Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002289
Title: Factors predicting nutritional behaviors related to gastric cancer: A model-guided study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Objectives: Gastric cancer is one of the common causes of death from cancers worldwide. It is the second most common cancer in Iran, and it has the highest prevalence in Gilan province. The objective of this study was to determine the predictive power of the health belief model (HBM) constructs in nutritional behaviors related to gastric cancer. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 rural women of Talesh county in Gilan province of north of Iran in 2017. They were selected using a multistage cluster random sampling method. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire including HBM constructs and nutritional behaviors related to gastric cancer. The results were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and multivariate linear regression method. Results: The mean age of women was 34.51 ± 9.16 years. About 39.2% of women and 34.4% of their husbands had high school degree. The results of regression analysis showed that HBM could predicted 28% of the variations of the nutritional behaviors with the constructs of perceived barriers (β = −0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.53, −0.27, self-efficacy (β = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.09, 0.035), and severity (β = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.11, 0.38). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between self-efficacy and barriers (P < 0.01). Conclusion: According to the predictive power of the HBM, the educational interventions based on this model with emphasis on the construct of perceived barriers after that self-efficacy is suggested for this group.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002268
Title: A detailed study on the function of neutrophils and macrophages in periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Periodontitis is highly complex and multifactorial disease. The reasons for periodontal illnesses are microorganism. The human oral cavity harbors a significant and persistently developing heap of microbial species. The natural cooperations between the host and organisms decide the seriousness of the ailment. Experimental evidences confirm that certain bacterial strains in periodontal environment can induce gingival tissue inflammation and bone destruction. The pathogenesis of periodontal illnesses is intervened by the fiery reaction to microscopic organisms in the dental biofilm. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of aggressive periodontitis (n = 3), juvenile periodontitis (n = 3), and healthy individuals (n = 3) with no systemic or oral diseases. Determination of interleukin (IL)-17, and neutrophil infiltration and monocyte clustering were determined. Results: Neutrophil infiltration or disruption exhibited by adult periodontitis was greater when compared to juvenile periodontitis. There was an increased expression of IL-17 in juvenile periodontitis when compared to adult periodontitis. Conclusion: In light of the outcomes, it can be reasoned that the neutrophil infiltration in adult periodontitis is greater when compared to juvenile periodontitis whereas the IL-17 expression is greater in juvenile periodontitis on comparison with healthy and adult periodontitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002269
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice on rigid and non- rigid connectors for management pier abutment among dental students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Reasons: Connector, which may be rigid or non-rigid, is a part of a fixed partial denture (FPD). Most FPD is fabricated by implementing rigid connectors between retainers and pontic. The successfulness of a prosthesis depends on the selection of right type of connector during treatment planning. Teeth in various segments of the arch move in different directions which create stress in a long-span prosthesis that will be transferred to retainers and their respective abutments teeth. Thus, to overcome those forces that may lead to failure of a prosthesis, non-rigid connector is suggested to reduce this problem which helps in equal distribution of forces acting on the prosthesis as it is semirigid. Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the use of rigid and non-rigid connector in FPD with pier abutment. Materials and Methods: The study sample was derived from 60 dental students, both male and female from 3rd and final years during the academic year of 2017 of Saveetha Dental College, who have completed the study questionnaire consisting of 10 questions regarding knowledge, attitude, and practice of rigid and non-rigid connector in managing pier abutment. Results: Data from the study revealed that majority of the dental students about 68% aware that non-rigid connector is more appropriate when there is pier abutment although rigid connector is used in most of the clinical situations while few of them lack in knowledge regarding the use of rigid and non-rigid connector in FPD with pier abutment. Conclusion: In a nutshell, proper selection of connector is important as it will decide the success of the FPD prosthesis. Non-rigid connector is preferable in case of pier abutment as it allows movement in FPD, thus providing transfer of stresses away from the pier abutment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-CT-00002270
Title: Efficacy of custom-made mandibular advancement appliance on patients with obstructive sleep apnea: A prospective clinical trial
Category: Clinical trials
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Sleep apnea obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is defined as frequent episodes of apnea and hypopnea and functional impairment. OSA treatment options are the use of oral appliance (OAs) in mild-to-moderate cases and use of continuous positive airway pressure or surgery in cases of severe sleep apnea. However, their efficacy in the treatment of OSA is questionable. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of OAs in patients diagnosed with severe OSA. Materials and Methods: Seventeen individuals (13 males and 4 females) with age of patient 26.27 ± 2.66; apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 47.35 ± 7.92 events/h, and mean body mass index 29.42 ± 5.67 were enrolled for the clinical trial. The patients had to wear a custom-made mandibular advancement device for 1 month. Out of 17, 15 subjects completed the protocol, 2 individuals with AHI levels 50.1 and 37.1 were unable to tolerate the device and withdrew from the study. Results: The MAA resulted in a reduction of baseline AHI index in 14 out of 15 individuals (93.3%). The mean AHI index reduced from 47.35 ± 7.92 to 23.03 ± 13.62, which is statistically highly significant (P < 0.001). The subjective outcome with Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) score reduced for 13 out of 15 patients (87%). The baseline ESS score also reduced after 1 month of the study which was statistically significant (P < 0.007). Conclusion: Continued wear of OAs brings down the AHI from severe to mild or moderate OSA reducing the incidence of systemic complication and improving the quality of life of these patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002271
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and perception on smoking habits in adolescence in rural area (thiruvallur district)
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death globally. Smoking generally has negative health effects because smoke inhalation inherently poses challenges to various physiologic processes such as respiration. Smoking is an unhealthy and dangerous habit which numerous adolescents are getting addicted to in their young lives. Hence, this survey was conducted to create awareness about the effect of smoking among adolescents. Aim: The aim of this survey is to create awareness about smoking in adolescents among rural areas. Materials and Method: The survey was undertaken among 200 adolescent school children of around 13–19 age groups of St. Claret Matriculation Higher secondary school, Thiruninravur, and informed concern was obtained from the participants. Of 200 students, 69 were willing to participate in the study. The survey instrument was a pre-prepared questionnaire eliciting information about the attitude and perception on smoke. The obtained responses were tabulated and analyzed. Result: From the survey, it is recorded that about 40.4% of the participants started smoking at the age of 13–15, which we call it as the initiation of the teenage. Majority of the adolescents start up with this habit because of the bad influences from their peers, family members, and also of curiosity and venturesomeness which take the individuals life into risk, making it difficult for them to quit smoking. Conclusion: Parental influences were a major factor leading to smoking behavior in the studied population. About 60% of the students are willing to quit the habit. Hence, d-addiction programs should be initiated among students to prevent further progression of smoking habits.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002272
Title: Comparison of facial form and tooth form between South Indian and Malaysian edentulous patients
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The restoration of edentulous patients by denture has psychological effect. Once properly restored, the patient’s self-esteem and confidence are improved, which are also the goal of rehabilitation. Biometric measurements are the usual choices made by the dentists and preferences of the patient are frequently used considerations. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the esthetic appearance of different artificial teeth replacement in South Indian and Malaysian edentulous patients in various facial forms. Materials and Methods: A total number of people of 36 in which 18 Indians and 18 Malaysians were participated in this study. Biometric measurements of facial forms were taken from outline of temporal bone from the hairline, temporal process of zygomatic arch, and gonion while for the tooth form is cervical, middle, and incisal third margins. The correlation between the facial form and corresponding tooth form is determined using t-test. The best choice of commercially available teeth set for dentures is referred to the result of correlation. Results: The average South Indian population has a correlation of ovoid facial form with ovoid tooth form. However, average Malaysian population has ovoid facial form but tapering tooth form. The highly significant different facial landmark in both the population is temporal bone at hairline while there was no significant landmark difference in tooth form. Conclusion: The present study indicated that the similarity between the South Indian and Malaysian is the average facial form of the population which is ovoid. The tooth form difference indicated was ovoid in South Indian population but tapering in Malaysian population. There was no significant group statistic indicated. The significant individual statistic was shown significantly different at the temporal bone at hairline between the two populations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002273
