Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002515
Title: Role of lasers in endodontics - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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A laser is a device which transforms light of various frequencies into a chromatic radiation in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet regions with all the waves in phase capable of mobilizing immense heat and power when focused at close range. The purpose of this paper is to summarize laser applications in endodontics, including their use in pulp diagnosis, dentinal hypersensitivity, pulp capping and pulpotomy, sterilization of root canals, root canal shaping and obturation, and apicectomy. The effects of laser on root canal walls and periodontal tissues are also reviewed. This article also discusses whether a laser can provide equal or improved treatment over conventional care.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002516
Title: Effectiveness of coordination exercise on proprioception of knee injured male professional footballers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Clinically, proprioception is evaluated by detecting the externally imposed passive movement or by the ability to reposition a joint to a predetermined position. This research was aimed to find the effect of coordination exercise on proprioception error of knee injured male professional footballers. Effectiveness of specific exercise on proprioception was assessed by photographic analysis to find the outcome. Methodology: The study was a randomized control trial. A total of 106 samples selected on the base of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The samples were randomly divided equally into experimental and control group for the study. The experimental group received coordination exercises, and the control group received traditional stretching and strengthening exercises. Results: The proprioception error for right and left knee joint found significantly reduced in experimental group after coordination exercise program. F ratio for the right and left side was 42.36 and 112.31, respectively, which are more than the table value 3.024, so they are significant at 0.05 levels. Conclusion: The study concluded that coordination exercise can improve proprioception of the knee joint among male professional footballers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002517
Title: Morphological and morphometric study of tibial condylar area and its clinical significance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The lower limb is primarily adapted for weight bearing and locomotion. This functional need together with the attainment of a habitual erect bipedal posture has resulted in a change in both the functional and mechanical requirements. The upper end of the tibia is expanded to form lateral and medial condyles which articulate to the corresponding surface of femur. The medial condyle is larger and ovoid, and the lateral condyle is small and circular. It was reported that the morphology of the medial tibial plateau differs from the lateral tibial plateau. There are few studies which have analyzed the correlation between tibial anatomy and implant design. The dimension of each condyle is requisite for planning the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 dry human tibial bones were analyzed for this study. The bones were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. The measurements of anteroposterior and transverse diameter of medial tibial condyle (MTC), lateral tibial condyle (LTC), and total tibial condyle (TTC) were taken by sliding Vernier caliper. After taking measurements of MTC, LTC, and TTC, the area of each bone is calculated. Results: The TTC area is greater in the right tibia when compared with the left tibia. The mean area of MTC of the right tibia is greater than the area of MTC of the left tibia, whereas the mean area of LTC of the right tibia is smaller than the area of LTC of the left tibia. Conclusion: The present study will enhance the anatomical information for teaching (the exact dimensions and percentage covered by medial and lateral condyles) which is the primary information for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and complete knee arthroplasty. The study is also important for orthopedician for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and complete knee arthroplasty for preventing the loosening of knee prosthesis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002518
Title: Variation in the occurrence of median occipital condyle and its impact on atlanto-occipital joint and atlantoaxial stability
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The third occipital condyle is a constituent part of median occipito-atlanto-odontoid joint. The third condyle also known as median occipital condyle is a rare anatomic variant of the occipital condyles. It is a small separate ossicle at the anteromedial margin of the occipital condyle formed by the failure of the embryonic proatlas to unite with the condyle proper. In higher mammals like humans, it may contribute to anomalous structures around the foramen magnum which is referred as the third occipital condyle. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 50 dry human skulls of unknown sex and without any gross breakage were used. All the skulls were subjected for visual and morphological analysis of third occipital condyle at the midpoint of the anterior part of foramen magnum. The presence of the third occipital condyle and its prevalence were noted and analyzed. Results: The third occipital condyle is observed only in four skull bones (8%). It was photographed and analyzed for its prominence. Conclusion: The anatomical variations of the presence of the third condyle can be explained by the different degrees of persistence. A small third occipital condyle located in the median-sagittal plane at the midpoint of the anterior margin of foramen magnum represents the highest degree of persistence. If the third occipital condyle is present, it may serve as an articulating facet for the tip of the dens or with the anterior arch of the atlas.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002519
Title: Vestigiality of wisdom teeth in relation to human evolution and lifestyle modification: A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: “Vestigial” refers to a rudimentary, atrophied, degenerated, or nonfunctioning structure, which is the remnant of an organ or structure that was fully developed or functioning in a preceding generation or an earlier stage of development. The third molar tooth is often referred as “Wisdom teeth.” It affects other teeth as they develop and emerge becoming impacted. The aim of the present study is to analyze the vestigiality of wisdom teeth in relation to modern food and diet modification by surveying. Materials and Methods: The vestigiality of wisdom teeth is analyzed by observing all the wisdom teeth (maxillary and mandibular third molar teeth) in a total sample of 50 adolescent subjects. The lifestyle and nature of food habits of all the patients were analyzed by subjecting them to a list of standard questionnaires. The survey focused mainly on food habits in their routine life. Results: On compilation and complete analyses of the entire questionnaire, two broad categorization was made: (i) On their “food habits” such as the type of food preferred (non-vegetarian or vegetarian), frequency of eating vegetarian/non-vegetarian foods and junk food eaters. (ii) “On teeth and its arrangements” such as crowding of teeth, eruption of Wisdom teeth and preference on using wisdom teeth for chewing. All these categorized data were evaluated and graphically represented. Conclusion: It is evident that the skulls of human ancestors had larger jaws with more teeth which served to chew foliage to compensate for lack of ability to efficiently digest the cellulose. Since human diets changed smaller jaws gradually evolved yet the wisdom teeth still commonly develop.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002520
Title: Phytochemical analysis and total phenolic content of Origanum vulgare (oregano)
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: O. vulgare is a part of the herbal family Lamiaciae. It is a spice variety which is generally sold in the western countries. Therapeutic usages for oregano date back to the early Greek and Roman territories. Oregano comprises numerous powerful antioxidants that might donate to the discoveries in preliminary studies that oregano displays benefit toward the cardiovascular and nervous system. It also discharges indications of swelling and lessens sugar and lipid levels in blood. Aim: This study aims to estimate the phytochemical constituents and total phenolic content of Origanum vulgare (oregano). Materials and Methods: The herb O. vulgare was used for this research. The herb was acquired and was dried for a little over 1 week. The aqueous extract of oregano was obtained. The oregano herb extract was then used for preliminary phytochemical analysis. The total phenolic content was estimated. Results: Phytochemical analysis has revealed the presence of an increased concentration of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and carbohydrates. The total phenolic content of O. vulgare was quantitatively measured to be 41 mg/g of dry weight of extract expressed as gallic acid equivalent. Conclusion: Oregano is a plant with great potential and needs to be further explored by future researchers. The presence of these phytochemicals indicates that O. vulgare may be used in health perspective. It could be a vital component for many medicines and drugs in the future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00002521
Title: Awareness on use of nanoparticles among medical professionals
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Nanoparticles are particles which are very small in size measuring around 1–100 nm. The term “nanotechnology” refers to the ability to measure, manipulate, and organize matters at the atomic level. Also known as “zero dimension” materials, nanoparticles have great importance in various fields (most specifically in the medical field). There are some instances where nanoparticles analyses and therapies that simply cannot be performed are easily done. However, nanoparticles bring social and environmental challenges, particularly those regarding to toxicity. Nanotechnology, now considered as the leading field of science, has promoted a whole new dimension on enhancing betterment of human lifestyle and environment. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire is made and distributed among medical professionals, to check their knowledge over the field of nanotechnology and how nanoparticles play a key role in the medical field. Sample size of 70 participants was taken, consisting of medical students, faculties, and practitioners. The survey was administered to the participants through the survey planet link. Results: From the results, we can understand that a majority of the participants felt that this survey was useful and they learned new facts that they were not exposed to before. A minor population said that they were already exposed to all the informations that were given in this survey and it either played minor or no role in knowledge enhancement. Conclusion: Having the edge over knowledge in this field among the medical professionals can really change the way of how one sees the importance and applications of nanoparticles. Thus from this survey, we can conclude that the medical professionals (students, practitioners, and teaching faculties in both medical and dental field) are well aware of nanoparticles, and it’s applications, they still need more awareness over this field. Hence, we conclude that more awareness should be created on nanoparticle usages among the medical professionals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002522
Title: Craniometric analysis of foramen magnum with reference to occipital condyles for the determination of sex using dry human skulls
