm and 0.54 mm on the right and left sides of laterals, respectively. GZP of canine was centralized along the long axis of canine in, 60% of the population on the right side, and in 70% of the population on the left side. The GZL was approximately 1 mm and 0.93 mm, on the right and left side, respectively. Conclusion: There was a statistically significant difference in the GZP and GZL in the right and left sides (P < 0.05). The results could be used as reference points during esthetic anterior oral rehabilitation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002239
Title: Irrigation technique used in cleaning and shaping during endodontic treatment - A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The success of root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Moreover, during the preparation of root canal, manually and by rotary instruments, the smear layer is created that must be eliminated by irrigants. Irrigants have traditionally been delivered into the root canal space using syringes and metal needles of different size and tip design. This review summarizes the various irrigants and their delivery devices used in clinical practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002238
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice of various impression techniques for removable partial denture among practicing dentists in Chennai
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Removable partial dentures (RPD) still form a significant part of treatment modalities in prosthodontics. Most distal extension RPD is constructed from single reversible or irreversible hydrocolloid impressions. Aim: The aim of this study was to check the awareness and utilization of different impression techniques used for RPD. Materials and Methodology: A self-structured questionnaire was designed consisting of 18 questions regarding various impression techniques used for RPD and dentists were also asked about the most common technique used by them. The survey was made on Google forms and distributed to dentists through electronic media. Results: The response rate was 93%. 97.8% dentists used alginate for the diagnostic impression of which 61.3% used medium setting alginate and 92.5% used perforated full tray for making the impression. 94.6% were aware about anatomic and functional impressions. 2% glutaraldehyde is most commonly used for disinfecting impressions by the dentists. Conclusion: Although dentists are aware of various impression techniques, maximum of them use selective pressure technique in their clinical practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002237
Title: The correlation of bizygomatic width and ridge relationships in determination of width of maxillary anterior teeth
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: A denture is fabricated as a coverage prosthesis to replace some or a missing teeth. It has been used extensively to replace the missing dentition which enhances the esthetic pleasing of the patient. Determination of the mesiodistal width of maxillary anterior teeth is one of the difficult aspects in teeth selection. Many attempts have been done to establish methods for estimating the appropriate width of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Aim: The scope of the research was to study the correlation of the bizygomatic width (BW) and ridge relationship in the determination of the width of maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 students from two populations were participated in this study. 14 students from Malaysia and 14 Indian students were selected. The measurements include facial, dental, and denture cast measurement. The data were analyzed using Karl Pearson correlation test and P-value of the data was considered 0.05 statistically. Result: The population of Indian is having larger width (mean = 11.72 cm) when compared to the Malaysian population (mean = 11.17 cm). The correlation coefficient test in Indian population for facial measurement with the width of the maxillary central incisor (P = 0.05 and r = 0.73) and the total width of the maxillary anterior teeth (P = 0.05 and r = 0.54) showed average correlation. Conclusion: It was found that Indians have relatively higher values of correlation between the BW and hamular notches than the population of Malaysian. There was a high significant correlation between all the parameters for the samples except for the measurement between the distance of interhamular notches and combined width of the maxillary anterior teeth, which showed a weak downhill linear relationship.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002236
Title: Retention and stability of overdentures with ball, bar, or magnet attachments: A systematic review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background: Edentulism is considered a poor health outcome and may compromise quality of life. The prosthetic management of the edentulous patient has long been a major challenge for dentistry. The classical treatment plan for the edentulous patient is the conventional complete denture. Aim: The aim of the study was to systematically review the literature comparing the effect of ball, bar and magnet attachment systems on the stability and retention of overdentures. Methods: Electronic search of the Pub Med-MEDLINE database was done. The reference lists of all eligible studies were also searched. The results of the searches were analyzed. Primary Outcome Measures: Stability of implant overdenture, retention of implant overdenture. Results: The PUBMED search yielded a total of 89 articles of which 3 studies met the inclusion criteria and 89 were excluded. The results were tabulated. Conclusion: Implant supported overdentures have different attachment systems such ball and ring, bar and clip, and magnetic attachments. Tests were done to assess which of these systems are the most efficient in terms of retention and stability of the denture. Bar and clip systems are the most effective systems in terms of denture retention followed by ball and ring systems and then magnetic attachments. Thus, bar-clip and ball-ring are both effective systems to be used in overdentures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002215
Title: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Various Impression Techniques Available for Dental Implants among Dental Students and Dental Practitioners - A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental implant is a surgical component that supports dental prosthesis such as crown, bridge, denture, and facial prosthesis to the bone or jaw of the skull. Osseointegration is a biologic process that acts as the basis for modern dental implant in which materials such as titanium form an intimate bond to bone. A variable impression technique can be used for this kind of procedure. Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of undergraduate students and dental practitioners toward different impression techniques used for implant procedure. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as a descriptive survey of private dental practitioners in the Chennai city, Tamil Nadu, India. A self- administered questionnaire of 12 questions with multiple choice questions was prepared to obtain information about knowledge, attitude, and practice toward various impression techniques for dental implants. A total of 100 people involving 50 dental students and 50 dental practitioners were chosen as the participants. The responses from all students were collected as soon as they filled the questionnaire that had been distributed. The questionnaires were distributed manually to them. Statistical analysis was done using G power analysis method. Result: The specific sample study on dental students was a poor reflection when compared to dental practitioners in terms of knowledge, attitude, and practice on various impression techniques for dental implant patients. A total of 50 undergraduate dental students and 50 dental practitioners participated in this current study. Conclusion: Getting a highly stable and retentive implant had always been a problem associated for most of the prosthodontists. Proper tray selection, proper implant angulation, proper impression techniques, and coping modification are the factors that might influence the accuracy of the dental implants. Therefore, it should be considered carefully before this procedure had been started.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002216
