Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002462
Title: Osteogenic properties of new porous composite materials based on titanium with bioactive covering
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The purpose of the research was to investigate the ability of new composite titanium-based materials to stimulate bone formation and osseointegration after the implantation in the area of artificial bone defect. Materials and Method: The characteristics of composite materials are provided. The course of experiment is described concerning the inoculation of implants for small laboratory rats. The evaluation of osteoinductive and osteoconductive ability of composite materials is performed using the scanning electron microscopy. Results and Discussion: It was shown that the structure and the surface properties of implants used in this work had advanced osteoconductive and osteoinductive potential. The inclusion of hydroxyapatite in the composition not only contributes to the bone tissue development but also hinders the filling of implant pores with other derivatives of the connective tissue.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002504
Title: Role of nutrition on the health of college students - A Survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Human body requires seven major types of nutrients that include protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, mineral, fiber, and water. A nutrient is a source of nourishment, a component of food and it’s of two types, micronutrients and macronutrients. Macronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively large quantities. Micronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively small quantities. Nutrition is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs. Good nutrition - an adequate, well-balanced diet combined with regular physical activity - is a cornerstone of good health. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Materials and Methods: A survey of 10 questions was prepared to assess the awareness of importance of nutrition among the college students in their lifestyle. The sample size for the survey includes 100 students from various colleges through Surveyplanet link. The data were statistically analyzed. Results: According to the survey, 71% of students are aware of the nutritional diet, but it was found that more than 50% of the students skip’s their breakfast which is a very important for their health. 53% of the students take lunch as a first meal. 73% of the students do not exercise daily. Around 47% of the students drink up to 3 L of water daily. Conclusion: From this survey, it was concluded that though 71% of students are aware of nutritional importance, still they are not able to follow a proper nutritional diet on their regular basis because of various reasons. This survey was to create awareness of nutrition on health among the college students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002490
Title: Association of glycated hemoglobin and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes patients, Tamil Nadu, India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Our investigation was aimed to check the glycemic control and relationship between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C) and lipid parameters among type 2 diabetes patients. Materials and Methods: The total of 231 patients was analyzed for sugar profile and lipid profile. We divided the patients into three groups based on their glycemic index as HbA1c <6% (good), HbA1c >6–<9% (poor), and HbA1c >9% (worst). The same patients were divided into three groups based on their age as <40 years, >40–<60 years, and >60 years, and one-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the significance levels for various parameters between this three groups. Results: The study comprises 231 patients in which 130 were male, and 101 were female. Our study shows that very little variations were seen in male and female of blood sugar and lipid parameters. Diabetes patients with worse diabetic control (HbA1c >9%) had increased fasting blood sugar (FBS), post-prandial blood sugar (PPBS), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL, and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Diabetes patients with good diabetic control (HbA1c 6<%) had decreased FBS, PPBS, HDL, and slightly increased TC in comparison with the other two groups. The results showed that moderate positive correlation of HbA1c with FBS (r = 0.6038) and PPBS (r = 0.6666). Conclusion: The finding of the present study ensures that HbA1c acts as a marker for glycemic control. Early diagnosis and control of blood sugar level may improve the lipid profile and thus reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002506
Title: Analysis of pH and variation in buffering capacity of saliva in normal and patients with carcinoma of buccal mucosa - A pilot study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze the pH and variation in buffering capacity of saliva in normal and patients with carcinoma of buccal mucosa. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. Histopathologically diagnosed cancer patients were included in the study. The pH of salivary samples of both the control and tests was noted before and after the addition of mild acid. The data collected were analyzed statistically. Results: The study reveals that the mean difference in pH before and after adding the mild acid tends to be greater in case of cancer patients when compared to healthy individuals, thus suggesting that there is a noticeable decrease in the buffering capacity of the saliva samples collected from patients suffering from oral cancer. Conclusion: Saliva has the potential to become a first-line diagnostic aid of choice owing to the advancements in detection technologies in the past one decade. Therefore, these parameters can be areas of further research with an increased sample size, which, in turn, may help in throwing some light on the newer non-invasive prognostic markers for diagnosis of cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002458
Title: Vimentin, E-cadherin, and CD44+/CD24− as predictors of neoadjuvant chemotherapy response in patients with breast cancer Stage IIIB subtype luminal
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Breast cancer treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy requires biomolecular indicators to help tailor treatments and chemotherapy to specific patients. The effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy cannot yet be predicted by a biomolecular approach. This research analyzed the expression of vimentin, E-cadherin, an d CD44+/CD24− to find biomolecular predictors of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer subtype Stage III patients. Material and Methods: Samples were collected from patients with breast cancer Stage IIIB subtype luminal undergoing treatment at Dr. Saiful Anwar General Hospital in Malang, Indonesia. The expression levels of vimentin, E-cadherin, and CD44+/CD24− were analyzed immunohistochemically. Result and Discussion: This study showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment decreased vimentin and increased E-cadherin expression. A positive result for CD44+/CD24− expression was found in patients that responded to chemotherapy for breast cancer subtype luminal Stage IIIB. Conclusion: In conclusion, vimentin, E-cadherin, and CD44+/CD24− can be utilized as biomolecular predictors of response to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer Stage IIIB subtype luminal.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002446
Title: Characteristics of form and size changes of the articular surfaces of temporomandibular joint in case of loss of teeth in an adult
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The research was carried out on the skulls of adults with lower jaws, arranged according to the degree of the lower dental arch preservation. Aim. It was determined that the parameters, which characterize the mandibular head, change irregularly in case of teeth loss was its lateral size is exposed to smaller changes than its sagittal size. Method: The irregular decrease of lateral and sagittal sizes of the mandibular head results in its form change; for this reason, in 61.3%, it becomes conical. The prevalence of oval and beanlike form of the head normally decreases in the group with a total loss of teeth. It was proved that in case of teeth loss, the change of articular tubercle height takes place in average by 4.2 mm, and its projection height by 4 mm. Results: In connection with flattering of articular tubercle, in case of teeth loss, the depth of mandibular fossa decreases. In the group of skulls with intact bite, as well as in the group with a total loss of teeth, the values of articular surfaces of temporomandibular joint on the left and on the right differed insignificantly. Conclusions: Significant differences in the values of parameters on contralateral sides were proved in the group with partial teeth loss.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002447
Title: Awareness and acceptance of application of prosthetics in forensic dentistry among dentists in Chennai
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Accidents, homicides, genocides, fire accidents, and a wide range of scenarios where identification of victims becomes a fix require forensic help. Forensic dentistry is a branch of forensic medicine which aids in victim identification by means of the teeth present, their alignment, restorations present, and prosthesis. Aim: The aim of this stuidy is to assess the knowledge and awareness on the application of prosthetics in forensic dentistry among dental practitioners in Chennai. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a pre-tested structured questionnaire containing nine composite choice-based questions among 100 practicing dentists on awareness and acceptance of prosthetics in forensic dentistry. Pertinent data were extracted and analyzed. Results: On eliciting awareness on the application of prosthodontics in forensic dentistry, 62% agreed on awareness. 91% of the surveyed population stored patient records, while 9% did not. Although 66% were aware about denture marking/coding, only 47% were willing to incorporate denture barcoding in their practice. 78% of the surveyed population was aware on the role of implants in forensic dentistry, especially in fire accidents. Conclusion: Although awareness is elicited from a majority of the surveyed dentists, the acceptance and willingness to take up forensic application of prosthodontics in their practice are very low. Motivation and education on these grounds at student level are, hence, mandatory to promote awareness, acceptance, and application of prosthetics in forensic dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002448
Title: Study the effect of wet granulation and fusion methods on preparation, characterization, and release of lornoxicam sachet effervescent granules
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The present work is based on the formulation of effervescent granules of lornoxicam unit dose. Six such formulations were prepared using citric and tartaric acids and sodium bicarbonate as effervescent base at different ratios. Mannitol and aspartame were used as sweetening agents since lornoxicam has a bitter taste. The granules were prepared by the wet and fusion method, and they were evaluated for flow property (such as angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, and Carr’s index), particle size, pH, effervescence time, in vitro dissolution studies, and drug content. The formulated effervescent granules exhibited excellent flow properties and bulk density suitable for a unit dose. All the formulations exhibited effervescence time <60 s and dissolution profile was found to be >75% in 5 min. F2 formulation was selected as the best formulation because of their physicochemical characteristics; it is concluded that the wet method resulted in better granules compared to fusion method.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002449