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The foramen magnum is a large opening in the base of the skull at the posterior cranial fossa. The dimensions of the foramen magnum are clinically important because the vital structures passing through it may endure compression such as in the cases of foramen magnum herniation and meningiomas. The longitudinal and transverse diameter (TD) and also the area of foramen magnum are higher in males than in females. Therefore, its dimensions could be used to establish the gender in several medicolegal conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 dry human skull bones were obtained. All measurements were taken by Vernier caliper to the nearest of 0.1 mm. Morphometrical measurements of the foramen magnum such as the distance between basion and midpoint of anterior margin of occipital condyle, distance between opisthion and mid-point of posterior margin of occipital condyle, longitudinal diameter (LD), TD, and area of the foramen magnum were calculated. Results: The mean LD of foramen magnum was 35.48 mm in male and 34.15 mm in female. The mean TD of foramen magnum in male was 29.96 mm and in female was 27.74 mm. The mean area of foramen magnum in male was 871.46 mm2 and in female was 803.42 mm2 . Conclusion: A high significant difference was observed between the two sexes. The dimension of the foramen magnum is clinically important because of the vital structures passing through it. Apart from its clinical significance, it is also useful in anthropology, forensic medicine, etc., for the determination of sex.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002523
Title: Morphometric study of femoral neck-shaft angle and its implications
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and kneecap forming the knee joint. By most measures, the femur is the strongest bone in the body. The femur is also the longest bone in the body. Using the AP view of the hip joint, the angle formed by the axis of femoral shaft and line drawn along the axis of femoral neck passing through the center of head of femur form the femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA). At birth, the femoral NSA is 140°. In adult, the femoral NSA is 120–135°. We analyzed the femoral NSA in 50 dry human femur bones. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 dry femur bones of unknown sex were used for this study. The bones were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. Two points of axis were noted on the femur, one median vertical line (shaft axis) and one horizontal line perpendicular to it (neck axis), and then the NSA angle was taken with goniometer by keeping the goniometer parallel to shaft axis. Results: The change in the femoral NSA may lead to the change in the standing posture of the person and serve as an important criterion during hip surgeries. An overall mean for these parameters was calculated using the data obtained. Values were found for the right and left acetabulum. The raw data obtained were statistically analyzed. Range, mean, standard deviation, and standard error of mean were determined for each parameter. All values were compared with series of other workers to draw the conclusions. Conclusion: The sexual dimorphism of the hip bone is a special adaptation in the females for childbearing. Therefore, awareness of the average dimensions of the hip bone in both the sexes will also help in early detection of disputed sex by forensic experts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002524
Title: Morphometric analysis of gonial angle and mandibular ramus measurement as predictors of sex and age in dry human mandibles
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The determination of gender with age becomes essential in forensic studies and medico-legal investigations. Mandible often serves a significant role in the estimation of sex as it is the most sexually dimorphic bone of the various bones of the skull that usually remains intact during recovery of specimens at crime scenes. In this regard, the availability of dry human bones like mandibles may be of utmost importance in studying and developing population definite standards for estimation of gender and age. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the applicability of various mandibular ramus linear measurements and the gonial angle measurements on dry human mandibles as predictors for sex and age. Material and Methods: In the present study, a total of 50 dry human mandibles of unknown sex and without any gross breakage were collected and are subjected for morphometrical analysis and evaluated. All mandibles were serially numbered from 1 to 50. Five mandibular ramus linear measurements such as upper ramus breadth, lower ramus breadth, projective height, condylar ramus height, and coronoid ramus height and gonial angle measurements were performed bilaterally and recorded.Results: In the present study, a total of 50 dry human mandibles of unknown sex and without any gross breakage were collected and are subjected for morphometrical analysis and evaluated. All mandibles were serially numbered from 1 to 80 (40 males and 40 females). In this study, five linear mandibular ramus and gonial angle measurements such as lower ramus breadth, upper ramus breadth, condylar ramus height, projective height, and coronoid ramus height and gonial angle were measured individually on both sides and recorded. Conclusion: The ramus of the mandible showed a great sexual dimorphism and proved to be much beneficial in the estimation of sex and age in forensic investigation, while the gonial angle could aid in estimation of sex alone.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002525
Title: Morphological and morphometrical analysis of acetabulum with special reference to volume in dry human pelvic bone
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The hip joint represents a unique functional unit and has complex biomechanical construction. In today’s era where total hip replacement surgeries have made their way, it has become imperative for the anatomists to know the variations in acetabular dimensions. Reconstruction of the acetabulum in patients with significant acetabular bone deficiency remains a challenge. Hence, the present study was carried out with the aim to study the morphometric measurement of the volume of the acetabulum in the pelvic bone. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 40 dry human pelvic bones of unknown sex and without any gross breakage were collected and subjected for morphometrical analysis. Volume of acetabulum was measured on these hip bones on both the sides. Classification of the bones regarding gender was carried out. Results: The mean volume of the acetabulum in male is greater than female as gender is concerned. In male, the mean acetabular volume on the right side is greater than the left side. In case of female, the mean acetabular volume on the left is greater than right. Comparing the values of the parameters, it is observed that the acetabulum in women is remarkably less in volume and surface area than men. Conclusion: Knowledge of the anatomical parameters of the acetabulum is of immense importance to the orthopedic surgeons. Hip surgery being one of them requires more detailed knowledge, about the complex acetabular measurements to fulfill the need for verifying the validity of various surgical procedures under practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002526
Title: Morphological observation of impressions of middle meningeal artery organization in disarticulated parietal bone
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is the third branch of the first part of the maxillary artery, supplying the meninges. The complex sequence of MMA development and branching pattern gives many opportunities for various anatomical studies. In addition, the variations in the origin of the MMA are of clinical importance when dealing with fractures of the base of the skull, epidural hematomas, and bypass procedures. However, there are no reports about some morphometric aspects of this important arterial segment. Thus, in this study, we decided to investigate the anatomical organization of the MMA and its impression measurements from human skull bones. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 dry human parietal bones of unknown sex and without any gross breakage were collected and are subjected for visual and morphological analysis and evaluated. Using Vernier Caliper, the length of the main trunk, frontal branch, and parietal branch in parietal bone was measured. The diameter of the middle meningeal vessel (MMV) impression was measured using a flexible orthodontic wire. Results: Overall mean for these parameters was calculated using the data obtained. Range, mean, standard deviation, and standard error of mean were determined for each parameter. The average diameter of MMV is 1.56 ± 0.71 mm on the right parietal bone and 1.48 ± 0.99 mm on the left parietal bone. Conclusion: Our results will be useful to increase the detailed knowledge about this important arterial segment of the skull that has considerable clinical interest. Moreover, this study is unique in the literature as it fully describes the morphometric measurements of the MMA bilaterally using mathematical tools to provide a more reliable vision of the observations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002527
Title: Morphometric analysis of thickness of parietal bone and diameter of meningeal vessel impression in dry human parietal bones
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The size and diameter of the meningeal vessel impression in the inner surface of parietal bone vary in different individuals. Taking into account the structural and biomechanical interaction between the endocranial vessels and vault bones, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between vascular diameters with bone thickness. Materials and Methods: Using a Vernier caliper, parietal bone thickness at 4 points, anterosuperior, anteroinferior, posterosuperior, and posteroinferior were measured. The diameter of the middle meningeal vessel impression was measured using a flexible orthodontic wire. Results: The mean thickness of right parietal bone at the anterosuperior point is 1.24 ± 0.13 mm, anteroinferior point is 0.68 ± 0.21 mm, posterosuperior point is 1.38 ± 0.30 mm, and posteroinferior point is 0.89 ± 0.37 mm. The mean thickness of left parietal bone at anterosuperior, anteroinferior, posterosuperior, and posteroinferior points is 1.10 ± 0.39 mm, 0.69 ± 0.31 mm, 1.23 ± 0.52 mm, and 1.12 ± 0.44 mm, respectively. The average diameter of middle meningeal vessels (MMV) is 1.53 ± 0.71 mm on the right parietal bone and 1.48 ± 0.99 mm on the left parietal bone. Conclusion: Morphometric values and distributions of the branching patterns of MMV, as well as anatomical relationships between vessels and bones, were described to provide information concerning the arrangement of the endocranial vascular architecture. The present study shows no obvious correlation between the parietal bone thickness and the diameter of meningeal vessels.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002528
Title: Correlation of obesity and osteoarthritis in children, adolescent, and aged population - A questionnaire-based survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: One of the most important risk factors for osteoarthritis in the knee is obesity. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disorder of the joints with severe pathological consequences. Today, osteoarthritis is not considered to be merely a disease of cartilage but a disease of the whole joint and its related tissues. As a matter of fact, the progression of obesity may have an impact on the joints particularly knee causing degeneration and subsequent damage to the joint tissues leading to severe osteoarthritis. Thus, there is a positive correlation between obesity and osteoarthritis in which this study is carried on. Materials and Methods: In a total sample size of 50 obese subjects consisting of children, adolescent, and aged people the survey was conducted by means of standard questionnaires evaluating their body health status and severity of arthritic pain. The lifestyle and nature of food habits of all the patients were also analyzed. The survey focused mainly on the effects of obesity and knee osteoarthritis in their routine life. Results: An overall plot for the parameters was calculated using the data obtained. The raw data obtained were analyzed and represented graphically. The data obtained were expressed as the percentage of obesity among children aged between 4 and 10 years, percentage of obesity among adolescents aged between 11 and 19 years, percentage of obesity among old aged people between 56 and 65 years, and percentage of occurrence of knee arthritic pain in children, adolescents, and old aged people with obesity. All values were compared with a series of other workers to draw conclusions. Conclusion: Although the association between obesity and osteoarthritis is complex, mediated with multiple biochemical alterations, the major root cause for obesity is the individual’s sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy food habits which worsens it causing further osteoarthritic damages.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002529