Title: Awareness of occlusal concepts in complete dentures among general dental practitioners: A knowledge, attitude, and practice survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Occlusion is an important factor which governs the retention and stability of the complete denture. The occlusal concepts should be selected carefully depending on the situation of the patient. Aim: The aim of this study focuses on evaluating the knowledge, attitude, and practice of occlusal concepts in complete dentures among general dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing questions on awareness of occlusal concepts in complete denture were given to a total of 100 general practitioners in Chennai. The data collected were computerized and analyzed statistically. The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics software 23.0 Version. To find the significant difference between the bivariate samples in the independent groups the unpaired sample t-test was used. For the multivariate analysis, the one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test was used. Results: For patients with U-shaped arches, the majority of general dental practitioners preferred balanced occlusion and for V-shaped arches they preferred canine guided occlusion. For patients with increased interarch space, they preferred balanced occlusion followed by lingualized occlusion, and for patients with decreased interarch space, they preferred canine guided occlusion and monoplane occlusion. For patients with highly resorbed as well as well-formed ridges, balanced occlusion was the choice. For patients with Skeletal Class I, balanced occlusion was preferred, for Skeletal Class II, Balanced and Canine Guided were preferred, and for Skeletal Class III, lingualized occlusion, and canine-guided occlusion and Balanced occlusion were equally preferred. Conclusion: The knowledge and awareness about occlusal concepts among general dental practitioners should be improved, and the occlusal concept should be selected depending on the situation of the patient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002217
Title: KAP survey on use of clinical photography by general dental practitioners
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Editorial
Country: India
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Background: Photography is the science, art, and recording the images. It also finds an implementation for the purposes of dento-legal documentation, to improve the learning process, communication with laboratory technicians, educational motivation, and dental marketing. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge and the use of clinical photography by general dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was distributed to 100 randomly selected dentists in hospitals and dental colleges in Chennai. Some questions regarding the knowledge and their attitude toward the uses of photography in dentistry were asked. The data collected were computerized and analyzed statistically. Result: According to the survey conducted 43% of dentists who are enrolled in academics and 31% of private practitioners were more likely to use digital cameras for their case documentation. 35% of dentists use DSLR for their documentation, and 80% of them are documenting cases for <5 years. 40% of dentists think that digital camera is useful in treatment planning, 23% of dentists use for medico-legal reasons, and 21% of dentists are using digital photography for patient education.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002218
Title: Comparative evaluation of occlusal plane (ala-tragus line) in dentulous patient among South Indian and Malaysian population
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: A line from the lower border of the ala of the nose to the upper border of the tragus of the ear is called Ala- Tragus line. It is one of the most commonly used occlusal reference plane for complete denture construction. Ala-Tragus line consists of three different levels such as superior, middle, and inferior. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the occlusal plane (OP) (Ala Tragus line) in Dentulous patient among South Indian population and Malaysian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 participants, in which 20 South Indian and the other 20 Malaysian were participated in this study. The subjects were asked to sit in upright position and three lines were drawn from the inferior border of the ala of the nose to the three different level (Superior, Middle, and Inferior) of the tragus of the ear on both sides using dental plaster and finally check for the parallelism using fox plane. Results: The majority (87%) of the population shows OP was found to be parallel to the inferior level of the tragus, and there is no parallelism between the OP and the superior level of the tragus among both the population and there is no significant difference in OP relationship between South Indian and Malaysian population. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in OP relationship between South Indian and Malaysian population. And the inferior border of the ala tragal line is suggested as the best posterior reference point in younger age individuals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002219
Title: Drug-related problems in stroke patients at RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Drug-related problems may influence the therapeutic results in stroke patients during the treatment, and they can lead to failure in achieving the therapeutic objectives. Methods: The study was conducted to identify drug-related problems and their percentage, to find the relationship between drug-related problems with the drug types, comorbidity, and duration of hospital stay, and to recommend some solutions for the drug-related problems. The study used descriptive design to analyze samples that met the inclusion criteria. The data were collected from medical records and interviews with the physicians, pharmacists, and nurses. Results: Drug-related problems identified in this study were 54.0% due to drug interaction, 33.1% due to too high dosage, 7.3% due to unnecessary drugs, 1.6% due to too low dosage, 1.6% due to the need for additional therapy, 1.6% due to unmet drugs, and 0.8% due to wrong drug therapy. Analysis, which was done using Chi- square, found a relationship between the drug types and drug-related problems, no relationship between comorbidity in stroke patients and drug-related problems, and no relationship between the duration of hospital stay and the drug-related problems. Conclusions: The most common recommendation from the pharmacists to the health professionals was a modification in the interval/frequency/timing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002220
Title: Efficacy of eucalyptus oil over chlorhexidine mouthwash in dental practice
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Mouthwashes are often prescribed in dentistry for prevention and treatment of several oral conditions. Eucalyptus oil has many therapeutic properties such as antimicrobial effect and anti-inflammatory effect. It possesses strong cytotoxic effect and also have antibacterial effect against several pathogens. However, its efficacy as a mouthwash in oral hygiene maintenance needs to be investigated further. Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the therapeutic effect of chlorhexidine and eucalyptus oil mouthwashes in oral hygiene maintenance. Materials and Methods: A total of 74 human subjects selected were randomly allocated into two groups, Group I and Group II. The subjects in Group I were instructed to use 10 ml of chlorhexidine mouthwash for 14 days and Group II were instructed to use eucalyptus oil mouthwash for 14 days twice daily. Oral hygiene status was assessed by measuring the plaque and gingival scores. The plaque formation was assessed using erythrosine disclosing agent, and their scores were recorded using the Loe and Silness index and gingival index was calculated using Silness and Loe index at the baseline and 14 days. The results were then statistically analyzed. Results: A decrease of plaque level was seen in both mouthwashes without any adverse effects. The plaque index and gingival index scores for Group I and Group II after 14 days were 1.012 ± 0.25, 1.008 ± 0.27 and 1.254 ± 0.58, 1.233 ± 0.72 respectively. There was no statistical significant difference between chlorhexidine and eucalyptus mouthwashes (P ˃ 0.05). Conclusion: An effective alternative to chlorhexidine, eucalyptus oil, can be used as mouthwash for effective oral hygiene maintenance. The present results, therefore, offer a scientific basis for traditional use and awareness about eucalyptus oil mouthwash.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002222
Title: In vitro antioxidant activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Moringa stenopetala leaves
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Moringa stenopetala, which is most common in Ethiopia and Kenya, has the second highest content of protein, calcium, and iron compared with the other species. It is stated that all four types have an enormous potential to contribute to improved diet and health, where M. stenopetala is the most important economic species. Objective: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activities of a methanolic and aqueous extract of M. stenopetala, from shire endaslassie (SE), and Abi Adi (AA) from Tigray region, Ethiopia, using the standard in vitro antioxidant methods. Materials and Methods: The antioxidants activities were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, nitric oxide, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay, and reducing power activity. Results: These antioxidant studies indicate that methanolic and aqueous extracts of M. stenopetala, from AA and methanolic extract of M. stenopetala, from SE, are a promising source of natural antioxidants. Conclusion: In vitro antioxidant activities of M. stenopetala exhibiting free radical scavenging activity. It supports that the traditional medicine system, of the M. stenopetala for their use in oxidative stress-related diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002223
Title: Why medication adherence in hypertensive patients?
