Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002575
Title: The hidden benefits of daydreaming
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The present study was undertaken to determine the improvement of thinking through daydreaming. Daydreaming has long been criticized as a pursuit of slackers and time wasters. However, daydreaming is normal state of the brain. Daydreaming has an learning function. As mental time travelers, we can review, rehearse, and learn to understand our lives, without endlessly repeating ourselves. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was prepared. The survey was conducted among students. The survey was prepared on SurveyPlanet and was circulated among students. The questionnaires consist of 17 questions. The survey was conducted among 75 students. Results: The results indicated that most of the participants enjoy daydreaming during their working period. And also, majority of them daydream about their future and life which help them to explore themselves. Conclusion: This study says that 90% of students daydream during their working period. 40% of the students are able to concentrate well even while daydreaming. 50% of them dream about the actual events that had taken place, and majority of people do not lose themselves while daydreaming duringworking period. By this, we can conclude that daydreaming helps people to interact with their own thoughts which improves the working of the brain.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002576
Title: Morphometric analysis of impressiones gyrorum cerebri in dry human skull bone
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The human skull is considered as one of the most reliable bones for the assessment of several studies and evaluation therein. The inner surface of the skull bone has numerous features referred as impressions formed by underlying soft tissues. One among them is the impressions formed by the brain on the inner surface of the calvarial bone. Such impressions formed by the cerebral and cerebellar gyri are termed as impressiones gyrorum cerebri and cerebelli. Hence, the present study was carried out with the aim to study the sequence in appearance and disappearance of impressiones gyrorum cerebri on calvarial bone. Materials and Methods: Dry human skull vaults were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental and Hospitals, Chennai. A total of 50 skull vaults were analyzed morphologically for the presence, prominence, length and the location of impressiones gyrorum cerebri on the inner surface of skull vault. Results: An overall mean for these parameters was calculated using the data obtained. Values were found for impressiones gyrorum cerebri. The raw data obtained were statistically analyzed. Range, mean, standard deviation, and standard error of mean were determined for each parameter. All values were compared with a series of other workers to draw the conclusions. Conclusion: The intensity in appearance of juga is partly influenced by the increasing thickness of the diploe. Knowledge of the anatomical parameters of the calvaria is of immense importance to the neurosurgeons.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002577
Title: Variations in the morphological appearance and morphometrical analyses of the coronoid process of the mandible
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Coronoid process is a bony projection from the ramus of the mandible. Its anterior border is convex and continuous with the anterior border of ramus of mandible. The variations in the shapes of coronoid process are of three, namely triangular, hook, and rounded. Different morphological variations of the coronoid process have been documented in literature as indispensable aids in anthropological and forensic studies. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 50 dry human mandibles of unknown sex and without any gross breakage were collected and subjected for morphometrical analysis and evaluated. Shapes of the coronoid process on both sides of the mandible (individual = 50; both sides = 100) were analyzed. The different shapes of coronoid process were compared for difference on either side. The intercoronoid distance was also measured. The various shapes of the coronoid process were interpreted as given by Shakya et al., as triangular, round, beak/hook, and flat shapes. Results: The change in the shapes of the coronoid process on both sides of the mandible was observed. An overall mean for these parameters was calculated using the data obtained. Values were found for the right and left acetabulum. The raw data obtained were statistically analyzed. Range, mean, standard deviation, and standard error of mean were determined for each parameter. All values were compared with series of other workers to draw the conclusions. Conclusion: In this regard, the present study was undertaken to depict various morphological disparities of the coronoid process in our ethnic group so as to aid in personal identification. Knowledge of the morphological shapes of the coronoid process is useful for the maxillofacial surgeon. The coronoid process can be easily harvested as a donor bone. It also helps in determining buccal vestibule during denture fabrication.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002578
Title: Evaluation of alpha-fetoprotein level in cancer patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to judge the amount of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level in the cancer patient. Introduction: Cancer is a type of disease where cells grow out of control, divide, and invade other tissues. In a person without cancer, cell division is under control. If the abnormal cells do not invade, but divide and swell up their original tissue, this is often not referred to as cancer. It’s referred to as a neoplasm. AFP is a major protein created by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. It’s thought to be the fetal type of serum albumin. In men, non-pregnant women, and youngsters, AFP within the blood will mean that certain sorts of cancer - especially cancer of the testicles, ovaries, stomach, pancreas, or liver - are present. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients were selected from those attending the Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and divided into 2 groups as follows: Group I - normal healthy people – 20. Group II - individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma – 20. Results: All the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science package. Paired sample t-test analysis was done to find out significant differences between the two groups. All the tests were considered significant at P < 0.05 level.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002579
Title: Anatomical observation and morphometric analysis of impressions of dural venous sinuses in dry human occipital bone
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The skull bone has numerous impressions formed by many important structures related to it. The impressions which are formed serve as an important tool for many purposes. Among them, the normal impressions of dural venous sinuses and their variations are of relatively significant value as it is used for neurosurgeons, radiologists, for investigating, and diagnosing various pathologies of dural venous sinuses such as thrombosis, embolism, and fistula. In such case, clear information on the morphometrical study of dural venous sinuses is lacking in literature. Thus, the study focuses on the morphometric evaluation of an impression of dural venous sinuses on skull bones. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 50 dry human skull bones of unknown sex and without any gross breakage were collected from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. The bones were subjected to visual and morphological analysis and evaluated. The present study involved the examination of an impression of superior sagittal sinus, right and left transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and occipital sinus in the skull. The length and width of these sinuses were measured with Vernier caliper. Results: The mean length of the superior sagittal sinus is 25.74 ± 1.13. The mean length of right and left transverse sinus is 4.87 ± 0.32 and 5.11 ± 0.48, respectively. The mean length of right and left sigmoid sinus is 3.84 ± 0.65 and on left sigmoid sinus is 3.91 ± 0.43. The mean length of the occipital sinus is 4.23 ± 0.54. The mean width of the superior sagittal sinus is 1.15 ± 0.072. The mean width of the right transverse sinus is 0.80 ± 0.044 and of the left transverse sinus is 0.82 ± 0.035. The mean width of the right sigmoid sinus is 0.91 ± 0.049 and of the left sigmoid sinus is 0.94 ± 0.027. The mean width of occipital sinus is 0.53 ± 0.022. The mean width of the confluence of sinuses is 1.36 ± 0.051. All the observed values are tabulated and expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Conclusion: It is concluded that this study will be valuable definitely for vascular neurosurgeons during pre-operative planning and radiologist to avoid misdiagnosis and misinterpretation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002581
Title: Assessment of flat foot by plantar arch index using footprint in aged population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Flat feet, also known as acquired flat foot disorder, results from collapsed arches of the feet. Usually while standing in erect posture, the medial margin of the sole of foot will not touch the ground. However, an unstructured, undeveloped, or a fallen arch cause the foot to roll inward, and the entire sole comes close to the ground. In this study, we aim to assess and analyze flat foot with reference to plantar arch index (PAI) among aged population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 subjects from Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals aged between 50 and 70 years. Footprints of all the 50 individuals were obtained using simple ink print method. Staheli’s arch index was adapted to quantify standing foot morphology. Presence of flat feet is diagnosed, by calculating the PAI. PAI = A/B. If the PAI is >1.15, then it is considered as a flat foot. Results: The PAI values ranged from 0.38 to 1.17. Among 50 subjects (25 male and 25 females), 5 subjects (3 females and 2 males), i.e. 10% had flat feet deformity with PAI > 1.15. Among these, 2 subjects (4%) had unilateral left flat foot and 1 person (2%) had unilateral right flat foot, and the remaining 2 subjects had bilateral flat feet (4%). Among the 5 subjects, 3 people have flexible flat feet. The remaining 2 had permanent flat feet deformity. Conclusion: The present study suggests that simple ink print method is a cost-effective and easier way of diagnosing flat feet deformity clinically using PAI.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002582
Title: Evaluation of handgrip strength for menopauase women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Menopause is the time in most of the women’s lives that they live when their menstrual period stops permanently and they will be not able to give birth to a child. Menopause is associated with increased arterial stiffness and reduced muscles strength. The aim of the study is to assess the handgrip strength in menopause women. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 menopausal women were included in the study, and their handgrip strength was assessed using dynamometer. Result: The handgrip strength of the menopausal women was found to be below average. Conclusion: The Handgrip strength of the menopausal women was found to be below average as menopause does mark the time of hormonal and social change for women.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002583