Title: Herbal medicines and formulation approaches for the treatment of arthritis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Current treatment of different types of arthritis such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, septic arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis involves the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying antirheumatoid drugs, corticosteroids, and biological agents mainly by the oral, parenteral, or topical route. However, the frequent dosing and their side effects required often leads the patients to switch over to herbal medicines. Traditionally used herbal medicines, due to their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, have potential to be a therapy of choice for arthritis patients and are now extensively being studied. However, only very few dosage forms of the effective plant sources are available in the market. The major category of formulations available in market is the oils. Hence, the research can be focused on various effective formulations with oral and external dosage forms. This review focused on the plant sources popularly used for the treatment of arthritis but still not available as an effective formulation. This review gives us an idea to direct the research toward the various formulations which will enhance the technologies. Furthermore, formulating the herbal actives into novel technologies such as liposomes, phytosomes, and transdermal drug delivery would be a potential area.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002450
Title: Systematic review of masticatory efficiency with different occlusal scheme in conventional complete dentures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Statement of Problem: While subjective patient-based measures have been increasingly recognized as critical outcomes for prosthodontic treatment, there continues to be a need to validate objective measures such as masticatory efficiency with conventional complete dentures. Aim: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the masticatory efficiency with three different occlusal concepts in conventional complete dentures. Materials and Methods: Using various key words, an electronic search of clinical trials published in English literature was performed from four databases: Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google search, and hand-picked articles. Furthermore, a manual searching of the relevant journals and the bibliographies of reviews was performed. General satisfaction and masticatory ability were the major criteria for the evaluation of the outcomes. Studies which met these criteria were selected for a full-text reading. Results: This systematic review started with 44 articles, which were finally narrowed down to 5 articles, on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The following occlusal designs were included and analyzed balanced occlusion, canine-guided occlusion (CGO), and lingualized occlusion (LO). Conclusion: According to the articles included in this review, the investigations concluded that LO had better masticatory efficiency and esthetics with complete dentures when compared with bilateral balanced occlusion and CGO.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002451
Title: Comparison of shade matching photos taken with gray card and without gray card
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Due to the great variety of natural tooth color achieving a close shade match of an artificial restoration with natural dentition is a complex process. Patient satisfaction of an esthetic restoration is primarily associated with surface and outline form, translucency, and color. Nevertheless, during the last two decades, the colorimeter has been rapidly developed in dentistry. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of shade reproduction with entry-level Nikon D5200 the intraoral photographs taken with the use of gray card and the photos taken without gray card settings. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Aesthetics in Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, 2018. 10 patients participated in the study. The camera settings were changed to manual mode to alter the white balance. The altered white balances were preset to 18% gray card. The photographs were taken in RAW format to eliminate the bias of image conversion software specific to camera. Results: Compression of the CIELAB values obtained between each reveal a significant difference with images taken with the altering the white balance display more accurate colors compared to the images taken without altering the white balance. Conclusion: The documentation of the clinical cases is being encouraged in dental schools. Based on this study, the photos taken with the use of gray card yielded better results compared to the images taken without the alteration of the white balance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002452
Title: Efficacy of the modified arbitrary facebow for recording the orientation jaw relation - An experimental study
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Precise occlusal restorations, both fixed and removable, require accurate occlusal records and a set of working casts, which should be mounted on a full-sized articulator, at least a semi-adjustable one. There is no perfect device that can duplicate the mandibular movements of a particular patient. The aim is to minimize the occlusal errors produced in the laboratory without adding any complicated and time-consuming procedures. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of the modified arbitrary facebow for recording the orientation jaw relation. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 undergraduate students Saveetha Dental College with prior experience in the orientation of a facebow were selected to orient the arbitrary facebow (UTS 3D by IVOCLAR VIVA DENT) and modified version of the same facebow. The students were divided into two groups. A single-blinded randomized control trial was performed. The time required to mount the facebow to the subject was recorded for both groups. The participants were randomly allocated into groups. Group (A) students received the conventional arbitrary facebow first to orient the facebow on the patient. Group (B) students received the modified arbitrary facebow first to orients the facebow for jaw relation. Results: Time taken to orient the conventional facebow ranged between 10 and 14 min with a mean value of 10 min 50 s, while time taken to orient the modified version ranged between 48 s and 1 m 53 s with a mean value of 1 min 24 s [Table 2]. Parallelism to the horizontal reference plane was verified by the second observer. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, a modified facebow was used to reliably reproduce the spatial orientation of the occlusal plane relative to the true horizontal plane with the patient in natural head position that corrects the occlusal plane record and develops a good concept of occlusion in planed restorations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-CR(D)-00002453
Title: Smile rejuvenation by veneers
Category: Case Reports (Drugs)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Esthetic dentists, these days must be well equipped to satisfy the needs of cutting edge society. All ceramic restorations have gained wide recognition as a number one mode of altering in esthetic dentistry. As affected person’s esthetic expectancies maintain to growth, dental groups are challenged to perceive a systematic approach for accomplishing oral and facial esthetics with ceramics. Advances in ceramic materials and veneering strategies permit practitioners to repair features and esthetics using conservative and biologically sound methods as well as promoting a long time oral fitness. The esthetic and restorative applications of dental ceramics have expanded and will continue to evolve with time. A 25-year-old male came to Saveetha Dental College and Hospital with a chief complaint of broken, fixed partial denture and compromised esthetic because of discoloration of the tooth. On clinical examination, the patient had generalized enamel fluorosis affecting all the permanent teeth. The case document describes the esthetic management of mild to extreme fluorosis patient with ceramic veneers. Fluorosis is endemic in a few regions of northern India as a result of consuming well water with excessive fluoride content. Bleaching or microabrasion of critically fluorosed teeth are frequently ineffective or gives temporary results while composite resin veneers not only dis-color and wear with time, however quite frequently become chipped or debonded as glazed ceramics retain its color while being wear resistant, noticeably biocompatible and a lifelike esthetics. The esthetic and restorative applications of dental ceramics have expanded and will continue to evolve with time16. However, the clinicians must be sensible in responding to the ever-inflating esthetic needs of the patients, such as every process in dentistry, the achievement of ceramic veneers, and crowns rely on understanding the principals involved in their fabrication and application. The success of treatment may be assured if the dentist follows a described protocol with each patient to ensure that each one factor consisting of smile design, margin placement material, and shade selection are considered. Communication among patient, dentist, and technician is of extreme significance. It is extremely vital to procure an informed consent from the patients before considering such cases. It’s also essential to discuss the practical and biological implications of his or her preference.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002454
Title: Awareness of porcelain repair systems in dental clinics in Chennai: KAP survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Ceramics are the most widely used materials in dentistry for fixed replacement of missing teeth. Though, strong and esthetic the material might be, there may be fractures or chipping of the material due to various reasons. . In these situations, porcelain repair systems (PRS) have a major role that can avoid replacement of the affected prosthesis and allow repair of it. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness and application of PRS in dental clinics in Chennai, through a questionnaire-based survey. Methodology: A self-structured questionnaire was designed consisting of 18 questions regarding various impression techniques used for removable partial denture, and dentists were also asked about the most common technique used by them. The survey was made on Google forms and distributed to dentists through electronic media. Result: The response rate was 59 out of the 60 dentists that were asked to answer. From the gathered data, it is seen that only 54% of dentists were aware of the PRS and 46% are unaware. 56% of dentists opted to replace the fractured prosthesis, while only 44% showed willingness to repair the damaged porcelain. Conclusion: To conclude the survey, not many practitioners in Chennai are aware of PRS and their uses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002455
Title: Marginal adaptation of composite resin with different dentin bonding agents in Class V restorations
