Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002416
Title: Attitude toward dental communication skills among students in a south indian dental college
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the dental student’s attitude toward dental communication skills among students in a South Indian dental college. Objectives: The treatment planning and the patient satisfaction mostly depend on the effective communication between the doctor and the patients. Hence, the main objectives of our study were to assess the attitude of dental students toward dental communication skills. Materials and Methods: Dental undergraduate students were asked to complete a questionnaire to assess the dental student’s attitude toward communication skill. Demographic data were also included in the study. Result: The results indicated that the students generally have positive attitudes toward learning effective dental communication skills. Conclusion: Dental communication skill should be a part of the dental curriculum to enhance the doctor–patient communication, which leads to better treatment outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002433
Title: A review of materials used in maxillofacial prosthesis - part 2
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Various maxillofacial prosthetic materials have been instrumental in the rehabilitation of maxillofacial defects created by disease or trauma. This is the second part of a two-part article reviewing materials used for fabrication of the maxillofacial prosthesis. While the first part dealt with classification, properties, ideal requirements, and also reviewed in detail some of the materials, this article discusses the widely used silicone elastomers as a maxillofacial prosthetic material.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002417
Title: Perception and knowledge of clinical dental students about comprehensive management for successful dental treatment
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Various departments of many dental colleges in India have been functioning as separate entities with limited coordination between them. Purpose: A pilot study was undertaken with an aim to assess the perception and knowledge of clinical dental students toward multidisciplinary treatment and coordination for successful dental treatment. Subjects and Methods: Dental interns from a south Indian dental college participated in the study. A 17-item, self-administered, structured, closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect the data. Four questions assessed their perception and 13 questions assessed their knowledge. Results: Among 100 interns who participated in the study, 92% reported that they lacked training in an interdisciplinary approach. Approximately, 84% reported that the curriculum should be designed to include interdisciplinary training. Nearly, 70% reported that specialists from different specialties should be posted in one interdisciplinary department. Around 74% reported that they did not have the confidence of treating the patient comprehensively. When the overall mean scores were considered, the highest scores were obtained for endodontic-related questions (95.3) and the lowest for orthodontic-related questions (83.6). Conclusions: Dental interns perceived that they lacked training in a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Hence, dental colleges should include interdisciplinary treatment as part of the undergraduate course.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002379
Title: Comparison of anti-plaque efficacy of green tea, herbal, and chlorhexidine mouthrinse in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by loss of connective tissue, alveolar bone resorption, and formation of periodontal pockets. The onset or progression of periodontal diseases can be controlled by regular plaque control practices in orthodontic patients. Mouthwashes are a safe and effective delivery system for antimicrobials and can play an important role in plaque reduction. Thus, this study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of green tea and herbal mouthwashes over the gold standard, that is, chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: The study conducted was a triple- blinded, randomized, controlled, parallel clinical trial. The patients wearing orthodontic fixed appliance (n = 32) with age range of 12–30 years were included in the study. The mouthwashes were provided to the subjects in an amber bottle labeled A, B, and C by the dental personnel. Randomization and allocation concealment was performed. The blinded reviewer examined the patient and derived their plaque index scores for every subsequent visit at days 3, 7, and 14. Results: The results from one-way ANOVA at days 3, 7, and 14 showed that there is significant difference in the anti-plaque score among the mouthwashes with P = 0.000. The post-hoc comparison observed that herbal mouthwashes and chlorhexidine had significantly better anti-plaque efficacy when compared to the green tea extract mouthwash on follow-up days 7 and 14. Conclusion: This study concluded that herbal mouthwash and chlorhexidine rinse have shown similar anti-plaque results. Green tea extract mouthwash showed lesser anti-plaque efficacy when compared to chlorhexidine and herbal mouthwash.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002380
Title: Infection control in the dental office - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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In a dental setup, the patient’s saliva mixed with blood, pus, plaque, and sulcular fluid is often aerosolized and spattered, thus exposing the dental professional to potential infectious agents. This is because microorganisms are always mixed with these body materials and cause infectious and transmissible disease, most common of which are common cold, herpes, hepatitis, and AIDS. It, therefore, becomes mandatory for the dental professional to follow the universal precautions and treat every patient as being potentially infectious. The dentist must hence be aware of these precautions and should mandatorily follow the infection control protocol in his dental setup. An aerosol is a suspension of solid or liquid particles in air or another gaseous environment. Sources of bacterial aerosols exist within and outside the dental clinic. The generation of bacterial aerosols and splatters appears to be highest during dental procedures. The use of rotary dental and surgical instruments and air-water syringes generates a visible infectious spray that encloses large-particle spatter of water, saliva, microorganisms, blood, and other debris. Several infectious diseases could be transmitted to staff and patients by airborne bacterial, viral and other contaminants in the dental clinic. This review elaborates about infection control and prevention in the dental office.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002381
Title: Self-medication with antibiotics among dental undergraduate students
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental students are future prescribers of drugs and so it is important to find out how rational their drug use is. They differ from the general population because of the existing knowledge of common medicine prescribed and knowledge of pharmacology taught as a subject in the 2nd year of undergraduate program; there are high chances that the dental students may indulge in self-medication practices. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the practices of self-medicated antibiotics among undergraduate students of our institution. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during the academic year January 2018 in Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai. A validated structured questionnaire of 14 questions to assess the students’ knowledge levels, attitude, awareness, and practices regarding self-medication with antibiotics was distributed among 100 students randomly belonging to the 3rd year and intern students of Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. The data extracted were tabulated, statistically analyzed, and results obtained. Results were calculated on the basis of frequencies and percentages using SPSS. Results: About 45% of students used the same prescription of the family members in obtaining antibiotics. 63% of students were not aware of the term antibiotic resistance. Only 26% of participants were able to correctly identify that antibiotics treat bacterial infection. 75% of students replied that an antibiotic will always be useful for the same infection in future. 68% of respondents were confident enough in treating themselves with self-medicated antibiotics for their illness. Conclusion: According to our study, compared to the 3rd year students, self- medication in interns was highly prevalent. Hence, it is important to increase awareness and promote safe practice on self- medication with antibiotics to prevent the emergence of antibiotic resistance and other untoward effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002382
Title: Impact on prosthodontic needs at the time and after tooth loss
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Tooth loss can cause many changes to an individual; it can be a functional, esthetic, psychological, and social impact. Patient choices on receiving prosthodontic treatment can vary accordingly. Factors such as location of absent teeth, age, gender, impaired function, discomfort, and dissatisfaction with appearance play an important role in decision-making. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the patient self-perceived impact and prosthodontic needs at the time and after tooth loss. Materials and Methods: Prospective cohort study was designed which involved questionnaires at the time of extraction and after extractions. About 120 random patients were selected and ensured they are recalled after extraction. Patient’s self- perception was examined by a questionnaire that includes questions about functional, esthetic, and psychological impacts associated with tooth loss and need for prosthodontic treatment. Statistically, the data were analyzed. Results: Patients perception of impact associated with dental concern is high at the time of extraction is 79.2%. Patients perception of impact associated with dental concern is low as 65% after extraction majority of the patients in our study gave economic reasons for not replacing teeth. 50.9% of patients expressed a desire for immediate reposition. About 93.3% of patient had chewing difficulty after extraction has been done. Conclusion: The present results may serve as a baseline for the future evaluation of attitudes toward the replacement of teeth. The findings indicate that awareness needs to be created regarding the other functions of teeth such as esthetics and phonetics because many subjects in this study were only aware of the masticatory function performed by teeth, especially among individuals in the lower socioeconomic group.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002383
Title: Immediate extraction, immediate dental implant placement, and immediate loading - A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Most advanced way to replace missing teeth is dental implant, which is designed to replicate the natural tooth root and crown of the natural tooth. This procedure preserves the gingival mucosa and bone with no damage to adjacent teeth. Conventional procedure for implant placement involves extraction of offending tooth, waiting 2–4 months for extraction socket to heal, insertion of implant, and again waiting for 3–6 months for integration of implant with surrounding bone; after this procedure, another surgery is necessary to expose the implant and to place a prosthetic abutment. Taking into consideration the prosthetic treatment, the patient had to wait up to 8–12 months for a lost tooth to be replaced. Due to these shortcomings related to conventional technique, strategies were developed to substantially shorten the entire treatment by placement of implant immediately after extraction of tooth followed by immediate loading of implant with prosthesis. Therefore, the aim of this case report is to overcome the time-consuming factor involved in the conventional technique by successful immediate implant placement and loading with a follow-up of 2 years. Accordingly, a comprehensive treatment involving the placement of six implant-supported porcelain bridge for maxilla and mandible was planned for the patient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002384