Title: Evaluation of pulmonary function test in construction workers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of pulmonary function tests in construction workers. Pulmonary function tests are valuable observations within the management of patients with the suspected respiratory disease. The construction workers are exposed to harmful dust particles frequently that have an effect on their respiratory system. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 construction workers having a minimum of 3 years exposure to construction sites were included in this study. The pulmonary function test parameters were performed in individuals using a spirometer. This study is based on clinical examination, assessment of pulmonary function test. Results: P value of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV) 1 is highly significant. This study showed that the means that of FVC and FEV1 in construction employees were considerably high. The FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and PEF have shown a significant difference between control and construction workers. Conclusion: The current results confirmed that pulmonary function values changed significantly between exposed and non-exposed people to cement dust. Therefore, for a higher future for construction workers, some engineering control and approach are recommended to the safety and health team to control machines that are absolutely operated and consider looking into the dust concentration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002584
Title: Awareness about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder among teenagers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to create awareness and impart knowledge about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among teenagers and its prevalence in our society. Materials and Methods: It is the questionnaire-based online survey which was taken by 150 participants using the link SurveyPlanet. Participants were mostly teenagers who are under the age group of 12–19. Result: Through this survey, it is proved that nearly 50% of the participants were not able to focus well in their daily activities. They were under great pressure and impairment due to this disorder. Healthy mind and good lifestyle changes might help them to get rid of ADHD. Conclusion: In common, people with good mental fitness are recognized and given appreciation. However, the proper way to analyze this disorder is lacking. It has been analyzed that parents whose children were affected with ADHD are not aware of their child’s condition. Only about 56% use medications to prevent this disorder and the rest are not even trying to avoid it since they cannot analyze the problem or defect within their mental world. If they feel confident, they can improve their skills gradually, return back to their normal situations, and lead a happier life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002585
Title: Awareness of hydrophobia among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to create an awareness of hydrophobia among the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: South Indian people of various age groups were chosen, and a survey checking their knowledge on hydrophobia created using www.surveyplanet.com, and hence, the results were obtained. About 131 people of various age groups were made to attempt the survey, and hence, their awareness on hydrophobia was checked. Results: From the survey, we come to know that 70.9% of the participants are already aware that a disorder called hydrophobia exists and the remaining 29.1% are unaware about it. 40.9% of the participants claim that they do have fear on seeing an irrational amount of water. Further, when the participants were asked if they think hydrophobia is a mental disorder. 18.2% of participants said yes, 30% of the participants said no, and 41.8% of the population gave the option “maybe.” When the participants were asked if they had come across hydrophobic patients in their surroundings/locality, 35.5% of the population said yes and the remaining 64.5% of the population said no. When asked if the participants feel it has adverse effects on both physical and mental health, most of them, that is, 81.8% of the population claimed yes and the remaining 18.2% of the population said no. This shows that most of them are aware about the consequences of this disorder. Conclusion: The basic idea of performing this survey based research is to create an awareness among the society about hydrophobia and also its consequences and mode of transmission.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002586
Title: A systematic review on the overprescription of antibiotics causing antibiotic resistance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. New resistance mechanisms are rapidly developing and spreading globally, causing peril to our ability to treat common infectious diseases, resulting in prolonged illness, disability and worse, and death. Antibiotic resistance increases the cost of health care with prolonged stays in hospitals and requirement of more intensive care. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these medicines. Antibiotics inhibit the important cellular processes, retarding growth and causing cell death. Antibiotic resistance is a global public health concern, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance threatens the success and continuation of clinical medicine. This threat reduces the ability to successfully treat many infectious and common diseases while simultaneously exposing and increasing health risks for vulnerable patients. Coordinated efforts to implement new policies, renew research efforts, and pursue steps to manage the crisis are greatly needed to overcome this problem. This crisis is global, as it shows the overuse of antibiotics all over the world. Antibiotic-resistant infections place a substantial health and economic burden on the world health-care system and population. It can be concluded that this review article insists on the judicious use of antibiotics for a good global health-care system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002587
Title: Rhythm of breathing effects memory and fear
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Breathing is not just for oxygen; it is now linked to the brain function and the behavior. Introduction: The aim of the current study is to know about the rhythm of breathing effects memory and fear. Breathing has never been before linked to anything other than the intake of oxygen, but now it seems to have connections to brain function-specifically, memory, and fear. Northwestern Medicine scientists have found for the first time that breathing rhythm induces electrical activity that enhances both memory recall and emotional judgments.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared. The survey was conducted among 115 students of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, and the data were collected. The survey was prepared on survey planet and was circulated among the students. The questionnaire related to the survey was prepared. Results: Most of them are aware of knowing that breathing in not for oxygen, now it is linked to brain function and behavior. Moreover, the first discovery of this was found by northwestern scientists many of them are not aware of this. Conclusion: However, most of us breathe far too rapidly and with far too much volume (we over-breathe), which the study points out is our body’s instinctive, and advantageous, response to an emergency or dangerous state. This implies the way we now breathe, as a result of a mismatch between the body we inherited from our hunter-gatherer ancestors, and the culture we live in.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002588
Title: Awareness about necrotizing fasciitis among student population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The present study is undertaken to assess the knowledge about necrotizing fasciitis among the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted through an online basis. The survey consisted of questions which would educate the participant on the condition and also grasp on how much information they already possess. The initial question would rely on their present knowledge, and the next question would be to educate the person on the same. The survey was circulated among the student population primarily in the health-care field. The study was designed such that there would be no overlap of information between concurrent questions. A total of 80 responses were obtained from the surveyed population and was analyzed. Results: The study results reveal that majority of the South Indian population are unaware about the condition called necrotizing fasciitis and are also not aware about the modalities of management of the particular disease. Conclusion: The awareness about the particular disease should be enhanced, and more awareness programs should be conducted to improve the knowledge that persists about the disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002589
Title: A study on the effects of aerobics on depression
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Depression is one of the most threatening physical and mental disorders affecting all age of people today. It causes many health issues. Aerobics is the physical exercise of low to high intensity that primarily depends on the aerobic energy-generating process. It helps to improve and prevent many serious health problems. Methods: A total of 30 depression patients were taken from the aerobics center and followed for 1 month. They are the individual with an age group of 20–60. The depression scale is taken before and after 1 month of aerobics using the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD). Results: Using the values taken by the HAMD, it is proven that aerobics has an effect on depression. Conclusion: This study reveals that aerobics has a positive effect on depression in a short period.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002590
Title: Comparison between diet and exercise for faster weight loss
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Complete nutrition desires activity and absorption of vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids from super molecule and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food, collectively food energy among the sort of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Dietary habits and selections play an enormous role among the standard of life, health and longevity. Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains fitness ando verall health and health. The aim of this study is to check the speed of weight loss between diet and exercise and each diet and exercise. Materials and Methods: This survey is finished by examination the speed of weight loss of individuals doing solely diet and solely exercise. The speed of weight loss has been compared and scaled. Result: The survey is to prove that diet and exercise in proportion helps in weight loss and maintaining the healthy state of a private. The importance of diet is 70% and the importance for exercise is 30%, but people following both simultaneously result in fast weight loss. Discussion: The survey was done and therefore the results showed that 70% of the people were attentive to the importance of weight reduction. Its conjointly been determined that thirty third of the individuals like consumption meat and vegetables and 22% of the individuals like consumption food. And other people conjointly like for the body. however solely 50% of the individuals like better to exercise daily and 15% of the people exercise on an irregular basis. 41.7% of the people are aware of the importance of exercising and exercise daily where the rest of the population are irregular or do not exercise at all. Exercising requires effort and commitment which is not shown by most of the people. Conclusion: From this survey, faster weight loss is achieved by exercising and dieting at the same time. However, for people who just exercise or just diet, they will take a longer time to lose weight. This also concludes that diet has a 70% importance to exercise in one loss of weight. This survey is to create an awareness of the importance of maintaining body weight.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002591