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Esthetic concerns are the prime focus in modern restorative dental practice. Composite resin restorative materials have played crucial roles in establishing esthetics in many clinical situations. However, they are also prone for the marginal discrepancy and microleakage. Bonding agents are used to minimize this phenomenon to improve the success of the restorations. Aim: This study is to assess the marginal adaptation (MA) of nanohybrid composite resin with two 7th generation dentin bonding agents. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 extracted human maxillary premolars were cleaned, processed, mounted, and divided into two experimental Groups A and B. Class V cavities were prepared in extracted teeth with the gingival margin on the dentin and the incisal margin on the enamel. The cavities were restored with a nanohybrid composite resin (Swiss Tec Composite, Coltene Whaledent, USA) using the experimental self-etching adhesives, Group A - (Bond Plus SE, Medicept Dental, UK) and Group B - (Kerr OptiBond, Heraeus Kulzer, Germany). After that, the restorations were light cured, finished and polished. After thermocycling, the MA was analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) (SEM, ×600 magnification). The outcome measure is the widest distance between the restoration and tooth structure in the cervical margins expressed in the micrometer. The discrepancy in each margin was recorded, tabulated and analyzed. Results: The mean discrepancy between tooth structure and restoration in Group A was 3.35 ± 0.31 um and for Group B was 3.67 ± 0.24 um. An independent sample t-test was used to analyze the data. A statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Kerr OptiBond showed higher means of gaps than Bond Plus SE in the cervical margins. Even though a statically significance was observed between the two bonding agents, clinical significance may not be altered.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002456
Title: Prevalence of different crown forms of central incisor among South Indian population
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The concern with facial esthetics has followed the rise of civilizations, and faces representing the ideal of beauty have always been used as references. The smile is part of this beauty standard, which is measured subjectively. A harmonious smile depends on the balance that involves several factors, from its width to its ratio with facial outlines, tooth color and shape, as well as gingival exposure and contour. Different forms such as square, triangle, and oval will help in selecting teeth for prosthodontic rehabilitation. Aim: The aim of the study is to survey the prevalence of crown shape in maxillary central incisors of individuals among South Indian adult population. Materials and Methods: Study population comprised 300 (150 males and 150 females) individuals aging 20–25 years of South Indian population. Two photographs: One frontal profile and one intraoral picture were taken for analysis. The images were standardized and measured using KLONK image measurement tool. Result: 118 oval-shaped, 18 square-shaped, and 17 triangular-shaped incisors were among 152 oval-shaped faces. Likewise 26 oval-shaped, 52 square-shaped, and 6 triangular-shaped incisors were noted among the 84 square-shaped faces. Similarly, there were 11 oval-shaped, 23 square-shaped, and 29 triangular-shaped central incisors among 63 triangular-shaped faces. Conclusion: No significant relationship between the shapes of the face and tooth, or the association of these with gender was observed. The oval shape, both for men and women, was the most prevalent, and the triangular shape was the least common for both genders.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002457
Title: A retrospective radiographic evaluation of incisive canal and anterior loop of mental nerve using cone beam computed tomography
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The pattern of entry of mental nerve into the mental foramen after its emergence from the inferior alveolar nerve bundle is an important presurgical landmark in the mandibular premolar region. The inferior alveolar nerve gives an anterior loop before entering soft tissues and ends as mental nerve in mental foramen. When traced anteriorly, mental nerve continues as incisive nerve inside mandibular incisive canal. The aim of this study is to identify the presence and location of mandibular incisive canal and anterior loop of mental nerve. Materials and Methods: A total of 146 cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images of 146 patients were evaluated for the presence of anterior loop of mental foramen and mandibular incisive canal. These CBCT images were analyzed using Galileos software for measuring the diameter of the incisive canal and anterior loop and also buccal proximity, lingual proximity, and distance between the incisive canal and inferior border of mandible. The readings were tabulated and statistical analysis was done with Chi-square test using SPSS software. The prevalence among gender and also in different age groups was also noted. Results: On examining 146 CBCTs, only 26 (17.80%) patients had anterior loop of mental foramen and only 8 (5.48%) patients had mandibular incisive canal. Anterior loop of mental foramen was present, unilaterally (left or right side) in 24 cases (16.43%) and bilaterally in remaining 2 (1.36%) cases. Mandibular incisive canal was found unilaterally (left or right) in 6 (4.10%) and bilaterally in 2 (1.37%) patients. These structures were more commonly found in patients around 31–40 years of age. Conclusion: Care should be taken to avoid injury to mental nerve during implant placement in the interforaminal region. Hence, a safe fixed distance, anterior from mental foramen should not be taken into account for every patient. Alterations in the distance are present among different individuals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002459
Title: Estimation of stabilometric indicators with a decrease in the interalveolar distance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: At present, due to the rapid development and improvement of modern technologies and methods of diagnosing, treatment, and prosthetics, dentistry has gone beyond the narrow specialty and cooperates with other medical disciplines. The success of the treatment of a dental patient depends on the possibility of using modern medical technologies and an objective assessment of the functional capabilities of the patient’s body, for this purpose we used functional methods: Computer stabilometry, surface electromyography of the chewing muscles and neck muscles, and functional, physiological method for determining jaw relation. Materials and Method: This paper presents the data of the estimation of stabilometric indicator in 293 patients with major dental diseases accompanied by a decrease in the interalveolar distance and 102 patients without signs of decreased occlusal vertical dimension. Results and Discussion: The cases with the habitual occlusion with signs of decreased occlusal vertical dimension show significant (P < 0.001) deterioration of the main indicators of the balance function. Optimization of the jaw relation has led to significant improvement of the coefficient of the equilibrium function and the area of the statokinesigram ellipse. Conclusion: The significance of the functional state of the cervical spine in dental patients with a change in jaw relation was noted, which was also confirmed by the results of surface electromyography of the masticatory and cervix muscles

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002460
Title: The lower urinary tract symptoms in patients after transurethral resection of benign prostatic hyperplasia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Urination disorders progress with age and have no gender. According to the literature, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) frequently serves the cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs). In most patients, conservative therapy provides a good quality of life. In some patients, progressing symptoms that require surgical treatment. Transurethral resection (TUR) is most commonly used in the treatment of BPH. However, according to studies, the frequency of long-term persistence of LUTS after TUR may be more than 30%. We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records and prospective evaluation of TUR in the long term, which was carried out in patients with BPH. The real picture of the possibilities of examination and treatment of patients with LUTS together with urological can be accessed from portal UroWeb.ru. A survey of urologists in the public domain was conducted. Such an indication, as the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy has been established for young patients with a small volume of the prostate. TUR in this group of patients often continues LUTS and requires further medical treatment. The probability of the development of urethral strictures after TUR BPH is 15.4%. Conducting functional diagnosis of lower urinary tract will narrow the indications for surgery of BPH and in the post-operative period to choose the rational approach to treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002461
Title: The prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of the syndrome of premature aging in women in peri- and post-menopausal period
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This paper presents the results of our own study of the prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of the syndrome of premature aging in women in peri- and post-menopausal period. Materials and Method: It presents data on that against the background of menopausal changes since the age of 50 years, premature aging syndrome develops in women, which manifests itself in accelerated aging by 1.3–1.6 times. Neurohumoral mechanisms described in premature aging in postmenopausal period and associated with a cytokine tension increase in the level of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukins 1 and 6. Results and Discussion: Results of phenotypic characteristics of premature aging in women in peri- and post-menopausal period are given: A significant decrease in the strength index with a simultaneous significant increase in the body mass index, the proportion of fat, and the area of the subcutaneous and visceral fat.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00002463
Title: Synthesis, charecterizations of heterocylic metal complexes, structural design and their microbial potentials
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of the present work was to synthesize different types of complex compounds of two lignds with metal ions by varying pH and solvent during their synthesis. Methods: New Schiff bases derived by the condensation of 3– aldehydosalicylic acid with ortho-nitro, meta-nitro, and para-nitro anilines, and ortho-, meta-, and Para- chloroanilines in alcoholic medium, forming 2-hydroxy-3-[(m-Nitro amino) methyl] benzoic acid [Scheme 1] and 2-hydroxy-3-[(m- chloramines) methyl] benzoic acid [Scheme 2]. The coordination complexes of bivalent metal ions such as Cu (II), Zn (II), Ni (II), and Co (II) with the ligands were synthesized at various pH ranges. Hence, the structural design of synthesized metal complexes reveals the different coordination at different pH-ranges. These complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, infrared - spectra, mass spectral analysis, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The complexes were colored and stable in air, the ligands act as monobasic bidentate, dibasic tridentate, and dibasic tetradentate at different pH - ranges and forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with metal ions. The ligands and their metal complexes have also been tested for their antimicrobial behavior against various microorganisms and all complexes showed a good activity

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002464
Title: Efficacy of different methods to reduce pain during debonding of orthodontic brackets