Title: Comparison of gingival exposure during smile between different South Indian populations
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Esthetics play an important role in determining the success of anterior restorations including removable prosthesis and fixed prosthesis. Patients expect a restoration which appears more similar to their original dentition. Hence, it is important to have a basic idea as to what their smile was previously. Aim: This study aims to determine the smile of different ethnic groups which provides a basic interpretation. Materials and Methods: For comparing the amount of tooth and gingival display in relation to different language speaking people in South India, the study was conducted among 80 subjects who spoke different languages (Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, and Malayalam). All photographs were taken with a digital single-lens reflex camera and a macro lens with the same shutter speed, aperture, and same distance from the patient. No analysis was made on printed photographs to avoid distortion of data. The photographic data were analyzed using digital photography software (Adobe Photoshop CS3, Adobe Systems Inc.). Results: The results of the ANOVA showed no statistical significance though there were differences between the groups clinically. Conclusion: When examining the whole range of lip-tooth relationship in a smile simply quantifying the photographs is not adequate, a record is required for a dynamic smile analysis. The sample size seems to be a limitation of this study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002274
Title: Knowledge, attitude, perception of smoking habits in college students in rural area (Kanchipuram district)
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death globally. Smoking generally has negative health effects because smoke inhalation inherently poses challenges to various physiologic processes such as respiration. Apparently smoking is the wrong choice which numerous adults getting addicted to in their young age. Hence, this survey was conducted to create awareness about the effect of smoking among adolescents. Aim: The aim of this study was to conduct a survey on knowledge, attitude, and perception of smoking habits in college students in rural area (Kanchipuram District). Materials and Methods: This study is the questionnaire-based survey. The survey questionnaire comprises questions about knowledge, attitude, and perception of smoking habits in college students in rural area (Kanchipuram District).This survey was administered to the participants through the survey planet link. The result obtained was statistically analyzed. The survey was conducted among 101 students. Result: Many adolescents have proved to show addictive toward the smoking habit. The college teens have been very susceptible to such hazardous habit of smoking. Conclusion: Smoking is a very dangerous and addictive habit; hence, knowledge and awareness regarding its consequence should be effectively brought into practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002275
Title: Awareness on pontic design among general dental practitioners: A knowledge, attitude, and practice survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: A pontic is a part of the fixed partial denture (FPD) that replaces the missing tooth. There are various types of pontic designs, and choosing the right pontic design depending on several factors is critical to the success of the FPD. Aim: The aim of this study focuses on evaluating the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pontic design in FPDs and its applications among general dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing questions on patient’s awareness about pontic designs and their knowledge about the applications of pontic designs was given to a total of 100 general practitioners in Chennai. The data collected were computerized and analyzed statistically. The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics software 23.0 version. To find the significant difference between the bivariate samples in the independent groups, the unpaired sample t-test was used. For the multivariate analysis, the one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test was used. Results: Fifty-seven dentists preferred to give an ovate anterior pontic design, 33 dentists preferred a modified ridge lap anterior pontic design, and 10 dentists preferred a ridge lap anterior pontic design. For a posterior FPD, 28 dentists preferred a hygienic pontic design, 28 dentists preferred the ridge lap design, 29 preferred the modified ridge lap, and 15 preferred other types of pontic designs. Conclusion: The study inferred that although most dentists were aware of the pontic designs and their applications, many were not involved in the selection of pontic designs. Awareness should be improved on the pontic design selection for different situations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002276
Title: Evaluation of inflammatory markers in endotoxins induced root canal infection
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the inflammatory markers in endotoxins induced root canal infection. Introduction: Root canal infection is mainly caused by an opportunistic infection of the pulp space with commensal oral microorganisms. Depending on the state of inflammation, different treatment regimes are currently advocated. The role of several players of the host response in root canal infection is as follows: Cytokines, proteases, inflammatory mediators, growth factors, antimicrobial peptides, and others contribute to pulpal defense mechanisms; these factors may serve as biomarkers that indicate the status of the pulp. Endotoxins are potent inflammatory agents, which activate classical and alternative pathways of complement system. Materials and Methods: The sterility of the internal surface of the access cavity was checked and all procedures were performed aseptically to the study participants. A new sterile and apyrogenic bur were used accomplished by irrigation with sterile apyrogenic water to access the canal. The endotoxin sample was taken introducing sterile pyrogen-free paper points into the full length of the canal and retained in position during 60 s. Immediately, the paper point was placed in a pyrogen-free glass and at 80°C for future cell culture stimulation. Results: C-reactive protein (CRP) shows agglutination for endotoxin group when compared to that of apyrogenic group. The mean value of fibrinogen in serum of endotoxin-induced group was 400 mg/dl which was found to be higher than apyrogenic group. The level of inflammatory markers such as CRP, fibrinogen, and uric acid was significantly high (P < 0.001) in serum sample. Our results suggest that inflammatory marker significantly increases in patients and correlates with infection severity. Conclusion: The pathogenesis of root canal infection is accepted widely to involve inflammation. Hence, dental practitioners should have concerns that root canal treatment may provide a source of inflammation and increase the risk of treatment failure.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00002277
Title: Analysis of growth factor gene expression in buccal tumor cell line
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF)-β inhibited epithelial cell proliferation and regulated a diverse array of cellular functions unrelated to cellular transformation. Today, the TGF-β superfamily is recognized as one of the largest families of secreted prototypic multifunctional peptides exerting an array of biological effects in a large variety of cell types. Objective: The objective of the study is to analyze the growth factor gene expression in buccal mucosal cell line. Materials and Methods: Cell line: TR146 was maintained at 5% CO2 in DMEM with FBS, penicillin, and streptomycin. Quantitative TGF-β gene expression: Total RNA was extracted from cell lysate and was reverse transcribed using reverse transcription system. Primer directed against the housekeeping genes ubiquitin C and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was used as the endogenous control. TGF-β1 gene was amplified using the following primer. Result: TGF-β expression was prominent in TR146 cells as compared to the normal mucosal lysate. TGF-β inhibits proliferation and promotes both apoptosis and differentiation. Thus, it is evident that in buccal tumor cell line, TGF-β expression is very high. Conclusion: The study in human buccal tumor cell line samples has illustrated that disruption to TGF-β1 signaling promotes carcinogenesis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002278
Title: Variation in salivary pH and buffering capacity of saliva in normal and diabetes mellitus patients - A pilot study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects the body’s ability to use the energy found in food. The normal salivary function is an important factor for the maintenance of health, with the positive consequences on the functionality. It neutralizes the oral pH and acts as a buffer. Buffers are resistant to changes in pH. There are three possible buffer systems in saliva - the protein buffer, phosphate buffer, and carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer. The diabetic patients have a lower stimulated parotid gland flow rate compared to well-controlled patients and patients without diabetes. Thus, the buffering capacity of the saliva of diabetic patients is much lower and leads to many oral complications. Objective: Variation in salivary pH and buffering capacity of saliva in normal and DM patients was compared and analyzed. Materials and Methods: Inclusion criteria include known diabetic type 2 patients of both sexes for at least 3 years and age between 26 and 65 years with a decayed, missing, or filled teeth score of ≥5. About 8–10 mL of unstimulated mixed saliva was obtained from all subjects 2 h after the breakfast. The saliva sample was collected from both the groups, and the salivary pH was estimated within 5 min. Results: The mean salivary pH for normal participants was found to be pH 7.2, whereas the diabetic mellitus patients showed a mean pH of 6.8. The mean buffering capacity of normal subjects is found to be 6.9, whereas the DM patients showed a mean pH of 5.3. Conclusion: Hyperglycemia alters the pH of the oral cavity, leading to dental caries. Therefore, adequate measures should be taken to prevent dental caries at an early stage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00002279