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction and Objective: Hypertension is one of the major health problems in many countries. Medicinal treatments and lifestyle change have so far failed to effectively influence blood pressure control. One of the main reasons for such incompetence lies in non-adherence of patients to antihypertensive therapeutic regimen. Moreover, medication adherence may alter due to patient’s beliefs and convictions. Given the limited data available concerning the level of medication adherence and its relationship with belief about medicines, this study attempted to identify the relationship between medication adherence and belief about medicines among hypertensive patients in Zahedan during 2015. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive correlational study. The population consisted of all health centers and doctors’ offices for internal medicine and heart diseases based in Zahedan. The sample included a total of 385 hypertensive patients who were selected through convenience sampling. Data were collected through a medication adherence in hypertensive patients’ questionnaire and belief about medicines questionnaire. Furthermore, the findings were analyzed through the Spearman’s correlation coefficient, mean, and standard deviation. Findings: Based on the results, there was a significantly inverse relationship found between medication adherence and necessity-concern differential based on belief about medicines scale (P = 000.0, r = −0.2). Moreover, there was a significantly inverse relationship between medication adherence and belief about medicines. Hence, an increase in medication adherence at the sample subjects led to lower belief about medicines. Furthermore, there was a significantly positive correlation between medication adherence and belief concern (P = 051.0, r = 0.1). In other words, an increase in medication adherence of participants led to their higher concern about medicines. Conclusions: Overall, this study revealed a significantly inverse relationship between medication adherence and belief about medicines among hypertensive patients in Zahedan. This indicated this population, unlike most other populations, adhered to medication, while they either did not believe in medicines or refused to express their feelings about it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-CT-00002224
Title: Relationship between clinical depression and the types of periodontitis - A cross-sectional study
Category: Clinical trials
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: There are a multitude of factors such as environmental and psychosocial which pose a considerable risk toward the development of periodontal disease. Chronic and aggressive periodontitis may show variation in the onset and progression due to these risk factors. The aim of this present study was to assess the relationship between clinical depression and the different forms of periodontitis using clinical parameters and a depression rating scale. Materials and Methods: A total of 27 patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study, of which 10 patients were diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, 7 patients with aggressive periodontitis, and the rest were categorized into healthy controls. The clinical parameters assessed were the gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. A tentative diagnosis of depression was made using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Results: On comparing the three groups, the PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher in aggressive periodontitis subjects. Mann–Whitney test for pairwise comparison revealed that the mental status in aggressive periodontitis subjects was significantly altered in comparison to healthy and chronic periodontitis patients. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference in the mental status of chronic periodontitis subjects and healthy controls. Conclusion: Clinical depression could be a probable risk factor in the development of periodontal disease, especially aggressive periodontitis. There was no significant association with chronic periodontitis. Future studies can focus on corroborating the evidence obtained from this pilot study using longitudinal study design and employing biomarkers as a valuable aid.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002225
Title: Contributing factors for peri-implantitis in endosseous dental implants - A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate the role of the risk factor for peri-implantitis in patients receiving endosseous dental implants. Background: Failure of dental implants is a major concern in spite of its large success rates. Endo-osseous implants are those prosthesis placed to compensate the missing teeth in the oral cavity and restore the normal form and function of occlusion. Chronic alcoholism, smoking, poor oral hygiene, and other systemic disturbances interfere with the cellular and molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for bone growth around the prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Patients reporting to Saveetha Dental College, Department of Implantology from the January 2016 to November 2017 were assessed for alcohol and tobacco usage using AUDIT SCORE and Fagerstrom questionnaire and were also screened for peri-implantitis. The information with regard to the anatomical site, age, gender, and occupation were evaluated along with the clinical and radiographical examination. The data were extracted. Then a correlation analysis was initiated using multiple regression models and results analyzed. Result: There was the increase in the incidence of peri-implantitis in patients with the habit of smoking, poor oral hygiene, and those with implants placed in the maxillary bone.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002226
Title: The effect of hidden curriculum management program on the professional behavior of students in nursing and midwifery faculty
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Curriculum is the main element of the higher education system and is the most fundamental tool for providing students with the knowledge, experience, and skills needed to deliver community services. Students are familiarized with a variety of scientific, social, political, and so on skills and attitudes through curricula and in particular the hidden curriculum (HC). Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of HC management on the professional behavior of medical sciences students in Zabol. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with the participation of 69 students including nursing midwifery and emergency medicine At the beginning of each semester, the students received Goze’s professional behavior questionnaire to familiarize themselves with the assessment method and identify potential expectations. In addition, the Professional Ethics Workshop was conducted at a 6-h session per semester for professors and instructors, and the students’ assessment was explained to them at the meeting. The data obtained from professional behavior questionnaire were analyzed by SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The findings showed that the mean score of professional behavior in nursing students was 60.12 ± 0.70, in midwifery students 50.22 ± 8.75, and in emergency medicine students 40.23 ± 9.87, respectively, performed after three semesters and the transfer of HC in the internship reached 67.11 ± 13.10, 56.14 ± 12.16, and 50 ± 10.14, respectively. The results were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: This study indicated that the student is indirectly learning to adhere to the principles of ethical values and take commitment and responsibility for the care of the patient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-CR(D)-00002227
Title: Full mouth rehabilitation of a patient using multiple metal ceramic restorations: A case report
Category: Case Reports (Drugs)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This clinical case report describes the oral rehabilitation of a young adult female patient using metal ceramic crowns diagnosed with multiple missing teeth, some inadequate, deteriorated, and faulty restorations. The main objective of the treatment was to enhance the esthetics, restore masticatory function, and eliminate the teeth sensitivity. Fixed prosthodontics is used as treatment. Simultaneously, it is necessary to understand that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a key role in the maintenance of oral health. Articulated study casts and a mock wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the vertical dimension of occlusion should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration. 1-year recall examination disclosed patient’s esthetic and useful expectations were happy, and no pathology was related to the rehabilitation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002228