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Pain is an important physiological and emotional experience, whose intensity may vary with age, gender, emotional state, cultural background, and previous pain experience. Almost 95% of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment have reported varying degrees of pain. The association of pain with the placement of separators, brackets, and archwires has been evaluated by previous investigations. However, little is known about the presence, causes, or handling of pain during debonding of orthodontic brackets. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different methods to reduce pain during debonding of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients who had fixed orthodontic treatment with metal brackets were selected for this study with 10 in each group. In group 1, stress relief method was employed, and in group 2, medication (Ibuprofen + Paracetamol) was given 1 h before debonding. Pain experience for each tooth was scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). Multiple linear regression analysis, the Mann–Whitney U-test, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient analysis were used to analyze the data and results obtained. Results: VAS scores were recorded and 47% (P < 0.05) reduction of pain was found in the control group and 72% (P < 0.01) reduction of pain in the experimental group. On comparing the anatomic location in both the control and experimental groups, upper and lower anterior region showed more pain than posteriors (P < 0.05). The VAS scores by gender showed that the females had significantly higher scores than did males. The overall pain in the experimental group was lesser than that of the control group. Conclusion: Analgesic medication 1 h before debonding helps in reducing pain during debonding of orthodontic brackets. Upper and lower anterior teeth are more sensitive to pain than posterior teeth during debonding. Females had a lower pain threshold levels than that of males.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002465
Title: The analysis of the volume of delivery of blood components to the medical organizations and their specific weight of leucoreduction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: For 2008–2015 years, the volume of blood components delivery to the medical organizations for 1000 of population was increased: The growth of platelet concentrates was +21.5 in 2015; erythrocyte medium was +0.7, and plasma - 2.3. For 2008–2015 years, the specific weight of leucoreduced components of blood delivery to the medical organizations was increased: The growth of platelet concentrates was +1.1 in 2015, erythrocyte medium was +4, and plasma was +11.8. Specific weight of leucoreduced components of blood in 2015: Concentrate of platelets - 95.0%, erythrocytes - 68.0%, and plasma - 28.4%. Materials and Method: The statistical sources and monitoring of Kazakhstani blood service activity were used. Methods of the obtained data processing: Indicators of dynamics intensity and direct ranging. Statistical processing was performed by EXELL program. Results and Discussion: Analyzing coefficient of the variation of leucoreduction of blood components in Kazakhstan, we see considerable dispersion of this indicator in different regions of blood centers in Kazakhstan during 2008–2015 years. Since 2014, this dispersion of the indicator became admissible for erythrocyte medium and platelet concentrates. Conclusion: In Kazakhstan, the production of erythrocytes for 1000 people in 2015 was 10.0, platelets - 2.05, and plasma - 8.9.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002466
Title: Use of internet by graduates for self-diagnosis of dental problems
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The internet provides us with access to information, yet among those seeking health-related information, there is a concern it can be misinterpreted, unreliable, or both. Self-diagnosis using the internet is a particular concern if patients are using the internet in the place of a physician. With the internet growing over the years, it has led to much advancement in our society. Having access to a wealth of knowledge whenever we turn on our computers can be helpful in so many ways. The internet has revolutionized the way information is shared and accessed. Information retrieval is easier now than ever before. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of graduates who use internet as a diagnostic health information tool for their dental health. Materials and Methods: Self-administered mailed survey. Results: A total of 105 graduates were surveyed during the program. 95% of the graduates use internet on a daily basis. 70% of the people do visit the dentist only on having any kind of pain believe that the treatments shown in the internet do treat the disease. 58% of the people use self-medications. Conclusions: 70% of the people believe that the treatment options given in the internet do cure the disease and would prefer to use internet as a self- diagnostic tool. The survey has a limitation, as it was conducted on 105 graduates using internet on a daily basis. The futuristic surveys including a larger sample size and comparison of people who do not use internet on a daily basis may alter our findings.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002467
Title: Therapeutic effects of L-arginine on aluminum chloride- induced dementia of Alzheimer’s type in mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of amino acid L-Arginine on aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 )-induced neurological and pathological changes in dementia of Alzheimer’s type in mice (50 mg/kg) for 60 days. Method: The selected aminoacid L-Arginine is administrated along with AlCl 3 as injection for a period of 60 days. The study showed that aluminum exposure significantly causes the learning and memory impairment in Morris water maze test. Administration of L-Arginine significantly reverts glial scarring and edema in the mice brain. Histopathology: The histopathological studies in the hippocampus of mice brain also supported that L-Arginine (250 mg/kg, p.o.,) and L-Arginine (500 mg/kg, p.o.,) which reduces the toxicity of AlCl 3 and secure the normal histoarchitecture pattern of the hippocampus part of the brain. Results and Conclusion: The behavioral impairment caused by aluminum was significantly attenuated by L-Arginine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002468
Title: Preliminary phytochemical analysis and total phenolic content of Solanum giganteum leaves and fruit extract
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The leaves and fruits of Solanum giganteum are rich in nutrients and contain many phytochemicals; they also can be efficiently used as drugs, and the fruits especially are used as food supplements. Whenever there is a rise in a particular disease rate, say for example cancer, then there will be a search for the curative medicines and that too, the most acceptable ones by the society will be the one which is provided by our nature. Phytochemicals are secondary metabolites and help shield us from various ailments and disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the phytochemicals and total phenolic content of leaves and fruit extract of S. giganteum. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical analysis and estimation of phenolic content of S. giganteum leaves and fruits extract were done for evaluating the presence of phytochemicals in it. Various tests were performed to analyze the phytochemicals and estimate the total phenols. Results: Phytochemicals, such as phlobatannins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids, were present in the S. giganteum leaves and fruit extract. The concentration of alkaloids and carbohydrates was more than the other phytochemicals in both the S. giganteum leaves and seed extract. Conclusion: Preliminary phytochemical analysis and estimation of total phenolic content were done in S. giganteum fruit and seed extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00002469
Title: Effect of uricol ® and food with different samafurantin® doses on secondary pharmacokinetic parameters by applying urinary data
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Nitrofurantoin (NFT) is abroad spectrum bactericidal antibiotic. The bioavailability of NFT is affected by many factors. Samafurantin® tablets containing 50 mg NFT were manufactured by Samarra drug industry. Urinary excretion studies were employed since; the urinary tract is the main site of NFT action and excretion. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of Uricol® and food on secondary pharmacokinetic parameters of Samafurantin® tablets with different doses by applying urinary data. Methods: Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in this study. Urine samples were collected from each volunteer after overnight fasting at a specified time intervals which considered as a blank sample for measuring urine pH of urine. After that, volunteers were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2) each of six. Group 1 was administered 100 mg of NFT (Two tablets of 50 mg Samafurantin®) while, G2 was administered 200 mg of NFT (Four tablets of 50 mg Samafurantin®) as a single oral dose. Both groups administered the dose on an empty stomach (fasting), along with one Uricol ® of 5 g sachet on fasting, and on full stomach after eating a standard breakfast after 1-week washout period between each experiment and another. For each experiment, urine samples were collected from each volunteer from 0.25 to 7 h post dosing. In addition, the volume of each void urine sample was measured. Results: Both groups (G1 and G2) showed only slight differences in the pH of urine after administration of Samafurantin® as compared with that of the blank. While, the pH of urine for both groups was higher after administration of Samafurantin® tablets along with Uricol® 5 g. In both groups, each of Uricol® and food exhibited no significant differences (P < 0.05) in secondary pharmacokinetic parameters of NFT; the rate constant of elimination (Kel ) and absorption (Ka ) and consequently their half- life (t 0.5 el and t 0.5 abs ) as long as the drug followed first-order kinetics. While significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed for maximum excretion rate (ExRmax ), cumulative amount excreted in urine (CAe) and CAe as percentage of the dose. This could be attributed to the pH-change of urine by Uricol ® which alkalinized the urinary and kidney tract or delaying gastric emptying by food. Same observations were attained when comparing G1 with G2 after administration of NFT on fasting. Conclusions: Administration of Samafurantin® tablets at higher doses, along with Uricol ® or with food increases secondary pharmacokinetic parameters related to the rate and extent of absorption and elimination without significant changes in their corresponding rate constants and half-lives.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002470
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and attitude of medical students on oral hygiene
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental caries is the most common chronic disease which presents significant clinical issues in both primary and permanent dentitions. If left untreated, the caries progression approximates the dental pulp which leads to infection, abscess, and tooth loss. Oral hygiene also reflects a person’s general health. It is essential that every medical professional should be aware about the importance of maintaining oral hygiene and the systemic ill-effects caused when the oral health is not maintained. The aim of the survey is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and awareness about oral health among the medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among 100 undergraduate medical students to assess their knowledge, attitude, and awareness about oral health maintenance. The questionnaire contained 15 questions in it regarding oral health importance and management. Results: The medical students had good knowledge about oral hygiene and practices. All the students believed that oral hygiene is an essential part of life. However, some of them did not know the systemic conditions which could produce symptoms in oral cavity. Conclusion: Since medical professionals are the primary health caregivers in this society, adequate dental knowledge is a must. The knowledge and awareness of medical students toward oral hygiene were good in this present study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002472
Title: Effects of toothpaste and mouthwash on salivary pH in adolescents