Title: Awareness on effect of tooth bleaching and demineralization among South Indian population
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Tooth bleaching is also called tooth whitening which refers to the removal of debris and dirt from the teeth. However, over bleaching of the teeth leads to demineralization, which causes white lesions and cavities on the outer surface of the teeth. The aim of this survey is to create an awareness and assess the effect of demineralization in bleached teeth among South Indian population. Objective: The objective of this survey is to create an awareness on the effect of tooth bleaching and demineralization. Materials and Methods: A group of people who have undergone tooth bleaching in homes as well as clinics were selected and examined with the questionnaire prepared. The information collected through the survey is analyzed and presented in statistics. Results: People take up this treatment with interest and more enthusiasm, where they are lacking the interest to know the dangers and side effects of the treatment. Hence, due to lack of care and poor maintenance of their teeth, they end up with demineralization, leading to white lesions along with cavities and caries. Hence, from this survey, awareness on tooth bleaching and demineralization was created among the South Indian population. Conclusion: Oral health is an important part of systemic health. Hence, from this survey, awareness on demineralization and side effects of tooth bleaching was created among South Indian population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00002280
Title: Awareness on dental tattoos among South Indian population
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental tattoos are the tattoos that are carved on the tooth structure, more precisely the crown by the dental professionals. It is becoming the new fad among the young population, and hence, its knowledge of pros and cons is essential for the people. It has its own advantages and disadvantages and is attaining popularity day by day. Objective: The objective of this study is to create an awareness on dental tattoos among South Indian population. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted among the South Indian population of various age groups. The survey was conducted to check the knowledge on dental tattoos. The questionnaire was prepared and sent to the participants through the online link of survey planet, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: The survey is aimed at creating awareness on dental tattoos among the participants. The dental tattoos have several advantages such as it is a completely painless procedure, and unlike any other dental treatments, the patient willingly goes to the dentists’ office and takes up the dental tattoos. Further, it does cause any damage to the tooth, and the tooth structures provided the oral hygiene is properly maintained by the person having dental tattoos. It also has its own disadvantages such as losing the entire crown and enamel of the tooth because of the poor maintenance of oral hygiene. Thus, the pros and cons of dental tattoos is made clear and through the survey, thereby creating awareness. Conclusion: Dental tattoo is becoming prevalent, and hence, an updated knowledge is useful. Hence, this survey has created awareness on dental tattoos among the South Indian population through the extensive questionnaire based on the positive and negative aspects of dental tattoos.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002281
Title: The contribution of matrix metalloproteinase in enzymatic degradation studies in dental bonding
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), also known as matrixins, are calcium-dependent zinc-containing endopeptidases. Phosphoric acid in the etch-and-rinse bonding process and acid primers in the self-etch process are implicated in the release of these proteases, and their activation by several non-collagen proteins also released from dentin by the etching. The Most MMPs are synthesized and released from the odontoblasts in the form of proenzymes, requiring activation to degrade extracellular matrix components. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess and determine the contribution of MMP in the enzymatic degradation in the dental bonding. Materials and Methods: About six patients were divided into two groups: One group with a diagnosis of periodontitis and one control group which classified as being “healthy.” The MMP’s assay and protein expression were carried out. The blood and saliva were collected from them and used for the further analysis. Result: This study is done to evaluate the role of MMPs to enzymatic degradation at dental bonding. The release and subsequent activation of these endogenous enzymes during the dental restorative procedures are believed to be responsible of the dentin–adhesive bonding failure. Conclusion: From this study, it is so evident that the release of MMPs plays a key role in the failure of the dental restorative procedures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002282
Title: Awareness about the relation of cochlear damage and use of headphones among young generation - A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to create an awareness about cochlear damage and use of headphones among young generation. Introduction: The ear is made up of three parts that work together to process sounds: The outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. Part of the inner ear called the cochlea contains tiny hair cells. These hair cells help to send sound messages to the brain. However, loud noise can damage the hair cells. When this happens, the cochlea cannot relay sound messages to the brain as well. Unlike damage to other parts of your body, inner ear damage never heals. Over time, as more and more hair cells get damaged, your hearing will get worse and worse. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a group of young students from various places, and a questionnaire comprising of appropriate questions was distributed. The students were told to fill the questionnaire with conscious and they were explained what the study is about. They were explained about how the headphones work and the consequences of using headphones with high-frequency sound. The sample size taken for the survey was 100 students in the age group of 15-25 years old. Result: 97% of the people use headphones and the remaining 3% do not use them. It was found that 41% of the subjects use headphones more than twice a day and 21% of the people use headphone every time they work and the remaining people use headphone once or twice a day. It was found that 65% of the study population use their headphone listening to music in their workplaces, while traveling, etc., and rest of them use it for films (17%), gaming (8%), and phone calls (10%). It is found that 40% of the people feel that the use of headphones is quite important in their daily activities. 80% of the people plug their headphones in their mobile phone and listen to music while travelling, working, or in their free time. Conclusion: The above study has been presented with clear details on how high- frequency noises in headphones can produce cochlear damage, and thus, it is very important to prevent ourselves from using headphones with high sounds and instead use speakers or play in some device from a particular distance so that the frequency from the device does not have any effect on our ears.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002283
Title: Prevalence of oil pulling among Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim is to study the prevalence of oil pulling among Indian population and to create awareness about the benefits of oil pulling. Introduction: Oil pulling is a traditional remedy practiced in ancient India for maintenance of good oral hygiene. It is believed to cure more than thirty diseases when practiced regularly. Many people are easily attracted to this remedy as it is an ancient Ayurvedic therapy and has less or no side effects. In addition to offering several oral health benefits, oil pulling also helps in maintaining overall health. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of oil pulling among Indian population and to create awareness among the people. Materials and Methods: This survey on oil pulling was administered through a questionnaire given to 100 participants. The questionnaire consisted of questions about their patterns of oil pulling, its benefits, and also its impact on oral hygiene. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Result: From the survey, it is known that 59% of the participants started oil pulling as they wanted to give it a try. Around 49% of people first heard about oil pulling from the Internet. It was found that most of the people are not aware about the health benefits of oil pulling. About 53% of people use coconut oil, and it is the most commonly used oil. Around 65% of people found improvement in their oral hygiene. Conclusion: From this survey, it was shown that awareness of oil pulling is less among people. Those who practice oil pulling are happy with the improvement in oral hygiene and overall health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002284
Title: Awareness of audiovisual aids in education
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the current study is to create an awareness of audiovisual aids in education. Introduction: Audiovisual aids are important in our education system. Audiovisual aids are those devices which are used in classrooms to encourage teaching-learning process and make it easier and interesting for students. Audiovisual aids are one of the best tools for making teaching effective and the best dissemination of knowledge. Hence, there is no doubt that technical devices had greater impact and dynamic informative system. This study was designed to create an awareness of audiovisual aids in education. Materials and Methods: This study is the questionnaire-based survey. The survey questionnaire comprises of questions pertaining to audiovisual aids in education. This survey was administered to the participants through the survey planet link. The result obtained was statistically analyzed. The survey was conducted among 122 students. Results: The analysis of the data indicated that the majority of the students had positive perceptions of the use of audiovisual aids.Conclusion: From the survey, it has been concluded that nearly 90% of students agreed that audiovisual method is useful. Audiovisual aids guarantee students involvement toward learning, student’s concentration, and enhancement of environment for learning activities. Audiovisual aids make teaching and learning process more effective, and it also makes the class more interactive and interesting, motivating the learners, and so many.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00002285