Title: Comparative analysis of Allen’s test with modified Allen’s test and its clinical importance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The Allen test is a widely used screening method of hand circulation. The circulation of the hand is supported by two main arteries, ulnar artery and radial artery. Allen’s test is also used to assess the adequacy of ulnar collateral circulation to the hand. Allen first described his test in 1929 but did not indicate a time period after which a test should be deemed positive. The aim of the study is to compare the Allen’s test with modified Allen’s test (MAT) and to correlate with its clinical importance. Materials and Methods: Allen’s test is performed by asking the subject to clench each fist tightly for 1 min at constant time, pressure is applied and the subject is asked to open the fingers, and the examiner compares the color of each hand. In MAT, the patient’s hand is elevated and also the person is asked to clench their fist for a minimum of 30 s, pressure is applied. Still elevated, the hand is then opened. It ought to seem blanched and the color will return within 5–15 s. Results: Although there was no specific difference found between the Allen’s test and the MAT, the resulting feature of these tests reveals the collateral circulation of the radial artery can be assessed by the MAT which might be helpful in several clinical examinations. Conclusion: The Allen test is a sensible and valid screening test for the circulation of the hand. Thus, if the blood supply from one of the arteries is stopped, the other arteries will provide adequate blood to the hand. A minority of individuals lack this dual blood supply

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002530
Title: Assessment of sexual differences in the bony pelvis by pelvimetry using simple morphometric parameters
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The main features of identity are sex, age, stature, and ethnic background. Although many bones of the human skeleton present sex-, age-, and race-related differences, the distinctive morphology of the human hip bone makes it of interest from anatomical, anthropological, and forensic point of view. The hip or the “innominate bone” is one of the most informative bones in the entire human skeleton. Morphometry of the hip bone is important for the anatomist as well as for the anthropologist for population studies. Moreover, specimen identification and sex determination from skeletal remains have great importance in forensic medicine. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 unpaired right and left dry hip bones of unknown sex were used for this study. The bones were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. The measurements such as weight of hip bone, length of hip bone, width of hip bone, and coxal index of hip bone were taken. All the measurements were taken with the help of osteometric board and weighing machine. Results: An overall mean for these three parameters was calculated using the data obtained. Remarkable differences were found between male and female. The raw data obtained were statistically analyzed. Range, mean, standard deviation, and standard error of mean were determined for each parameter. All values were compared with a series of other workers to draw the conclusions. Conclusion: The sexual dimorphism of the hip bone is a special adaptation in the females for childbearing. Therefore, awareness of the average dimensions of the hip bone in both the sexes will also help in early detection of disputed sex by forensic experts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002531
Title: Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Chassaignac’s tubercle in dry human cervical vertebrae
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The prominent anterior tubercle of the transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra is called as “Chassaignac’s tubercle” or “carotid tubercle.” This tubercle separates the carotid artery from the vertebral artery. The carotid artery can be compressed against this tubercle to relieve the symptoms of supraventricular tachycardia. This tubercle serves as an important landmark for anesthetists to perform stellate ganglion nerve block (SGB) during several diseased conditions of head, neck, and upper limbs. Hence, the aim of our study is to evaluate the morphological and morphometrical variations of Chassaignac’s tubercle in human dry cervical vertebrae and to correlate it with clinical considerations. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 sixth cervical vertebrae of unknown sex and without any gross abnormality were collected and evaluated from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Madras Medical College, Chennai. The anterior tubercle of the sixth cervical vertebra was located, and with the help of Vernier Caliper, the length and breadth of the tubercle on both the right and left sides were measured and noted. Results: The sixth cervical vertebrae showed its mean length of 2.89 ± 0.53 mm, mean breadth of 2.11 ± 0.35 mm, and mean height of 3.76 ± 0.49 mm. The tubercles which are present prominently on both sides (bilateral) and on one side (unilateral-right or Left) were counted and tabulated. Conclusion: This study suggests that the prominence of the carotid tubercle facilitates its easy appearance for finding the SGB in radiographs. Its diminished presence complicates the nerve block procedure and leads to the damage of the vertebral artery. Hence, its presence serves as a prominent landmark and often the most preferred location to avoid the course of the vertebral artery.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002532
Title: Determination of flat foot by footprint analysis using plantar arch index in children aged between 5 and 14 years
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The development of lower limb and foot structural modification distinguishes humans from other bipedal mammalian species. Flat feet, also known as acquired flat foot disorder, results from collapsed arches of the feet. Usually while standing in erect posture, the medial margin of the sole of foot will not touch the ground. However, an undeveloped or a fallen arch causes the foot to roll inwards, and the entire sole comes close to the ground. In this study, we aim to assess and analyze flat foot with reference to plantar arch index (PAI) in children. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 children aged between 5 and 14 years. Footprints of all the 50 subjects were obtained using simple ink print method. Staheli’s arch index was adapted to quantify standing foot morphology. The presence of flat feet is diagnosed, by calculating the PAI. PAI = A/B. If the PAI is >1.15, then it is considered as flat foot. Results: The PAI values ranged from 0.41 to 1.28 with mean PAI being 0.66 on the right foot and 0.63 on the left foot. No significant differences were found between genders and between the different age groups. Among 50 subjects, seven children (four females and three males), i.e., 14% had flat feet deformity with PAI >1.15. Among them, 3 children (6%) had unilateral left flat foot and 2 children (4%) had unilateral right flat foot and the remaining two subjects had bilateral flat feet (4%). Conclusion: Children with elevated percentage of flat foot may be the result of the fact that outdoor games or any other physical activities among children and adolescents are rapidly decreasing in the modern world with growing number of overweight and obese children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002533
Title: Morphometric analysis of supratrochlear foramen and its clinical implications in dry humerus bone
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The humerus has a bony septum that separates the olecranon fossa at the distal end. A perforation present in this septum results in the formation of supratrochlear foramen (STF). Therefore, its presence is of utmost importance in planning nailing of fractures of the lower end of the humerus. During radiological evaluations of the humerus, the presence of STF may result in erroneous interpretation as pathological lesions or cysts. Its incidence varies widely from 0.3% to 58% in different races. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 40 dry humerus bones of unknown sex and without any gross breakage were collected and evaluated. The presence of STF and its prevalence were studied. Shapes were visualized and classified. In the oval STF, transverse and vertical diameters were measured. In the round STF, the diameter was noted. In the triangular STF, the maximum vertical and transverse lengths were considered. In the reniform STF, vertical length at the hilar point and maximum transverse length were measured. Results: Of the 40 humeri studied, 7 showed the presence of the foramen, 4 were opaque, and 3 showed translucent septa. The most common shape noted was oval. All the observed values are tabulated and expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Conclusion: The STF is an entity familiar to the anthropologist and the anatomist but has not received much notice from the clinician, evidenced by it cursory mention or not at all in most textbooks of clinical practice. As it is not a passage for any neurovascular structure, we propose that it is not a foramen. Its existence is important to the orthopedician in the pre-operative planning of nailing fractures of the distal humerus and to the radiologist for differentiating it from an osteolytic or cystic lesion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002534
Title: Morphometric analysis of sacral index with reference to sacral hiatus in dry human sacral bone and its clinical implications
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Sacrum is a large roughly triangular bone forming the caudal end of the vertebral column. Sacral hiatus (SH) is a foramen present at the caudal end of sacral canal. Knowledge of actual shape and size of SH and its variations play a major role in accomplishing needle placement during administration of caudal epidural. In this study, we aim to evaluate and analyze the sacral index with reference to SH morphometrically and to correlate it with its clinical applications. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 dry human disarticulated sacral bones were obtained, and the shape of SH was observed and analyzed. Length of hiatus was measured from apex of hiatus to the midpoint of the base. AP diameter of SH at the apex was also measured. Distance between the two superolateral sacral crests (AB), distance between the right superolateral sacral crest and apex of SH (AC), and distance between the left superolateral sacral crest and apex of SH (BC) were measured. Results: Inverted V shape, 53.33%, was the most common shape of SH. Highest percentage of the sacral level of apex of SH was at S4 with 62.48%, and the highest percentage of the sacral level of base of SH was at S5 with 81.25%. Length of SH ranged from 11 to 20 mm comprising 41.25% as the highest. Mean distance between the right and left superolateral sacral crest (AB), right superolateral sacral crest and apex of SH (AC), and left superolateral sacral crest and apex of SH (BC) was 67.5 mm, 65.0 mm, and 65.0 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Understanding the variations of sacral index with reference to SH may throw light on the difficult procedures and practices involved in caudal epidural anesthetic block.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002535