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The present studty is undertaken to study the effects of toothpaste and mouthwash on salivary pH in adolescents. Introduction: Saliva is the first biological component which is exposed to what we take into the oral cavity. The protective function of saliva against dental caries achieved through its biochemical properties. The purpose of this comparative study was to estimate and to compare the pH of saliva before and after brushing and mouthwashing with toothpaste and mouthwash. Results: Salivary pH after using toothpaste and mouth rinse was found to be 8.1 and 7.6, respectively. Oral pH immediately after using toothpaste and mouthwash is alkaline, and therefore, the risk of erosion on teeth is eliminated as children have less thickness of enamel which erodes easily in acidic environments. Conclusion: Oral hygiene practice with commercially available fluoridated toothpaste followed by fluoridated mouth rinse for children 2 times a day can be recommended in moderate-to-high caries group.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002473
Title: Estimation of salivary total protein and albumin in dental fluorosis patient
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Dental fluorosis is hypomineralization of tooth enamel characterized by increased surface and subsurface porosity of the tooth, which causes opacity, pitting, or staining of enamel. Calcium and phosphate are fundamental for the formation of bone and teeth and are essential for achieving optimal mass. Calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ions play an important role in the battle between demineralization and remineralization processes and accordingly modify the susceptibility of tooth to caries progression. During demineralization, calcium release precedes phosphate release from enamel, dentin, and cementum. Chemical demineralization of teeth is caused by acidic attack through two primary means: Dietary acid consumed through food or drink and microbial attack from bacteria present in the mouth. Human saliva contains components that can influence the composition of oral microflora. Many studies on saliva and dental caries have been reported, but very few have been concerned with relationship between saliva and dental fluorosis. Materials and Methods: The saliva samples were collected from total of 12 individuals where six samples from normal individuals as control group and six samples from dental fluorosis patients. Salivary protein estimation was done based on the biuret method. Salivary albumin was estimated using the bromocresol green method. Results: In this present study, there is decrease in salivary total protein and albumin in test group compared to control. Fluorosis can inhibit protein synthesis by weakening the beginning of peptide chain and by preventing the production of peptide chains in ribosomes. Conclusion: This study concludes that fluorosis can cause decrease in salivary total protein and albumin which can be due to inhibition of protein in fluorosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002474
Title: Influence of amylase, trypsin and pepsin on the progression of dental erosion
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The gastric and pancreatic enzymes could perhaps degrade the organic matrix of eroded dentine. This study sought to investigate whether pepsin, trypsin, or the amylase have an influence on erosive mineral loss in dentine and whether they are able to degrade the organic matrix. Materials and Methods: The saliva samples were taken from the dental problem facing subjects and the influence of amylase, pepsin, and trypsin enzymes was checked. The enzymes were assayed using standard methods and the absorbance was recorded. Results: The levels of the amylase, pepsin, and trypsin present in saliva of eroded tooth subjects were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.001) than the level of these enzymes in saliva samples from normal individuals. Conclusion: The combined impact of pepsin, amylase, and trypsin increases the dentine erosion. This could be one reason for the fast proceeding of dental erosion in patients with chronic vomiting and ulceritis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002475
Title: Lactic acid catalyzed and microwave-assisted green synthesis of pharmaceutically important bis(indolyl) methane analogs in aqueous medium
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of this project was to develop a novel and green methodology for microwave-assisted synthesis of bis(indolyl) methane (BIM) analogs in water medium using non-toxic and biodegradable lactic acid as catalyst. Materials and Methods: The reactions were carried out under microwave irradiation using indole and various derivatives of benzaldehyde as reactants. Water was used as a solvent and lactic acid was used as a catalyst for all the reactions. Results: A series of BIM were synthesized successfully with good percentage of yield. The rate of reaction and percentage yield of the products were dependent on the electronic nature of the aldehyde moiety. Conclusion: Lactic acid was proved to be an efficient and green catalyst for synthesis of BIM in water medium.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002476
Title: Assessment of the role of cytokines in diabetic patients associated with periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The release of cytokines is associated with periodontitis. The objective of this study is to analyze whether these cytokines have the same detrimental effect in the case if diabetic patients affected with periodontitis. Methods: The determination of IL-1beta was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor expression was done using immunohistochemistry. Result: The result for the IL-1beta test is expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean, n = 5; *P < 0.001, statistically significant as compared with diabetes + periodontitis subjects. The result for the immunohistochemistry was interpreted. The result for the immunohistochemistry was interpreted, and the for PAI was found to be predominantly present in oral mucosal tissue of diabetes-associated periodontitis group in contrast to diabetes-controlled group. Conclusion: From the above study conducted, it can be concluded that the cytokines play a vital role in patients with diabetes associated with periodontitis. This study was able to prove that increased IL-1β levels are accompanied with impaired insulin secretion since IL-1beta is an important pro-inflammatory biomarker.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002479
Title: Analysis of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 gene expression and inhibition of osteoclast activity in bone destructive disorder
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim is to study the analysis of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (nrf2) gene expression and inhibition of osteoclast activity in bone destructive disorders. Introduction: It has been reported that nrf2 gene expression inhibits osteoclasts through attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling in bone destructive disorders. ROS play a role as intracellular signaling molecules in receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) stimulation. The induction of cytoprotective enzyme expression by Nrf2-gene transfer and augmented antioxidative stress enzymes successfully ameliorated RANKL- dependent osteoclast genesis. The dysregulated osteoclasts are the key to over 90% of bone destructive disorders. Hence, the inhibition of osteoclastic activity by Nrf2 gene expression paves the way for treatment of various bone lesions and destructive bone disorders. Materials and Methods: Adherent primary osteoblastic C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) cells were seeded at a density of 1.5 × 104/cm2 before being prepared. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the first chain cDNA was done. Specific primers required for the analysis to arrive at the required result were used. To detect the reverse transcription PCR amplification products, gel electrophoresis was used. Results: Analysis of the mRNA expression of Nrf2 and antioxidant response element-driven genes in C57BL/6 cell lines by total RNA extraction and correction by β-actin mRNA levels, followed by gel electrophoresis reveals the variation in densities of the Nrf2/B-Actin relative ratio between normal cell lysates and the WT cells under consideration. Conclusion: Densities of Nrf2 bands were measured, and its ratio to β-actin was calculated (mean ± standard deviation; n =3). The relative ratio of Nrf2/B-Actin ratio of normal cell lysate was 0.87 and that of the WT cells cultured was 0.15. *P < 0.05 statistically different from the normal cell lysate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002480
Title: Quantitative assessment of antioxidants and oxidative stress against tooth paste and metal-induced toxicity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate oxidative stress against tooth paste and metal-induced toxicity. Introduction: Exposure to heavy metals is a common phenomenon due to their environmental pervasiveness. Metal intoxication particularly neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity is widely known. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for all these metals is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The toxic manifestations of these metals are caused primarily due to an imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis which is termed as oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Five criteria such as estimation of lipid peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, protein carbonyl content, superoxide dismutase, and catalase ,were taken for evaluating the oxidative stress and antioxidants levels in tooth paste. Result: Thus, this study shows that there is a decrease in antioxidants levels and subsequent increase in oxidative stress levels in heavy metal tooth paste. Conclusion: In the present study, a decrease in antioxidants in heavy metal containing toothpastes shows that it can lead to localized disorder as well as systemic disorders such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, toothpaste containing heavy metals should be avoided.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002481
Title: Estimation of blood loss post-dental extraction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Evaluation of blood loss during major surgical procedures is given utmost importance to provide supplements to compensate the same. Extraction is one of the most common procedures carried out by a dentist in their practice. During dental extractions, as the amount of blood lost is assumed to be minimal, least importance is given to quantify the same. In this study, gravimetric method of estimation of blood loss will be employed to approximate the extent of blood lost by an individual during minor surgical procedure involving extraction. Aim: The aim of this study is to estimate the average amount of blood lost during closed extraction procedure. Methodology: This clinical study was conducted using standardized size of gauze which was pre-weighed and sterilized. These pre-weighed gauze will be used score 50 closed extraction procedures which excluded the extraction of mobile teeth and patients with bleeding and clotting disorders and other systemic illness. The gauze thus used was weighed post-extraction to determine the magnitude of blood loss. Result: The mean blood loss in study participants was 3.06 ± 3.0036 ml. Paired sample t-test showed statistically significant blood loss before and after dental extraction (t = 19.75, P < 0.001). There was no statistical difference with respect to age and gender post-extraction (F = 0.644 P = 0.595, F = 0.465 P = 0.709). Conclusion: Although negligible amount of blood is lost during a closed extraction procedure, it is the duty of the dentist to grade the same so that underestimation of blood loss is neglected and necessary dietary supplements are incorporated when required.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002482