Title: Production of biodiesel from restaurant waste oil - A survey
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this is to assess the knowledge of the restaurant owners about the production of biodiesel from restaurant waste oils. Objective: The objective is to create awareness about the production of biodiesel from restaurant waste oils among restaurant owners. Materials and Methods: It is a questionnaire-based survey. A set of 15 questions to assess the knowledge on waste oil management and subsequent production of biodiesel were given to 60 restaurant owners. The data were collected and statistically evaluated. Result: As per the results of the survey, 70% of the owners reuse little amount of oil for cooking and the remaining wastes are dumped in an unknown manner which may be hazardous. Almost 63% of the participants are aware that waste oil does cause pollution and more than 50% of them are ready to produce biodiesel from waste oil if they are taught to do so. Conclusion: Waste oil is not a big concern in India, as people are not aware of the negative consequences of it. Thus, this survey created awareness for reusing the waste oil in the production of biodiesel which is cost efficient and thus favored the business community in a useful way.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002286
Title: Evaluation of salivary total proteins, albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin ratio among healthy individuals and patients with chronic gingivitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the level of salivary total proteins, albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio among healthy individuals and patients with chronic gingivitis. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the salivary total proteins, albumin, globulin, and A/G ratio among healthy individuals and patients with chronic gingivitis. Materials and Methods: The saliva samples were collected from total of 20 individuals where 10 samples from normal individuals as a control group and 10 samples from gingivitis patients and the total protein and albumin levels were estimated through direct biuret method and bromocresol green method, respectively, and the absorbance was estimated using a colorimeter and the specific levels were calculated. Result and Conclusion: Useful diagnostic information can be obtained by determining the total protein, albumin, globulin, and A/G ratio. Significant changes in these values can pin-point specific changes thus saliva being one of the major constituents of the oral cavity; therefore, estimation of total salivary proteins helps in diagnosis of gingivitis thus facilitating early prognosis and treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002287
Title: Evaluation of effects of ketogenic diet among gym trainers and users
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Proteins are essential nutrients for human body. They are well known as building blocks of body tissue and are an important source of energy. There is a misconception that ketogenic diet is a high-protein diet, but it is actually a mix of fat and protein and zero carbohydrate diet. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted among gym trainers and users in Chennai. It is a questionnaire-based survey which consisted of 15 questions related to keto diet. The survey was conducted on survey planet. The survey was taken up by 60 participants. Results: More than 75% of the participants are aware of ketogenic diet. However, most of them are not aware of the composition, they are not aware that keto diet has fat content to 70% of gym trainers and users use keto diet for a short-term and gained results. The diet is more effective in males than females. 80% of the people have actually seen drastic weight loss after the keto diet. However, the only disadvantage is it may affect the renal system. Conclusion: Ketogenic diet is considered to be the best way for drastic weight loss in a short time, but prolonged practice of the diet may cause renal system failure.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00002288
Title: Effect of recasting on the bond strength of porcelain to base metal alloys: A systematic review
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Metal-ceramic restorations have had a high degree of success, as they integrate the esthetics of porcelain and the strength and durability of metal. Noble metal alloys are commonly used to produce the metal substructure. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of recasting on the bond strength of porcelain to base metal alloys. Methods: Electronic search of the Pub Med-MEDLINE database was done. The reference lists of all eligible studies were also searched. The results of the searches were analyzed. The PUBMED search yielded a total of 7 articles, of which three studies met the inclusion criteria and four were excluded from the study. All the three included studies evaluated the effect of recasting on the bond strength of porcelain to base metal alloys. Results: The obtained studies showed varying levels of heterogeneity, and hence, a meta-analysis could not be performed. The tests used were the planar shear test and flexural tests to determine the bond strength of porcelain to base metal alloys. The literature has reported the following findings on porcelain bond strength with recasted alloys: (a) The first recasting of alloys reduces the bond strength of porcelain to the base metal alloys, (b) The second recasting does not differ greatly from the first recasting, and (c) a 50% recast of alloys greatly reduces its strength. Conclusion: Addition of previously used base metal dental alloy for fabricating metal ceramic restorations is not recommended as it reduces the strength of the alloy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002290
Title: Estimation of salivary total protein and calcium in patients with dental fluorosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the amount of salivary total protein and calcium in patients with dental fluorosis. Introduction: Dental fluorosis is hypomineralization of tooth portrayed by expanded surface and subsurface porosity of the tooth, which causes darkness, setting, or recoloring of lacquer. Calcium and phosphate are principal for the development of bone and teeth and are basic for accomplishing ideal mass. Calcium, phosphate, and fluoride particles assume a vital part in the fight among demineralization and remineralization forms and in like manner adjust the helplessness of tooth to caries movement. Amid demineralization, calcium discharge goes before phosphate discharge from veneer, dentin, and cementum. Concoction demineralization of teeth is caused by acidic assault through two essential means: Dietary corrosive devoured through sustenance or drink and microbial assault from microorganisms introduce in the mouth. Human spit contains segments that can impact the arrangement of oral microflora. Numerous examinations on spit and dental caries have been accounted for; however, not very many have been worried about connection among salivation and dental fluorosis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Chennai. The tests were carried out. 12 subjects were selected by simple random sampling and it is equally divided into control group and test group. In that particular block, the endemic fluorosis was diagnosed according to the clinical diagnosis criteria. The saliva samples were collected from the six test groups and six controls and stored at −20°C before analyzing after doing centrifugation. Salivary total protein and albumin level were estimated and A/G ratio was also determined. The data were statistically evaluated. Results: The study states that in fluorosis individuals due to increase in fluoride content there is remarkable decrease in the calcium and total protein. Conclusion: This study concludes that fluorosis can cause decrease in salivary total protein and calcium.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002291
Title: Current trends in reducing microbial adhesion to acrylic denture base resins
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Many novel techniques and products have been used to prevent and reduce microbial adhesion to denture resins. The formation of dental plaque by adhesion of microorganisms on acrylic resin denture surfaces is the primary cause of several oral diseases such as radicular decay and oral stomatitis. To circumvent and counter this problematic association between dental resins and dental plaque, many studies have focused on endowing resin-based dental materials with antibacterial properties. This article reviews the current status of research in this field.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002292
Title: Comparison of cutting efficiency of tungsten carbide and diamond burs on nickel–chromium casting alloy - An in vitro study
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Even with the advances in materials and technologies in constructing crown and bridge, failure and the need to replace crown and bridge occur all the time. When the conservative methods to remove the crown and bridge fail, destructive disassembly of the prosthesis has to be carried out. Cutting through the crown with burs is time consuming and tiring. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the cutting efficiency of tungsten carbide bur and diamond burs in sectioning nickel–chromium dental casting. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 metal rods from a base metal alloy (Ni-Cr) rods were used for this study. The rods were divided into two groups. Group A was cut using SSW FG-271 tungsten carbide bur and Group B was cut using SF-11 diamond burs using a high-speed handpiece for a constant time of 1 min by a single operator. The cutting efficiency of each bur was evaluated corresponding to the weight loss. Result: There was a statistically significant difference (<0.05) in the mean material loss between the different groups in independent sample t-test. Conclusion: Cutting efficiency depends on the diamond bur grit size and duration of the cutting procedure and many other factors. The cutting efficiency of the bur in zirconia and porcelain should also be considered while making the decision.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002293