Title: Review on Incisive papilla: A solution to prosthetic dentistry
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Certain extra-oral landmarks such as the philtrum, ala of the nose, pupils, canthus of the eye, and various distances in the face have been related to the size and shape of teeth and arch form to obtain values which would guide in the selection and arrangement of teeth in the complete denture. In the maxillary complete denture, it is desirable to place the anterior teeth as close as possible to a position occupied in natural dentition to achieve “realism.” Several investigators have extensively studied the relationship of the incisive papilla to the labial surface of incisor teeth in the horizontal plane and suggested certain values which are useful to set the incisor teeth in dentures. In the past one of the pre-extraction landmarks, namely the incisive papilla has been shown to be a stable and definitive anatomic landmark as a guide to arranging artificial anterior teeth in an anterior-posterior position, and this is documented by the findings of several authors. Although several studies have been conducted earlier to investigate the horizontal relationship of the incisive papilla to the labial surfaces of maxillary central incisors, there is a paucity of data on the vertical relationship between the incisive papilla and the incisal edges of maxillary central incisors. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to find out the relationship of incisive papilla with artificial teeth arrangements in completely edentulous patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002229
Title: Low-level laser therapy in oral and maxillofacial surgery – A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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One of the basic needs in dental treatment is to impart a painless therapy for patients. This basic need may be achieved by the application of laser in dentistry. The laser has a wide range of applications in the medical and dental field. High dose of the laser has side effects on the dental tissues. To overcome this issue, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is used. LLLT is also known as soft laser therapy or biostimulation. It will significantly reduce pain, swelling, inflammation, and restores the normal function which decreases the requirement of post-operative analgesics. Many studies have proved that LLLT has an effective role in some surgical applications in dentistry. This review primarily gives an overview of LLLT and describes the applications of LLLT in oral surgery.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002230
Title: Needlestick Injuries in Dentistry - A Review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Needlestick injury is a percutaneous injury of any depth caused by a small, medium, or large hollow syringe needles which do or do not involve visible blood at the time of injury. The most common sharp injuries among dentists arise from needles (while giving injection and recapping), cleaning instruments and while using drilling instruments such as burs. Needlestick injuries (NSIs) facilitate transmission of blood-borne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus which leads to various health problems. Thus, precautions must be taken to prevent the spread of infections. NSIs are common in dentistry, and this review concentrates on various types of NSIs, transmission of infections, complications, prevention, and management of the injuries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-pp-00002231
Title: A Prospective Observational Study on Evidence-Based and Unlicensed Indications for Proton Pump Inhibitors in Inpatients of a Tertiary Care Hospital
Category: Pharmacy Practice
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the licensed and off-label indications and duration of therapy for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) against established guidelines: British National Formulary, National Formulary of India, and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines 2014 update. Methods: An observational study was conducted in a sample of 300 patients with prescriptions for PPIs and to collect information about sociodemographic characteristics, drug indication, duration of treatment, number of drugs used for acid-related disorders, concomitant drugs, and diagnosis. The appropriateness is performed using the medication appropriateness index questionnaire. It contains 10 items to be evaluated, of which indication, dosage, duration of treatment, and absence of duplication of drugs were of much concern. The final score ranges from 10 (totally appropriate), 11–20 (marginally appropriate), and >20 (inappropriate). Results: A total of 300 patients receiving PPIs were recruited in the general medicine ward, and their mean age was 47.2 years and 180 (60%) were female. The prescriptions with licensed indications were 59.70% and unlicensed indications 40.30%. The patients with PPIs at discharge were 127, of which 45 were not indicated about the duration of medication to be taken. A statistically significant difference in prescribing PPIs was observed between licensed and unlicensed indication with P = 0.0068. The sociodemographic and drug therapy characteristic differences between licensed and unlicensed indications were found to statistically significant. The number of patients with appropriate PPI therapy was 44.3%, marginally appropriate PPI therapy was 18%, and inappropriate PPI therapy was 37.6%. Conclusion: Inappropriate or the unlicensed use of PPI is incomparably related to mean number of concomitant drugs used, irrespective of the gastro toxic drug combinations apart from the recommendation of guidelines.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002232
Title: Knowledge on impression techniques and materials used in fixed partial dentures - A survey among dental practitioners in Chennai
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Few studies have been done in Chennai to assess the trends of fixed partial denture practice done by private dental practitioners. According to many studies conducted, most of the dentists using commercial dental laboratories performed very unsatisfying tooth preparation and sent impressions that are unusable in nature. Aim: This study aims to integrate and evaluate the knowledge on impression techniques and materials used in fixed partial dentures among dental practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 questionnaires each consisting of 21 questions were sent to various practitioners in Chennai, out of which 100 questionnaires were filled. Results: The results showed that 93% dental practitioners use irreversible hydrocolloid for diagnostic impression and 7% use other materials with 90.7% using gingival retraction cord plainly and 9.3% using other methods like electrocautery, laser methods to accurately record the final impression followed by which is 88% addition silicone in 66% putty reline/dual mix technique without spacer followed by 14% using monophase technique with 86% providing provisional prosthesis before the final prosthesis. Furthermore, the reason of shortcomings was noted as 73% for laboratory error, clinical error, patients’ mental attitude, and oral hygiene practice were also noted. Conclusion: From the study results, the following conclusions were drawn. 93% of dental practitioners use irreversible hydrocolloid, 88% of them use addition silicone for final impressions in 66% putty reline/dual mix technique without spacer with almost 86% providing the provisional prosthesis. Thus, the appropriate technique, material, and armamentarium are required for long-term success for fixed partial denture.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002233