Title: Effects of economic crisis on academic performance of school students - A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Most of us experience the emotional impact of money at some point in our lives. When adults in the family are hit with a financial crisis, the children are impacted whether we realize it or not. Such conditions have an adverse effect on children’s educational outcomes such as school enrollment, attainment, attendance, and performance. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out among 109 school students. 15 questions were given to each of them. The questionnaire was given individually to each of them to avoid discussion among them and also to avoid false results, thereby no bias is evidenced in this study. Each of them was given 1 h to complete the questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed. Results: From this survey, we come to know that economic crisis has an adverse effect on academic performance of school students.Conclusion: Economic crisis results in various physiological and psychological disorders among schoolgoing children which, in turn, has a negative impact on their academic performance too.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00002483
Title: Health effects of soft drinks among South Indian population
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Soft drinks and energy drinks consumption has continued to gain popularity. The purpose of this survey article was to determine the soft drink consumption patterns among South Indian population and frequency of this beverage consumption for various situations, namely for health awareness, why and how often they consume these drinks, whether they choose soft drinks over fresh juices and prevalence of adverse side effects among people who drink soft drinks. Materials and Methods: A self-administered structured survey of 16 questions was written in English and designed to assess factors for consuming soft drinks among South Indian population. The online questionnaire was distributed to 80 people. The questions were designed in accordance with people’s decision in choosing to drink soft drinks of their choice and why they consume it. Results: Data were collected and statistically analyzed. 49.2% of them only drinks for refreshment and have a general idea about the health effects. Few people do not consume soft drinks due to dislike toward the taste. Conclusion: This survey created an awareness among the majority of participants about the health effects of soft drinks. A lot of people do not recommend their friends and family to consume soft drinks due to the prevalence of its adverse ill effects. Fresh juices should be preferred over soft drinks for good health. It is also observed that most of them only drink these beverages as a refreshment, so caffeine addiction is not a problem here.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002484
Title: Effect of stress on academic performance of students in different streams
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Stress arises when the combination of internal and external pressures exceeds the individual’s resource to cope with their situation. For many young adults, college and school are the best time of life. These critical years can also be undermined by depression, anxiety, and stress. Students who do not cope well with stress have a very drastic effect in their studies and behavior. Materials and Methods: A sample of 80 students were asked to answer a survey prepared in online. The results were presented graphically, inferentially, and descriptively. The objective of the current study was to assess the stress among students of various professional colleges and its association with various academic, social, and health-related factors. Result: Students studying in science stream had stress more compared to students studying in other streams. It affects them mentally, physically, and emotionally. Students face anxiety and go in to depression which later leads to decreased performance in academics. Conclusion: Stress is the body’s reaction to a challenge. This research can help us in finding the reason and the causes of stress thus helping the students in finding a solution to their problems and help them enjoy their schooling stress-free and tension-free.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002485
Title: Awareness of prevalence of dental caries among genetically related population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to create an awareness of prevalence on the incidence of dental caries among the genetically related population. Materials and Methods: This study was done in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. A questionnaire containing 10 questions about reason, patients prone to dental caries seen in the genetically related population. A total of 55 undergraduates were selected for the present study, which consisted of both males and females. The survey included questions relating to dental caries, relation of dental caries to genetic trait, twins affected by dental caries, and overall condition of a patient’s oral cavity. These questions were distributed among the dental students to spread awareness of dental caries in a genetic-related population. The survey as administered through survey planet link. Results: From the given survey, it was shown that 68.7% are aware about the caries being genetically related. It is also known that they have a profound knowledge of caries being higher in children when compared to adults. About 44.9% believed that sugar content diet had higher incidence, and 15.8% believed that it is due to the genetic relation, while 40.2% believed both. Nearly 59.6% supported tins being equally prone, while other 40.4% unsupported it. Regarding the monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ), about 47.4% believed that MZ were more prone, while other 52.6% believed that DZ were more prone. About 71.9% felt genetic caries can be prevented, while the other 28.1% felt genetic caries cannot be prevented. Conclusion: We know that dental caries is genetically related, and it contributes to about 60% toward the occurrence of dental caries. However, according to the survey, we conclude that the participants are not much aware on the knowledge of how dental caries is genetically related.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002486
Title: Awareness on toothpaste among young and old generation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Toothpaste could be a paste or gel cleaner used with a toothbrush to maintain the esthetics and health of teeth. Dentifrice is employed to market oral hygiene: It is an abrasive that aids in removing bacterial plaque and food from the teeth, assists in suppressing exhalation, and delivers active ingredients (most ordinarily fluoride) to assist stop decay (dental caries) and gum illness (gingivitis). Salt and saleratus (baking soda) are among materials that may be substituted for industrial dentifrice. Dentifrice is not meant to be enveloped attributable to the halide content, however, is mostly not terribly harmful if accidentally enveloped in tiny amounts but one ought to get medical attention when swallowing abnormally massive amounts. In addition to 20%–42% water, toothpastes are derived from a range of elements, the three main ones being abrasives, fluoride, and detergents. This surveys aims to raise awareness on myths about toothpaste among younger and older generation. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared which included questions on methods and general usage of toothpaste. The sample size was 102 and the responses were recorded through survey planet. Among this 102, 20% were aged 50 and above. 70% were between 18 and 21 and remaining were between 22 and 30. Various instances of their usage and general myth they are aware about regarding toothpastes are captured in this survey. Results: From the survey, 54.9% feels that toothpaste might cause side effects since they use chemical substance. Around 56% of the population who took the survey feels that attractive packing or the taste of the toothpaste does not guarantee you healthy and strong teeth. Thus, these were the major results found through the survey. Conclusion: From the survey, it can be concluded that most of the people who took the survey are aware of usage and importance of toothpaste.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002487
Title: Comparison of oral hygiene and gingival health response in patients wearing two types of orthodontic retainers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The use of retainers either bonded to the lingual/palatal tooth or a removable type after completion of orthodontic treatment is a common practice that can affect gingival health. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the oral hygiene and gingival health response in patients wearing Begg’s removable retainers and lingual bonded retainers. Methods: A total of 5 patients wearing Begg’s removable retainers and 7 patients wearing lingual bonded (fixed) retainers were followed up for the gingival response over a period of 3 months from a baseline time of debonding and placement of the retainers. Gingival response was measured based on modified gingival index. Results: Mild gingivitis was more prevalent on the lingual interdental region in fixed lingual retainers than removable retainers. However, the magnitude of the inflammatory response was not significantly high. Conclusion: According to this study, the clinical observation of an increased tendency for calculus formation around fixed retainers was confirmed. However, a comparable limited gingival inflammation was found in the presence of both the types of retainers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002488
Title: Awareness of herbal medicines on hair care - Survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Herbalism is the use of plants for medicinal purposes and the study of botany for such use. Plants have been the basis for medical treatments through much of human history, and such traditional medicine is still widely practiced today. Modern medicine recognizes herbalism as a form of alternative medicine. Hair care is the terminology used for the hygiene and cosmetology of the hair. The findings of this survey show that herbal medicine has a significant effect on maintaining the hair care. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was administered through survey planet link, and it was conducted among the people of different age groups. The questionnaire was prepared with about 15 questions with both open-worded and close-worded questions on hair care and usage of herbal products on hair care, and it was attended by nearly 110 people. Result: The results were statistically analyzed. From the survey that is being conducted, we conclude that herbal medicines are recommended to the population and it also helps us better in knowing the effect of herbal medicines on hair care. Conclusion: Good hair care plays a very important role in having healthy hair and helps avoiding extensive damage that can lead to hair loss. Worldwide, standardization of herbal medicines and adequate clinical trials are necessary to understand the potential benefits and risk of these synthetic hair care products.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002489