Title: Comparison of pilocarpine and bethanechol as effective sialogogue agents in xerostomic completely edentulous patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Xerostomia forms one of the most common manifestations of systemic diseases or occurs as an adverse effect of medication. Treatment of xerostomia involves both in minimizing the symptoms and reducing the oral complications by administration of sialagogue such as pilocarpine and bethanechol which are cholinergic drugs in this study. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the efficiency of pilocarpine and bethanechol as effective sialagogue agents in completely edentulous xerostomic patients. Materials and Methods: A closed label randomized control trial study was conducted among 30 xerostomic complete denture patients who reported to the clinic. Whole resting saliva (WRS) and whole stimulated saliva (WSS) were collected for 2 min in a test tube following which the sialagogue drug is administered for 2–3 weeks course and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: On statistical analysis, there was significant increase in mean salivary production of both the drugs that are pilocarpine and bethanechol, respectively, during the 1st week (P < 0.001). On crossover, pilocarpine was found to be more efficient than bethanechol with respect to both WRS and WSS, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study shows pilocarpine on comparison with Bethanechol is more effective in the management of xerostomia in completely edentulous patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002294
Title: Affordability versus willingness for dental treatment -a survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Financial barriers are an important reason for not being able to see a dentist, but lack of information and awareness about dental treatment acts as a barrier in getting quality dental treatment even among financially strong individuals in our country. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the awareness about dental treatments and willingness to spend for dental treatment among patients as an important factor in determining the treatment plan. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was framed to evaluate the buying capacity of individuals toward comfort and gadgets and their buying capacity when it comes to dental treatment, and the responses were collected using an online surveying tool. Results: A total of 45% visited dentist only after getting pain. 33% received fillings and root canal. Of the 25% who underwent extraction only 10% replaced the extracted teeth. 20% only received consultation and medications and did not turn up for other treatments. Conclusion: People are more willing to spend for gadgets and comfort than the basic dental needs. Most of them are unaware of the fact about regular dental visits and visit the dentist only on getting pain or other severe problems, and show negligence toward spending for other crucial treatments even when the dentist educates them about the need for the treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002295
Title: Evaluation of salivary total proteins, albumin, globulin, and A/G ratio among healthy individuals and patients with chronic pulpitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to estimate the salivary total proteins, albumin, globulin, and A/G ratio in patients with chronic pulpitis. Introduction: Pulpitis is inflammation of dental pulp tissue. The pulp contains the blood vessels, the nerves, and connective tissue inside a tooth and provides the tooth’s blood and nutrients. Pulpitis is mainly caused by bacterial infection leading to toothache. Thus, the estimation of salivary proteins helps in indication of health status of the patient. Materials and Methods: The saliva samples were collected from total of 12 individuals where six samples from normal individuals as control group and six samples from pulpitis patients, and the total protein and albumin levels were estimated through direct biuret method and bromocresol green method, respectively, and the absorbance was estimated using a colorimeter and the specific levels were calculated. Results: From the results obtained, it is clearly inferred that there is a significant decrease in the total protein and globulin levels and increase in albumin levels in the saliva of patients with pulpitis when compared to that of normal individuals and there is an increase in the A/G ratio. Conclusion: Salivary protein and albumin concentrations were determined as markers for plasma protein leakage, occurring as a consequence of the inflammatory process. Hence, this study will help in assessing the pulpal health of the patient by evaluating salivary protein, globulin, and A/G ratio.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00002296
Title: Applications of gene therapy in dentistry - a review
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Change and modification is a continuous process in the advancement of technology. Research is being done to understand the cellular and molecular basis of every disease. In research facilities around the world, scientists are attempting to prevent diseases at their very roots. Most of the conventional methods to treat disease are not giving satisfactory results. Instead of curing illness and diseases with drugs, they are trying to modify the genes that cause the diseases. Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instruction to make proteins. Genetic disorder results when these genes are altered, and their encoded proteins are unable to carry their normal functions. Gene therapy involves the transfer of new genetic material or transformation of the existing material for treating human diseases. Gene therapy is designed to introduce genetic materials into the cell to compensate for abnormal genes or to make a beneficial protein. Gene therapy has a promising era in the field of dentistry. This review highlights various applications of gene therapy in dentistry, especially in areas such as salivary gland disorders, chronic pains, DNA vaccines, bone repair and implantology, head-and-neck cancer, orthodontic treatment, periodontal repair, and tooth regrowth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002297
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practices toward oral hygiene maintenance among patients visiting a dental college
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Poor oral hygiene can lead to dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss. In India, where majority of population resides in rural areas, oral hygiene awareness is very important. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices about oral hygiene maintenance among patients attending Saveetha Dental College for treatment. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted randomly among 200 patients attending outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The study was conducted during the month of January 2018 after taking prior informed consent from the patients who were willing to participate. The self-administered customized close-ended questionnaire written in English was adapted from several studies. The questionnaire consisted of patient name, age, sex, education, and occupation. All aspects of oral health promoting factors including oral hygiene, diet, and awareness regarding oral health and practices were addressed in the questionnaire. Data obtained were statistically analyzed and results obtained. Results: Almost 61% of people experienced bleeding from gums after brushing teeth. Most of the participants (65%) were brushing only once daily, 27.5% were brushing twice daily, 3.5% were brushing occasionally, and only 4% were brushing more than twice daily. 84.5% of the population in the study were not using any interdental aids, 2.5% were using floss, 10% were using toothpick, and 3% were using interdental brush. Conclusion: Overall knowledge, attitude, and practices of the patients regarding oral hygiene maintenance were not satisfactory. Hence, there is a need to educate the general population regarding oral hygiene maintenance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00002298
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding adverse drug reaction reporting among dental students
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously is considered as a cornerstone of pharmacovigilance. However, its success depends on cooperative and motivated health-care professionals. Under-reporting of the ADRs by the health-care professionals is a common problem. Objective: The present study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding ADR reporting among dental students of our institution. Methods: A validated questionnaire of 25 questions regarding the basic knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding ADR reporting was distributed among 200 students randomly belonging to undergraduate (interns) and postgraduate dental programs in Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha University, Chennai. The data extracted were tabulated, statistically analyzed, and results obtained. Results were calculated on the basis of frequencies and percentages using SPSS. Results: 29% and 31.5% of dental students were aware of the definition and the important purpose of pharmacovigilance, respectively. 46.5% were aware of the major risk factor for the occurrence of maximum ADR, 58.5% knew that newly marketed drugs cause unexpected ADRs, and 39.5% were aware that ADR can be reported by health-care professionals, pharmacists, and nurses. Conclusion: According to our study, the knowledge of dental students about ADR reporting and pharmacovigilance was average. Their attitude was neutral but exhibited very less practices regarding ADR reporting. More awareness should be created on the ADR reporting system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002299
Title: Dental implant biomaterials - Newer metals and their alloys