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of feeding plate obturators among dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Every infant should receive a comprehensive health-care risk assessment irrespective of their circumstances. Numerous reports have shown association between orofacial cleft and weight loss, feeding disability. The purpose of this study was to understand the anxiety and depression among mothers and knowledge, attitude, and practice skills of feeding plate obturators among dental practitioners. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of feeding plate obturators among dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: The study involved a survey of 100 private dental practitioners all among India. The pre-tested questionnaire on the awareness and fabrication of feeding plate obturators among the dental practitioners was used to collect the data related. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using frequency of responses and standard deviation. Results: The data acquired from this survey exhibited that 85% of dentists receive a frequency of cases with orofacial clefts of around 10/6 months, though these patients require a multidisciplinary approach through various phases of their growth, parents bother about their feeding disabilities, as 70% of patients age approaching clinic was around 15–45 days. Hence, the primary treatment approach could be a feeding plate obturator which helps them in feeding and swallowing. Whereas 55% of clinicians fabricate feeding plate obturators on their own and 30% depends on other clinicians for such cases. Usually, the obturators were been delivered in 1 or 2 days (80%). The hospital anxiety and depression scale has been recorded by clinicians (75%) before and after the fabrication of obturators. Whereas, 80% out of the above reveals that the anxiety and depression among mothers have been reduced after the treatment. Conclusion: The findings of this survey with dental practitioners showed that management of feeding difficulties among orofacial cleft infants with feeding plate obturators still presents some deviations from scientific literature recommendations, indicating the need to update these health-care professionals to establish guidelines for postnatal dental care.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002536
Title: Correlation of developmental evolution between jaw and teeth - A comparative anatomy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The skull is the most complex hard tissue component of the human body and performs key elements of the feeding process including the capture, initial processing (chewing), and ingurgitation (swallowing) of food. The skull’s complexity means that it is the most likely part of the skeleton to reflect measurable degrees of evolutionary and environmental influences. Learning evolutionary changes in jaw would help us in setting of the teeth. In this study, we aim to investigate and analyze the correlation of developmental evolution between jaw and teeth and to make a comparative study. Material and Methods: Adult dry human skulls of the Homo sapiens, i.e., humans, Rattus norvegicus (rat), Gallus gallus domesticus (domestic fowl), Rep, Rana tigrina (Indian bullfrog), and Barracuda (fish) were obtained, processed, and used for the study. This head part of the animals was decapitated and processed for cleaning and degreasing procedures for skeleton bone preparation. The processed head skeletons were analyzed and photographed for jaw and teeth arrangements between different species. According to the visual appearances, the evolution of tooth and jaws of the observed specimens was correlated. Results: A detailed description of the adult morphology and ontogeny of the jaw, dentary, and teeth of the species H. sapiens, R. norvegicus, G. gallus domesticus, Hemidactylus frenatus, R. tigrina, and Barracuda have structurally altered jaw and teeth. It is followed by the description of homologous structures in all the species. Mention is made of the distinctive features in the descriptions of lower jaws, dentaries, and teeth of individuals from H. sapiens. Conclusion: An understanding of the developmental basis for the evolved differences between jaw and teeth in different anatomical and phylogenetic contexts brings complementary information to our knowledge of odontogenic mechanisms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002537
Title: Determination of sex from radial tuberosity and shaft of radius - A morphometric study using long bone
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Determination of the sex of the unknown decomposed body is one of the most important tasks in the medicolegal cases, and skeletal remains play a very important role for establishing the identity of the subject. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate discriminate functions for the other bones, especially the long bones like radius that is frequently found in skeletal remains. Here, we present the utility of radius in determining the sex using its different measurements. Materials and Methods: Radial bones were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. A total of 50 radial bones were analyzed for radial tuberosity and its shaft was evaluated morphometrically. The following measurements were taken and recorded. Results: An overall mean for these three parameters was calculated using the data obtained. Remarkable differences were found between male and female. The raw data obtained were statistically analyzed. Range, mean, standard deviation, and standard error of mean were determined for each parameter. All values were compared with series of other workers to draw the conclusions. Conclusion: From the present study, we can conclude that by doing the morphometrical analysis the sex of unknown individual can be detected in case of nonavailability of the skull, pelvis, or sacrum which are the bones of choice for sex determination. This could be of immense helps to detect the sex of an unknown subject in the medicolegal cases, which is an important task for forensic science, anthropology, and anatomy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002538
Title: Comparison of left and right Whitnall’s tubercle and their relation to the frontozygomatic suture
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: A small elevation on the orbital surface of the zygomatic bone just behind and within the orbital margin, about 11 mm below the frontozygomatic suture, is the Whitnall’s tubercle. It serves as an attachment for the check ligament of the lateral rectus muscle, the lateral palpebral ligament, the suspensory ligament of Lockwood, and the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. Materials and Methods: Dry human skull bones were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental and Hospitals, Chennai. A total of 50 skull bones were analyzed for the presence and prominence of Whitnall’s tubercle. The length, distance from the location of tubercle to the frontozygomatic suture and the height of orbital suture were evaluated morphometrically, using a sliding Vernier caliper. Results: An overall mean for these three parameters was calculated using the data obtained. There were no significant differences between the left and right sides. Conclusion: Even though human skulls develop from bilateral symmetric osteogenesis, surgeons should always be aware of possible asymmetry and possible absence of Whitnall’s tubercle between sides or among individuals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002539
Title: Evaluation of non-metal inclusions in nickel–chromium crowns employing optical metallography
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Complete veneer crowns are the best possible treatment option for the correction of severely damaged, endodontically treated teeth and also an important component of fixed partial denture. Metal crowns are superior interms of their strength and longevity. The presence of inclusion defects affects the mechanical properties of the metal, thereby compromising the clinical performance of the crowns. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the type and number of non-metallic inclusions present in the nickel–chromium (Ni–Cr) crowns. Materials and Methods: A sample of 10 Ni–Cr crowns were prepared, disectioned, and illuminated, and the presence of different types of inclusions was determined under optical microscope which utilizes visible light and a system of magnifying lenses for microscopic analysis of grain structure and arrangement. The results were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey honest significant difference post hoc test. Results: The mean number of oxide inclusions in the crowns was 4.53 ± 1.22, silicate inclusions was 6.33 ± 2.68, and sulfide inclusions was 3.44 ± 2.47, respectively. One-way analysis of variance showed a significant difference between the oxide, silicate, and sulfide inclusions (F = 26.12, P < 0.001). Post hoc tests revealed no significant differences with respect to the oxide inclusions in the incisal, middle, and cervical regions (P > 0.05). With respect to silicate inclusions, significant differences were observed between incisal middle-thirds and cervical middle-thirds (P < 0.05). With respect to sulfide inclusions, significant differences were present between incisal middle-thirds and incisal cervical-thirds (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Oxide, silicate, and sulfides are the non-metallic inclusions present in Ni–Cr crowns. These inclusions are distributed along the entire surface of the crowns and can compromise the longevity in future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002540
Title: Mental health status of the patients underwent with mandibular resection
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Surgical approach for treating cancer of the oral cavity results in considerable functional and cosmetic deformity. This results in impacting the patient’s sense of self and well-being. The mental status examination is a structured assessment of the patient’s behavioral and cognitive functioning. The mental health alters in the patient who places a high value on overall facial esthetic appearance. The study concentrates on evaluating the mental health status of the patients immediately after the resection of jaw and after the prosthetic replacement of dentofacial deformity. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the mental health status of the patients underwent with mandibular resectomy. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 30 patients (males = 15 and females = 15) attending the OPD of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, located in southern part of India, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. All the patients included in the study were with a history of mandibular resectomy from 6 months to 2 years. All the patients had willingly participated in 5 min Hospital Anxiety And Depression Scale survey. The survey was done for all the patients immediately after the surgery and 6 months after their prosthetic replacement. The results were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, post hoc Turkey, and paired t-tests. Results: The results show that the comparison of depression and anxiety scores among the patients immediately after the mandibular resection and the scores after the prosthetic replacement was found to be statistically significant P value (P ≤ 0.05). f values were found to be pre-operative depression (f value = 0.333), pre-operative anxiety (f value = 0.015), post- operative depression (f value = 0.356), and post-operative anxiety (f value = 0.098). Conclusion: The depression and anxiety were highly associated with the patients immediately after their mandibular resection. A less high prevalence of depression and anxiety was reported in patients after the prosthetic replacement of their defective region.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002541