Title: Computer aides design-computer aided manufacturing - A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Over the years, there have been tremendous changes in dental practice and care delivered to patients. Evolving from a primitive form of medicine used in replace missing teeth tomodern day practices involving sophisticated diagnostic, preventive and treatment protocols using technology that is improving as we write this manuscript, dentistry has traveled a long way. Recent technology that aids in the treatment protocol in dental practice includes dental implants, digitization in radiographs, lasers, and computer-aided designing-and computer aided manufacturing (CAD and CAM). These technologies offer a better line of treatment with improved esthetic results. The contribution of CAD-CAM in the field of prosthodontics is on the rise due to the accuracy offered by CAD-CAM processed dentures. The contribution of CAD-CAM in the present scenario revolves around the field of prosthodontics compared to the other fields in dentistry. The latest development being the fabrication of complete denture in just one visit with a high degree of accuracy and esthetics. The era of digital complete denture is here and has been cemented by the commercial use of CAD-CAM in dental practice. This article will focus on the complete denture fabrication aspect by CAD-CAM.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002491
Title: Effect of e-learning on academic performance of undergraduate students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: E-learning has changed the college experience for many students. Rather than sitting through college courses and taking notes, tech-savvy Net generation students are taking advantage of online classes and other forms of online learning. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared and distributed among various undergraduate students, and the results were assessed.Results: Based on the results obtained, e-learning has a positive influence on the academic performance of undergraduate students. Conclusion: Overall, traditional learning is expensive and takes a long time, and the results can vary. E-learning offers an alternative that is faster, cheaper, and potentially better. E-learning has to be implemented and made available to everyone easily.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002492
Title: Analysis of salivary electrolytes in diabetic and non‑diabetic patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major global health problem, and it has an increasing prevalence due to several factors such as the aging, population growth, urbanization, lack of physical exercise, and increasing prevalence of obesity. DM causes dysfunction of salivary glands, thereby leading to alterations in the salivary parameters when compared to normal individuals. Thus, saliva can be used as a non-invasive alternative to that of blood in the diagnosis and monitoring of the status of DM. Objective: The aim of the present study was to estimate and compare the levels of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) ions in saliva of diabetes and non-diabetes patients. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from a group of diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Centrifugation method was used to determine the levels of Cl and Na ions. Data received were statistically analyzed and results obtained. Results: The mean value of Na ions in saliva of non-diabetic patients was 10.47 and in diabetic patients was found to be 29.80, P value was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The mean value of Cl ions in saliva of non-diabetic patients was 24.87 and in diabetic patients was found to be 51.27, P value was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In our study, salivary Na and Cl levels were significantly elevated in diabetic individuals compared with non-diabetic patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002493
Title: Awareness of effects of sleep deprivation among college students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute. A chronic sleep-restricted state can cause fatigue, daytime sleepiness, clumsiness, and weight loss or weight gain. It adversely affects the brain and cognitive function. However, in a subset of cases sleep deprivation can, paradoxically, lead to increased energy and alertness and enhanced mood. It has even been used as a treatment for depression. Sleep deprivation tends to cause slower brain waves in the frontal cortex, shortened attention span, higher anxiety, impaired memory, and a grouchy mood. Materials and Methods: This study is questionnaire-based survey. The survey comprises of questions pertaining to the effects of sleep deprivation among college students. This survey was administered to the 100 participants through a survey planet link. The results obtained were statistically analyzed. Results: Sleep deprivation is a major problem faced among college students of the present generation. There are several causes which attribute toward it. Irritability, mood swings, lack of motivation, swelling of eye, and headaches are consequences which may harm the health condition severely. Conclusion: College years are time of critical transition from adolescence to adulthood. This transition is involved with inadequate sleep. This chronic sleep deprivation may impair academic performance, mood regulation, and total well-being. Investigation of new approaches to promote good sleep should be prioritized.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002494
Title: Assessment of urease activity in Pisum sativum seeds
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Urease is an enzyme which catalyzes urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urease is abundantly found in seeds of Leguminosae family. It is an important enzyme for plants as it converts atmospheric nitrogen into absorbable form of nitrogen. It is even found in some bacteria and fungi and sometimes acts as defense mechanism. This research aims at extracting urease from Pisum sativum seeds. Materials and Methods: The dry seed sample was bought from a local departmental store. The extraction of the enzyme was done in three steps. They are precipitation, dialysis, and electrophoresis. The activity of the protein extracted was checked under changing pH and temperature. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique. Results: The optimum pH was found to be 7.5, and the optimum temperature was found to be 40°C. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 90kD. Conclusion: Urease was extracted from P. sativum. The molecular weight was estimated. The enzyme activity was checked in changing pH and temperature. Urease can be used to regulate the level of urea in diabetic patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002495
Title: Effect of social networking site on academic performance
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Social media is a popular method for communication among university students in India. However, excessive social media can also have negative impact on academic performance. This research explores the question by conducting a survey on university students in India in regard to social media usage and their academic performance. The survey also explored the most popular social network among Indian students, their view on the usage of social networking sites. Nowadays, teenagers are more inclined to social networking sites, which are the reason for poor academic performance. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire with 12 questions was prepared to assess the knowledge about the effect of social networking site among the adolescent. The survey was conducted among 100 students from various colleges through Surveyplanet link. The data were statistically analyzed. Results: According to the survey, people used social media primarily for chatting 57%, downloading 22%, posting photos 16%, and blogging 5%. Most of the participants think that social networking sites have an impact on their habits and change ones nature. 86% of people think that social networking sites can be an effective tool for e-learning while the rest 14% think that book learning gives best results. Conclusion: According to the survey, there is a significant impact of social networking sites on academic performance. The survey results clearly indicate that students are spending most of their time on social networking sites, which leads to lack of attention and poor academic performance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002496
Title: Photodynamic therapy application experience for melanoma combined treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The retrospective analysis of different types of surgical treatment efficiency among the patients with melanoma showed that preventive lymphatic dissection does not improve 5-year survival rate of patients. At that, the appearance of metastases in regional lymph nodes after the removal of primary tumor, despite a delayed lymphatic dissection, decrease 5-year-old survival rate by half, and the emergence of intradermal metastases decreases it 3 times. To improve the efficiency of melanoma patient treatment, the additional impact on latent tumor cells in the lymphatic skin system and subcutaneous tissue are proposed - the conduct of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Materials and Method: The study included 47 melanoma patients, who had the PDT of zonal areas in skin lymphatic system as a component of combination treatment, which are located between the primary tumor lesion and a regional lymph barrier. Results and Discussion: To perform PDT, the patients had the introduction of photosensitive drug intravenously (Russia) in the dose of 0.3 mg/kg of patient body weight 24 h before the first session of irradiation. Irradiation parameters: Irradiation wavelength - 670 nm, the density of laser energy emission - 50 J/cm2, the power density of laser radiation - 50 mW/cm2, and the number of irradiation sessions - 10–22. The patient follow-up period made 2 years. During this time 4 patients (8.5%) of 47 demonstrated local recurrences, including 2 patients - in the skin of the limb, distal to the resected tumor, where the exposure was not performed. This indicates that a photodynamic action should be carried out on the area of the skin distal to the level of the primary tumor. Conclusions: The performed studies showed that PDT in combination with surgery methods is a promising one for the treatment of the patients with melanoma. The obtained results are the basis for further research in this direction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002497
Title: Fluorescent diagnosis of bladder cancer by hexasens drug
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: They presented the results of the clinical trial conducted in Russia concerning the diagnostic efficacy of Hexasens drug - the photosensitizer based on hexyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid for the fluorescence diagnosis of bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 2015–2016 on the basis of the City Clinical Hospital № 40 (Moscow, Russia). 53 patients were involved into study diagnosed with bladder cancer in T1N0M0 stage. Fluorescence diagnosis was carried out for 1 h after the intravesical introduction of 0.2% solution (50 mL or 100 mg) of Hexasens drug (FSUE “SSC NIOPIK,” Russia). Results and Discussion: The results of the fluorescence diagnosis were compared with the results of the standard routine cystoscopy. They showed that the performance of fluorescent diagnosis (FD) allowed to improve diagnostic sensitivity by 13.2% as compared to standard cystoscopy (from 86.8% to 100%), the diagnosis accuracy increased by 8.8% (from 91.2% to 100%) and a negative predictive value increased by 20.9% (from 79.1% to 100%). During the carrying out of fluorescence diagnosis, 8 patients (15.0%) of 53 ones also revealed 14 fluorescing foci not identified in white light, in which the tumorous process was confirmed during morphological study. Conclusion: The introduction of Hexasens solution into a bladder and the carrying out of an FD was not accompanied by the development of any adverse reactions. Patients had a subjective discomfort only during a prolonged exposure of the drug solution in a bladder (up to 2 h). The developed set of methods is recommended for the use in clinical practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002498
Title: Study of sunscreen and antioxidant activity of combination extracts from the red algae Eucheuma cottonii and Eucheuma spinosum