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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In the current treatment modalities for edentulous conditions, dental implants play a pivotal role. Dental implants have gained popularity and often are being opted as a first treatment option. Modern dentistry is beginning to understand, recognize, and employ the benefits of biotechnology in health care sector. The study of material sciences along with the biomechanical sciences provides insight of design and material concepts for surgical implants. The main pre-requisites for the dental implants are appropriate mechanical properties and biocompatibility. It led to the development of materials science and technology, the materials for implant application. In fact, Titanium is widely and successfully used as an implant material primarily. Pure titanium is generally preferred for dental implant because of its excellent biocompatibility. However, failures still exist, in spite of survival rates. New Titanium alloys and surface treatments have been developed, in an attempt to overcome those failures. This review provides information about new Ti-alloys that provide better mechanical properties to the implants. The demand for alternatives with low toxicity, aesthetics and improved mechanical properties made focus on the development of new titanium alloys and tooth-colour implant material. Recently newer materials have been studied and incorporated in dental practice. Extensive research work and advancements in the field of biomaterials available for dental implants are being conducted. Newer implant biomaterials like zirconia, roxolid, surface modified titanium implants are widely researched upon. These materials not only fulfil the functional requirements but are also esthetically pleasing. This literature review will give an outline of the metallic biomaterials used recently and developments yet to be explored in the immediate future, specially focusing on tantalum, niobium, hafnium and their alloys

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002300
Title: Fibroblast growth factor receptor gene expression for early diagnosis and prevention of oral cancer caused by smokeless tobacco
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim was to study the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene expression for early diagnosis and prevention of oral cancer caused by smokeless tobacco (ST). Introduction: Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as ST. The most common ST is chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in ST which have cancer-causing activity. Use of ST has been linked with risk of oral cancer. The FGFR3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called FGFR3. This protein is part of a family of four FGFRs that share similar structures and functions. Result: Statistically significant level was represented by *P value *(0.01–0.05) significant. It was found that FGFR gene was more significantly expressed in people who consume ST. Conclusion: FGFR3 protein is frequently overexpressed in people who consume ST. Although FGFR3 protein expression is not related to overall survival or disease-free survival, this study will help in the early diagnosis of oral cancer caused by ST. Therefore, FGFR3 protein may be an interesting therapeutic target for FGFR3-directed therapies in oral cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002301
Title: Assessment of serum cortisol levels in oral submucous fibrosis patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to find if oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients show significantly higher levels of cortisol than those in an initial clinical stage. Introduction: Oral cancers represent the majority of head-and-neck cancers with more than half million patients being affected each year worldwide. More than 90% are squamous cell carcinomas, which are mostly attributed to exogenous factors such as tobacco smoking and heavy alcohol consumption. This has also lead to the identification of biological markers and effective treatment options. Salivary cortisol measurement is an indicator of free cortisol or biologically active cortisol in human serum and provides noninvasive and easy technique. Cortisol levels can also affect noncancerous patients through physical stress, emotional stress, and illness. The aim of this study is to show a high prevalence in cancerous patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients was recruited from the routine outpatient Department of Periodontics. The nature and rationale of this study were explained to all the participants, and consent was obtained for the same. The study group was divided into three groups with patients without areca nut chewing habits and without OSMF as Group 1, patients with areca nut chewing habits without OSMF as Group 2, and patients with areca nut chewing habits and with OSMF as Group 3. Results: Results are expressed as a mean ± standard error of the mean, n = 3; *P < 0.001, statistically significant as compared to Group 1 and Group 2. Conclusion: The present study also concludes there is a significant increase in serum cortisol levels in oral submucous patients compared to the control group.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002302
Title: Awareness on the effects of skipping breakfast among adolescents
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Breakfast is considered as the important meal of the day. Some college-going students skip breakfast thinking that it reduces body mass index (BMI), but some studies show that breakfast skipping increases BMI. Some other researchers give negative results. Therefore, we are going to analyze the awareness on the effects of skipping breakfast among adolescents. The study was conducted by an online questionnaire survey among a group of 102 adolescents. Breakfast habit (consumed vs. skipped), their exercising habit, socioeconomic status, and health consciousness were obtained. Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based study. A form was circulated among 102 participants under the age of adolescents which included questions regarding their awareness about the effects of skipping breakfast and their personal opinion on skipping breakfast and whether or not they faced any side effects after skipping breakfast. Results were obtained using proper statistical methods, and thus, the awareness on the effects of skipping breakfast among adolescents was studied.Result: From the data, it is clear that there is adequate awareness about the effects of skipping breakfast even though the students mostly skip their breakfast because of their busy scheduled lifestyle.Conclusion: The statistical results of this survey pointed to the fact that majority of the people (especially under the age of adolescents) are not taking their breakfast regularly. Moreover, there is an adverse effect on their health. The most commonly faced effects are fainting and loss of concentration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002303
Title: Knowledge, attitudes, and practice on smoking in adolescents in rural area (Kanchipuram district)
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Adolescence is the stage of significant growth and potential, but it is also considered to be a time of great risk. Globally, cigarette smoking is common among youth. Another serious concern about other tobacco products including pipes, hookahs, smokeless tobacco, or bidis is also commonly used by youth worldwide. Aim: This study aims to estimate the knowledge, attitudes, and practice on smoking habits in adolescents in rural area (Kanchipuram district). Materials and Methods: This research was conducted among the adolescents of Kanchipuram district. The data collection included standardized questionnaires consisting of 10 questions. The survey was conducted among 70 adolescents of Kanchipuram district. Results: The research is showing that fewer young people are taking up smoking overall and the use is relatively low for those up to 15 years old, it is higher for those 16–17 years old. This is important because the majority of adult smokers started as teenagers and is more likely to continue smoking. If tobacco use continues, the risks associated with smoking, particularly to health and fitness - have a large detrimental effect. Conclusion: The current study indicates that adolescents were more likely to smoke to achieve relaxation and self-presentation. This might be due to that numerous college students, particularly male students, experience changes in self-consciousness and interpersonal relationships, and hence, the desire to be recognized just as they believe smoking is associated with independence and maturity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002304
Title: Coincidence of facial midline with dental midline in Chennai population
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to find out the coincidence of facial midline and dental midline in Chennai population. Background: The facial midline is defined by the landmark such as nose, philtrum, and chin aligned in a straight line. It should be in the center of the face and should coincide with the dental midline. The dental midline is the mid-sagittal of maxillary and mandibular arches when teeth are in maximum intercuspation. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 participants are selected inside the Saveetha Dental College institution. The facial and dental midline is observed whether they are coincide or not up to certain millimeter. The facial midline is examined by marking the point at nasion and pognion through the tip of the philtrum. The examination was carried out using a different thread of dental floss for a different patient. Result: The majority of the population has the coincidence of facial midline with the dental midline which is 86% to be exact. Therefore, the remaining 14% of the population has no coincidence of dental midline with facial midline with 10% dental midline shift to the left and 4% dental midline shift to the right. Conclusion: The dental midline and facial midline for the majority of the population are coincided with each other. Therefore, it was concluded that the facial midline can be taken as a reliable guide for the establishment of the maxillary dental midline in Chennai population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002305
Title: Awareness on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and its applications among general dental practitioners: A knowledge, attitude, and practice survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have the potential to minimize inaccuracies in technique and reduce hazards of infectious cross-contamination associated with conventional multistage fabrication of indirect restorations. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of CAD/CAM and its applications among general dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing questions on awareness of CADCAM and its applications were given to a total of 100 general practitioners in Chennai. The data collected were computerized and analyzed statistically. The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics software 23.0 Version. To find the significant difference between the bivariate samples in the independent groups, the unpaired sample t-test was used. For the multivariate analysis, the one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test was used. Results: The results of the survey showed that most people are aware of CADCAM although only few of them have seen or used a CADCAM machine. Almost half of the participants were taught about CADCAM in their educational institutions. The main advantage of CADCAM is that it is time efficient, and the main disadvantage is that it is expensive. Most of the participants felt that CADCAM has a future in dentistry. Conclusion: Although awareness is elicited from a majority of the surveyed dentists, their acceptance and the opportunities to use the CADCAM technology are low. More dentists and institutions should take up CADCAM dentistry as it could play a big part in the future of dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002306