Title: Anxiety levels among mothers with cleft palate children receiving feeding plate obturators
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: In the adult population, anxiety and depression are the most frequent emotional disorders. In cases when the infants are affected with oro-facial cleft disorders there may be significant influence on the psychology of their mothers. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression in mothers of cleft palate children before and after the delivery of feeding plate obturators. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the anxiety levels among mothers with cleft palate children receiving feeding plate obturators. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 mothers (age limit of about 25–45 years) of cleft palate children (age limit of about 10 days–3 months) with feeding difficulties attending the Out Patient Department of Government Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, southern part of India were selected. To estimate the prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression in the mothers, the German version of the hospital depression and anxiety scale (HADS) was used. The data from 30 mothers from the German test manuals served as controls. Microsoft Excel and SPSS 3.0 software packages were used for description, evaluation, and analysis. The statistical analysis and the differences in the prevalence rates were tested by one-way anova and paired t tests. Results: One-way ANOVA was not found to be significant as the results were not statistically significant between the means of these two groups. Paired t-test gave a significant result among the mean differences between the groups P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: A feeding appliance effectively separates the oral cavity from nasal cavity, which in turns helps in nourishment and normal development of child by overcoming the difficulties in feeding. Thus, the psychological status of mothers had been better than before giving a feeding plate obturator.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002542
Title: Virtual screening technique to identify embelin as potent inhibitor of mortalin p-53 tumor suppressor protein
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Embelia schimper (E.Schimper) is a traditional, medicinal shrub of the family Primulaceae. The fruit of E. Schimper has an active constituent known as Embelin, which has a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities in conditions like cancer, diabetic and neurodegenerative diseases. It also has significant therapeutic effects as an anti helmentics, anti ‑inflammatory, antispermatogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic and hepatoprotective. Objective: The objective of this study is to show that the main drawback of the anticancer drugs i.e. the Mortalin p53 interactions, which are greatly inhibited by Embelin and also activates p53 protein in tumor cells there by promoting apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this study, the three‑dimensional coordinates of the crystal structures of the Embelin p53 (PDB‑ID: 5LAP, 5ABA, 5AFB and 5G4O) and Mortalin (PDB‑ID: 5FOX, 5EY4) were downloaded from the RCSB protein data bank archive and used for docking studies. Auto dock was used to find the interaction site of the receptor and the protein molecule. From the docking results the compound shows satisfactory dock score values respectively. The docked compounds were visualised by using Discovery studio4.1 visualizer followed by DruLiTo software which satisfied the Lipinski’s property for all compunds. Conclusion: The results have shown that Embelin successfully binds with p53 and enhances apoptosis due to its higher binding energy. Therefore mortalin cannot bind with p53 which leads to decrease amount of mortalin p53 interactions. Thus these compounds can be effectively used as drug for treating anticancer activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002543
Title: Comparison of analgesic efficacy between acetaminophen and ibuprofen after circumcision
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the analgesic efficacy between acetaminophen and ibuprofen after circumcision. Methods: A quasi-experimental approach was used to compare the analgesic efficacies of acetaminophen and ibuprofen by pain scale scoring and measurement of pain-free duration after administration. Thirty-six male children (5–12 years old) circumcised at Nur Hidayah Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Half of the subjects were given 180 mg acetaminophen, while the other half received 180 mg ibuprofen after circumcision. The pain scale was scored using a visual analog scale after 1 h of administration. The pain-free duration was determined from administration until the subject felt pain. Results: Ibuprofen treatment was associated with a significantly lower pain level (P < 0.05) and longer pain-free duration (P < 0.05) than acetaminophen treatment after circumcision. Conclusion: Ibuprofen is more effective as an analgesic agent than acetaminophen after circumcision.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002544
Title: Full mouth rehabilitation of periodontally compromised partially edentulous arches with multiple missing teeth using telescopic crown and bridge - A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Telescopic crown and bridge has been a treatment of choice in cases with feeble abutment to pontic ratio to provide a semi-fixed prosthesis for the patient. In cases of advanced periodontal disease, telescopic copings provide a solution which does not cause periodontal destruction or worsen an existing periodontal condition. The current case report describes a case where in the patient has periodontally compromised sparse abutment teeth. The treatment of choice was telescopic crown and bridge. The case report not only describes the treatment planning but also displays the laboratory steps.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002545
Title: Recent interocclusal record material for prosthetic rehabilitation - A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Accurate interocclusal record minimizes the need for intraoral adjustments during prosthesis insertion. They are essential in providing high-quality restoration and reducing treatment time and cost. The success of the prosthetic rehabilitation treatment depends on several aspects related to the precise mounting of casts in the articulator for full mouth situations. This article helps us in understanding the various materials and techniques for prosthetic rehabilitation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002546
Title: Evolution in preprosthetic surgery current trends: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The aim of preprosthetic surgery is to prepare the soft and hard tissues of the jaws for a comfortable prosthesis that will restore oral function, esthetics, and facial form. It helps to restore the function of the jaws (mastication of food, speech, and swallowing), preserve or improve jaw structure, improve the patient’s sense of well-being, and improve facial esthetics. One of several procedures might be performed to prepare the mouth for a denture, which includes bone smoothening and reshaping, removal of excess bone, and removal of excess gum tissue. This paper reviews these major procedures briefly outlining the surgical procedure, and discusses the indications and techniques of these procedures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002547
Title: Role of monoclonal antibodies in immune tolerance posttransplantation: An update
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to review about the role of monoclonal antibodies in immune tolerance posttransplantation. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the database for literature collection related to organ transplantation and graft rejection reactions and role of monoclonal antibodies in providing immune tolerance to such patients. Background: Antibody derived from a unique parent cell and has identical immune cells that are clones and specific for a single epitope is monoclonal antibody. For most research and therapeutic purpose, a monoclonal antibody is needed. Monoclonal antibody production was first introduced by Kolher and Milstein, in 1975. CD20 monoclonal antibody, anti-B monoclonal antibody, and monoclonal antibody OKT3 are some of the antibodies used in transplantation. Reason: Immunosuppressive drugs are taken lifelong after transplantation. Drugs such as cyclosporine and azathioprine are taken for immune tolerance. Monoclonal antibodies are also taken to provide good immune tolerance post-renal, hepatic, and heart transplantation. Conclusion: The article highlights the monoclonal antibodies such as CD4, CD8, interleukin-2 human monoclonal antibodies, and regulatory T-cell antibodies and their role in immune tolerance posttransplantation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002548
Title: Systemic effects of formalin on medical and dental students: A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Formalin although having many adverse effects is the most widely accepted potent agent used in embalming fluid as it is economically an excellent preservative and fixative solution. The survey checks the effects and awareness with regard to formalin exposure among medical and dental students. The main aim of the study is to examine the effects and awareness of formalin on medical and dental students through a questionnaire-based survey. Materials and Methods: This was an e-survey carried out through a portal called SurveyPlanet. A questionnaire comprising 20 questions on the study topic and distributed among medical and dental students. Results: This study revealed that majority of students suffered from many side effects as well as requirement for awareness regarding formalin hazards and necessary measures to be undertaken to reduce its side effects. Conclusion: Formalin has adverse effects toward students and is believed to possess carcinogenic activities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002549
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding the use of nasal spray anesthesia by dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Local anesthesia is the generally employed technique for pain control in dentistry while performing the treatment procedure. Fear of pain is the main issue which causes patients to refuse dental treatment. Injections often create stress for the patient and even for the dentists in most cases. Kovanaze, a dental anesthetic (tetracaine HCl and oxymetazoline HCl) nasal spray was first approved by FDA in 2016. Kovanaze is delivered in the nasal cavity to achieve pulpal anesthesia for the endodontic treatment of maxillary anterior teeth. Anesthetic diffusion through the thin walls of the nasal cavity allows for the blocking of nerve impulses originating from the maxillary dentition and surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding the use of nasal spray anesthesia or the intranasal technique by dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dental practitioners in Chennai city were given with a self-assessed questionnaire comprising questions eliciting information about the KAP of nasal spray anesthesia. The responses obtained from the participants were processed further and analyzed. Graphs were made and compared. Results: The knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding the use of the intranasal anesthetic technique by dental practitioners for endodontic treatment of maxillary anterior teeth are inadequate. Conclusion: Practitioners always aim to create a painless experience for patients. Hence, awareness program needs to be initiated to address this concern.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002550
Title: Triclosan-coated sutures in oral and maxillofacial surgery - An overview