Title: Treatment of temporomandibular disorders-Knowledge, attitude, and practice among general practicing dentists - A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) account for the most common orofacial pains rising from musculoskeletal origins. Almost 80% of the general population suffers from temporomandibular joints (TMJ) diseases. The range of the signs and symptoms vary from person to person. The diagnosis of the TMJ disorder should be done by a dental practitioner. The multifactorial nature of the disease makes it difficult to diagnose and treat. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of TMD’s among general dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing questions on etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of TMD was given to a total of 100 general dental practitioners in Chennai. The responses were collected, and data analysis was done. Results: Our findings suggest that the general practicing dentists encounter TMD cases rarely and those excessive teeth grinding, and parafunctional habits have been widely acknowledged as the causative factor for TMD and TMJ imaging as the diagnostic tool. Majority of the practicing dentists prefer muscle relaxants as the first line of treatment. 92% of the general practitioners preferred referring the patient to a specialist. Among the practitioners who were confident in treating TMD occlusal splint was the treatment which most dentists felt confident. Conclusion: The gross domestic products felt more confident in TMD diagnostics, therapy decisions whereas they were not confident enough in treating a TMD patient even after they received a positive response after their first line of treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002234
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice survey on the concept of shortened dental arches
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: In general, every individual develops 28 (32) teeth or 14 (16) functional units, i.e., pairs of opposing teeth excluding the people with developmental disorders. The shortened dental arch (SDA) concept is a problem-oriented strategy to decrease complex restorative treatments in the posterior region of jaw. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the attitude and practice of this concept among the dentists in Chennai. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, self-designed-structured questionnaire was distributed among specialists, residents, and general dental practitioners in Chennai through electronic medium. The questionnaire enquired about dentists’ opinion regarding function, esthetic, and comfort in patients with SDA. It also evaluated about the risks associated with SDA treatment (tooth wear, temporomandibular dysfunction, and tooth migration). Results: The response rate was 64% with almost equal number of male and female dentists in the age range of 20–40 years. Only 40.6% of dentists were aware of the SDA concept and mere 17.2% among them had actually used it. Only 15.6 % felt that the chewing capacity as well as the patient comfort with SDA is satisfactory. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that although dentists are aware about the SDA concept, its use is very less in Chennai. Its awareness also needs to be spread through various Continuing Dental Education programs, workshops, and seminars highlighting its advantages.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002235
Title: Determination of right ventricular function in patients suffering from ischemic heart disease with cardiosurgical profile
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Coronary heart disease is one of the most frequent pathologies of the cardiovascular system, with a high incidence and mortality. The leading role in this pathology is played by the left ventricle (LV); however, more and more attention has been focused on the right ventricular dysfunction. Materials and method: Well known that, the right ventricle (RV) plays a key role in maintaining hemodynamics, and despite this, it remains a least studied part. Tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) is the most accurate method for diagnosing occult dysfunction of the right ventricular myocardium. Results: To determine the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie in the process of the development of right heart remodeling, we analyzed and compared features of geometry change of RV with functional state of the left heart. Conclusion: Nevertheless, there is a shortage of data about functions of RV; therefore, there is a need in further study of the functional state of RV with application of TDE metho.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002240
Title: Oral health status and prosthetic needs in elderly patient of Chennai resident
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Oral health is a state of being free from mouth and facial pain, oral and throat cancer, oral infection and sores, periodontal disease, tooth decay, tooth loss, and other diseases and disorders that limit an individual’s capacity in biting, chewing, smiling, speaking, and psychosocial well-being. Prosthesis is an artificial replacement of a part of the body, such as a tooth, a facial bone, the palate, or a joint. A prosthesis may be removable or even fixed. Aging phenomenon has been the rising concern faced in the 21st century. By the year 2050, it is projected that an increase in the population aged 60 years or over will be half of the total growth of the world population. Hence, treatment should be given to elderly patient to preserve their normal function of tooth. Aim: The present study is undertaken to study the oral health status and prosthetic needs in elderly patient of Chennai resident. Materials and methods: A decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) index form will be given to 50 elderly patients. 24 women and 26 male patients took part in this research. Each participants will be scored based on the oral health status of the patients which is DMFT. The result of data was tabulated. Result: Patient with an increase in a number of age tends to have increase in DMFT value, and hence, the need for using prosthesis in older age increases. Conclusion: The prevalence of denture wearing was low despite the higher prevalence of edentulousness in this study group. As teeth are essential for nutrition of elders, they must preserved first and replaced later on if required.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002241
Title: Comparison of accuracy of digital radiography and panoramic radiography in dental implants procedure - A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Appropriate treatment planning for replacement of lost teeth is required, and imaging plays an important role to ensure a beneficiary outcome that satisfies the patient desires and needs. Dental implants are gaining immense popularity and wide acceptance because they not only replace lost teeth but also provide permanent restorations that do not interfere with mastication or speech or compromise the self-esteem of a patient. Radiological examination is very necessary for evaluating the anatomy of the structures such as maxillary sinus, the mental foramen, and the inferior alveolar nerve canal in relation to the teeth that are to be replaced by implants. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely used in dental implanting. However, the local hospitals usually do not have access to CBCT due to the cost and medical investment. The doctors in local hospitals have to make reasonable dental planting using orthopantomography (OPG) to reduce risks. Therefore, it is clinically meaningful to determine the magnification rate of OPG to obtain correct diagnosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002242
Title: Prevalence of (alveolar ridge defect) using Seibert’s classification in fixed partial denture patient