Title: Physiological and pharmacological effects of Bacopa monnieri
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Bacopa has long been renowned for its medicinal properties. This has been documented in the 6th -century Ayurvedic text, the Charaka Samhita, whereby Bacopa is recommended for the treatment of various mental conditions. India and Bacopa monnieri has a long history of use in the Ayurvedic medicine tradition in the treatment of a number of disorders, particularly those involving anxiety and mental disorders. It is currently being marketed in Western countries as a memory-enhancing agent. Studies have shown that the herb contains many active constituents, including a number of alkaloids and saponins; however, the major constituents are the steroidal saponins and bacosides A and B. Bacopa is used to treat a broad range of mind-related health concerns, including Alzheimer’s disease, memory loss, anxiety, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder epilepsy, and as a general tonic to fight stress. Best of all, it has far less severe side effects than the dangerous psychotropic drugs often prescribed today. People also take Bacopa to treat backache, joint pain. Bacopa extract has actually been shown to work as natural stress relievers by helping our bodies better handle or adapt to our daily stressors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002592
Title: Determination of the age changes seen in the distance between infraorbital margin and the infraorbital foramen
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The maxillae are paired bones in the face which forms the roof of the oral cavity, forms the upper jaw, and houses the teeth. The infraorbital foramen is found millimeters below the infraorbital margin which transmits infraorbital vessels and nerves. The infraorbital foramen at infancy lies very close to the infraorbital margin. Due to the lateral growth of the face as a whole, the maxilla also grows longitudinally. Hence, the distance increases with age gradually. In this study, we aim to determine the age changes seen in the maxilla and to develop a relation between the age and the distance between the infraorbital margin and foramen. Materials and Method: About 31 maxillae from independent maxillae and skulls were taken and investigated from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, which had both the alveolar process and the infraorbital foramen. A Vernier caliper was used to measure the distance between the infraorbital margin and the infraorbital foramen. The values were noted. The alveolar process was observed on the basis of the number of sockets present, and the amount of resorption was observed. The age was determined using the alveolar process and the relation between age and the margin-foramen distance is established. Conclusion: The foramen-margin distance increases with age. Any deviations were marginal. We can conclude that the average distance can also play a key role in the placement of various soft tissues of the face. Hence, any marked deviation can lead to facial anomalies such as asymmetry and other facial deformities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002593
Title: Saliva as a diagnostic tool: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Saliva is an important physiological fluid and contains highly complex mixture which is gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Saliva is a watery substance comprising of 99.5% of water and 0.5% of electrolyte, mucous, glycoprotein, enzymes, and antimicrobial components such as immunoglobulin A and lysosomes. Saliva has become an important resource for evaluating physiological and pathological conditions in human. As diagnostic fluid saliva offers advantages over serum because it can be collected non-invasively by individuals with modest training and it is a cost-effective approach for scanning large population. There is a minimal risk of contacting infection during saliva collection. Saliva can be used in clinically challenging situations such as obtaining samples from children, handicapped, or anxious patients for whom blood sampling could be a difficult act to perform.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002594
Title: Evaluation of C reactive protein level in obese individuals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a substance produced by the liver that increases in the presence of inflammation in the body. An elevated CRP level is identified with blood tests and is considered a non-specific “marker” for disease. Hence, the aim of this study is to analyse the CRP level in obese and nonobese individuals. Materials and Methods: Patients were selected from Saveetha Dental College and were divided into two groups Group I as normal (nonobese) individuals and Group II as obese individuals. Individuals with the age group of 20–30 years and obese individuals are included in this study. Informed consent was obtained from the patient before sample collection. Then, serum was separated and analyzed to estimate the CRP by Turbilatex Method using ERBA CHEM 5 plus Autoanalyzer. Results: Paired sample t-test analysis was done to find out significant differences between the two groups. All the tests were considered significant at P < 0.05 level. In this study, we found that the mean value of CRP level is 3.48 ± 1.5 for control and 7.48 ± 1.41 for obese individuals. CRP level is statistically significant from control to obese individuals. Conclusion: Obese individuals have more CRP level than normal individuals. CRP is associated with the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Hence, this study will make awareness among obese individuals to maintain their BMI thereby regulating the CRP level.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002595
Title: Intensity of stress among exam going students among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to create awareness of the intensity of stress among exam going students among South India population. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was prepared, and the survey was conducted among students about the intensity of stress among exam going students and data were collected. The survey was prepared on survey planet www. surveyplanet.com and was circulated among students. The survey was conducted among 106 students. Results: Nearly 80% of the students feel stressed during their college year. 33.3% of the students have anxiety, and 30.4% of them have depression during the examination. Hence, the intensity of stress among the students is high. Conclusion: The survey was conducted among 106 students from that their causes of stress in their life are due to college which is about 26.6%. Most of them have headaches when they are stressed. None of them are not willing to manage their stress and health during their examination and also on their day-to-day academic life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002596
Title: Levels of luteinizing hormone in patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) could be a disease of feminine sexual sphere that is characterized by the violation of the development of female sexual hormones, increases within the ovary sizes with the appearance of cysts, and impairments of an oscillation, infertility, and alternative symptoms. The luteinizing hormone (LH) could be an endocrine hormone, a regulator of the menstrual cycle, and therefore, the formation of endocrine hormones at ladies, a stimulator of synthesis of testosterone at men LH is made by the pituitary within the brain. Management of gonadotropin production could be an advanced system involving hormones made by the gonads (ovaries or testes), the pituitary, and therefore the hypothalamus. PCOS ladies have an accrued level of gonadotropin and an attenuated level of gonadotropin that ends up in the disorders within the regulation of the menstrual cycle. The aim of the research is to try and do a study on levels of luteinizing hormone within the patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Materials and Methods: Patients were selected from those attending the Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and divided into two groups as follows: Group I - Normal healthy individuals - 25 individuals. Group II - Polycystic ovarian syndrome patients - 25 individuals. Inclusion Criteria: The following criteria are included in the study: (1) Individuals with the age group of 20–30 years and (2) PCOS patients. Exclusion Criteria: The following criteria are excluded from the study: (1) Individuals with other systemic illness such as cardiovascular disease, renal failure, stroke, and endocrine illness, (2) individuals with acute illness like fever, and (3) immunocompromised individuals. Sample Collection: Informed consent was obtained from the patient before sample collection. 3 ml of fasting venous blood was collected and distributed in plain collection tubes and centrifuged in 3000 rpm for serum. Then, serum was separated and analyzed to estimate the LH using Robonik Elisa reader. Results: All the data were analyzed using SPSS package. Paired sample t-test analysis was done to find out significant differences between the two groups. All the tests were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. Conclusion: LH is produced by gonadotropic cells present in the anterior pituitary gland. In this survey, we can show that the level of LH in polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) patients rises 94.033 ± 35.09, whereas the value of LH in normal patients is 5.9 ± 3.5. The LH levels are increased in PCOS patients. From this survey, we get to know the effect of level of LH in PCOD patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002597