Title: Knowledge, attitude and practice about fully adjustable articulators
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: A dental articulator is an instrument that gives certain important diagnostic information and simulates border movements of the mandible and can be helpful in many aspects of dentistry. The common uses of a fully adjustable articulator in diagnosis, the arrangement of artificial teeth, and the development of the occlusal surfaces of cast fixed restorations. The fully adjustable articulator is the most sophisticatedinstrument in dentistry for duplicating mandibular movement. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was percep knowledge about the fully adjustable articulators in dentistry. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was created to provide knowledge about the fully adjustable articulators and it was distributed among 100 dental practitioners. The dental practitioners included both under graduates and post graduates. The statistics of the questionnaire was collected and the results were tabulated. After collecting the questionnaire a basic idea about of fully adjustable articulators was given. Result: The study shows that only few people (16%) are using fully adjustable articulators in a regular basis, while most of the practitioners are not aware of it. Majority (40%) of them would probably recommend the usage of fully adjustable articulators. Majority of the practitioners (28%) were likely to buy an fully adjustable articulator. Conclusion: Several authors highlight the importance of utilization of articulators in dental practice. Dental professionals should always make use of fully adjustable articulators in cases of extensive oral rehabilitation, since this may interfere with the mastication of patients and cause even greater damage, instead of solving any existing problem. From this study we come to know that most of the dental practitioners recommend the usage of fully adjustable articulators. Hence fully adjustable articulators should be used in a regular basis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002308
Title: Effectiveness of intraligamental anesthesia in controlling the hyperesthesia during tooth preparation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Efficient pain management is crucially important for a dental procedure to be successful. The fear of dental pain is so strong in some patients that it makes them decline treatment. A local anesthesia which is administered painlessly and efficaciously is absolutely important in the management of pain and the fear-induced anxiety states. Intraligament anesthesia is commonly used to control hyperesthesia during tooth preparation as it is efficient and easy to perform. It is preferred in treatment procedures involving the mandibular teeth. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraligament anesthesia in controlling hyperesthesia during tooth preparation. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 12 (male = 8, female = 4) partially edentulous patients to Saveetha Dental College requesting fixed prosthodontic treatment. The patients were randomly allocated in two groups, Groups A and B, respectively. Group A was intraligament infiltration and Group B was subperiosteal infiltration. The intraligament infiltration was administered using an insulin syringe containing lignocaine hydrochloride 2% with adrenaline 1:80000 and a 30-gauge needle at buccal (mesiobuccal), lingual, mesial, and distal aspect of the tooth to be prepared. After the administration of injection, the patient underwent tooth preparation and graded hypersensitivity during tooth preparation in a visual analog scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 100. Result: The mean VAS scores for intraligamental and superiosteal infiltration were 1.83 ± 0.77 and1.66 ± 0.69, respectively. Mann–Whitney U-test was performed to assess the differences between the means at 5% significance, and no statistically significant difference between both the techniques was observed. Conclusion: This study inferred both intraligament infiltration and subperiosteal infiltration were equally effective in controlling hypersensitivity during tooth preparation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002309
Title: Awareness on the effects of swimming on children undergoing orthodontic treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to analysis on the effect of swimming among the children undergoing orthodontic treatments. Introduction: Dental braces are devices used in orthodontic that align and straighten the teeth and help to position them with regard to a person’s bite, while also aiming to improve the dental health. They are often used to correct underbites, as well as malocclusion, overbites, open bites, deep bites, crossbite, crooked teeth, and various other flaws of the teeth and jaw. Braces can be either cosmetic or structural. Orthodontic braces are often used in conjunction with other orthodontic appliances to help widen the palate or jaws and to otherwise assist in shaping the teeth and jaws. Materials and Methods: It includes a questionnaire-based study. The survey was conducted among 100 healthy children’s undergoing orthodontics treatment as well as going for swimming regularly, and the data were collected and statistically analyzed. The survey was conducted through survey planet. Results: Nearly 40–50% of children do not encounter any breathing difficulties with braces. Whereas, after swimming, 57% of children found tiredness on the jaw and scratches on lips and cheeks due to pressure. Furthermore, 55% of children face the problem when water flows in between braces and teeth, which disturbs or distracts them during the swimming. Conclusion: The survey has created awareness on the effects of swimming among the children undergoing orthodontic treatments and this survey evidence that children who regularly swim found some minor problems due to the orthodontic braces.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002310
Title: Awareness on anorexia and dietary habits among teenagers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to create awareness about anorexia among adolescents who are experiencing eating disorder and its prevalence in our society. Introduction: Anorexia nervosa is a disorder of restricted energy intake, having intense fear of gaining weight and has self-perception of their body image. The reason behind the development of anorexia might vary from person to person. Restrictive dieting and excessive workout are the main onset of anorexia. Recent studies say that males and females both are affected in equal numbers. The symptoms are low self-esteem and perfection. Materials and Methods: It is the questionnaire-based online survey done using the link created in surveyplanet. This survey was taken by 100 participants. All the participants were adolescents who were under the age group of 12–19 years. Result: In this modern and developing society, the trend has been changed. Many prefer to be fit and attractive.To maintain their weight, they choose methods which spoil their health. This leads to a unhealthy society. Hence, a good lifestyle changes and healthy balanced diet might help them to have a good physique in their own favor. Conclusion: In today’s society, many teenagers/adolescents are pressurized of having good-looking appearance. It is necessary to spread awareness to sustain a healthy future generation. Continuous intake of medications and correct treatment might help them to get out from this eating disorder gradually. Finally, a good lifestyle changes and healthy habits will lead to a better improvement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002311
Title: Assessment of position and size of nasopalatine duct in dentulous and edentulous patients using cone-beam computed tomography: A retrospective study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Locating the nasopalatine duct while placing the implants helps in preserving the contents of the duct, reducing the risk of paresthesia of the anterior maxilla. Not many clinicians consider the importance of nasopalatine duct and cause discomfort for the patient. Aim: The aim of this study was to do a retrospective study and assess the position and size of the nasopalatine duct using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in dentulous and edentulous cases in Indian population. Materials and Methods: For the study, 50 CBCT of both dentulous and edentulous patients are taken from the Department of Implantology. The nasopalatine canal is identified and measured with a specific landmark in the CBCTs. Results: As per the gathered data, the evaluated population has an age ranging from 23 years to 80 years and of which 15 are male and 9 are female. The mean value of the canal from the anterior wall of the foramen to the anterior nasal spine in males is 14.69 mm and in females is 12.74 mm. Conclusion: This study would show the average location and size of the nasopalatine duct in the Indian population helping in assessing it while implant placement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002312
Title: Vascular activity of protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol, the major saponin fractions isolated from roots of Panax notoginseng