Title: A knowledge, attitude, and practice survey on “the methodology followed in the fabrication of fixed partial denture amongst private practitioners”
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: With various treatment modalities coming up for replacement of missing teeth in the field of dentistry, fixed partial denture (FPD) remains the most sought option after dental implants. Preparation of abutment teeth and fabrication of FPD have an established protocol as instructed in the dental school which must be meticulously followed. Aim: In this study, we aim at probing practitioners’ attitude toward this established protocol and its application in their day-to-day practice. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a pre-tested structured questionnaire containing 11 composite choice-based questions among 100 practicing dentists on the management of failed complete veneer crowns over short clinical abutments. Pertinent data were extracted and analyzed. Results: Nearly 50% of the surveyed population employed crown-root ratio as a diagnostic parameter to determine the prognosis of the FPD while the remaining 50% of the population were sparsely distributed among other groups. While 35% of the population advised intentional root canal treatment (RCT) for cases with clinical symptoms, an equal proportion of 32% advised intentional RCT for all cases. 61% of the population agreed to not doing cord packing clinically as compared to a minor 39% who perform it for precision in impression. While 56% of the population agreed to perform tooth preparation with the placement of depth orientation groups, an alarmingly equal 44% stated that they performed only minimal buccal and lingual preparation. 45% of the surveyed participants felt that it was the luting cement that accounted majorly for retention. Conclusion: The knowledge, awareness level, and their application in clinical practice showed significant variation. This survey indicates most private practitioners advocate RCTs for abutment teeth, which are vital and prefer under preparation of the abutment teeth for avoiding pulp exposure. They also prefer to record impressions without any gingival retraction. Clinicians depending on dental cement for the long-term survival of the FPD rather than on the quality of the tooth preparation are a remarkable outcome of the survey. The private practitioners, in their FPD practice, definitely deviate from the recommended clinical protocols.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-CDRS-00002385
Title: Isolation of chitosan from fish scales of Catla catla and synthesis, characterization and screening for larvicidal potential of chitosan-based silver nanoparticles
Category: Clinical Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background and Objectives: Chitosan is the major component present in fish scales and crustacean shell waste. Chitosan was isolated from scales of fish waste of Catla (Catla catla) by chemical method involving demineralization, deproteinization, and deacetylation. Methods: Chitosan isolated from fish scales was confirmed qualitatively by Richard’s method. Further, it was quantitatively analyzed and was found to contain 6 g of chitosan (100 g of dried fish scales). Chitosan had been characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. A new method of preparing silver nanoparticles combined with chitosan is used here. It was characterized using ultraviolet and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential of chitosan- based silver nanoparticles against Culex (III instar) and Anopheles (IV instar) was screened, and biochemical parameters of the larval tissues were also estimated. Results: Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase content were found to be decreased in the treated larval tissues when compared to the control in both mosquito species. Conclusions: Decreased levels of biochemical contents are indicating the high toxic capacity of chitosan silver nanoparticles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00002386
Title: Estimation of fluoride content in the drinking water in Chennai - A pilot study
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Eradication of caries is one of the most challenging tasks in this era where consumption of cariogenic diet is a part of every individual’s lifestyle. Fluoride is element found in drinking water that has the potential to make the tooth resistant to the same. However, an optimal level of this ion is necessary to work its magic. Fluoridation of water is a basic procedure that ensures the presence of precise amount of fluoride content in the drinking water so as to provide systemic and local benefits. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the fluoride content in the drinking water in Chennai city. Methods and Materials: To carry out this pilot study, samples of drinking water were collected from the sources near the water bodies from other random places in Chennai. A total of 25 samples were collected five from Retteri, five from Chembarambakkam, five from Adyar, and 10 from random places in Chennai. It was ensured that the source of water was primarily groundwater, and the water was not subjected through any filtration process. Each sample was 100 ml in volume. They were collected in polyether jar and were subjected to analysis. Result: The results of the study highlighted that the fluoride content in groundwater samples obtained from Rettari was 0.46 ± 0.11 mg/L, Chembarambakkam was 0.49 ± 0.10 mg/L, Adyar was 0.56 ± 0.13 mg/L, Anna Nagar was 0.53 ± 0.10 mg/L, Vadapalani was 0.54 ± 0.15 mg/L, Royapurum was 0.64 ± 0.20 mg/L, and Madavaram was 0.4 ± 0.11 mg/L, respectively. A mean value of 0.51 ± 0.14 mg/L was obtained, thus indicating that the fluoride content in water in Chennai is less than optimal level, 1.5 mg/L as prescribed by the World Health Organization. There was no statistically significant difference present between the various regions in Chennai with respect to the fluoride content in groundwater (F = 0.9322, P > 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that in Chennai, groundwater has less than optimal amount of fluoride, and hence, the incidence of caries may seem to be increased. Further, the results of this study can be used as basis to initiate future studies that could correlate the amount of fluoride in the drinking water and the dental caries index or could also render a helping hand in devising a standard of water fluoridation that would potentially lower the caries risk in a given area without any major shortcomings.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002387
Title: Assessment of cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Introduction: Cytokines play a major role in the majority of the metabolic and biological processes in our body. Some of the functions performed by them are in the embryonic development, in the pathogenesis of a disease, stem cell differentiation, allograft rejection, etc., the cytokines are the molecules that are involved in cell signaling during immune responses and help in the movement of the cells to the site of injury or trauma. Materials and Methods: HGFs were obtained from a commercial source (ScienCell) and were maintained in serum-free fibroblast medium as recommended by the manufacturer. Cells were obtained at passage one and propagated in T-75 flasks. Cells were trypsinized and replated as needed for experiments. Estimation of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-1 beta was estimated by ELISA method. Results: The IL-6 levels in serum-free fibroblast were about 1 pg/ml and that present in HGF cells were significantly much higher. The increase of IL-1 beta in HGF cells when compared to the serum-free fibroblast was high. Conclusion: Compared to healthy gingiva, gingival tissues and gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis are reported to have significantly increased amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002388
Title: Awareness about latex allergy among dental practitioners in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the awareness about latex allergy among dental practitioners in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: A total of 247 dental practitioners in the Chennai city comprised the sample. A questionnaire comprising 20 responses was used. Results: The present study revealed that 68.01% of them are aware of signs and symptoms of latex allergy and 7.69% dentists are allergic to latex. More than 70% of dental clinics in Chennai are not equipped with Medical Emergency Kit. Conclusion: Allergic reactions to latex occur in significant numbers among dental practitioners, and they must become aware of the processes which limit exposure to latex and promptly address the adverse skin reactions. To ensure safe practice, health-care professionals must understand the source of latex allergies and must follow precise guidelines during practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002389
Title: Relationship between maxillary sinus floor and the apices of maxillary posterior teeth - A cone beam computed tomography study
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the average distance from the maxillary sinus to the root apex of the maxillary posterior teeth using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: The study samples were randomly collected from Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Department, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. The dental CBCT images were collected from 20 patients and were used to assess the distance between the root apices of maxillary posterior teeth and the floor of maxillary sinus. Results: The mean distance of the root apex from the sinus floor was maximum for the maxillary first premolar (5.59 mm), followed by the second premolar (1.68 mm), the first molar (0.51 mm), and the second molar (0.31 mm). It was also found that the average distance was the shortest for the mesiobuccal root of maxillary molars followed by the palatal and the distobuccal root. Conclusion: The results from our study suggest that the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary molar is in close proximity to the floor of the sinus than the other tooth/root. Knowledge of anatomical relationship between the maxillary posterior teeth and maxillary sinus guides us not only in proper pre-operative treatment planning but also avoids the possible complications encountered while performing the minor oral surgical procedures involving maxillary posterior teeth, which are in close proximity to the maxillary sinus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002390