Title: Students nutrition status and their physical activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The consumption of healthy eating, weight control, and general wellness is getting more significance throughout the daily living of the students. After the students have moved out from their comfort with their parents and changes in living arrangements, it will affect the outcomes of food choices, nutrient intakes, and physical activity patterns. Students who suffer from stress as result of having too much workload of attending classes pay no attention to eating habits, and for that reason, they are more prone to access to fast food as the price of the healthy foods is higher. Materials and Methods: The sample size for this study is 100. The study group consists of 51 female and 45 male participants of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. This was a questionnaire-based study, and the questionnaire was administered through survey planet to all participants. Results were statistically analyzed. Results: From this survey, it was found that about 62% of students were at their right weight this is because they regularly do their physical activities and they were maintaining their sleep hours also properly, and 28% of the students were overweight this is because they not at all maintaining their diet pattern. Most of the students were maintaining their healthy lifestyle, and also they were aware of maintaining their nutrition and physical fitness. About 60% of the students did not eat fast foods regularly. Conclusion: The survey conducted among 100 students from that 64% of students were in the right weight. Hence, I conclude by students were aware of their health by maintaining their physical fitness and their dietary habits. Students should maintain time management to be fit.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002598
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on oral hygiene status in cretinism patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the oral hygiene status in cretinism patients. Good oral hygiene is essential for the well-being of an individual. However, lack of knowledge, negative attitude, and poor oral hygiene practices may lead to poor oral hygiene and predispose oral related diseases. However, we must see if cretinism patients can take care of their teeth as well as they have stunted growth and mental disability. This study is sought to determine whether cretinism patients can correlate with general health. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Apollo Hospital in Chennai. The parents of cretinism patients (total = 62) were distributed with a questionnaire that was prepared on oral health and oral hygiene practices to assess their knowledge and awareness on oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the parents were not aware about oral health on an average level. General health and oral practices affect the quality of life and which was very important for well-being. Most of their children brushed once a day, with the help of the caretakers, and almost 80% of the children had bad breath, which means the oral hygiene practice was not being taught to them properly. There was a correlation between the level of the knowledge and awareness of the parents and the oral hygiene practice and their oral status. It is important that oral hygiene practices should be carried out on a regular basis to enable prevention of dental diseases. Conclusion: The level of knowledge and awareness on oral health effects, oral hygiene practice, and oral hygiene status in cretinism patients drastically. Hence, the patients, the hospitals, and the caretakers should be made aware of the significance and importance of oral health. Patients and their caretakers need to be more aware of the significance of brushing and flossing their teeth daily. Parents need to be educated to promote healthy habits in their children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002599
Title: Comparative study on the muscular strength in between trained and untrained men
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Muscular strength refers to the amount of force a muscle can produce within a single maximal effort. Muscle strength is measured during muscular contraction. The size of your muscle fibers and the ability of nerves to activate muscle fibers are related to the muscle strength. In addition to understanding the definition of muscular strength, it’s also important to understand the benefits of strong muscles. Building muscle strength helps with body alignment, makes performing everyday actions easier, increases metabolism, and relieves stress. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire was prepared, and survey was conducted among the males about the muscular strength in between trained and untrained men’s and data were collected. The survey was prepared on survey planet and was circulated among the men’s. The survey was conducted among 157 men’s. Results: A comparative study was made in between the trained and untrained men based on their fitness and muscular strength. Conclusion: From this survey, we evident that trained men’s aim to maintain their fitness level and involve them in sports to increase their muscular strength. Where muscular strength is just one component of physical fitness along with cardiovascular fitness, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition, and muscular strength can provide several health benefits

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002600
Title: A survey to assess the patient’s satisfaction on denture base color, customization, and esthetics made by undergraduates
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the patient’s satisfaction on denture base color, customization, and esthetics fabricated by undergraduates of various institutions and creates an awareness and importance of it. Objective: The objective of this study was to establish the patient’s esthetic satisfaction and fulfillment on the denture base color and customization and also to create understanding and awareness to undergraduates among many dental institutions. Background: Complete dentures are prosthetic devices that are used by completely edentulous patients to substitute the lost natural dentition which helps in maintaining the facial esthetics and function. There are various shades of the acrylic bases available matching patients’ gingival color, and hence, it is important to understand the satisfaction levels of the patients. This study aims at assessing the same. Reason: The reason behind the study is most of the clinical year students do not give priority for the denture base color, customization, and esthetics. After fabricating the denture, the patient may not be satisfied esthetically. To reassure and educate about the patient concern and give awareness toward the importance of denture base color, customization, and esthetics, this study is initiated.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002601
Title: Types of pain and medical management in trigeminal neuralgia among South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Trigeminal neuralgia is a rare disease affecting <1 million people in India per year as the studies suggest. Trigeminal neuralgia is a clinical diagnosis. The ley feature is a sudden and severe lancinating pain, which usually lasts from a few seconds to 2 min, within the trigeminal nerve distribution, typically the maxillary, and mandibular branches. The pain is often evoked by trivial stimulation of appropriately named “trigger zones.” Occasionally, the pain is so severe that it prevents eating or drinking. The nerves affected are usually stereotyped distribution of the trigeminal nerve.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002602
Title: Effect of Bhastrika Pranayama on peak flow rate in wheezing patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Bhastrika Pranayama called the breath of fire involves forceful inhalation and exhalation thereby helping our body in getting a rich supply of oxygen. Wheezing is simply due to narrowing or inflammation of airways. This pranayama may be helpful for those suffering from respiratory problems by supplying surplus oxygen to lungs. Thereby helping to restore the normal peak flow rate. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 wheezing patients were selected and were divided into two groups: Group 1: 15 patients not performing Bhastrika Pranayama and Group 2: 15 patients were made to perform Bhastrika Pranayama. Patients were made to blow through the peak flow meter. Their peak flow rates were tabulated and compared. Results: There is a significant increase in the peak flow rate (P < 0.005) in Group 2 patients when compared with Group 1. This is due to the influence of Bhastrika Pranayama on peak expiratory flow rate in wheezing patients who performed them. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Bhastrika Pranayama a natural treatment can help people with wheezing to clear obstructions in their bronchioles, thereby increasing their peak flow rate and allowing an easy flow of oxygen.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002603
Title: Effect of Kapalbhati Pranayama in the blood sugar level in diabetic patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to find the effects of Kapalbhati Pranayama on blood sugar level in diabetic patients. Introduction: Specific Yogasanas and Pranayama which can be used as a therapeutic measure in treating physical, psychological elements, endocrine, and physiological it is done for a long period of time. This has been proved by the earlier studies. Yoga is the holistic search for well-being and perfect health. This ancient heritage of India gave man the answers to his spiritual. Recently, among the general public as well as health professionals, there has been an interest in health and natural remedies and increased awareness. Managing psychosomatic and chronic degenerative disorders and overall health can be improved by yoga which is an effective and tested method. Nowadays, the life is full of stress, and stress-related disorders are common. Yoga is the panacea for modern stress discomfort. Materials and Methods: Random blood sugar level was measured in diabetic patients before and after the practice of Kapalbhati Pranayama. Moreover, data were analyzed statistically. Results: The study showed that the mean of the random blood sugar level before the practice of yoga was 164.5 and after 1 month of practice of yoga was 157.8. Moreover, it was found that study was statistically significant. Conclusion: Effect of the Kapalbhati Pranayama on the blood sugar level of borderline diabetic patients is significant. Moreover, the study concludes that regular practice of Kapalbhati Pranayama by borderline diabetics can reduce the blood sugar level.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002604
Title: Impact of dysmenorrhea on academic performance in college girls
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological disorders among females. It is the leading cause of absenteeism in schools and colleges. It affects the social, academic, and sports activities of school and college going girls. The aim of the study is to explore the impacts of dysmenorrhea on academic performances among college girls. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 college girls 18–24 years volunteered for the study and asked them to answer several questions based on relevant literature. Results and Conclusion: Based on these findings, it was seen that college girl’s academic performance was affected by dysmenorrhea. And hence education on the proper management of dysmenorrhea should be given to college girls, parents, and hostel administrators to address women’s reproductive health needs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002605
Title: Survey on effects of yoga on memory
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Memory is an ability to recall past events or previously learned information or skills. Yoga is considered a mind and body practice with historical origin. Yoga engages both the top-down and bottom-up systems. By coordinating breath with movement, we become increasingly more aware of the physical and mental events that shape our experience and are better able to focus and sustain attention. Yoga involves the integration of physical movement with breath awareness and helps in achieving focus. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared, and the survey was conducted among college students. The questionnaire was given individually to each of them to avoid discussion among them and also to avoid false results; thereby no bias is evidenced in this study. Each of them were given 1 h to complete the questionnaire. Results: The data were statistically analyzed. The survey consists of 107 participants. Yoga helps in improvement of lung functioning. Conclusion: Yoga involves the integration of physical movement with breath awareness and helps in achieving focus. Thus, from this survey, we come to know that yoga plays an important role in improving memory

