Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002690
Title: The effectiveness of the combined use of a polysaccharide film with photodynamic action in complex therapy of oral lichen planus in the oral cavity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic, multifocal, and sometimes painful, inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa. OLP can predispose the development of psychoemotional disorders. This study aimed to examine the cases of complex treatment of OLP, a description of the use of self-absorbing plates based on natural polysaccharides in combination with phototherapy in the treatment of OLP. Materials and Methods: It was used apparatus for phototherapy Dune-T with LEDs generating radiation: red wavelength - 632.7 nm (radiation density - 0.8 mW/cm2 ) and infrared - 840 nm (radiation density - 1.5 mW/cm2 ). 40 patients aged 30 to 66 years, women 26 (65%), men 14 (35%) were under observation. The highest incidence of this form of CRP occurred at age 50 to 59 years (15 patients, 37.5%). Equally often (10 patients, 25%), this nosology was observed in the age intervals 40-49 and 60 years or more. In all age groups, women suffered more often than males. It should be noted that in 23 patients (57.5%) the disease was diagnosed for the first time. Results and Discussion: All patients with OLP noted that in the oral cavity on the mucous membrane of the retromolar space and cheeks in the molar region before the appearance of painful erosions, whitish with a pearly hue pattern was defined that resembled the pattern of fern leaves, spider webs or lace. Conclusions: Thus, the conducted research allows us to recommend a combined application of the apparatus for phototherapy with the subsequent application of a polysaccharide film, which significantly reduces pain in patients, and also reduces the number of days of treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002653
Title: Evaluation of fracture resistance of denture base repaired with three variants in fracture site preparation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Background: Wear and fracture are a frequent phenomenon observed in complete dentures. With the improper arrangement of teeth, asymmetrical arch form and in single complete denture cases where the force exerted by the natural teeth on the opposing complete denture is of centrifugal pattern, fracture along the midline is a frequently encountered mishap. Repair of the fractured denture base is a frequently performed clinical procedure. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of the denture base repaired with three variants in fracture site preparation. Methodology: A total of 30 rectangular specimens (50 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) were fabricated with DPI heat cure acrylic resin, cut into two equal halves using a carborundum disc and the site of fracture was prepared with three designs: Slots placed at same level - S (Group A), slots placed at alternate level - A (Group B), and slots placed at alternate level along with surface preparation - AL (Group C). The samples were then repaired with self-cure resin, subject to three-point bending test and the fracture resistance was evaluated. Statistical Analysis: A one-way ANOVA to compare mean compressive strength values between the interventions and a Tukey HSD post hoc test for multiple comparison was performed. Results: From the statistical analysis, it is evident that preparation of fractured site with slots at alternating levels, accompanied by cameo surface preparation had greater fracture resistance than the other two groups and it was statistically significant. The Group C had the highest fracture resistance value of 13.06 ± 0.24 MPa as compared to Group B (12.49 ± 0.11 MPa) and Group A (12.37 ± 0.15 MPa). A statistically significant mean difference between slots placed at an alternate level along with surface preparation and the other two groups were observed (F = 42.176, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Denture base whose fracture site is prepared with slots placed at alternate level accompanied by surface preparation showed better fracture resistance than the other groups

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002634
Title: A short review on smoker’s melanosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Smoker’s melanosis is a commonly noticed black or brown pigmentation of the gingiva and the surrounding oral tissues. Since smoking is a hazard to health, smoker’s melanosis stems from a cause that must be eradicated at all costs. Thus, this review aims to analyze the nature of smoker’s melanosis and to act as a subtle awareness to not consume tobacco. Other than the chemicals found in tobacco, some antimalarial drugs can also cause an oral pigmentation. Materials and Methods: A total of 226 articles were identified through database search engines. Additional articles that were not found on bibliographic information centers like MedLine were not included in the study. Conclusion: The need of the hour is the education of the patient - the victim must be fully equipped with the knowledge of how to overcome it and the proper motivation to stop smoking must be channeled into him/her. Smoker’s melanosis is largely prevalent in India and is a major threat to the sensitive tissues of the oral cavity and so the public must be warned beforehand to stop indulging in such harmful practices. Help in the form of counseling and rehabilitation is available and everyone must be encouraged to approach these centers in times of need and weakness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002635
Title: Morphology and morphometric study of hypophyseal fossa