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Eucheuma cottonii and Eucheuma spinosum, types of red algae, have each been shown to have antioxidant activity. However, their antioxidant activity in combination was unknown. In this study, the antioxidant activity of a combination of E. cottonii and E. spinosum extract was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate method, whereby the sunscreen property of the extracts was measured in vitro. Materials and Methods: The extraction process involved using a maceration method equipped with a sonicator with n-hexane as the solvent. The inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) value of E. cottonii:E. spinosum ratios of 1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, and 0:1 was 119 and 208 µg/ml, 174 and 293 µg/ml, 751 and 420 µg/ml, 755 and 799 µg/ml, and 2.816 and 688 µg/ml, respectively. Results: These results were lower than the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid (IC50 3.757 µg/ml) as the control. The percentage erythema transmission value for the extract combination of 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 0:1 was in the range of 0.006–0.146, 0.033–0.305, 0.052–0.436, 0.007–0.184, and 0.217–0.572, respectively. In addition, the percentage transmission of pigmentation of each combination was in the range of 0.044–0.229, 0.081–0.368, 0.149–0.490, 0.043–0.252, and 0.271–0.604, respectively. Conclusion: All combinations of extracts were classified as having total sunblock activity, whereas the concentration of E. cottonii extract showed a positive correlation to the antioxidant properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002499
Title: Primary Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction: Surgical Treatment with Antegrade/Retrograde Endopyelotomy and Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty (Effectiveness Analysis)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The proposed research aimed to compare two surgical methods (laparoscopic pyeloplasty and both antegrade and retrograde endopyelotomies), their results and post-surgical complications prospectively. Within the scope of the study, surgeons performed 48 endopyelotomies (including 14 antegrade and 34 retrograde) and 65 laparoscopic pyeloplasties in patients with primary ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). The diagnosis of UPJO was based on complete medical history, ultrasonography, intravenous urography (IVU), and/or contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The mean follow-up period for patients in two groups was 12 months. The successful result was defined as the absence of any clinical symptoms combined with the significant reduction of hydronephrosis on IVU and ultrasonography. The successful result was observed in 84.8% of patients after endopyelotomy, and in 93.8% of patients after laparoscopy. Irrespective of the degree of hydronephrosis, laparoscopic procedures yield better therapeutic results than endopyelotomy for patients with primary UPJO. The number of complications was comparable in both groups. We conclude that laparoscopic pyeloplasty should be the procedure of choice in the treatment of primary UPJO.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002500
Title: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia at children, outstanding issues
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is one of the most significant pathologies, which affects life quality of preterm infants. More than 50 years, scientists from all over the world have shed light on most of the issues related to BPD. Despite these remarkable advances in the study of this issue, many knowledge gaps and blind spots still present in the comprehension of BPD and require more detailed study. Materials and Method: We had provided literature review of up to date information about BPD for clear understanding of unsolved issues. Results and discussion: Analysis of various literary sources has shown that today there is disparate information on many issues concerning BPD. A review of the world and local literature has shown that the available evidence base on the therapy of patients with BPD only affects the management of patients during the newborn stage and recommendations for the management of this category of patients at home. Conclusion: We had find lack of information about postneonatal period management and intensive care. BPD is still an actual issue for study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002502
Title: Anti-infective activity of new piperidine derivatives
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Esters of cyclopropanecarboxylic and adamantine carboxylic acids with N-propyl and N-benzylpiperidine fragments were synthesized. The hydrochloride salt of 1-benzyl-4-adamantancarbonyloxy piperidine has been shown to have potent antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with low toxicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002505
Title: Immunomodulatory effects of ω3-fatty acids on the progression and treatment of periodontal disease
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of periodontal treatment combined with dietary supplementation with omega (ω)-3 fatty acids on the immunomodulatory activity on the prevention and treatment of periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The test group consisted of five patients (43.1 ± 6.0 years) supplemented with 300 mg of ω-3 fatty acids for 3 months. The control group was composed of five patients (46.1 ± 11.6 years) that took a placebo capsule for 3 months. The periodontitis group was composed of five patients (45.1 ± 9.6 years) without any treatment. The periodontal examination and the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, prostaglandin expression (PGE)-2, and interleukin (IL)-6 were performed after therapy. Results: Among the three groups, the diameter of the precipitin ring was greater in the omega-3 fatty acid treated group for the expression of PGE2. From TNF-alpha and IL-6 results, we can see that the cytokines levels are higher in periodontitis patients due to inflammation whereas it is low in healthy individuals. However, there is a significant decrease in the level of cytokines in fatty acid treated group when compared to periodontitis control. Conclusion: Moreover, the general conditions and pathological changes in the control group and groups treated with n-3 fatty acids were much better than that in periodontitis groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002507
Title: Effects of monosodium glutamate on the Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Glutamate is a non-essential amino acid that is found in virtually all of the food we intake on a daily basis. Monosodium glutamate (commonly called MSG) is a derivative of this amino acid. MSG is widely used to season food, especially in the Asian and American populations. This survey aims to study the comparative opinions and individual effects of MSG on the MSG consuming Indian population and thus pinpoint the most common effects and symptoms experienced (if any) of an MSG-rich diet. Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based study. A form was circulated among 100 Indian civilians from the age of 10 onward which included questions regarding their awareness about what MSG was, their personal opinions on it and whether or not they faced any side effects after consuming it. Results were obtained using proper statistical methods and thus the effects of MSG (if any) on the Indian population were studied. Results: From the data, it is clear that there is an acute lack of awareness about MSG, but a prevalent negative opinion that gives it a bad reputation even though it has been scientifically proved to be safe. Conclusion: The statistical results of this survey pointed to the fact that the majority of people were not affected by MSG-rich meals, but there is an overlying bad reputation about the chemical even though it is safe and tested. The most commonly faced effects were nausea and headaches.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002508
Title: Relation between communication skills and career success - A survey
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another. Developing your communication skills can help all aspects of your life, from your professional life to social gatherings, and everything in between. Career is used to describe an occupation or a profession that usually involves special training or formal education, and is considered to be a person’s lifework. Positive attitude, believing in themselves, positive habits, goal setting, and persistence can lead to success in career. The aim of the study is to do a survey on the relationship between communication skills and career success. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 100 students through a questionnaire that contained 15 questions. The questionnaire was circulated through survey planet (online). The result of the survey was statistically analyzed. Results: The responses from 100 participants were obtained; the data were then analyzed statistically. From this survey, it is evident that 91% of the students are aware that communication skills play an important role in career success. In this survey, 58% believe that good academic skills are important for communication. Conclusion: This survey has created an awareness of students toward communication skills and its importance in career success.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002509
Title: Determination of anti-alopecia compounds from water fraction of the Angiopteris evecta (G. Forst.) Hoffm. L roots
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: This study aims to examine the anti-alopecia compounds from the water fraction of Angiopteris evecta (G. Forst.) Hoffm. L roots. The study based on our previous research shows that the water fraction of A. evecta roots has a hair growth stimulating effects. Methods: The study was started with sample collection, extracted by maceration, and fractionated using liquid-liquid extraction with water, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate with a ratio of 1:1. Isolation of compounds in water fraction was done by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) method using gradient polarity of chloroform:methanol, resulting in a subfraction forming a crystal. The crystal was checked by two-way thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The obtained pure crystal was then identified with Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Results: It was obtained 11 subfractions from the VLC method, and the chloroform:methanol (4:6) subfraction was able to give a spot by two-way TLC. This fraction was then cooled and crystallized. The crystal was recrystallized using methanol. After identification using FTIR, LC-MS, NMR, and compared to a literature, it was found that the crystal had the formula of C12H18O8H2O called Angiopteriside compound. Conclusions: The chemical compound content of water fraction of A. evecta roots with possibly causing anti-alopecia was the Angiopteriside compound with the formula of C12H18O8H2O. Further verification determination is suggested to compare this compound to the minoxidil compound, either by in silico or in vivo analysis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: September
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002514
Title: Docking studies on short and ultra-short peptides against beta-secretase (BACE1) enzyme
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the short and ultra-short peptides by in silico studies against beta- secretase enzyme. Method: Schrodinger, LLC. Results: The compound HH1 was found to be highly potent score of −11.237 and DP IV, AIA II, and DP I were found to be potent docking score of −9.305, 8.645, and −7.483 against beta-secretase (BACE1) enzyme. However, these compounds are shown to be highly effective than control AChE inhibitor donepezil (−5.84). Conclusion: In silico docking study was done for the designed dipeptides, hexapeptides, and octapeptides against BACE1 enzyme shows highly potent binding affinity toward HH1 and DP IV peptides as compared with standard donepezil.