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002606
Title: Status of cortisol among patients with diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to estimate the status of cortisol among patients with diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients were selected from those attending the Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College, and hospitals and divided into two groups as follows Group I - Normal healthy individuals - 20 Group II - Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus - 20. Result: All the data were analyzed using the SPSS package. Paired sample t-test analysis was done to find out significant differences between the two groups. All the tests were considered significant at P < 0.05 level. Conclusion: There is an increase in the level of cortisol in patients with diabetes mellitus. This can be used to diagnose the severity of diabetes in patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002607
Title: Evaluation of pulmonary function testing on information technology professionals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) play an important role in the detection of lung diseases. Lung is the main organ for respiration. Findings suggest that exposure to air conditioner (AC) work environment is risk factor for the development of respiratory dysfunction and prone to allergic disorders. The main aim of the study is to investigate lung function and prevelance of respiratory disease and symptoms among information technology professionals. Materials and Methods: Fifty information technology (IT) employees of age group between 18 and 40 years who were exposed to AC work environment, at least for 6 h per day, and 5 days a week with atleast 2 years were selected as study group (subject). 50 non-IT professionals adults aged between 18 and 40 years who were not exposed to AC work environment were selected as control group. PFT was performed, and the results were analyzed statistically. Result: The mean values for forced vital capacity (FVC) in the study group and control group were 2.73 and 3.41, respectively. This was statistically significant (<0.001). The mean values for forced expiratory volume (FEV1) in the study group and control group were 2.49 and 2.71. This was statistically significant (<0.01). The mean values for FEV1/FVC in male subjects were 90.8 and 85.7 in controls. This was not statistically significant (>0.05). Conclusion: The study shows that there was significant changes that were observed on lung function in IT workers working in the AC environment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002608
Title: Evaluation of pulmonary function test among tea industry workers in Nilgiris
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Over the years, the tea industry workers have been subjected to environmental pollution caused by the use of pesticides, synthetic pyrethroids, NPK fertilizers, etc. The manufacturing of tea produces a large quantity of dust (tea fluff) which is harmful to the workers. The pollutants have caused adverse effects on the tea industry workers, resulting in innumerable respiratory diseases. Therefore, to estimate the lung function in the tea industry workers, spirometer is used and measurements such as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume-one second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC are calculated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the respiratory functioning of the tea industry workers in Kotagiri, The Nilgiris. Materials and Methods: The lung functioning of 20 tea industry workers was measured using the pulmonary function test. Results: The mean of FVC was observed to be 3.25, FEV1 was 2.03, and the FEV1/FVC was estimated to be 1.03. The observed P-value was <0.05 showing significant differences when compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, it was seen that the ventilatory functions of the tea industry workers were lower when compared to the workers in the same area (those who are not exposed to the tea dust). Hence, we conclude that the tea dust particle is hazardous to health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002609
Title: Evaluation of pulmonary function test in lorry drivers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The transport system is one of the main reasons of air pollution that causes major harm to humans. Gases emitted from vehicles such as benzene and carbon monoxide are extremely dangerous to human beings. Some of the people who are mainly affected by this are transport drivers. The study aims to evaluate the impact of air pollution on lorry drivers. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects were taken and divided into two groups. 30 of them are taken to be the control group, and 30 lorry drivers were taken as study group. The pulmonary function test was taken to test the lung capacity. The ratio was recorded, and the parameters used to assess the lung function are forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FVC/FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF), etc. Results and Conclusion: The FVC value for the study group is 3.2l when compared to control group of value 3.8l, FEV1 value is 2.9l whereas the control value is 3.6 l, study group of FEV1/FVC value is 82 % whereas the control value is 86% and the PEF value is 5 when the control value is 6. There is a significant reduction in all the parameters of the pulmonary function tests.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002610
Title: Determination of pulse rate and blood pressure just before the exam
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Pulse rate and blood pressure (BP) vary during anxiety. Anxiety is a combination of physiological over- arousal, tension, and somatic symptoms such as along with worry, dread, and fear of failure. Anxiety can cause dramatic, temporary spikes in your BP. If those spikes occur frequently, they cause damage to blood vessels, heart, and kidney. Materials and Methods: BP was measured standardized sphygmomanometer. The systolic pressure and diastolic pressure during a normal condition and before the exam was measured. Pulse rate was measured in the wrist region for 15 s and multiplied by four. The pulse rate was also measured during a normal condition and just before the exam. Result: Systolic BP (SBP) during normal and just before is 130.56 ± 7.596 and 140.533 ± 6.55, respectively. SBP during normal and just before is 84.876 ± 6.78 and 94.3 ± 3.92, respectively. Pulse rate during normal and just before is 80.66 ± 6.814 and 93.06 ± 5.74, respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of moderate and high level of anxiety among students. A providing student guidance and examination preparation tip helps the students to overcome exam anxiety.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002611
Title: Evaluation of handgrip strength in Zumba dancers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Grip strength is the force applied by the hand to pull on or suspend from objects and is widely used for estimating whole body strength. It is the predictor of numerous forms of muscular strength - including both upper and lower body absolute muscular strength and muscular endurance. The study aims to evaluate the handgrip strength in Zumba dancers. Materials and Methods: Handgrip strength is determined using handgrip dynamometer. 34 people were considered for the study. The test is administered on the right and left hand twice, taking the highest of each number and adding them together. The results are measured in kilograms. Results: About 57% of people have very good handgrip strength. 11% of people have excellent handgrip strength, 11% of people have average handgrip strength, 5% of people have their handgrip strength above average, 5% of people have their handgrip strength below average, and 11% have very poor handgrip strength. Conclusion: The study concludes that Zumba dancers had very good muscle strength determined by handgrip strength.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002612
Title: Role of meditation in reducing stress
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Meditation is a mental discipline in which a practitioner put an attempt to get beyond the reflexive thinking mind and into an intense state of relaxation. Meditation is a practice in which an individual trains his mind or induces a mode of consciousness to allow the mind to involve within peaceful thoughts. Meditation is often used to clear the mind, reduce stress. It also promotes relaxation and trains the mind. The objective of this research is making people take care of their health by practicing meditation. The main aim of this study is to assess the role of yoga asana meditation in reducing stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 people aged between 15 and 25 from were selected as sample population from 100 people and mean value for total score of perceived stress scale (PSS) for sample population before doing meditation regularly was calculated, and they were requested to do meditation 1 time a day. The sample population was monitored regularly. After 1 month, the sample population was asked to answer questions in PSS ones more. Based on their answer, mean value of sample population after practicing meditation for 1 month was calculated. Results: The data collected were tabulated in the graph. Before practicing meditation, 40% of sample population had high perceived stress, and 60% had moderate stress. After doing meditation for 1 month, the impact on sample population was that only 10% had high perceived stress and 90% had moderate stress, and none of the sample population had low stress. Conclusion: After analyzing we can say that meditation has an active effect in reducing high perceived stress to moderate stress.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002613
Title: Effect of garlic on blood pressure in hypertensive patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Hypertension is a global health problem. It is documented for causing cardiovascular diseases. Non-pharmacological treatment has the potential to reduce the risk factor of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack, stroke, and other related cardiacvascular problems. Recently, animal studies have shown that garlic has potential to reduce blood pressure, but primary studies show that non-systematic reviews and results of human are in varied mixed results. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients from Trichy district with hypertension are included in this study. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured before and after intake of garlic for a period of 15 days. Sphygmomanometer and stethoscope were used to measure the blood pressure. Results: This study shows the effect of garlic on hypertensive patients. The mean value of SBP was 141.03mmHg and 135.9mmHg before and after consumption of garlic respectively. The mean value of DBP value was 90.28mmHg and 88.34mmHg before and after consumption of garlic respectively. The results show the insignificant relationship. Conclusion: Based on our garlic preparations are superior to placebo in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive patients. However, it mainly depends on the duration of time and dosage used in the treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002614