Title: Role of cytokines and neutrophil infiltration in adults and juvenile forms of periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the role of cytokines and neutrophil infiltration in adult and juvenile forms of periodontitis. Introduction: Periodontitis, also known as gum disease and pyorrhea, is a set of inflammatory diseases affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth. Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Periodontitis is caused by microorganisms that adhere to and grow on the tooth’s surfaces, along with an over-aggressive immune response against these microorganisms. Periodontitis has been linked to increased inflammation in the body, such as indicated by raised levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin (IL)-6. Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins that are important in cell signaling. Their release has an effect on the behavior of cells around them. Thus, this study aims to assess the relation. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of patients, n = 50, diagnosed with adult periodontitis, juvenile periodontitis, and healthy individuals with no systemic or oral diseases. An in vitro study was done by performing peripheral blood smear, neutrophil infiltration, and monocyte clustering with the given sample. Result: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-10, and neutrophil infiltration were found to be significantly higher in adult periodontitis when compared to that of juvenile periodontitis. Results are expressed as mean ± standard error mean, n = 3. *P<0.001, statistically significant as compared with healthy control: P < 0.01, statistically significant as compared with adult periodontitis control. Among periodontitis participants, adult periodontitis exhibited a significant positive correlation between the TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10. Conclusion: Cytokines play an important role in inflammation. Severity of periodontal disease increases more in adult patients, while no increased risk of periodontal disease or its severity was observed among juvenile patients. There is an increased cytokines level in adult periodontitis than that of juvenile periodontitis. The present study was undertaken to examine the combined profile of cytokines among individuals with or without periodontitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002391
Title: Adjunctive effect of probiotic (Lactobacillus casei Shirota) to scaling and root planing in the management of chronic periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the adjunctive effect of probiotic (Lactobacillus casei Shirota) to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the management of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 systemically healthy patients within the age group of 30–60 years suffering from chronic periodontitis were selected and randomly assigned by the flip of a coin into control group (Group 1) who received SRP alone, test group (Group 2) who received SRP and probiotic administration. The following parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline and after 1 month. Subgingival plaque samples were collected before the treatment and after the treatment. Aerobic culture was done. The samples were serially diluted and incubated in nutrient Agar media for 48 h at 37°C and colony-forming units (CFUs) were assessed. Paired t-test was used to statistically evaluate the results obtained. Results: The clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing pocket depths were significantly reduced in the test group in comparison to the control group. There was significant reduction in the total CFU/ml in test group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Probiotics could be beneficial when used as an adjunct to SRP in the management of chronic periodontitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00002392
Title: Antibacterial activity of root extracts of Verbascum sinaiticum against multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae family Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacteria
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Verbascum sinaiticum belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae have been used as traditional medicine in Ethiopia for curing various types of infectious disease. In developing countries like Ethiopia, declared an alarming to increasing the antibiotic resistance to some of the pathogenic bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli to making resistance issue a big concern. Therefore, scientists forced to search for new antibacterial agents from the medicinal plants. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of root extracts of V. sinaiticum against four Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae family and two Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecali and Bacillus subtilis and phytochemical (secondary metabolites) screening of V. sinaiticum root extracts exhibiting in vitro antibacterial activities. Materials and Methods: The roots of V. sinaiticum was extracted with solvents of varying polarity, namely diethyl ether, chloroform, acetone, and ethanol. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against multidrug- resistant family and two selected Gram-positive bacteria by Agar well-diffusion method. Results: V. sinaiticum root organic extracts (VSRDE, VSRCH, VSRAC, and VSRET) show moderate in vitro antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, among all the extracts, acetone root extract of V. sinaiticum (VSRAC) shown broad spectrum of in vitro antibacterial activity against tested both Gram-positive bacteria B. subtilis (7–8 mm) and Gram-negative bacteria E. aerogenes (7–10 mm), E. coli (8–10 mm), and Vibrio cholera (7–10 mm) and ethanol root extract of V. sinaiticum (VSRET) shown narrow spectrum in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria E. coli (7–11 mm). The in vitro antibacterial activity of acetone and ethanolic root organic extracts of V. sinaiticum was due to the presence of plant-derived antimicrobial agents, such as tannins and phenolic compounds, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins, which could have attributed to the recorded promising narrow and broad spectrum of antibacterial activities. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the acetone root extract of V. sinaiticum (VSRAC) could serve as a potential source of natural antibacterial agents for the development of therapeutic antibiotics helpful in preventing the treatment of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae family and without having any side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002393
Title: A study on histology and clinical symptoms in eroded human teeth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The present study was done to evaluate the histological status of primary second molar with caries involvement. Histological findings are correlated with clinical assessment. The chronically inflamed pulp generally gives no severe symptoms and is usually exposed by caries, but a painful shock may result when food is forced into the cavity. The exposure of cervical dentine has a multifactorial etiology and pain may frequently be elicited by a number of stimuli. Hence, the aim of this study is to correlate the relationship between clinical symptoms and histopathological findings in eroded teeth. Materials and Methods: Simple experimental study was conducted in eroded human teeth. The selected teeth were embedded and tooth wear was analyzed. The clinical and histological signs and symptoms were being compared on these teeth. Histologic assessment and clinical evaluation were done. Pepsin, salivary urea, and calcium nodules were assessed. Results: Histological findings in the control and disrupted fibers, osteoclasts (arrow) were observed on the tension side. It shows less calcium nodules in eroded teeth compared to normal teeth. The eroded human teeth sample showed higher pepsin content when compared to the healthy subject. When compared about the salivary urea concentration, the eroded human teeth showed higher values than the healthy subject. Conclusion: This study thus shows that pepsin and urea play an important role in erosion. Histologic examination analyzed calcium nodules in red staining as well.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002394
Title: Awareness on balanced diet and eating practices among college students - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: A balanced diet is one that provides the body with all the essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals required to maintain cells, tissues, and organs as well as to function correctly. A diet that is lacking in nutrients can lead to many different health problems ranging from tiredness and lack of energy to serious problems with the function of vital organs and lack of growth and development. The number of calories in a food is a measurement of the amount of energy stored in that food. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire was prepared and survey was conducted among college students about balanced diet and eating practices, and data were collected. The survey was prepared on survey planet and was circulated among students. The survey was conducted among 110 students. Results: About 82.4% of the college students are already aware of balanced diet. Most of the college students say that their snacking is always junk and fast food, but still, they wanted to maintain a balanced diet to stay healthy. Hence, many students are aware of balanced diet and their eating practices. Conclusion: The survey was conducted among 110 students from that most of the college students are aware of balanced diet but still consume junk as their snack, which is about 59.6%, and have unhealthy eating practices. I think they should consult a nutritionist so that they would attain a balanced diet.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002395
Title: Attitude of schoolchildren on the use of gadgets on academics
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to conduct a survey on attitude of schoolchildren on the use of gadgets on academics. Introduction: Technology has played an enormous role in changing the way our kids learn, get amused, how they move with friends, it has wedged their level of creativity, and the way they behave in society. Today’s kids use more technology compared to children in 1990. Several technological corporations are inventing technological tools for kids. Technology has both positive and negative impacts on our kids. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire-based study. A questionnaire was prepared with questions pertaining to the use of gadgets and its relation to academic performance. The survey was conducted among randomly selected schoolchildren in an urban area. The participants volunteered for the survey. The questionnaire was administered through a survey planet link to all the participants. 107 students have participated in the survey. Results: From the above survey, 107 schoolchildren have participated and have answered the given questions. Conclusion: From the survey, it is evident that gadgets aid in children’s education. At the same time, apart from education purpose, they also use gadgets for playing and chatting which creates a lot of side effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002396
Title: Awareness on fluid intake and renal calculi in Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this survey is to check the awareness on fluid intake and renal calculi in Indian population. Introduction: Renal stone disease is one of the most common disorders among urological diseases renal calculi occurs in 1 in 20 people at some time in their life. Every system in the body depends on water intake every day. Water removes toxins of vital organs, carries nutrients to in cells, and provides a moist environment for various organs such as ear, nose, and throat tissues. Development of the renal stones is related to reduced urine volume or increased excretion of stone-forming components such as calcium, oxalate, urate, cysteine, xanthine, and phosphate. Renal calculi formation is directly related to the fluid intake. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out among 131 students and common public, 15 survey questions were given to each of them. A validated, online self-administered questionnaire was used to gather the data to each of them to avoid discussion among them and also to avoid false results, thereby no bias is evidence in this study. Each of them was given 1 h to complete the questionnaire and submit online. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: According to this survey, about 36.2% have a habit of drinking 500 ml water during working hours. From this, we come to know that most of the people remain dehydrated during their working hours which have an adverse effect on their body. If this condition continues, this may result in many problems, one of which is renal calculi. About 56.5% remain less thirsty when they are in air-conditioned room. There is constant loss of water in air-conditioned room. This constant loss of fluid and lack of replacement of fluid from the skin tissues below results in thin pieces and dry and cracked skin. Water is essential to keep the blood flowing in the body. Conclusion: This survey has created awareness about necessity of fluid intake and renal calculi in college students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002397