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Alveolar ridge defect may occur due to injury, trauma, denture wears, and periodontitis. Based on Seibert’s Classification, it can be classified into three classes: Class I (buccolingual loss of tissue), Class II (apicocoronal loss of tissue), and Class III (both loss of tissue). It is important to close the ridge defect by replacing the tooth loss and to achieve good esthetic, phonetic, and mastication. According to the classification, proper treatment plan and alternative can be determined for successful outcomes. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of alveolar ridge defect using Siebert’s classification in fixed partial denture patient among Indian population. Materials and Method: This study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College. A total number of 55 of 60 patients with alveolar ridge defect are selected. Based on the Siebert’s Classification (Class I, Class II, and Class III), the amount of destruction is analyzed to determine the alveolar ridge defect using this classification. Therefore, the statistical analysis is performed using Chi-squared test. Results: Based on the result, the prevalence of alveolar ridge defect due to trauma is 91.6% (55 of 60). According to Siebert’s classification, the most common alveolar ridge destruction was Class III defect which is both buccolingual and apicocoronal loss of tissue of alveolar ridge, 24 (40.0%). This was followed by Class I defect which is buccolingual loss of tissue of alveolar ridge with 20 (33.3%) number of patients. Class II defect was the least with 11 (18.3%) which is apicocoronal loss of tissue of alveolar ridge. Conclusion: The prevalence of Siebert’s classification helps in suggestion of various management techniques or treatment planning to the patient to ensure that the prognosis and treatment outcomes turn out to successful.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002243
Title: Isolation and identification of chemical compounds from ethyl acetate fraction of Pohpohan (Pilea trinervia L.) leaves
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: This research aims to isolate and identify the chemical compound from ethyl acetate fraction of pohpohan (Pilea trinervia L.) leaves. Methods: Dry pohpohan leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. The ethanol extract was fractionated using liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane and aquadest. Furthermore, a fraction of aquadest was liquid- liquid extracted with ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate fraction was separated by vacuum liquid chromatography, then purified by column chromatography using mobile phase n-hexane and ethyl acetate (8:2). The isolate obtained was tested by thin layer chromatography in two directions using vanillin sulfate test and Liebermann–Burchard test. The isolate was tested with ultraviolet (UV)/visual spectrophotometer, IR spectrophotometer, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer.Results: The phytochemical screening of ethyl acetate fraction showed the presence of flavonoid, alkaloid, steroid, monoterpenoid, and sesquiterpenoid. Isolate no. EA1005-03 was selected from 22 groups of fractions and 32 isolates obtained from isolation and purification. Vanillin sulfate test and Liebermann–Burchard test on the thin-layer chromatogram of EA1005-03 isolate each produced a purple spot and a purplish-blue spot. UV spectrum of EA1005-03 isolate showed a maximum wavelength at 284 nm. Infrared spectrum EA1005-03 isolate indicated the existence of C=C, aliphatic C-H stretching, C-H bending, and aromatic C=C. Mass spectrum of EA1005-03 isolate gave m/z: 128, 102, 77, 64, 51, and 40.cc. Conclusion: Mass spectrum of EA1005-03 isolate gave m/z: 128, 102, 77, 64, 51, and 40 which showed 89% similarity degree to 1-methylene-1H-indene.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002244
Title: In silico approach of compounds in Cissus quadrangularis targeting multiproteins as anticancer agents
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) is a perennial medicinal plant of the family Vitaceae which has been used for various treatments such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant activity. The objective of this study was to find the G-quadruplex targets, binding energy of CQ biological active compounds, and drug likeliness by in silico techniques for anticancer activity. Metirials and Methods: The targets were retrieved from PDB bank, and plant data compounds are taken from literature survey and chosen seven compounds such as resveratrol, gallic acid, quercetin, stigmasterol, piceatannol, asarone, and luteolin for the study. These compounds are docked using G4LDB Database with the 6 PDB IDs such as 1L1H, 10OK, 2HRI, 3CE5, 3NYP, and 3SC8. Except for stigmasterol, the compounds have been showed good interactions and binding energy with the PDB ID-1L1H. Result and Discussion: From the docking results, four compounds such as resveratrol, quercetin, piceatannol, and luteolin show satisfactory dock score values of about 6.01, 7.14, 6.48, and 7.46, respectively. These compounds are visualized using Discovery Studio 4.1 Visualizer followed by DruLiTo software which satisfies the Lipinski’s properties for all the compounds. Conclusion: These results depict the phenolic and flavonoid derivatives having a significant role to design new compounds with these properties for anticancer activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002245
Title: Prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school & college girls and postpartum women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to measure the prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school girls, college girls, and postpartum women and to compare the severity of dysmenorrhea between school girls, college girls, and postpartum women. Background of the Study: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common and important health problems among females. It causes absence from classes and work. It badly affects the daily activities and quality of life. Differently aged females suffer accordingly to their age, anatomical, and physiological changes. Hence, this study aimed to measure the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and to compare the severity of dysmenorrhea among three differently aged females. Materials and Methods: Once the study is approved by the Institutional Review Board, 150 females were selected from 200 volunteers to participate in the study. The study setting was in and around the Chennai. The source population includes 50 school-going girls with the age of 12–15 years, 50 college-going girls with the age of 19–22 years, and 50 postpartum women with the age of 30–35 years. The study population excludes the female with secondary dysmenorrhea (dysmenorrhea due to disorder in women’s reproductive organ). The samples were fully explained about the benefits of participating in the study. They were asked to fill the consent form duly signed by the samples and therapist. Data regarding the female’s experience of dysmenorrhea were collected using Cox retrospective menstrual symptom scale and dysmenorrhea severity index (verbal multidimensional scoring system). Result: On comparing the prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school girls, college girls, and postpartum women, the collected data show that the prevalence of dysmenorrhea is more among the school girls with painful menstrual symptoms and severity, followed by the college girls and postpartum women.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002246
Title: Analysis of surface topography of dental implants coated with sulfonated poly ether ether ketone
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Osseointegration in patients with deficient bone quality is a challenge, especially in dental implants. Coating of the implants with a suitable material is considered as a method to enhance osseointegration. In this study, titanium implants were coated with sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and their surface roughness was evaluated. Fourier-transform infrared and scanning electron microscope images confirmed the coating of the implant with SPEEK. The higher surface roughness observed in SPEEK-coated implants could be useful for favorable bone cell attachment over the implant surface.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002248