Title: Unhygienic food and sugar craving: A short review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Food cravings and sugar cravings are the dieter’s worst enemy. Craving nothing but uncontrollable desires for specific foods compared to the normal food and hunger. The types of foods that each people crave are highly variable, but these are often processed junk foods that are high in sugar. Cravings are one of the biggest reasons for obese, and it is difficult to maintain the body fitness. The reason for sugar craving is sugar itself because sugar is an addictive substance. Background: People easily get addicted to food as well as sugar craving because they feel good on craving but taking in large quantity is always harmful for the health. It destroys both physical and mental health. There are some reasons for craving. The first reason is a sensation for eating the food for this or sensation plays a major role. This factor combines and creates a sensation so that our brain associated with that specific food. The second reason is due to the macronutrient that blends all the nutrition and excites our brain to crave more as possible. Over craving and less physical activity result in obese. Average 97% of women’s and 68% of men always experiences food craving. There are 10 food items such as chocolate, ice cream, French fries, pizza, cookies, chips, cake, popcorn, cheeseburger, and muffins that increases in craving habits. Further research is going on about the food items that trigger craving habits and the withdrawal responses similar to the alcohol, cocains, and tobacco which are the addictive substance. This review speaks about food and sugar craving overall and some ways to stop those craving in people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002615
Title: Evaluation of handgrip strength in obese and nonobese individuals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Handgrip strength is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions against a resistance for an extended period of time. It is one of the components of muscular fitness, along with muscular strength, and many factors contribute to muscular endurance, including strength, fiber type, training, and diet. Obesity is becoming prevalent worldwide in the developing and developed countries for the past decades. The study aims to assess the handgrip strength in obese and nonobese individuals. Materials and Methods: The study included 60 subjects comprising of 30 nonobese and 30 obese individuals of age group between 18 to 40 years. Handgrip strength test was performed using dynamometer. Result: The observed values of the handgrip strength among the obese individuals (study group) were less when compared to the nonobese individuals. Conclusion: The obese showed poor handgrip strength compared to the nonobese.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002616
Title: Clinical review on liquid supported dentures
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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An ideal complete denture should be flexible and adapts well to the tissue surface and should provide proper retention. Conventional complete dentures lack flexibility and softness on the tissue surface and are more rigid. Due to the rigidity of the conventional dentures, the distribution of load is not even, especially in case of flabby, atrophic ridges with increased bone resorption. To overcome this disadvantage, the liquid dentures are fabricated in such a way that denture base is covered with a pre-fabricated flexible, foil which helps in proper adaptation to the mucosa in functional and non-functional states. Liquid-supported dentures provide good retention, stability, and support. The liquid supported denture allows continued adaptation and eliminates the disadvantages of denture designs based on the application of temporary tissue conditioners or soft liners. This article describes the uses of liquid supported dentures and its advantages.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002617
Title: Determinant Factors of Infection Caused By a Worm (Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection) in Indonesia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Soil-transmitted helminth is a worm that has been causing multiple infections through the soil to the population of Indonesia; children are usually the most affected by this insect. Apparently, studies have determined that the cause of these infections can be for multiple reasons. Aim: The objective of this research is to determine the main factors (handwashing from defecation, environmental sanitation, and parental education level). Materials and Methods: The investigation was carried out through a cross-section method. The cutting studies were done in the primary school (SD) I Ngemplak, Kartasura, using the total sampling method. The statistical analysis used is Fisher’s exact test and resulted in 53 samples studied. Results: The incidence of worms infection in this study is 11.32%, with intestinal worms and hookworms as the main cause. Therefore, the factors that disrupt the helminth infection transmitted by the soil are handwashing after defecation (P = 0.038). Meanwhile, the levels of environmental sanitation and parental education do not have a significant relationship with infection by soil-transmitted helminthes (STHs) (P = 0.06 and P = 0.384). Conclusion: Handwashing after defecation as a determining factor causes STH infection.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002618
Title: Determination of sex using prints of palatal rugae
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Establishing a person’s identity is very important for medicolegal purposes. Forensic odontology is defined as a branch of dentistry which deals with the appropriate handling and examination of dental evidences with the proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings in the interest of justice. In recent times, palatal rugae are used for personal identification and sex determination. This study aims to determine the variation in the palatal rugae in males and females which can be used for forensic purposes. Materials and Methods: Dental stone preparation of the rugae of both males and females from Chennai, aged between 15 and 20, was done. The primary and secondary rugae pattern, shape, and length were studied using Thomas and Kotze classification. Results: The total number of rugae was found to be 422 (males - 230 and females - 192). The mean value of the total number of primary rugae in males (8.5) was found to be greater than that of females (7.3). The number of wavy-shaped rugae in males and females was found to be 122 and 90, respectively. The number of curve- shaped rugae in males and females was found to be 121 and 91, respectively. Of 422 rugae, only 2 rugae were found to be straight, and circle-shaped rugae were not found at all. Based on unification, of 422 rugae, 10 were divergent rugae and 5 were converging rugae. Conclusion: Thus, it is found that males have greater number of rugae when compared to females. The primary rugae are found in significantly in males than in females. In shapes, wavy and curvy shapes wereas common than straight and circle. Converging rugae were mostly found in females.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002619
Title: A study on morphology and morphometry of mandibular fossa
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The mandibular fossa is the depression in the temporal bone that articulates with the head of the mandible. In the temporal bone, the mandibular fossa is bounded anteriorly by the articular tubercle and posteriorly by the tympanic portion of the temporal bone, which separates it from external acoustic meatus. Mandibular fossa performs an important role in the act of mastication. As a part of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), together with the articular tubercle and mandibular condyle, they become responsible for opening (depression of the mandible) and closing (elevation of the mandible) the mouth, as well as for moving it forward (protraction), backward (retraction), and side to side. Hence, the aim of the research is to study about the morphology and morphometry of mandibular fossa. Materials and Methods: Dry human skulls were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. The mandibular fossa was measured by taking its length, breadth, and height using digital Vernier calipers in millimeters. Results: Length, breadth, and height of mandibular fossa of 40 skulls were measured, and their mean values were taken as follows: (a) Average height (mm) - 6.8, (b) average breadth (mm) - 15.0, and (c) average length (mm) - 20.9. Conclusion: The morphometry of mandibular fossa gives a clear orientation of the intra-articular topography. Thorough knowledge of the dimensions of the fossa is helpful in treating several temporomandibular joint-related problems.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002620
Title: Demineralization and remineralization dynamics in bone ‑ A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Biomineralization is a dynamic, complicated, lifelong manner with the aid of which living organisms manage precipitations of inorganic nanocrystal inside organic matrices to form precise biological tissues, for example, enamel, dentin, cementum, and bone. Information about the system of mineral deposition is essential for the development of treatments for mineralization- associated diseases and additionally for the innovation and improvement of scaffolds. This evaluate affords a thorough overview of the up-to-date statistics on the theories describing the feasible mechanisms and the elements of mineralization. Then, the position of calcium and phosphate ions inside the preservation of bone fitness is defined. In the course of the existence, bone is at risk of demineralization. The mechanisms by which demineralization remineralization procedure occurs in bone and the new cures and technology that reverse demineralization or increase remineralization are also evolved.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002621
Title: Excessive usage of headphones among college students and their effects
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Most of the students today are more fascinated about new technology. The most trending digital appliance among students is headphones. Usage of headphones has become more and more among students. This has led to the hearing loss in few students. Although there are precautions for this, most of the students take them for granted. Hearing loss also gives some warning effects like ringing in the ears. The main problem of hearing loss is not listening to music but listening to music for longer durations. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire was prepared and has been circulated among the students of Saveetha Dental College. This survey was conducted among 120 students. Conclusion: It can be concluded that most of the students or not at great risk of hearing loss. However, a very small segment of people should be taken precautions for their well-being.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002622