Title: Analysis of salivary flow and pH with respect to rehydration and food consumption
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of rehydration and food consumption on salivary flow and pH of saliva. Background: Saliva is essential for the maintenance of oral health and it is an important diagnostic biofluid. It plays a pivotal role in protection and lubrication of oral mucosal tissues, remineralization of teeth, and alimentation. The salivary composition has many important physical and biochemical properties. It is useful for diagnosis, prognosis, and management of patients with oral and systemic diseases. Understanding the role of saliva in maintaining health, as well as its relation to oral disease, is vital to the competent dental practitioner. In this research, the various changes in the salivary pH and salivary flow were studied under different conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 healthy volunteers were selected. Their salivary pH and salivary flow were calculated under three different conditions. The conditions were normal, after food consumption, after rehydration. The salivary flow was calculated in the scale of ml/min. Results: The salivary pH was almost same (7.75 and 7.85) in the normal condition and after food consumption. After rehydration, the salivary pH became neutral (7.3). In the case of salivary flow, the salivary flow rate was almost same (1.91 ml/min and 1.785 ml/min) in the normal condition and after the consumption of food. After the condition of rehydration, the salivary flow was increased (2.43 ml/min) with much difference than the salivary flow in the normal condition. Conclusion: The rehydration plays a key role in increase in salivary flow and maintaining the salivary pH in neutral. Thus, the regular rehydration is necessary for oral health and in maintenance of salivary pH and salivary flow and to avoid oral problems onto maintains oral hygiene.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002398
Title: Knowledge amplitude perception on partially edentulous in obese children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Obesity is a major public health concern and multifactorial diseases. Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. An association between obesity and oral health is ranging from dental caries and periodontal disease. Patients who are edentulous can be treated with complete or partially or implants supported bridge constructions. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire was prepared and the survey was conducted among children about knowledge amplitude perception on partially edentulous in obese children and data were collected. The survey was prepared on survey planet and was circulated among children. The survey link was https://s.surveyplanet.com/S1yXF8oNf. The survey instrument was a preprepared questionnaire eliciting information about the attitude and perception on partially edentulous. The obtained responses were tabulated and analyzed. The survey was collected among 102 children. Results: It is evident that obesity among children is high this shows that balanced diet is not attained properly eventually results in obesity. Eating and brushing habits among obese children are not proper which leads to dental caries which later leads to extraction of tooth. Missing of tooth is not only due to caries most of the missing tooth’s are due to accidents but also natural fall. Conclusion: From this survey, it is evident; obesity leads to dental caries which eventually leads to falling of tooth. Eating habits and balanced diet of children are not maintained which makes obesity high among young children. This study concludes partial edentulous among children are high, but still, this can be maintained by a favorable control of reducing obesity among children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002399
Title: Free radical scavenging activity from hydroethanolic extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: Free radicals are highly reactive and destructive molecules constantly produced in the human body as a result of oxidative stress. Antioxidant substances can prevent or delay oxidative damage by scavenging the radicals. Thus, the current research focuses on the free radical scavenging activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed extracts. Methods: Radical scavenging activity of the hydroethanolic extracts of spermoderm and cotyledon of A. heterophyllus was assessed in different concentrations against in vitro generated radicals such as 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide. Results: The hydroethanolic extract of spermoderm showed good dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity when compared to cotyledon extract, and the result was compared with the standard at the same concentration. Conclusion: Extracts of A. heterophyllus showed considerable scavenging activity against the radicals generated in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, the extracts can be used for the treatment of various diseases caused by radicals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002400
Title: Awareness on diseases spread through currency
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to create the awareness on diseases that could be transmitted through currency. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire-based study was carried out online through a survey planet link. Individuality was ensured when the subjects filled up the survey. 232 subjects took part in the survey. The participants who undertook the survey are undergraduate students of various medical and dental colleges, school students, and other professionals in the working industry. A total of 22 questions were asked and the questions were based on their awareness on the diseases that could be spread through currency and coins and their usage and handling of the currency. Results: Based on the responses from the subjects, statistical analysis was performed and the results were tabulated systematically. Conclusion: Currency in the form of cash and coins being the most successful and easy way to transact money, it also acts as a vector for transmissible diseases, further research may be conducted to make it antibacterial, and washing hands or sanitization must be followed after handling currency or switching to digital transaction are the only possible solutions to this problem.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002401
Title: Flavonol glycosides from Azadirachta Indica. L
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Azadirachta indica. L (Meliaceae) is cosmopolitan in distribution and commonly used in several native medical practices. In India, various vegetative parts of A. indica, which includes leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, and bark, are widely used in Indian traditional medicine for treating various human diseases and disorders. It is also called as storehouse of phytochemicals. The chemical composition is quite complex. Purification, separation, and characterization of few molecules from A. indica (neem) is already reported. In the present study, we report the presence of flavonol glycosides in neem extracts using liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy spectral analysis. Moreover, for the first time, we report the presence of major flavonol glycosides such as melicitrin (C20 H18 O12 ), quercitrin (C21 H20 O11 ), and rutin (C27 H30 O16 ) from the vegetative parts of A. indica collected from Tirumala Hills, the Eastern Ghats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002403
Title: Protection of hippocampal CA1 neurons from neurodegeneration by modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and Bcl 2 ratio
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Nearly 35 millions of people worldwide have dementia, a group of brain disorders characterized by irreversible loss of memory functions, problem-solving, communication, and other cognitive functions. By the time person reaches the late stage of dementia, they have severe memory loss and cognitive difficulties. Currently, available treatment usually focuses on preventing rather than treating the disease. The development of effective drug is one of the most important requirements in the medical field. It was observed that D Serine depletion is one of the major cause for dementia. Objective: To address the above issue, the combined use of D amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitor with D amino acid was carried out and checked whether improved negative symptoms of cognitive functions in mice using ketamine-induced amnesia model. Results: Coadministration of DAAO inhibitor with D amino acid reversed the behavioral as well as neurochemical parameters associated with ketamine-induced dementia. Outcome: This combination of study could likely impact the design of future cognitive drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002404
Title: Awareness on overeating among schoolchildren in Electronic era
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to conduct a survey on knowledge, attitude, and perception of overeating among schoolgoing children in the Electronic era. Introduction: Childhood obesity is a serious public health concern among schoolgoing children in Electronic era. This is due to addiction of children toward the gadgets such as televisions, mobile phone, and games. While using these things, they are not aware of amount of food to intake. Nowadays, schoolgoing children are suffering a lot with obesity-related problems due to their addiction toward gadgets. Materials and Methods: The sample size of this study is 115. The study group consists of 58 female and 57 male participants of age group between 8 and 11 years in Chennai. This was a questionnaire-based study, and the questionnaire was administered through survey planet. Results were statistically analyzed. Results: From this survey, it was found that about 60% of the children having obese problem, and this was mainly due to the use of electronic gadgets, and other issues such as their exercise pattern and their diet pattern also play a major role in their health fitness. Conclusion: Children should be aware of their food intake and their physical works parents also should control their children from overeating, more hours of sleep, and also they should inhibit them from the use of electronic gadgets and their addiction toward the E-world.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00002405
Title: Recent patent technologies of boswellic acids: A short review