Title: The effect of smoking on the outcome of dental implant treatment: A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background: The use of osseointegrated implants as a foundation for the prosthetic replacement of missing teeth has become widespread in the last decade. Owing to the remarkable success of dental implants, there has been growing interest in identifying the factors associated with the failure of dental implants. Given the well-documented deleterious effect of smoking on wound healing after tooth extraction and its association with poor-quality bone and periodontal disease, a negative effect of tobacco use on implant success is to be expected. Aim: The aim of this literature review was to study the relationship between smoking and complications related to dental implant treatment. Objectives: The objectives of the study were (i) to find out the relationship between smoking and complication related to dental implant treatment; (ii) to study the relationship between smoking and success rate of dental implant; and (iii) to study the relationship between smoking and long-term survival of dental implants. Materials and Methods: A search of the literature of relevant clinical studies was carried out and to be reviewed. Results: The majority of the past and current literature implicates smoking as one of the prominent risk factors affecting the success rate of dental implants with only a handful of studies failing to establish a connection. Most of the studies report the failure rate of implants in smokers as being more than twice that in non-smokers. These findings are difficult to ignore. There is a statistically significant difference between smokers and non-smokers in the failure rates of dental implants. Smoking also has a strong influence on the complication rates of implants: it causes significantly more marginal bone loss after implant placement; it increases the incidence of peri-implantitis; and it affects the success rates of bone grafts. The failure rate of implants placed in the grafted maxillary sinuses of smokers is more than that of non-smokers. Conclusion: Smokers have higher failure rates and complications following dental implantation and implant-related surgical procedures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002249
Title: Association between the maxillary arch form and length, width, and depth of palate in Malaysian and Indian Population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Oral cavity composed of hard and soft palate. Proper development of soft and hard palate will help for the proper phonation and other functional activities along with the proper development of the teeth. In general, different people will have different arch form and length, width, and depth of palate. As this varies, the arch form and height palatine index of the individuals in different population will be differ. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the arch form of palate and length, width, and depth of palate in Malaysian and Indian population. Materials and Methods: The sample of this study consisted of a total of 30 adult individuals of both gender. 15 of them are Malaysian population and remaining 15 people are Indian population. The participants that were selected for study were either of Malaysian or Indian populations, which were among non-growing and post-pubertal adults. The length, width, and depth of palate as well as arch firmware were calculated for this study. Results: It shows that 73% of Indian subjects had tapered maxillary arches, whereas only 47% of Malaysian subjects had tapered maxillary arches. In addition to this, only 20% of Malaysian subjects had squared maxillary arch form and none of the Indian subjects had this type of arch form. The remaining 27% of Indian subjects and 33% of Malaysian subjects had ovoid arch form. Almost 50% of Indian population had the low type of palate and approximately 67% of Malaysian population had this type of height of palate too. Only 20% of Malaysian population had medium type of palate and remaining 13% had high palate, whereas, about 33% of Indian population had medium palate and 20% of them had high palate. Conclusion: Tapered shape was the most common maxillary arch shape in both Indian and Malaysian population, and low palate was the most common depth of palate in both population. Hence, there is no significant difference in relation to arch form and depth of palate in both population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00002250
Title: Effect of various polishing agents on the color stability of provisional crowns
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Provisional crowns and fixed partial dentures are a very significant part of prosthodontic treatment. A temporary restoration should protect the prepared teeth, provide comfort and function, and be esthetically acceptable and color stable. The prognosis of a fixed restoration depends on the quality of this interim restoration. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of different polishing methods on the color stability of provisional crowns. Materials and Methodology: A total of 15 samples of central incisor were made using autopolymerizing polymethylmethacrylate and putty index. Samples were divided into five groups of different polishing techniques, namely pumice (P), prophylaxis paste (PP), polishing discs (standard deviation), dental varnish (DV), and the control group (C). The specimens were dipped in coffee solution for 30 min. The shade of all specimens was measured before and after dipping in the coffee solution using VITA spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using SPSS software and paired t-test was conducted. Results: Significant difference in color was seen only in DV group and the control group. All other groups did not show any significant difference in the color. On comparing the other groups, group polished using PP showed least color change followed by DV group and then the pumice alone. Conclusions: The use of PP after polishing with pumice significantly reduced the staining in autopolymerizing resin. The highest color change values were obtained in groups polished with DV, polishing disks, and pumice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002252
Title: High-performance thin-layer chromatography fingerprinting analysis of bioactive compounds in hydro-alcoholic extracts of polyherbal formulation
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the fingerprinting profile of bioactive compounds present in hydro- alcoholic extract of polyherbal formulation (HAF). Materials and Methods: High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of HAF was performed and calculate Rf values at wavelength 580 nm. HAF consists of a hydro- alcoholic extract of 11 medicinal plants which have protective activity against cellular damage related activity. HPTLC method was performed to evaluate the presence of polyphenolics employing mobile phase n-hexane:ethyl acetate:formic acid (4:5:1, v/v/v). Results: Peaks were symmetrical in nature and no tailing was observed when plates were scanned at wavelength 580 nm. The Rf values of HAF at sample volume 25 µl (70 mg in 7 ml methanol + HCl) seen maximum in nos. with corresponding to percentage of peak area were observed to be 0.035 (1.23%), 0.113 (8.25%), 0.189 (7.57%), 0.254 (3.72%), 0.291 (5.37%), 0.381 (10.52%), 0.437 (11.18%), 0.547 (4.49%), 0.597 (5.99%), 0.64 (9.83%), 0.69 (27.35%), and 0.881 (3.22%). HPTLC was performed to confirm the quantitative presence of polyphenolics in extracts of HAF. Conclusions: The present standardization provides a specific and accurate tool to develop a confirmatory fingerprinting profile (HPTLC) of biomarkers present in HAFs for many curative activities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00002254
Title: Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic kidney disease patient
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease spectrum ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatosis and cirrhosis. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease mainly affects patients with metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease share the common risk factors and pathogenic mechanism which shows the increased relationship between CKD and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Aim: The aim of the study was to find out the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in CKD patient. Materials and Methods: Case sheets of patients who suffered from CKD were selected. The case sheets for the duration of 6 months from January 2016 to June 2016 were screened for the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with CKD. The association between NAFLD and CKD was then analyzed using SPSS (version 19.0). Results: The study shows that 18% of the CKD patients have nonalcoholic fatty liver, which is most common among people of age 55 years. Conclusion: CKD affects 4–13% of world population. CKD leads to renal failure, which will require kidney transplant and NAFLD, which, in turn, leads to cirrhosis which requires liver transplant as the treatment of choice. Hence, this research can be used for treatment strategies, and prevent morbidity and mortality.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002255