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Panax notoginseng (PN) (Burk) F. H. Chen (Araliacea) is a Chinese herb commonly known in Asia for its medicinal potentials, antihypertensive included. The aim of this study was to investigate the vasorelaxant activity of protopanaxadiol (PDS) and protopanaxatriol (PTS), the major saponin fractions isolated from roots of PN, and identify the underlying mechanisms on isolated rat aortic rings. Methods: Radnoti Tissue-Organ bath instrument (ADInstruments) was used to perform Tissue-Organ bath experiments, and tensions produced on isolated rat aortic rings were recorded by the help of ADInstruments PowerLab 8/30 system (Model ML 870, Australia). Results: Both PDS and PTS (10−6 −10−3 µg / ml) induced concentration-dependent relaxations in intact rat aortic rings pre-contracted with norepinephrine (1 µM).This activity was considerably reduced after removal of the endothelium and in intact rings pre-treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μM), 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-α]-quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ, 10 μM), and combination of L-NAME and ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin (10 μM) did not affect either PDS- or PTS-induced relaxations. Furthermore, both PDS and PTS (10−4 and 10−3 µg /ml) decreased CaCl 2 - and potassium chloride (KCL)-induced vasoconstrictions in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that both PDS and PTS produced vasorelaxant effect that was mediated by NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate in intact rings and by blockade of calcium influx in vascular smooth muscle. Cyclooxygenase pathway, on the other hand, had no apparent role. Among these fractions, PDS showed better effect with a slight difference. Conclusion: Findings from this study showed that both PDS and PTS fractions possess vasorelaxant activity. This supports the potential use of PN in management of cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002313
Title: Awareness on intake of fiber among adolescents - A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Dietary fiber is an important part of a healthy diet. It is defined as a food material, particularly plant material, that is not hydrolyzed by enzymes secreted by the human digestive tract but that may be digested by microflora in the gut. Plant components include non-starch polysaccharides such as celluloses, some hemicelluloses, gums, and pectins, as well as lignin, resistant dextrins, and resistant starches. Materials and Methods: The survey was administered through a questionnaire to the participants who volunteered for the study. The questionnaire consists of questions pertaining to the intake of fiber in the diet among adolescence. The questionnaire was administered through SurveyPlanet link. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: 87% consume dietary fiber that is an important component of daily nutritional requirement. 55% of the adolescents are aware of the ill effects of excessive fiber intake. The absence of fiber in their diet may cause weight gain, constipation, and heart problems. Conclusion: This study may provide a very good insight on the fiber intake and food habits of adolescents. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002314
Title: Knowledge, attitudes, and practice on smoking habits in adolescents in semi-urban areas (Kanchipuram district)
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. It is a secular country, but the Hindus form the majority. Hinduism traditionally advocates abstinence from all intoxicants. Even then, India is the third largest producer and consumer of tobacco in the world. The country has a long history of tobacco use. Tobacco is used in a variety of ways in India; its use has unfortunately been well recognized among the adolescents. Aim: This study aims to estimate the knowledge, attitudes, and practice on smoking habits in adolescents in semi-urban area (Kanchipuram district). Materials and Methods: This research was conducted among the adolescents of Kanchipuram district. The data collection included standardized questionnaires consisting of 10 questions. The survey was conducted among 84 adolescents of Kanchipuram district. Results: Cigarette smoking is common in urban areas. Both locally manufactured and imported brands of cigarettes are available. However, because of relatively higher cost of cigarettes as compared to other forms of tobacco, cigarette smoking is more common among the upper and middle socioeconomic classes than among the poor population. Conclusion: Tobacco use by parents or an elder sibling increases the likelihood that a child begins smoking. As an example, many Indian fathers and grandfathers frequently ask the boys to fetch beedis or cigarettes from a nearby shop or kiosk. By this way, children are often introduced to such products at their very early life stages.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002315
Title: Vitis setosa: An ethnobotanical review
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The current context of research in the field of pharmacy is experiencing a shift toward natural medicine and to the vegetal products with curative properties. The volume of scientific information in the field of phytopharmacy has doubled in the past decade, along with the improvement of the equipment and analytical methods necessary for such determination of the active principles of plants. This ultra-fast development of methods of investigation is sustained by extensive researches which seek new resources yet uninvestigated. Although traditional medicine uses the full therapeutic potential of native plants that are extremely common in the flora of India, they are less valued at a therapeutical level in the pharmaceutical industry. These species, if it is found to be rich in secondary metabolites and is widespread in indigenous flora can provide cheap alternatives resources. This article summarizes the list of activities carried out or studied on the plant Vitis setosa. The plant V. setosa is screened and reported to have 26 bioactive components and major phytochemicals such as carotenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, Tannins, and Saponins. V. setosa is reported to exhibit antinociceptive activity, antimicrobial activity, antidiabetic activity, antiulcer activity, and antioxidant activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00002316
Title: Antimicrobial efficacy of novel dye-containing versus non-dye-containing dentifrice on orthodontic patients - A double-blind randomized clinical trial
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Maintenance of good oral hygiene is important for everyone, and when it comes to the orthodontic patient, it is even more critical. The major contributing factor for dental caries and white spots lesions among orthodontic patients will be dental plaque bacteria. Braces or other appliances make it harder to remove plaque. Hence, efficient plaque removal promotes oral hygiene. This can be achieved by the use of toothpaste containing plaque indicating dye which will demonstrate higher plaque removal efficacy than those using non-dye-containing toothpaste. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of dye containing toothpaste and disclosing tablets on oral microbial flora among the orthodontic adults. Methodology: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted among 20 orthodontic adults . Subject were randomly allocated to two groups. Group I - (experimental group) dye containing toothpaste, Group II - (negative control) toothpaste without dye. Oral hygiene instructions, brushing techniques and use of standardized toothbrush were explained to all participants. Plaque samples were evaluated for Streptococcus mutans at baseline, 15th day of follow-up. Wilcoxon signed-rank test used to compare the mean differences before and after treatment within each group for plaque S. mutans colony counts. Mann–Whitney U-test to estimate differences in the mean S. mutans colony counts between the groups. Results: A statistically significant reduction in the means S. mutans counts in plaque was found to be more in Group I when compared to Group II. Conclusion: Toothbrushing with a toothpaste containing plaque-indicating dye, combined with proper use instructions, significantly increases plaque removal efficacy and ultimately decreases the S. mutans count.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002317
Title: Awareness on nutritional value of seafoods in daily diet
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Food that is obtained from sea, which may include varieties of fish, crustaceans, echinoderms, and molluscs. Seafood is protein rich and low in saturated fat. Fishes are rich in omega 3-fatty acids which are a good fat for our body. Since the human body cannot synthesize significant amount of omega 3-fatty acids, fish are an important part of the diet. Furthermore, fish are low in the “bad” fats commonly found in red meat, called omega-6 fatty acids. The omega-3s which are present in fishes appear to provide the greatest health benefits. Fish that are high in omega-3 fatty acid are low in environmental contaminants and help in maintaining cardiovascular health. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted for 100 people, in which they were asked a questionnaire through online survey in surveyplanet.com, the questionnaire included 10 questions which took into account whether they consume seafood or not, do they take seafood daily in their diet or occasionally or none at all. Whether they like bony fishes or cartilaginous fishes more, do they take any supplements related to seafood such as cod liver oil and omega 3-fatty acids. Are they having any allergy toward any specific seafood or not? Results: It was seen after assessment that 59.8% of them takes fish daily in their diet, 13.8% do not take fish at all. 60.9% of them takes both small as well as big fish. 10.3% takes only big fishes and 13.8% takes only small fishes. 66.7% of the people take both bony and cartilaginous fishes, 2.3% of them takes only cartilaginous fishes, and 9.2% takes only bony fishes. 66.7% of them are allergic to seafood. 44.8% people suffer from osteoporosis due to lack of seafood nutrients deficiency in their diet. Conclusion: From this survey, we may conclude that although many people are having seafoods in their daily diet, yet they do not take variety in their diet. Many of them suffer from osteoporosis and joint pain which means lack of calcium and phosphorus in their body. Seafood has a great importance in maintaining cardiovascular health, it was seen that most of them take seafood daily in their diet.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: June
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002318
Title: Green synthesized silver nanoparticles as an antimicrobial agent in dentistry
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Silver ions or salts are known to have an antimicrobial effect, and they have been used for years in different fields of medicine, dentistry, and prosthetics. With the advent of nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized, and they have shown potent antimicrobial properties. Nanoparticles can be synthesized using various approaches including chemical, physical, and biological methods. The need for environmental non-toxic synthetic protocols for nanoparticles synthesis leads to the developing interest in biological approaches which are free from the use of toxic chemicals. Thus, there is an increasing demand for “green nanotechnology.” This article reviews the proposed use of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against oral microbes which form biofilms on acrylic denture surfaces.