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Boswellic acids (BAs) are pentacyclic triterpenoids and have potent biological properties that resulted in a number of protocols being developed for their synthesis. During the past 28 years (1990–2018), a number of synthetic BAs have been prepared. Both natural BAs and their synthetic derivatives can be used to treat various cancers as well as inflammatory diseases. This review covers patents on therapeutic activities of natural BAs and their synthetic derivatives published in past 28 years (1990–2018). BAs possess excellent anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. A large number of BAs and their analogs have been prepared through modification at functional groups. Most importantly, the C-24 amide and amino derivatives demonstrated increased anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity compared with other BA derivatives. Furthermore, BAs have the potential to form conjugates with other anticancer drugs that will synergistically enhance their anticancer effects, and we believe that to get lead compounds, there needs to be a greater focus on the synthesis of halo derivatives of BAs

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00002406
Title: Nanotechnology-based phytopharmaceuticals in disease management: An update
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Despite the tremendous development in the field of modern medicine, it still could not provide us with adequate treatment approaches for the safe and effective treatment of life-threatening ailments such as diabetes and cancer. Such inadequacy in modern medicines may be overcome by phytopharmaceuticals. In this review, the numerous applications of phytomedicines such as their neuroprotective and hepatoprotective potential, bioavailability and absorption enhancement, antitumor activity, antimicrobial efficacy, and antidiabetic potential have been highlighted and explored.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002407
Title: Health effects of prolonged intake of gluten diet among young adults
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: In today’s fast-moving world, lifestyle of the people changed a lot along with their food habits. People basically prefer foods which are very less of cost, foods which are prepared faster, and foods which can satisfy our hunger even if consumed in very less quantity, and the very important thing is the taste. All these necessities are satisfied by almost all the Maida products which are rich in gluten. This is very harmful to our body and causes many diseases. This survey was conducted to create an awareness about the health effects caused by gluten diet. Aim: The aim of this study is the determination of health effects caused by prolonged intake of food rich in gluten among young adults. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared, the survey was circulated among many people all around South India, and the data were collected. The survey was prepared on survey planet and was circulated among the peoples. The questionnaire was related to the survey. The survey was conducted among 115 students. Results: Majority of the people who participated in the survey even after knowing that it is harmful for human body they still consume it. Very less amount of peoples consume healthy food; majority of them prefer only junk foods and food products containing Maida.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002408
Title: Comparative evaluation of different extraction methods for antioxidant activity from Citrus hystrix peels
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Chronic illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by increased level of oxidative stress in the body, which may result from excess of reactive species and due to less antioxidant defense mechanism. Objective: In this present study, a comparative evaluation was conducted in different extraction methods for the antioxidant activity in the peels of Citrus hystrix. Method: The study was designed to determine the best extraction method based on the evaluation from 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay on the methanol extracts obtained from two different extraction methods such as maceration and continuous hot extraction, respectively. Both the extraction methods were performed individually with 150 g of dried powdered peels with 1000 ml of methanol as solvent. Maceration extraction was performed for 7 days at room temperature and continuous hot extraction was performed at controlled temperature (50°C) for 7 days. The collected extracts were further evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity against DPPH reagent against ascorbic acid as control. The preliminary phytochemical screening was compared on both extraction methods. Results: The phytochemical screening confirms the presence of major phytochemical constituents including phenol, flavonoids, and alkaloids. The comparative evaluation among the different extraction methods revealed that methanol peel extract from maceration method recorded highest free radical scavenging properties with inhibition concentration (IC50 ) of 250 µg/ml when compared to continuous hot extraction with the IC50 of 500 µg/ml. Conclusion: The study results can be used as reference for future research to choose the significant extraction method for peels of C. hystrix, and moreover, the research findings will increase the awareness on natural waste like peels can also be used as potential source of antioxidant with further investigations on its pharmacological effectiveness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002409
Title: Awareness regarding anemia among 1st year dental undergraduate students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Anemia is a common blood disorder where there is a low concentration of hemoglobin in the blood and occurs when there are fewer red blood cells than normal. Most symptoms of anemia arise as a result of the decreased amount of oxygen getting into the cells and tissues of the body, and also due to the reduced oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin in the blood. Anemia may be suspected from general findings on a complete medical history and physical examination, such as complaints of tiring easily, breathlessness, pale skin, and lips, or tachycardia. Anemia is usually discovered during a medical examination through blood tests that measure the concentration of hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia in the universe. Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the knowledge and awareness regarding anemia among 1st year dental undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional study was conducted during the academic year in December 2017 among the dental students of Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai. 100 1st year dental undergraduate students were involved in the study, including both males and females. All students in the study voluntarily completed a questionnaire consisting of 20 close‑ended questions which were designed to assess their basic knowledge and awareness regarding anemia. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics and results obtained. Results: Nearly 100% of students were aware about anemia and had the basic knowledge of anemia. However, regarding the diagnosis of anemia very few people answered correctly. Most of them were not aware about the management of anemia. Conclusion: 1st year dental undergraduate students are more adhesive to studies than practical work and they study about hemoglobin and anemia as it is there in their syllabus. Therefore, their basic knowledge about anemia and hemoglobin is good but lacking knowledge in clinical criteria including the diagnosis and treatment part of anemia. As a budding dentist, they should have more awareness regarding anemia. These students should participate in awareness programs to get more exposures about anemia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002410
Title: Effects of stress on oral health among information technology professionals in chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Jobs of information technology (IT) professionals require high skilfulness and increased concentration. They usually have to work for extended hours and under such conditions “stress” is an inevitable consequence. Stress stimulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis of our body thus leading to an increased overall hormonal secretion especially the adrenal gland. This can lead to effects such as muscle contraction, decreased salivary and synovial fluid secretion, bone resorption, and restlessness. Concerning the oral cavity, the changes can lead to a deteriorative process such as attrition due to bruxism, dental caries due to xerostomia, and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of stress on oral health among IT professionals in Chennai and to analyze if IT professionals require increased awareness and dental help to maintain their oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 153 IT professionals consisting of 77 males and 76 females with a work experience between 1 and 5 years were included in the survey. A questionnaire to analyze the subjects on stress symptoms and oral health were prepared and distributed. The data thus received were statistically analyzed using SPSS package 20.0. The correlation between stress and oral health manifestations such as TMD, bruxism, dry mouth, and mouth ulcers was statistically evaluated, and results were obtained. Results: Bivariate analysis and correlation coefficient tests showed a significant relationship between age, work experience, working hours, daily exercises, systemic illness, and stress levels with oral health manifestations such as bruxism, TMD, mouth ulcer, and dry mouth. Conclusion: It is concluded from our study that stress can significantly affect the oral health of IT professionals. Hence, it is necessary to create awareness through dental camps and screening for early intervention and maintenance of the oral health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002411
Title: Social behavior of adolescent girls
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Adolescent girls face a variety of challenges growing up, most of which are brought upon them by the pressures of the society. Regardless of ethnicity and culture, almost all teenage girls face peer pressure and parental pressure in one form or another. This alters the way they behave in a social setting, drastically. The aim of this survey is to study the effects of different factors on the social behavior of adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire- based study. An online form made on surveyplanet.com was circulated among school-going teenagers and young college students (ages 13–17) to collect data about their experience as teenagers. A total of 100 people took this survey. These data were then represented graphically using appropriate statistical methods. Result: Peer pressure and the expectations of both society and self, play a major role in shaping the behavior of an individual with each person reacting to a given circumstance in a different and unique manner. Yet, most girls face self-confidence and self-esteem issues which hinder their healthy intellectual development. Conclusion: Most girls were afraid of being judged by the society and had self-confidence issues. Hence, it can be concluded that peer pressure, parental pressure, social constraints and the desire to excel and be something more drive the social behavior of young girls.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002412