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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In general surgery, the incidence of post-operative surgical site infections (SSIs) is reported to be lower with the use of triclosan-coated sutures. In intraoral surgery, sutures are faced with different bacterial species in the oral cavity, and the question arises whether the antibacterial-coated suture material has the same positive effects. The scope of this article was to review studies that compare the use of triclosan-coated sutures to uncoated sutures in the prevention of SSIs in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002551
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding smoking habits among school students in Chennai city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Tobacco use is increasing among young people, and it is today by far the most popular form of smoking and is practiced by over 1 billion people in the world. Most of the smokers start smoking at 14 years of age in their school life. They are just trying to have some fun when they smoke the first cigarette. It starts as a way of having fun but ends as an addiction which is so difficult to give up. Tobacco smoking has been shown to affect oral health, has cosmetic effects such as tooth staining, and causes life-threatening conditions such as oral cancer. Smokers are also highly at risk for lung cancer, emphysema, stroke, and so on. Objective: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding smoking habits among school students of Chennai city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire study was carried out on students in the Chennai city from October to December 2017. Chennai city was divided into four parts (North, South, East, and West). From each part, one representative school was selected. To describe the smoking habits among the students, a total of 80 students of age group 14–18 years from four schools were taken as study subjects. Responses were obtained from the students who had smoking habits. Data collected were statistically analyzed and results obtained. Results: About 44% of students had smoked within the past 30 days. 36% of students believed that they will not become addicted to cigarettes during their experimental smoking phase. 52% of students answered that their friends smoked during their growing period. 24% of students replied that their parent/guardians smoked inside their home during their school-going period. Conclusion: From this survey, it is clear that most of the school-going students get addicted to cigarettes. Hence, they should be aware of detrimental effects of cigarettes in their young age itself which will prevent them from becoming addicted to tobacco products.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002552
Title: Comparative phytochemical analysis and total phenolic content of citrus seed extract (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon)
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The citrus seeds are rich in nutrients and contain many phytochemicals; they also can be efficiently used as drugs or as food supplements. There is an increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, and there is always a search of an alternative drug that is regarded as safe. Phytochemicals are secondary metabolites and help shield us from various ailments and disorders. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the phytochemicals and total phenolic content of seed extracts of orange and lemon (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon). Materials and Methods: The phytochemical analysis and estimation of phenolic content of citrus seed extract were done for evaluating the presence of phytochemicals in it. Various tests were done to analyze the phytochemicals and estimate the total phenols. Results: Phytochemicals such as phlobatannins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids were present in the citrus seed extract. The concentration of flavonoids and alkaloids is more than the other phytochemicals in both the orange seed and lemon seed extracts. Conclusion: Preliminary phytochemical analysis and estimation of total phenolic content were done in citrus seed extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002553
Title: Benefits of herbal medicines on skincare - A survey
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Herbal medicines are derived from plants known as herbs which are plants with medicinal and industrial value. Since ancient times, in India, herbs have been used for curing various ailments. Skincare refers to the range of practices that support the skin integrity, enhancing its appearance and relieving skin conditions. The main aim of this study is to create awareness about the beneficiary effects of herbal medicines and its effects in skincare also to raise awareness about the deteriorating effects of synthetic cosmetics. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire composed of 17 questions and was administered through SurveyPlanet link. The questionnaire was divided into three sections. The questionnaire was given to 108 individuals of various age groups (15–above 30 years). Results and Conclusion: The participants were well aware of the benefits of herbal medicines and are aware of the properties of the herbs being used. They are quite aware of the side effects of using synthetic cosmetics. The general idea that herbal medicines have lesser side effects than synthetic medicines might be the cause of these results.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002554
Title: Assessment of urease activity in soya bean products
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The present study is undertaken to assess the urease activity in soybean products. Materials and Methods: Soybean was taken and soaked overnight; it was then ground into a paste. The assay of urease was performed as described by Sharma et al. the enzyme was concentrated by precipitation followed by dialysis. Characterization of the enzyme was carried out by measuring its optimum pH and temperature. The molecular weight of the enzyme was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate page. Result: In this study, the urease extracted from soybean was found to have an optimum temperature of 40°C, optimum pH of 7.0 and molecular weight by electrophoresis is 90kDa. Conclusion: Various plant sources contain urease; it is very economical to obtain and extract the enzyme from such sources. The extracted and purified urease can be used in the field of medicine and dentistry to counteract the action of the urease secreted by microorganisms causing rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and dental caries, respectively. Future study and technology can be used to further extract the enzyme with a high degree of purity and use it in the field of medicine and dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002555
Title: Awareness of lifestyle induced hypertension among adolescents
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Hypertension or high blood pressure is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. The normal blood pressure when a person is said to be at rest is within the range of 100–140 mmHg systolic and 60–90 mmHg diastolic. High blood pressure is said to be present if it is above 140/90 mmHg. High blood pressure is classified as primary high blood pressure and secondary high blood pressure. About 95% of hypertensive cases are primary and are defined as high blood pressure due to a different lifestyle and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing around 15 questions was prepared and 100 adolescent students whose age ranging from 12 to 18 years were asked to take up the survey, and the corresponding results were concluded. Results: The results were found to be that a large number of students did not check their blood pressure regularly and 54% of the students got stressed quite often, and 44% of the students were less bothered about their health and skipped their breakfast. Although 60% of the students were already aware that junk foods can elevate blood pressure they still continued to eat it, 60% of the students were not aware that eating fruits can reduce their chances of blood pressure, 58% of the students were aware that physical inactivity caused hypertension, and 65% of the students were not aware that junk foods can cause stroke and ischemic disease. A large number of students were not aware that hypertension shows no symptoms and 61% of the students preferred low salt intake as a precaution measure to hypertension while the others preferred doing exercise and eating vegetables and fruits. Conclusion: Awareness of lifestyle induced disorders among the adolescents is necessary as it can be beneficial to them as well as they can educate the future generation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002556
Title: Expectation and fulfillment of partially edentulous patients receiving removable partial dentures in a south Indian dental college
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Replacement of missing teeth has been developing over the years with respect to techniques and materials which have improved over time through rehabilitation with a removable and fixed prosthesis. Fixed prosthesis such as fixed partial dentures and implants has been a more preferred mode of treatment due to higher patient satisfaction and comfort of use. Yet, the presence of compromised bone, less than ideal abutments for supporting fixed prosthesis, and economic affordability for patients of low socioeconomic status makes removable partial dentures the alternative treatment option in rural areas of developing countries. Success of treatment with removable partial dentures is greatly dependent on patient satisfaction and acceptance. The mismatch between the patient expectation of dentures and fulfillment of expectation after treatment should be bridged for better treatment outcome. This study compares the expectation of patients regarding the denture before insertion and its fulfillment at the time of insertion, 1 week and 1 month after insertion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002557
Title: Exposure of occupational hazards and risks among dental students of South Indian Dental College
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Dental professionals and students are exposed to various types of occupational hazards throughout their dental practice. When hazards are encountered on a daily basis, the risk that it poses to their health is unprecedented. The consistent use of right protective barriers, adequate instrument sterilization protocols, disinfection of equipment, knowledge of preventive measures against cross infection, and knowledge of corrective measures on accidental exposure/contact with contaminated matter is inevitable in safe dental practice. This article analyses exposure of dental students to biologic, physical, chemical, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards, and their knowledge of its prevention and management. The awareness of these hazards and its prevention and management will help toward the improvement of the health of the practitioner and, in turn, help them to better serve the society.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002558
Title: Physiological and pharmacological activities of Terminalia bellerica
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Terminalia bellerica is a large deciduous tree. It is a perennial which is grown in India. It grows up to 30, and it requires in cold climate. Leaves are crowded toward the ends of the branches. Leaf tip is narrow pointed. Leaves are 8–20 cm long. Bark is brownish-gray in color. Flowers are greenish-yellow. Upper flowers of the spike are male. Lower flowers are bisexual. Fruit is covered with minute pale pubescence. Oil obtained from seed is useful in skin diseases, and it is a good tonic for stomach and brain. It is effective for headache chronic diarrhea and piles. It is useful in treating bronchitis and heart disease. The plant constitutes of glycosides, tannins, gallic acid, ethyl gallate, and chebulinic acid which serves as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, anticancer, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and antipyretic agent. This review gives information on pharmacological and physiological activities of T. bellerica which may serve as a source for further studies