Title: Effect of mobile phone usage before sleep
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The aim is to identify whether using mobile phones before going to sleep has any effect on sleep quality. The light from our mobile phones is “short-wavelength-enriched,” it has higher concentration of blue light than natural light, and blue light affects the level of sleep-inducing hormone melatonin more than any other wavelength. Thus, when people use their mobile phones before sleep, there will be change in sleep patterns which in turn shifts the body’s natural clock known as its circadian rhythm. Methods: It is a questionnaire-based study which was circulated among 100 people, and the result is discussed. All normal non-diseased individuals aged between 14 and 30 who use their mobile phones before going to sleep were taken for the survey. Result: People who use their mobile phones right before going to sleep do not get a quality sleep, and their sleep duration is also affected. Conclusion: Nowadays, mobile phone usage is more among people, and it has an adverse effect on their health. Their sleep quality is affected as they do not get a sound sleep.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002623
Title: Determination of sex from the radius bone of human skeleton
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The determination of sex and the estimation of stature from bones play an important role in identifying unknown bodies, parts of bodies, or skeletal remains. Significant levels of sexual dimorphism are also seen in the skull and the remainder of the post-cranial skeleton region. Recent researchers suggest that using femoral measurements alone can determine the sex about 80–85%. However, there are very few startups on the determination of sex from radius bone. The study aimed on determining the sex of an individual by inspecting various aspects of the radius of an individual. Methods and Materials: Radius bone, thread, and scale are required. Result: Males are susceptible to have a greater length and prominent features of radius bone compared to that of females, and this can be revealed on measuring their mid-shaft diameter and comparing with standard level. Conclusion: The sex of an individual is determined by examining the radius bone.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002624
Title: Role of eye color in better vision
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The eye is called the gateway to the world. We see and perceive several images and stimulus through it. Hence, the eye is known to be a special sense organ. There are several parts of the eye. The outer most part which contains the color pigment of the eye is the iris. The iris contains a color pigment which is called melanin. This is similar to the melanin in the skin. The amount of melanin present in the eye determines the eye color of the eye. There are light as well as dark eye colors. Apart from the pigments, the rods and cones also aid in providing better vision. Aim: This study aims to find the relation between the eye color and its role in providing better vision. Materials and Methods: The test subjects are taken in different age groups. A total of 70 subjects were taken, of which six participants had lighter shade of eye color, 22 will have brown- colored eyes, and 42 will have black-colored eyes. Results: This study proves that the color of the eye also influences the vision and can be considered as a parameter. Conclusion: All the data were analyzed using SPSS package. All the tests were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. This study is proven.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002625
Title: etermining the sex of an individual using different morphological parameters of the skull
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Sex determination is very crucial for forensic odontology and archeology. Skull is very important because it provides a protective case for the brain. Skulls are all usually very well preserved in most cases. Many times the skeletal parts can be fragmented and cannot be used for the determination of the sex at that time morphological features are taken into consideration because digital measurements cannot be done. Hence, it is most commonly used skeletal part in forensic. We, in this research, find the different morphological parameters of the human skull. Aim: This study aims to determine the sex of an individual using different morphological parameters of a human skull. Materials and Methods: Human skulls including both male and female are taken. About 30 skulls were taken to observe. All their morphological features were mainly focused. The skulls were closely examined and difference among them was noted. Results: The sex differences among the human skulls of male and female were found. All these morphological differences could be seen in all skulls of the sample collection. Conclusion: All these differences are very important in determining the sex of the skull in forensic dentistry or medicine. Sex determination is easy and the very best method today. Sexual dimorphism is also found out by it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002626
Title: Sex determination through the morphometric analysis of frontal bone
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Frontal bone is one of the bones in the skull which plays a key role in the supporting and protecting the delicate tissue of the brain. Sex determination is the major step for biological profile. Identification and determination of the sex of unknown human skeletal remains have been one of the most challenging tasks for forensic dentistry. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the analysis of sex using the morphological characters of the frontal bone. Materials and Methods: Samples comprised different skulls including individual frontal bones from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College. Inclusion criteria consisted of skull between all ages. The parameters taken into consideration are supraorbital margin, brow ridges, glabella, frontal protuberance, etc. All these parameters were observed between in the given frontal bones and analyzed. Results: All the given skulls and frontal bone were observed based on the morphological parameters and analyzed. Conclusion: The findings suggest differences in shape and size in the forehead region of male and female. It also tells us that sex determination using the traditional methods remains to be the easiest method for sex determination. This research study plays a very important role in forensic and anthropology field. It also helps in the identification of sexual dimorphism.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002627
Title: Absence of palmaris longus muscle
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The palmaris longus (PL) muscle is a slender, flexor muscle present in the forearm. It is visible as a small tendon between the flexor carpi radialis and the flexor carpi ulnaris. It is phylogenetically a degenerating muscle which shows a lot of variations. The most common one being absence. Based on ethnicity, gender, race, and hand dominance, it may be absent in individuals either unilaterally or bilaterally. The aim of this study is to find and conclude the frequency of the absence of PL muscle in the population of Chennai. Materials and Methods: This is a survey-based study done through an online portal surveymonkey.com. A questionnaire enquiring about PL muscle absence, gender, hand dominance, etc., was prepared and circulated among the students of Saveetha Dental College through social media platforms. A total of 88 females and 12 males took this survey. The data collected were then represented graphically using appropriate statistical methods, and the findings were concluded. Result: In 66% of individuals, the PL muscle was present in both hands, while in 10%, it was absent bilaterally. In 12% of subjects each, there was right-handed and left-handed unilateral absence. Talking about hand dominance, 86% of the subjects were right-handed, 6% left-handed, 4% ambidextrous, 2% initially ambidextrous but now left-handed and another 2% initially ambidextrous but now right-handed. Conclusion: The PL muscle is highly variable in its bilateral and unilateral occurrence and the dependence of handgrip on it is highly arguable.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002628
Title: Sex determination in dogs using their hoofprints
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Pawprints are impressions left on soft ground by animals with paws while walking, running, or playing. Pawprints come in great use to trackers who track these animals for rescue, monitoring or hunting purposes. Pawprints of some species can be used to determine the sex and height of that animal. The aim of this research is to find out the possibility of determining sex of a dog using their pawprints. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 dogs (10 from each breed, 3 breeds: Labrador, Pomeranian, and Pug). Pawprints were recorded using modeling clay. The clay block was molded into a thick disc, and the paw on the right forelimb of the dog was pressed against the clay block. The clay block was transferred into a plastic container of appropriate size. The process was repeated for all the 30 dogs. Results: In 20% of each case, the size of the left and the right medial digital pad in females was larger than in males. Here, each case refers to one breed. Conclusion: Since the population studied was less, this factor cannot be used as a viable means for sex determination.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002629
Title: Arrangement of middle meningeal vessels impression in dry human skull bones
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Middle meningeal artery (MMA) is the largest and very important branch of maxillary artery which supplies the meninges. It directly attaches to the cranial bones (is incorporated into periosteal layer of dura mater), favors common injuries in course of head trauma. In several neurological diseases, the lesions occur in either the MMA itself and treatment is necessary or the MMA is used as the pathway to treat the lesions. Thus, a clear knowledge of the anatomical organization of MMA is of great importance in neurosurgery and radiology; the main aim of the study is to investigate the anatomical organization of the MMA through the bony groove measurements from human skulls, through morphometrical measurement. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 dry human skull bones (cranial cavity opened) were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. Using a flexible orthodontic wire and Vernier caliper, the length of the main trunk of MMA, the length of the frontal and parietal branches, and the length of the bony tunnel were measured and recorded. The pattern of middle meningeal vessel impression was analyzed using “ImageJ” software analysis. Results: As per our observations in this study, there was no significant difference found between the morphometric measurements of the left and right side of the MMA. Conclusion: The study provides vivid observations and also reveals important insights about some aspects of the anatomical organization of the MMA impression and its arterial pattern bilaterally. Thus, our observations on the morphometry of MMA undoubtedly will be useful to increase the detailed knowledge about this vital arterial segment of the skull that has extensive clinical implications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002630