Title: Retention of plaque in two commercially available stainless steel crowns - an in vivo study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the retentivity of plaque on two commercially available stainless steel crowns (SSCs) available for children, KIDS SSC, and 3M ESPE on two control groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients who reported to the outpatient Pediatric Dentistry Department of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, were included in the study. Of which 10 were randomly chosen for 3M SSC crown and the rest 10 for KIDS SSC crown. All the 20 patients were called for a review after 15 days of the crown placement without being informed that a plaque retention test would be done. The plaque index proposed by Silness and Loe was chosen to record the findings because it distinguishes the severity and the location of the soft debris aggregates. Results: According to the results calculated by the Silness and Loe Plaque index, 2 out of 10 patients were found to have plaque retention of value 1 in 3M SSC and 3 out of 10 patients were found to have plaque retention of value 1 in KIDS SSC. Hence, the plaque retention in 3M SSC is 20% and the KIDS SSC is 30%. Conclusion: Plaque retention around the crowns placed was seen higher on the KIDS crown. This proved that the 3M SSC is better than KIDS SSC in terms of plaque retention. Further study with a larger sample size should be done for more accurate results.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002413
Title: Effectiveness of good behavior game on oral health among children - A randomized trial
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the good behavior game (GBG), a pediatric clinic‑based contingency dental hygiene program. Background: Oral health education programs have been considered as an important part of oral health policies. There has been a serious lack of effective dental hygiene programs that are taking place in the schools. Reviews show that these are relatively ineffective on the oral health of children. Thus, instructions that modify the behavior of children should be implemented. GBG is a universal intervention which is cost‑effective and easy to implement behavior procedure from applied behavior analysis. Materials and Methods: Estimation of debris index simplified (DI‑S) and dental caries index was carried out. Children in Group 1 were given oral health education through instructional oral hygiene program. Children in Group 2 were allowed to participate in GBG thrice a week. The DI‑S and dental caries index were recorded after 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the intervention in both the groups. Result: In Group 2, the good oral hygiene score increased from 10% to 89% 2 weeks after the intervention. There was a relative decrease in the percentage of children who scored fair and poor also. At the end of 4‑week follow‑up, 90% of children had good oral hygiene. In Group 1, there was a significant improvement in oral hygiene after 2 weeks, but it was not significant after 4 weeks. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that implementation of GBG‑based oral health education program is an easy and cost‑effective method for teaching oral health instructions and preventing oral diseases in children. Hence, this study shows that Good Behavior Game (GBG) is an effective intervention for teaching basic oral health concepts among school children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002414
Title: Language proficiency and perceived drawbacks among undergraduate dental students in a south Indian dental college
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether dental students perceive drawbacks in their education and examination experience because of their lack of language proficiency. Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional study was carried. Two hundred undergraduate dental students in a South Indian dental college (n = 200) were asked to complete a questionnaire comprising 12 questions related to their language background, medium of instruction at school, and the perceived academic drawbacks with respect to language proficiency. Results: Dental students who were educated in schools in which English was not the only medium of instruction, perceived drawbacks in their education and examination experience owing to their language background, and lack of language proficiency. Conclusion: Language skills, communication skills, and behavioral science should be an essential part of dental education to ease the transition from school to dental college.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002415
Title: Analysis of knowledge, attitude, and perception about oral health, hygiene, and adversities of missing tooth among Indian students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to assess and compare the knowledge about oral health, hygiene, and adversities of missing tooth among Indian students. Subjects and Methods: A cross‑sectional survey was conducted among 400 medical and dental undergraduate students in South India, using a questionnaire. Results: The study indicates that the knowledge, attitude, and perception about oral hygiene and missing teeth were inadequate among Indian students. Conclusion: Students require oral health education to improve their oral hygiene practices and knowledge.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002418
Title: Perception of esthetic smile based on the evaluation of relationship between skin tone and tooth shade in esthetics
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Harmonizing tooth shade with the skin tone has been considered important to enhance facial esthetics. Differences in the perception of desirable dental shade among patients and professionals and between subjects of different ages, with younger subjects indicating a clear preference for whiter teeth, have been a misconception for years. The aim of the study is to evaluate the perception of Indian undergraduate students about the correlation between the skin color and the tooth shade. Aim: This study is an attempt to try and survey the perception of Indian undergraduate students about the correlation between the skin color and tooth shade. Materials and Methods: A pictorial questionnaire study, a single image of an esthetic smile which was edited using Adobe Photoshop, was shown to 100 subjects belonging to the age group of 20– 21 years studying in Saveetha Dental College. Results: It was noted that extreme variation in the skin tone and tooth shade was not preferred. An average tooth shade and skin tone was preferred by the students. Conclusion: It may be appropriate to conclude that facial skin color does not significantly correlate with tooth color. However, further research is needed in this field.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00002419
Title: Total phytosterol content in red beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) and peas (Pisum sativum L.) from Bandung, Indonesia
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Context: Red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and peas (Pisum sativum L.) are vegetables containing phytosterols which consumed daily in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Empirically, phytosterols were used as anticholesterol. Phytosterol, as it was suggested, can replace cholesterol in the metabolism pathways, due to similarity structure to cholesterol. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the total phytosterols content in red beans and peas which are planted in Bandung and then determined the possibility as a nutraceutical source. Method: Colorimetric method with Liebermann–Burchard reagents was conducted to determine total phytosterol content. Results: Total phytosterol content in 100 g of red beans and peas was 112.94 ± 0.68 and 82.88 ± 0.42 mg, respectively, which was significantly different (P = 3.34 × 10-7). Conclusions: Red beans are potentially used as nutraceutical to meet daily phytosterol needs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00002420
Title: Acute toxicity studies of acetone mace extract of Myristica fragrans houtt on rats
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Medicinal plant extracts play a major role in the treatment of various diseases due to its unique phytochemical constituents, affordability, safety, and low cost. People also think that these extracts are natural and will be more effective than synthetic medicine. Thus, there is always a need for the investigation of toxicity manifestations associated with prolonged use of medicinal plant extracts to ensure safety. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the toxicity of acetone mace extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to elucidate the toxicity of mace extract of M. fragrans Houtt in rats. Acetone extract of mace from M. fragrans Houtt was taken for study. Acute toxicity was determined by studying various biochemical, hematological, and histological parameters. Results: The present study shows that the acetone mace extract of M. fragrans Houtt does not cause any apparent in vivo toxicity in an animal model.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002421
Title: Variations in buffering capacity and total protein concentration of saliva in patients with and without periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Periodontal diseases cause an imbalance in the nature of saliva such as increased acidity/alkalinity of saliva or increase in the total protein concentrations. Therefore, this study aims at evaluating the variations in buffering capacity and total protein concentrations and related to patients with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The estimation of buffering capacity was done using pH paper, and total protein concentration was estimated using the biuret method. Results: A rise in the total protein concentrations and decrease in pH were noted in patients with periodontitis when compared to normal patients. Conclusion: The main reason for the increased protein count is collagen breakdown and that of decreased pH is due to bacterial overgrowth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00002422
Title: Awareness on adverse effects of self-medication in Indian population
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this research is to create awareness on the adverse effects of self-medication among the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A study was designed as a questionnaire-based survey. A questionnaire with queries about awareness on adverse effects of self-medication was distributed to 80 participants by an online link on survey planet. Results were obtained online, and they statistically analyzed. Results: About 76.3% of the participants were taking self- medications for different reasons. Of the total 80 participants, 37 participants were male, and 43 participants were female. Nearly 65% of the participants were aware of overdosage of self-medication, while 35% of them are not aware of overdosage. Only 53% of the participants were aware that overdosage of self-medication leads to organ failure and the remaining 47% of them were not aware of systemic failures due to overdosage of self-medication. Conclusion: More knowledge about self- medication and its adverse effects should be spread to common people. Pharmacists and doctors should make an effort to educate the people on the various side effects of self-medication.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002423
Title: In vitro comparison of color stability of restorative materials against children’s beverages
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Composite restorations must not only provide an initial shade match but also must maintain its esthetic appearance over a long period of time. The major disadvantage with the use of composite resins is its color instability. Color alteration is due to oral hygiene habits, diet, etc., of an individual. The consumption of coffee and soft drinks, for example, has a high prevalence in the contemporary society, especially in industrialized countries. This study aimed at assessing this color alteration when immersed in chocolate milk, cola, and packed juice ‑ children’s beverages. Materials and Methods: The color and color difference of Dentsply Ceram, 3M Composite, and GC SolareSculpt after immersion in different staining solutions, i.e., (1) chocolate milk and artificial saliva, (2) cola and artificial saliva, and (3) packed juice and artificial saliva were measured using reflectance spectrophotometer with CIELAB system before immersion and after immersion at day 1 and day 10. Results: Dentsply ceram showed acceptable color change, i.e., ΔE <3.7 with all three solutions and artificial saliva over the span of 10 days. The other two restorative materials assessed exhibited an acceptable color change in the Group 1 (orange juice and artificial saliva) and Group 2 (Bournvita milk and artificial saliva) solutions but ΔE >3.7 in Group 3 (Pepsi and artificial saliva). Conclusion: Pepsi had the most staining ability among the three solutions, and Dentsply Ceram proved to be the most color stable with its ΔE <3.7.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002424