Title: To correlate and associate maxillary arch width with combined width of maxillary anterior teeth in south Indian and Malaysian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Arrangement of artificial teeth for completely edentulous has become a challenge due to esthetics concern. Most of the completely edentulous patients walk in without any records. Maxillary anterior teeth play an important role in esthetics, its correlation with maxillary arch width can provide vital information on the selection of teeth for the different population group. Aim: The aim of the study was to correlate and associate maxillary arch width with a combined width of maxillary anterior teeth in Indian and Malaysian population. Materials and Methods: A total number of 36 people from 18 Indians and 18 Malaysians participated in this study. The maxillary anterior arch measurement is from distal contact of canine to another distal contact of canine taken using a measuring tape. The maxillary arch width is taken by measuring the distances between buccal cusps of first premolars, buccal cusps of second premolars, mesiobuccal cusps of first molars, and mesiobuccal cusps of second premolars using a Vernier caliper. The correlation between maxillary arch width and width of maxillary anterior teeth in Indian and Malaysian population is determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: The overall parameter of South Indian population has a greater dimension than Malaysian parameter simple. The South Indian maxillary anterior width has shown a significant correlation in the maxillary anterior arch and interdental width of the first premolar, the interdental width of the second premolar, interdental width of the first molar and interdental width of the second molar in Malaysian. However, there is no correlation shown in the maxillary anterior arch and interdental width in either first premolars, second premolars, first molars, and second molars in South Indian. Conclusion: The maxillary dental arch of South Indians is relatively greater than Malaysians. In addition, there is a significant correlation in the maxillary anterior arch and maxillary interdental arch in Malaysian, but not in Indians.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002256
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding denture marking systems among dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Forensic odontology helps with proper handling and examination of dental evidence in and proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings in the interest of justice. Various methods are available for identification, and studies evaluating their reliability under drastic conditions are vital. Denture marking is accepted as a means of identifying dentures and persons in geriatric institutions or postmortem during war, crimes, and civil unrest, natural, and mass disasters. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of denture marking systems among dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among 100 dental practitioners in private institutions. The questionnaire had 18 questions on their knowledge, practice, and awareness regarding denture marking systems in their clinical practice. Dental practitioners who participated in the survey had a minimum of 1 year of clinical experience after their dental education. Results: About 95% of dental practitioners did not prefer denture marking in their career as they think it is unimportant. This also showed that they were unaware of its importance and hence were the reasons for the lack of awareness among general population. Conclusion: The results are in contrast to European studies wherein the majority of dental practitioners to do dentures routinely and would create awareness which may help in enhancing the perception about denture marking among patients; however, in Indian settings, the dental practitioners are not really eager to inform patients about the denture marking and are reluctant in making the denture marking a routine practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002257
Title: A review of instruments used in evaluating wear in restorative materials
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background: Increased patient demand for esthetic dentistry has generated interest in all-ceramic dental restorations. An overview of the types of wear simulating devices will allow us to better understand the multifactorial nature of wear. Aim: The aim of the review is to critically analyze the different wear simulators that are available in the market for dentistry and their capacity to mimic the wear conditions. Materials and Methods: A search on keywords highlights the most common in vitro wear simulators and their use in the laboratories for various simulation applications. Results: Wear is a complex process, which cannot be simulated in total while controlling all variables. Conclusion: Even the most sophisticated wear simulator would have limitations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002258
Title: Arriving at a definitive bone quality
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental implants are most opted treatment modality, especially in the last three decades because they not only replace lost teeth but also provide permanent restorations that do not interfere with oral function or speech or compromise the self-esteem of a patient. Aim: The aim of this study is to use gray scale value (GSV) obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan and derives a precise value of bone density in any region of jaw. This can aid in apt treatment planning and caution during the surgical placement of dental implants. Materials and Methods: A sample of 35 CBCT scans was chosen by randomized sampling method from collection of computerized database of the institution. The clinician’s interpretation about bone quality at site indicated for implant placement was taken before mathematical calculations (Group 1). The GSVs were noted at coronal site where the crest of implant is planned (Group 2) and at apical sites where the apical part of implant is expected to end (Group 3). A mathematical formula correlating Hounsfield unit (HU) and GSV was used: HU = −61.098 + 1.178 × GSV. All the three groups were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: The results of data of the present study showed a statistically significant difference between the groups when Kruskal–Wallis test was performed (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In this study, HU was derived from GSVs obtained from CBCT, using a mathematical formula derived by Razi et al. This provided the exact bone quality in region required. The estimation of exact bone quality at surgical site can help clinicians, interpret, and plan osteotomy before commencement of treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: May
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00002260
Title: Antibacterial and phytochemical analysis of condiments
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the antibacterial activity of condiments against multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms and its phytochemical properties. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Elettaria cardamomum, Coriandrum sativum, Curcuma longa, and Syzygium aromaticum were screened for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MTCC 40), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 7442), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 3384), and Enterobacter aerogenes (MTCC 7325). Phytochemical testing was carried out to these extracts followed by the estimation of the flavonoid and phenol concentration. Results: C. longa and S. aromaticum both showed maximum zone of inhibition against E. coli (13 ± 0.33 mm), C. sativum against S. aureus (16 ± 0.33 mm) and E. aerogenes (16 ± 0.33 mm), C. longa against B. subtilis (18 ± 0.33 mm), and S. aromaticum against K. pneumoniae (12 ± 0.33 mm). The aqueous extract of S. aromaticum showed the maximum amount of phytochemicals present having positive results for all 10 phytochemicals screened (alkaloids, carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, amino acids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and quinones). Highest flavonoid and phenolic content observed was 760 µg/ml and 885 µg/ ml in ethanolic plant extracts of E. cardamomum and S. aromaticum, respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that the four plant extracts screened species E. cardamomum, C. sativum, C. longa, and S. aromaticum have the potential to be used as drugs or agents against various infectious diseases as it already shows antibacterial activity against the selected pathogenic microorganisms.