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002559
Title: Perception of students toward the implementation of parent–teacher interaction in colleges
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: A parent–teacher meeting is a short meeting or conference between the parents and teachers of students to discuss a child’s progress at the college and find solutions to academic or behavioral problems. It is an important meeting because it helps in discussing many problems faced by the students in routine activities in a college and suggesting ideas to improve the student’s academic performance. Materials and Methods: This study population involved eighty students studying different years in different fields in colleges. The questions were asked to find the perception of students toward the implementation of parent–teacher meeting and what they think about parent–teacher meeting. A maximum of 15 questions were asked and the questions were answered online. Result: The students conveyed that it is helpful for their parents to know about their academic performance, strengths, and weakness. Parent–teacher interaction plays a positive role in the relationship of the parents to the children and also helps them with their studies. Conclusion: This provides us with a need of implementing parent–teacher interaction in institutions globally.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002560
Title: Estimation of cortisol among the patients with obesity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The aim is to measure the cortisol level in obese patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients were selected from those attending the Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College and hospitals and divided into two groups, namely normal healthy individuals and patients with obesity and the sample were collected and analyzed using ROBONIK ELISA READER. Results: All the data were analyzed using the SPSS package. Paired sample t-test analysis was done to find out significant differences between the two groups. All the tests were considered significant at P < 0.05 level. Conclusion: The results suggest that compared with normal-weight people, overweight people have higher cortisol levels in the serum. These results suggest that it might be relevant to consider cortisol and cortisone promotion in overweight people, but the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities are not abnormal compared with normal-weight people. Our association study shows that less healthy family eating behavior is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), as well as higher cortisol and cortisone levels. Our findings emphasize the need for further research on the relationship between overweight/obesity in children and cortisol, cortisone, and ratio of cortisol to cortisone, as well as the influences of parent’s BMI and family dietary habits on children’s people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002561
Title: A questionnaire-based study on effect of chemotherapy treatment in the body
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses anticancer drugs. Chemotherapy is cytotoxic and stops the cell from dividing and finally kills it, but it not only acts on cancerous cells but it also acts on the other healthy cells of the body too. The effectiveness of chemotherapy depends on the type of cancer and at what stage of cancer it is being administered. Blood cells, epithelium lining the mouth, stomach, and intestine are most affected. The duration of chemotherapy can range from few weeks to few years. Hair loss is the most common side effect that is seen in cancer patients. Other side effects include degeneration of neurons of the limbs, alopecia totalis, nausea, insomnia, vomiting, severe decrease in body weight, excessive unbearable body pain, and it may even cause complete infertility. The main of the aim of the study is to see the various effects of chemotherapy in a person’s health. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients were chosen for this survey; the patients are from Apollo Hospital, Chennai. They were given a questionnaire which took into account their age and sex, for how long they are taking chemotherapy and what are major side effects they are having. Results: After their responses, it was seen that all of them are under chemotherapy; the major side effect they are facing is alopecia and weight loss. Conclusion: It was concluded that blood cancer is more common in general and breast cancer is most common among women. Cancer can be cured by chemotherapy if it is administered at the right time. The most common side effect seen was alopecia and decrease in body weight.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002562
Title: Sleep deprivation and cell phone usage among teenagers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Teenagers’ late-night mobile phone use is harming their sleep and potentially their mental health. Poor-quality sleep associated with late-night texting or calling was linked to a decline in mental health, such as depressed moods and declines in self-esteem and coping ability. Cellular phone use is emerging as an important factor that interferes with both sleeping quality and quantity, particularly, as smartphones become more widely available to teens. Physically, sleep deprivation can cause daytime fatigue and mentally disturbed mind among teenagers, in addition to cell phone usage. This is a survey on the topic “sleep deprivation and maximum cell phone usage among teenagers” and was based on the response from teenagers in Chennai who were asked about their sleep cycle and maximum cell phone usage. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire was prepared and the survey was administered among participants about sleep deprivation and their cell phone usage, and data were collected. The survey was prepared on SurveyPlanet and administered to participants. The survey was conducted among 90 students about their sleep pattern and maximum cell phone usage. Responses were put into pie charts. Results: Many teens are using technology within the hour before trying to fall asleep or using cell phones in bed, which interferes with the ability to fall asleep and stay asleep throughout the night. Functionally, cellular phone use shortly before bed has been linked to a number of negative outcomes too such daytime fatigue, restlessness, and lethargy which also directly affect the academics and mental health of the students. With the help of inculcating good habits and strict sense of willpower, ways can be mended to have a good sleep cycle and reduction in the cell phone usage. Conclusion: Physically, sleep deprivation can cause daytime fatigue and mentally disturbed mind among teenagers, in addition to cell phone usage. The correlations between sleep deprivation and health outcomes have been well documented. Awareness was created on the negative impact of sleep deprivation in relation to cell phone addiction, and students responded positively on reducing the cell phone usage and work more on getting a good night’s rest to get through the following day.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002563
Title: Effect of lemongrass oil on body pain
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Cymbopogon, also known as lemongrass, is a genus of Asian, African, Australian, and tropical island plants in the grass family. Lemongrass oil is used to relieve muscle pain, externally to kill bacteria, ward off insects, and reduce body aches, and internally to help our digestive system. Lemongrass oil has a light and fresh lemony smell with earthy undertones. The major components of lemongrass oil are myrcene, geranyl acetate, nerol, citronellal, geraniol, neral, and traces of lime and citrate. The findings of this study indicate that lemongrass oil can be used the best for treating body pain. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted among 30 individuals of different age groups with different pain. They were asked to apply 5 ml of the lemongrass oil daily on their body for about 30 days. The pain of an individuals was recorded using pain scale. The pain was measured every week, and then, the results were discussed with proper statistics. Result: The mean age for the patients was 45.4 ± 9.37. The mean value of the pain before using oil is 3.53 ± 1.04. After the 1st week of usage, the mean value is 3.43 ± 1.07 and the mean value of the pain scale after 2nd week is 2.96 ± 1.0. The mean value of the pain scale after 3rd week of application is 2.7 ± 1.02. According to these results, what we analyze is that regular usage of lemongrass oil has more chances in reducing our body pain. Conclusion: Lemongrass oil has a significant effect on reducing the body pain. It is also less expensive and has fewer side effects when compared to the other synthetic drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002564
Title: A questionnaire survey on association between tooth loss and menopause
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The lack of estrogen after the menopause is considered to be a possible cause that relates the loss of teeth to the low bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Menopause is associated with few years of rapid bone loss attributed to lower circulating level of 17β-estradiol related to primarily to loss of estrogen-mediated inhibition of bone resorption without compensatory formation. This study primarily focuses on finding an association between menopause and tooth loss. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals in Chennai. A study group contains 47 postmenopausal women of age group >42. It was a questionnaire-based study. The questions were mainly about the details of mobile tooth, lost teeth, usage of dentures, or not. Then, the collected data were analyzed with proper statistics, and results were declared. Results: According to this study and its statistics, almost 54% of the subjects have or had mobile tooth (loose teeth while chewing). Almost 82% of the postmenopausal women taken for this survey have lost teeth, of which nearly 92% of the lost 1–6 teeth and 8% lost more than six teeth. Even though 82% of the subjects have lost teeth, only 7% of the whole use dentures. Conclusion: Menopausal women are prone to decrease BMD. This can affect their alveolar bone too. Hence, they have to take care of their good oral hygiene and protect them from oral diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002565
Title: Awareness of amount of intake of drinking water by an individual - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Water is important for the survival of life. This survey tries to offer a few expertise of water including intake and a few factors related with intake of water, the complex mechanisms in the back of water homeostasis, the effects of variant in water intake on fitness and power consumption, weight, and human overall performance and functioning. The main aim of this study is to create awareness among the public about the intake of water per day. Materials and Methods: The survey was administered through a questionnaire to the participants who volunteered for the study. The questionnaire consists of questions pertaining to intake of water. The questionnaire was administered through survey planet link, the results were tabulated and statically discussed. Results: This is an online survey circulated among 103 individuals who agreed for the study. This survey gives information of amount of drinking water an individual should take, and in this survey, there is even though mention of metabolizing fat only few individuals (23.3%) are aware of that. This survey also discussed about the safest water for drinking. Conclusion: This survey provides very good insight into intake of drinking water, amount of intake of water of different individuals, and importance of water.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002566