Title: Effect of body weight on dental caries in pediatric patients - A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of body weightcategorized into underweight, normal weight, and overweight on the prevalence of dental caries using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 50 pediatric patients were included in the study. Their body weight was recorded, and the respective DMFT score was calculated. The prevalence of dental caries in these patients was compared to their body weight. Results: In the present study, the DMFT scores were high in obese and overweighing children when compared to that of the normal and underweighing children. This could be due to the tendency of obese children to overeat which leads to an increased prevalence of caries in them than the children belonging to the normal and underweight category. Conclusion: This study is done to create awareness on the importance of nutrition with respect to body weight and should be considered in future preventive programs, in addition to oral hygiene measures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00002425
Title: Pharmacognostic standardization and high-performance thin-layer chromatography fingerprint profile of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. fruits
Category: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. is commonly known as doodhi, fruits of which are used as vegetable all over India. The fruits are traditionally valued for its benefits as cardioprotective, cardiotonic, general tonic, diuretic, alternative purgative, and for cooling effects. The current study was, therefore, carried out to provide requisite pharmacognostic details about the fruit of L. siceraria (Molina) Standl. Material and Methods: Pharmacognostic evaluation included examination of macroscopical and microscopical characters, physicochemical properties, phytochemical analysis, fluorescence study, and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profile. Results and Discussion: The powder microscopy showed the presence of sclerenchymatous cells, xylem vessels with spiral thickening, rind of fruit, fibers, and starch grains. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of glycosides, steroidal compounds, flavonoids, and saponins. Qualitative densitometric HPTLC fingerprint profile of methanolic extract can provide standard fingerprints and can be used as a reference for the identification and quality control of the fruit. Conclusion: The present study will provide the information with respect to identification and authentication of L. siceraria (Molina) Standl. fruits.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002426
Title: Differences in child management techniques between male and female dentists in India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences in child behavioral management techniques between male and female pediatric dentists in India. Materials and Methods: The study included 80 pediatric dentists practicing in India. All 80 participants (40 male and 40 female) received a questionnaire which sought information regarding age, sex, aversive, and non‑aversive management techniques, use of general anesthesia, and feeling toward an uncooperative child in a dental chair. Results: Regarding the practice of non‑aversive techniques, a majority of the dentists both male and female used tell‑show‑ do and gave gifts at the end of each dental appointment. Hypnosis was the least used non‑aversive behavioral management technique. Papoose board management technique was commonly used among male dentists than among female dentists. Most dentists reported of not having parents inside the dental office during the treatment, and if there was restraint, the assistant’s help was taken. The hand‑over‑mouth exercise was used by most of the female and male dentists. A considerable number of male dentists reported that they suggest general anesthesia immediately if the child is uncooperative, whereas only a few of female dentists reported, suggesting that general anesthesia commonly of the child is uncooperative. There was no significant difference between the number of male and female dentists who reported to feel more comfortable while practicing aversive management techniques. Only a few dentists tried their best to use a non‑aversive technique. More than three‑fourths of the dentists reported feeling aggression while the child was uncooperative. Conclusion: There is no statistical difference between male and female dentists in using child management techniques. This study concludes that there is equal potential for both the genders in this field of specialty.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002427
Title: Role of milk on X‑linked inhibitors of apoptosis gene expression in oral cancer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Oral cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. They are many methods and many compounds which have found itself a role in treating oral cancer. Role of milk on treating oral cancer is becoming a topic of interest. Milk is a available product so it can be used on X‑linked inhibitors of apoptosis gene expression in oral cancer. X‑linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is the most potent and best‑defined anti‑apoptotic IAP family member that directly neutralizes caspase‑9 through its BIR3 domain and the effector caspases‑3 and ‑7 through its BIR2 domain. The aim of the study was to identify the role of milk in increasing this apoptotic effect, so the cancerous cells undergo cell death. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of three groups with 11 patients in which Group 1 having three healthy patients, Group 2 consisting of four patients identified oral cancer, and Group 3 consisting of four patients identified with oral cancer who are subjected to milk treatment. KB cells were obtained from these patients and DNA was isolated and subjected to polymerase chain reaction test and gel electrophoresis was carried out. Results: Increased expression of XIAP was observed in KB cells incubated samples compared to normal control. The overexpression of XIAP was suppressed by milk treatment. Conclusion: With the limitations of the study, role of milk in XIAP gene expression in oral cancer was proven. Milk and dairy products may have both beneficial and adverse effects with regard to the risk of different cancers. The evidence indicating healthful effects of milk and milk product consumption on prevention of cancers is considerably greater than those representing harmful impacts. In fact, there is certainly no evidence that milk consumption might increase death from any condition.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002428
Title: Comparing the antimicrobial effectiveness of Punica granatum and chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash: A single-blind randomized clinical trial
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Punica granatum contains polyphenols and tannins which possess anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. The main enemy for dental caries and periodontal diseases is dental plaque. Several plaque control measures have been suggested to prevent plaque accumulation. One among them will be the use of chlorhexidine mouthwash which is considered to be gold standard plaque control measure. However, the major adverse effect of chlorhexidine will be staining and taste alteration. To overcome the adverse effects of chlorhexidine, various naturally occurring antibacterial agents have been incorporated to prevent plaque formation. One among them will be P. granatum. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of P. granatum and chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash. Materials and Methods: A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted among twenty healthy individuals. The participants were randomly allocated into two groups: Group I (experimental group – P. granatum) and Group II (controlled group – chlorhexidine). Before conducting the trial, the study design was explained to the qualifying participant and informed consent was obtained from the voluntary patients who were willing to participate in the study. Plaque samples were evaluated for Streptococcus mutans at baseline and 15th day of follow-up. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the mean differences before and after treatment within each group for plaque S. mutans. Mann–Whitney U-test was used to estimate differences in the mean plaque S. mutans count between the groups. Results: A statistically significant reduction in mean plaque S. mutans was observed in both Group I and Group II at baseline and 7th day follow-up. However, there was no statistically significant difference observed between the groups at 7th day of follow-up. Conclusion: To conclude, there was no statistically significant difference was observed in mean plaque S. mutans between group 1 and group 2 at 7th day of follow-up. Hence, the current study shows that P. granatum can be used as an effective alternative to chlorhexidine mouthwash against plaque S. mutans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002429
Title: Analysis of tears - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Tears consist of a variety of biological substances in addition to salts. Since the structures observed through a microscope are mostly crystallized salt, the tear on drying results in unique formations depending on its composition which varies for different tears. Materials and Methods: The three types of tears namely basal, reflex and emotional or psychic were collected from each participant on glass slides. Tears were labeled, and crystallized patterns were observed under a microscope. Results: It was observed that all three tears exhibited distinct crystal structures, but remained almost similar in all six individuals. In other words, all basal tears looked the same, all reflex tears looked the same, and all psychic tears as well. Conclusion: Tears produced for various reasons under various circumstances have different compositions and hence form distinct patterns when allowed to crystallize.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002430
Title: Analysis of dermatoglyphics on genetically related population
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Dermatoglyphics is scientific study of fingerprints. It is the process of taking the impression of papillary ridges. A series of ridges enter the pattern area on one side of the digit, curves, and leaves on the same side. Fingerprints are likewise influenced by a man’s domain while creating in the womb. Along these lines, you may have seen a few cases of unique mark designs likely being acquired. In any case, this might not have dependably been the situation for people you know to be firmly related. Materials and Methods: The right thumbs of parents and their biological children regardless of their genders were collected and observed and unrelated individuals’ right thumbprints were also taken for the study. The presence and absence of loops were observed for this research. Results: More than 60% of the fingerprints sample (presence and absence of loops) of genetically related individuals are matched. Conclusion: Fingerprints are, hence, found to be hereditary to an extent to which they still remain unique and different. The inclusion of other patterns may increase the similarities of the fingerprints. This may be of significance in the future pertaining to the department of forensics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00002431