Title: Comparative study on the stature with the length of the sternum in South Indian adolescent males
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Examination and evaluation of the remains of the bone are of utmost importance in the identification of the deceased and also for the estimation of the morphological correlation such as the height in case of many medico-legal situations. Several studies have been conducted to estimate the height of the individual with the length of the sternum bone. In the present study, we correlated the length of the sternum bone with the height of the individual to estimate stature in living individuals. Materials and Methods: There are various methods to measure the length of the sternum in the forensic study, but this study deals with the living individuals. Measurements were taken while the subjects were in a relaxed standing posture. The length of the sternum was measured from the jugular notch to xiphoid process using a measuring tape. The total height was measured using a ruler. The results obtained were then compiled and evaluated and were put in a linear regression analysis and the results were then discussed and concluded. Results: The length of the sternum (including both manubrium and body) ranged from 16 to 24 cm with an average length of 19.2342 cm. The height of the subjects ranged from 158 to 186 cm with the average value of 171.2285 cm. The correlation coefficient “r” was found to be 0.9410, which indicates a linear correlation between the two values. Conclusion: It was found that the length of the sternum is a strong correlating factor to the stature of South Indian adolescent male population. The data analyzed may be useful for anthropologist and medico-legal experts for stature estimation in several conditions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002631
Title: Sex determination using maxillary central incisors
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Sex determination is very crucial for forensic odontology and archeology. Skull is very important because it provides a protective case for the brain and special sense organs. Skulls are all usually very well preserved in most cases. Many times the skeletal parts can be fragmented and cannot be used for determination of the sex at that time morphological features of bones are taken into consideration because digital measurements cannot be done. It is one of the most promising used skeletal part in forensics. Different physical parameters of the human teeth are taken for research in this study. The study is taken with the aim of determination of sex using different parameters of maxillary central incisors. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the sex of an individual using different morphological parameters of the maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: Maxillary central incisors of both males and females are taken. About 30 individuals between the age group of 18 and 21 of Saveetha Dental College, Poonamallee, Chennai, were observed. The mesiodistal distance and the proximal distance were mainly focused. The teeth were closely examined, and the difference among them was noted. Results: The sex differences among the maxillary central incisors of male and female were found. All these physical differences could be seen in all individuals of the sample collection. Conclusion: All these differences are very important in determining the sex of the skull in forensic dentistry or medicine. Sex determination is easy and the very best method today. Sexual dimorphism is also found out by it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002632
Title: Hypothyroidism and its implications among women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Hypothyroidism is the most common disorder arising from hormone deficiency. According to the time of onset, it is divided in congenital and acquired, according to the level of endocrine dysfunction in primary and secondary or central and according to the severity in severe or clinical and mild or subclinical hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism develops slowly. Symptoms may go unnoticed for a long time, and they may be vague and general. Symptoms vary a great deal between individuals, and they are shared by other conditions. The only way to obtain a concrete diagnosis is through a blood test. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was prepared, and survey was conducted among participants about hypothyroidism and data were collected. The survey was prepared on survey planet and administered to participants. The survey was conducted among 50 participants about hypothyroidism and the symptoms they have. Results: A lot of participants responded with symptoms of hypothyroidism implying they are aware of it and few of them are diagnosed with it. Since hypothyroidism is hereditary, it’s no surprise majority of the participants aged between 35 and 55 are currently facing quite a lot of the symptoms that were listed. The women are easily irritable with mood swings and heavy period flow. They do not sweat and show no sign of weight reduce in spite of working out often. They get severe cramps and joint pain and are in need of plenty of sleep too. Their thinking process has slowed down. Most of the participant’s family members are also diagnosed with thyroid and take supplements in their diet. Conclusion: Awareness on hypothyroidism was created. Treatment for hypothyroidism focuses on supplementing the thyroid hormone. No specific diet is recommended for hypothyroidism, but individuals should follow a varied, well-balanced diet that is not high in fat or sodium. There is no way to prevent hypothyroidism, but people who may have a higher risk of thyroid problems should check with their doctor about the need for additional iodine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002633
Title: Association between dental erosion and carbonated drinks
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Dental erosion (erosive tooth wear) is the situation of a chronic loss of dental hard tissue that is enamel is chemically etched away from the tooth surface by an acid and/or chelation without bacterial involvement. Acids of intrinsic (gastrointestinal) and extrinsic (dietary such as carbonated drinks) origins are the main factors that cause dental erosion. Soft drinks or carbonated drinks containing inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential. Many studies showed a positive relationship between tooth discoloration and dental erosion and the consumption of soft drinks. This study primarily focuses on finding an association between dental erosion and carbonated drinks. Materials and Methods: A maxillary second premolar was immersed in hydrogen peroxide for 10 days. It was then immersed in Coca-Cola for another 10 days. The tooth was then checked at regular time intervals of 2 days. Important chemical components that are thought to be responsible for dental erosion and tooth discoloration and the pH of the soda was noted. Results: The results of this study using an in vitro system indicate a strong brown colored discoloration in the enamel of the tooth. Softening and dental erosion is seen near the cuspal tips and deeper parts of the cusps. Conclusion: Beverage compositions, for example, carbonated drink beverages (e.g., cola beverages) have the potential when consumed to cause dental erosion and hence discoloration. Such dental erosion and discoloration can occur wherein the beverage composition is highly acidic in nature, i.e., it exhibits a pH of about 5 or below. The inherent acids and sugars present in carbonated drinks have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential, resulting in teeth discoloration, dental caries, and enamel erosion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002643
Title: A survey on comparative effects of wearing high heels among long-term and short-term users
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Pair of 4-inch heels can make you look very attractive, but simultaneously this comes with much suffering. High heels have always been known for being bad for health and comfort, but this barely keeps women from donning them occasionally or on a daily basis. Studies show that these towering shoes take a toll on your spine, hips, knees, ankles, and feet. They also alter your posture and gait. Although this is presumed as attractive by most people, it is extremely harmful to the wearer’s body. The objective of this survey is to study the physiological effects of high heels on short- term and long-term users and to raise awareness among the women on the negative effects of high heels on the body. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with a batch of 115 volunteers (working women, housewives, and university students) of age group 15 and above. It was a questionnaire-based study. The questionnaire focused mainly on details such as average height of heels, reason for usage, frequency of usage, duration of usage, and effects of its usage on the body. The collected data were then analyzed and presented in statistics, and the results were discussed. Results: We found that 60% of long-term users experienced back pain when wearing heels and almost 20% experienced pain even without the heels. Furthermore, 40% of them complained of pain in the calf muscles. On the other hand, only 40% of the short-term users experienced back pain when wearing heels and there was no report of back pain when not in heels. Conclusion: We can conclude that the impact of high heels on one’s body increased with duration of usage; hence, more harmful physiological effects were observed in the long-term users than in the short-term users. Occasional use of heels is recommended to long- term users to prevent further complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Nov
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002698
Title: Oral hygiene among the patients with diabetes mellitus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: It is well known that oral health and general health are inseparable. Good dental or oral care is important to maintain healthy teeth, gums, and tongue. Oral problems including bad breath, dry mouth, canker or cold sores, Temperomandibular disorder, tooth decay, or thrush are all treatable with proper diagnosis and care. Bad breath, medically called halitosis, can result from poor dental health habits and may be a sign of other health problems. Dry mouth is more than just feeling thirsty. It affects your overall health. Brushing teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride-containing toothpaste, cleaning between your teeth daily with dental floss or interdental cleaners, such as the Oral-B Interdental Brush, Reach Stim-U-Dent, or Sulcabrush, and rinsing daily with a fluoride-containing mouthwash will prevent tooth related disorders. Materials and Methods: The sample size of this study is 100. The study group consists of 55 male and 44 female participants and 1 transgender of randomly selected patients with diabetes mellitus from Chennai City. This was a questionnaire-based study, and the questionnaire was administered through survey planet to all participants. Results were statisticallyanalyzed. Results: Of the total subjects taken, 77% of them eat sweets often and also have irregular brushing habits. Hence, 73% suffer from bleeding gums which may be a major reason for the cause of dental caries in 90% of the subjects. Conclusion: This study is done to clarify what the diabetic patients know about diabetes as a disease and what they know about its effects on oral health.