Title: Comparative opinions of new-term and old-term hostelites
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: For a happy and fulfilling college life, accommodative preferences and lodging matters immensely. To achieve this, the opinions and grievances of different voices must be taken into consideration, and so this survey is undertaken under the hopes of relating to the experiences of new-term and old-term hostelites. The differences and varying capacities to adapt to new surroundings and situations are the undertone of this comparison. Materials and Methods: The study was done through a questionnaire. A form was circulated among 50 new-term (duration of stay: 1 year or less) and 50 old-term (duration of stay: 2 years or more) hostel students which included questions regarding their adaptive capacities, their preferences and their personal opinions on various day-to-day scenarios and how they coped with them. Apparent results were obtained using proper statistical methods, and thus the differences between the opinions of new-term and old-term hostel students were studied. Results: From the data, it is clear that old-term hostelites are better adapted and acclimatized to hostel-life than new-term hostelites due to factors such as time and experience. Conclusion: The statistical results of this survey pointed to the fact that the old-term hostelites were much better accustomed and oriented to hostel life than the new-term students. The old-term hostelites were less homesick and were better adapted to face the problems that arose, and so the majority of them considered the hostel to be their second home.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002567
Title: Effect of music on academic performance of college students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Music is an art,whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch, rhythm, dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. Music classes are a vital part of students’ academic achievement. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of music on the academic performances of college students. Materials and Methods: The survey was taken among 80 college students. Their opinions to the effect of music on studies and to attain results on whether it had a positive or negative feedback in their grades were analyzed through the questionnaire. The survey was conducted online through survey planet. Results: From the results, it is evident that music plays a major role in the academic performance of college students. 40.5% of the students listen to music while studying. 64% of students who lack concentration while studying in silence tend to have an increased efficiency in studying with the music on. Usually, students with a knowledge in music are more benefited. Conclusion: It is clear from the findings that music has an effective effect on relieving the stress. Especially, since this survey focuses on college students, it proves that they tend to listen to music to relieve them from stress and it also helps them to focus on their studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002568
Title: Protective effects of theaflavin
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Theaflavin (TF) is a group of very important polyphenol of black tea with functions such as antioxidant, suppressor, and inhibitor of pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, TF is used to prevent coronary heart disease and treat diabetes mellitus. TF-1, TF-3-monogallate and TF-3’-monogallate mixture (TF-2), and TF-3, 3’-digallate (TF-3) are the major black tea polyphenols. The difference in antioxidant property of four major TFs is due to the difference in their chemical structure. TF are types of thearubigins and are therefore reddish in color. These major polyphenols are biochemical oxidation products derived from green tea polyphenols which are responsible for the characteristic color, fragrance, and taste of black tea. In recent studies, it has also been found that TF reduces total body cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002569
Title: Heart rate variability in cardiovascular syndromes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable reflection of the many physiological factors modulating the normal rhythm of the heart. In fact, they provide a powerful means of interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. It shows that the structure generating the signal is not only simply linear but also involves non-linear contributions. HR is a non- stationary signal, and the variations in that may contain indicators of current disease or warning about any impending cardiac diseases. This indicator may be always present or may occur at certain intervals of the day. HR variation analysis has become a popular non-invasive tool for assessing the activities of the autonomic nervous system. HRV is widely used for quantifying neural cardiac control, and low variability is particularly predictive of death in patients after myocardial infarction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002570
Title: Prevalence of caries in south Indians who brush twice versus the individuals who brush once
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Oral health plays an important role in a total individual’s health. The aim of the study is to identify whether brushing twice a day has any effects in maintaining oral health by preventing caries. Normally, it takes 48 h for bacteria to form large colonies to cause a problem. Brushing teeth with a perfect brush and in a perfect manner also contribute to the frequency of brushing. Materials and Methods: It is a questionnaire-based study which will be circulated among 200 people, and the result will be discussed with statistics. All normal nondiseased individuals aged between 11 and 50 are to be taken for the survey. People aged beyond 50 is excluded since some of them may have oral diseases and children <11 are excluded because for them still milk tooth may persist were excluded. Results and Conclusion: Although the majority of South Indian population is aware of the importance of maintaining oral health, the steps to be implemented for attaining better oral health still are in its cold path. The study proved the fact that the overall awareness of the people has increased in the past decade, but still their reluctance toward following a healthy mouth is in vain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002571
Title: Natural remedies for management of glaucoma
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Glaucoma is one of leading cause of blindness in the world. Glaucoma results because of opticnerve damage. Patients with glaucoma often presents with increased aqueous humor leading toincreased intra ocular pressure. Generally patients show lot of interest in non pharmacologicaloptions like lifestyle adjustment and alternative and complementary therapy (ACT) for management of glaucoma. At least 5 % of glaucoma patients use ACT, while rest of patients who cannot afford therapy prefer natural remedies like caffeine, ginkgo biloba, bilberry,potential antioxidants includes alpha-lipoic acid, vitamin C, beta- carotene, Vitamin Elutein, zinc, selenium, melatonin, glutathione, green tea extract and fruits and vegetables. Hence natural remedies are more beneficial and effective for management of glaucoma.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002572
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on oral hygiene status in autistic children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Background: The aim of the study was to assess the oral hygiene status in autistic children. Autism is one of the most severe neuropsychiatric disorders. Autistic individuals are characterized by impairment in social interaction with a restricted range of interests and often, stereotyped repetitive behaviors. This study is done to assess the oral hygiene status of autistic children. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted in Apollo Hospital in Chennai. 65 children were used for this study. Questionnaires were prepared, and parents/caretakers were distributed. They were asked to answer questions regarding the oral health of the child. Results: Majority of the children brushes once in a day. From the study, it is understood that they do not use any special type of brush. They brush themselves. Many of them have complaints of bad breath. Most of the children consumes only balanced diet. Majority of the children consumes cool drinks and junk food. Most of the children use mouthwash and most of the children do not experience tooth discoloration. Majority of the children visits the dentist only when needed. According to the parent’s report, many children did not show any signs of dental pain or dental problems. Some were not aware of oral hygiene practices. Conclusion: Caries experience in autism child does not gonna affect in any of the pathological ways; however, lifestyle of autism child is most commonly associated with poor oral hygiene, improper motor coordination, gastrointestinal disorder, sleep dysfunction, and pica (tendency to eat things that are not food), this study aims at assessing the oral hygiene status among the control group. People should be aware of oral hygiene practices.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002573
Title: Comparative study on the sleeping pattern between hostellers and day scholars among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Sleep affects physical growth, mental growth, behavior, and emotional development besides determining cognitive functioning, learning, and attention. Apart from physiological, psychological, and environmental factors, sociocultural factors also play a major role in determining sleep pattern of a person. Troubled sleep is considered both a predictive sign and symptom of many illnesses and is associated with a large amount of problems in the quality of life. Hence, the aim of this study is to compare the sleeping pattern between the day scholars and hostlers among South Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study is the questionnaire-based survey. The survey questionnaire comprises of questions pertaining to a comparative study on the sleeping pattern between hostellers and day scholars among South Indian population. This survey was administered to the participants through the SurveyPlanet link. The result obtained was statistically analyzed. The survey was conducted among 100 students in South Indian population. Results: From the survey, it has been concluded that there is a high prevalence of insufficient sleep and irregular bedtime schedule among day scholars and hostellers. Conclusion: Sleep is very important for an individual to function normally in life. Continuous irregularity in sleep may lead to conditions of insomnia as well as lead to dark circles and sluggishness during the day. Hence, adequate and peaceful sleep is very much required and should be followed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Oct
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002574
Title: Level of cortisol in patients with cardiovascular diseases
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to estimate the level of cortisol changes in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in comparison with normal. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients were selected from those attending the Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospital and divided into two groups as normal and patients with CVDs. The blood sample was collected and analyzed by Robonik Elisa reader. Results and Discussion: All the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences package. Paired sample t-test analysis was done to find out significant differences between two groups. All tests were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. It is evident that cortisol is high on CVD patients. Conclusion: As the study shows that the cortisol level is elevated among the patients with cardiovascular disease when compared to the normal patients. Therefore, cortisol is responsible for increased blood pressure and CVDs.