Title: Preparation and evaluation of lornoxicam in situ gelling liquid suppository
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: In situ gelling liquid suppository is liquid at room temperature but forms a gel at body temperature. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop a mucoadhesive, in situ gelling liquid suppository of lornoxicam. Methods: Liquid suppositories were prepared by the cold method using a combination of poloxamer 407 (P 407) and poloxamer 188 (P 188). Different mucoadhesive polymers such as methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were added to modulate physicochemical properties of formulations. Gelation temperature, pH, gel strength, drug content, mucoadhesive force, in vitro drug release, and release kinetics of formulations were evaluated. Results and Conclusions: In liquid suppositories based on mixtures of P407 and P188, gelation temperature decreased and gel strength increased by increasing P 407 concentration while increasing P 188 had an opposite effect. Increasing poloxamers concentration decreased drug release rate. Addition of mucoadhesive polymers reinforced the gel strength and the mucoadhesive force and retarded the release of lornoxicam from the prepared liquid suppository formulations. Among investigated mucoadhesive polymers, HEC and CMC showed the highest retardation of drug release. Kinetic analysis of release mechanism showed that lornoxicam release from the liquid suppositories is by Fickian diffusion in most of the formulations. Based on the obtained results, liquid suppository formulations C3, C5 and C 7 might be promising for the development of an effective and convenient rectal dosage form of lornoxicam.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002432
Title: Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of three mouthwashes in chronic periodontitis patients - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental plaque forms naturally on teeth and is of benefit to the host by helping to prevent colonization by exogenous species. The bacterial composition of plaque remains relatively stable despite regular exposure to minor environmental perturbations. This stability is due, in part, to a dynamic balance of both synergistic and antagonistic microbial interactions. However, homeostasis can break down, leading to shifts in the balance of the microflora, thereby predisposing sites to disease. This in vitro aims to evaluate the antimicrobial action of three mouthwashes with different active ingredients on dental plaque. Materials and Methods: The dental plaque and calculus were obtained from patients with simplified oral hygiene index score of >2. The calculus was crushed in thioglycolate broth and the resultant homogenate after centrifugation was incubated with three different mouthwashes, namely A - chlorhexidine (CHX), B - cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and C - essential oil (EO) mouthwashes. The samples were incubated in anaerobic jars (GASPAK) and the resultant colony-forming units were measured after 48 h. Results: The mean reduction of the anaerobic colony count of the sample treated with CHX was 24 and that of CPC was 9.8, whereas EO mouthwash was 143.8. Conclusion: This study concluded that significant reduction in colony-forming units was observed with CHX and CPC, and there was no significant decrease in the colony-forming units with EO mouthwashes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002434
Title: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat technique in correcting sickle cell anemia – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The human hemoglobin is made up of two alpha and two beta chains. In sickle cell anemia, the sixth position of the beta chain is affected, and glutamic acid is substituted for valine. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) can be used to edit the beta chain. This technique can be used to cut the DNA sequence at the desired location and thus is a very precise technique to correct the genetic disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00002435
Title: Alternative liquid chromatographic method to gas chromatography for simultaneous determination of dimethyl sulfoxide and N, N-dimethyl formamide in pharmaceuticals.
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to develop a simple, accurate, and precise validated method for simultaneous determination of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N, N-dimethyl formamide in pharmaceuticals. Materials and Methods: Mixture of 10 mM each of monobasic phosphate and dibasic phosphate in 0.1% triethylamine adjusted pH 2.3 with orthophosphoric acid is used as a buffer (Mobile phase A) in mobile phase with acetonitrile (Mobile phase B). Separation of DMSO and N, N-dimethyl formamide achieved within 10 min using L1 column of 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µ dimension. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and 210 nm was the detector wavelength. Results and Discussion: The method has been extensively validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline for parameters such as specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, solution stability, filter compatibility, and robustness. The accuracy for DMSO and N, N-dimethyl formamide is 101.0% and 100.8%, respectively. The correlation coefficient for DMSO and N, N-dimethyl formamide is 1.00 and 0.99, respectively, all other validation parameters found okay. Conclusion: The literature survey revealed that there is no method reported for simultaneous determination of DMSO and N, N-dimethyl formamide in pharmaceuticals by using liquid chromatography. The proposed method is very simple, accurate, precise, and alternative option for gas chromatography. Hence, this validated novel liquid chromatographic method can be easily and conveniently adopted for routine analysis of DMSO and N,N- dimethyl formamide content from pharmaceuticals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002436
Title: Current bone substitutes for implant dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Implant dentistry is becoming popular in today’s world. Dental implants are being preferred over other permanent prosthesis. Moreover, the ideal criteria for implant placement are adequate bone thickness. For individuals without sufficient bone placement, bone autografts are performed. However, like any other treatment, autografts have their own limitations such as insufficient amount of donor tissue, etc. Hence, the search for bone substitutes for dental implants becomes necessary in such cases. For a successful dental implant placement, adequate bone thickness is required. For those with insufficient bone thickness, where other options like bone autografts cannot be performed, implant placement in such cases becomes quite challenging. Therefore, this review focuses on the current bone substitutes in implant dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002437
Title: A conservative treatment option for bilateral dental gaps after orthodontic extraction using direct composites reinforced with glass fiber anchored on abutment teeth - A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Direct and indirect fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) resin fixed partial dentures (FPDs) are a new way to produce minimally invasive, esthetic, and cost-effective metal-free tooth replacements. These treatment alternatives have a number of indications, for example, chairside tooth replacements, long-term provisional FPDs, economically feasible tooth replacements for patients who cannot afford more traditional treatment regimens, and tooth replacements for medically compromised patients who are unable to withstand the physical stress associated with the fabrication of traditional fixed prostheses. This report describes a step-by-step sequence for the preparation of a posterior space closure using direct FRC resin. The modality provides sound posterior occlusal function, combined with a psychological satisfaction to the patient of regaining a missing tooth. The preparation takes into account the design for resin-bonded prostheses. This article presents the preparation and buildup method for a bilateral space closure with direct FRC bridge through a conservative palatal approach for a highly esthetic result.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002438
Title: Physiological changes in pregnancy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Physiological changes occur in pregnancy to upbringing the developing fetus and prepare the mother for labor and delivery. Early changes result in metabolic demands, increasing levels of pregnancy hormones, particularly those of progesterone and estrogen. Later changes starting in midpregnancy are caused from the expanding uterus by mechanical pressure. During pregnancy, some changes in maternal physiology can occur including increased maternal fat, blood volume, cardiac output, and blood flow to the kidneys and uteroplacental unit, decreased blood pressure, delayed gastrointestinal motility, and gastric emptying. These alterations are essential to optimize fetus and mother health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002439
Title: Efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine and 1% povidone-iodine as preprocedural mouth rinses in chronic periodontitis patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine, 1% povidone-iodine (PI) as preprocedural mouth rinses in reducing salivary bacteria in chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Ten systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in Group-I (n = 5) were given 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse, and patients in Group-II (n = 5) were given 1% PI mouth rinse. 1–2 ml of unstimulated saliva was collected as a baseline and 30 min after rinsing. The samples were incubated in agar plates for 48 h at 37°C, and total colony-forming units (CFU) were enumerated. Statistical Analysis: A statistical analysis was carried out in SPSS software. An unpaired t-test was used to compare the values between the groups. Results: The baseline CFU/ml in chlorhexidine group was 465.6 ± 67.8 and 508 ± 121.2 in PI group and showed a decrease at the end of 30 min to 197.6 ± 47.8 in the chlorhexidine group and 337.6 ± 78.8 in the PI group. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine proved to be more effective than PI in reducing salivary bacterial counts which could be attributed to its property of substantivity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: August
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002478
Title: Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Lagenaria siceraria: A comprehensive review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Ancient systems of Indian medicines have been known to cure several kinds of health ailments. The traditional systems of medicines have explored on different parts of the plants for the treatment and cure of various pathophysiological conditions. One such important plant is Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd), whose leaves, fruits, seeds, and flowers are known for the treatment for several health ailments. This cucurbitaceous vegetable has shown significant activities against hepatotoxicity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and free radicals among others. The aim of this present review is to succinctly compile the earlier reports on the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities exhibited by the extracts of L. siceraria.