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The hypophyseal fossa is home to a broad spectrum of pathologies. Their morphology and dimension correlate to some extent with those to the contained pituitary gland and have, for this reason, attracted the interest of anatomists and radiologist. The seat of the saddle the deepest part of the sella turcica known as the hypophyseal fossa holds the pituitary gland. The sella turcica is located in the sphenoid bone behind the chiasmatic groove and the tuberculum sellae in the middle cranial fossa. Many people of different age groups have different size of hypophyseal fossa. A thorough knowledge of this will help to neurosurgeons to deal with their patients. Hence, the aim of the study is to assess the morphology and morphometric study of hypophyseal fossa in dry human skull. Materials and Methods: Dry human skulls were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. A total of 40 dry human skulls were used in this study. The hypophyseal fossa was measured by taking its length, breadth, and depth using digital Vernier caliper. Results: The length, breadth, and depth of hypophyseal fossa of 40 skulls were measured and their mean value was taken as follows: (1) average length (mm) - 12, (2) average breadth (mm) - 13, (3) average depth (mm) - 7. The study reveals that the average length of hypophyseal fossa in normal human skull is 12 mm. The average breadth of hypophyseal fossa in normal human skull is 13 mm and the depth of hypophyseal fossa is 7 mm. Conclusion: The morphometry of hypophyseal fossa gives clear orientation of the intra-articular topography. Thorough knowledge of the dimension of the fossa and their boundaries were helped to neurologist to deal with their patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002636
Title: A study on the age changes of mandible
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: A total of 42 intact mandibles from aged 8 weeks to 76 years were assessed for variations in mineralization, bone deposition and resorption, and osteoporosis. The results indicate that there is marked constructive activity in young bone, then a diminution of activity until early middle life. In later middle life and old age, there is a comparative rise in bone resorption and osteoporosis and an increased variation in mineral density. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 mandibles were used for this research from the Anatomy Department of Saveetha Dental College. Results: Through this research, it was found that the length and breadth of ramus increases from birth to adult and to old age, whereas the angle of the mandible decreases with age from infant to adult, then again it increases in old age. There is a shift of mental foramen as well. Conclusions: Through this research, it was known that change in the mandible occurs due to aging. Hence, the age of the individual should be known for clinical procedure. The most important is the shifting of mental foramen. The most common position of the mental foramen is between the first and second premolar. The knowledge on the position of the mental foramen is important during clinical practices. This study also helps in determining the age of the mandible approximately which, in turn, will help in forensic science-related cases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002637
Title: Effect of smoking on oral pigmentation - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Smoking is a habit continued from olden days to till now. Among people, the habit of smoking emerging due to get relaxes from the stressful condition; enjoy the joyful events and curiosity between teenage groups, etc. Although the media deliver awareness about detrimental effects of smoking, the habit does not change. Moreover, the smokers facing several consequences include health issues such as respiratory problem, heart problems, and infertility due to their intense of smoking. In addition with that oral pigmentation is one of the clinical conditions occurs due to smoking. The epidemiologic data suggested that cigarette smoking contains a stronger risk issue for disease compared to alternative potential odontology pathogens. Materials and Methods: This study was done by examining 30 patients. Their lip membrane, palatine membrane, and cheek were checked for the modification in pigmentation, and conjointly, a group of queries were asked to them relating to their smoking habits. By supporting these queries and therefore the observations, they were scaled, and therefore, the distinction in their pigmentation attributable to smoking has been shown. Discussion: The patients, rima oris, were discovered for oral pigmentation and there has been a forceful modification within the pigmentation of their membrane. Their observation showed darkening of the membrane. The necessary parameters concerned were what percentage of cigarettes the person smoke-cured daily and for a way long the person has been smoking. Moderate smokers showed a purple coloration, and for chronic smokers, it had been black in color. This may result in infections and cause several diseases to our body. Conclusion: This study is to form awareness for the harmful effects of smoking. This conjointly shows that a lot of symptoms to chronic diseases square measure shown within the oral cavities and one in every of the causes thereto is smoking.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002638
Title: A questionnaire-based study on the awareness of paracusia among the South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim is to create awareness about paracusia among the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A group of people, who experiences paracusia, were selected and examined with the questionnaire prepared. The information collected through the survey is analyzed and presented in statistics. Results: People who live in their own world of sorrows and depression often forget the real world, and fascinate things happening around as real or illusion. They get isolated themselves, they will start feeling more secured in their solitude, trying to off the real world literally, and start living on their own imaginations. Yet when it comes as real life to the society around, that is not our kind of living to hallucinate everytime and forget the world around. Moreover, it is the unhealthiest work to stay depressed everytime. Conclusion: All the data’s were analyzed and presented in statistics. Hence, the person, who consume drinks, should follow this “less drugs (or) no alcohol” method to minimize their hallucination. Moreover, for a normal person, less stress, healthier lifestyle, good friends around, and self-control can make them forget auditory hallucination is nothing but just a disease.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002639
Title: Role of inflammatory cytokines in oral submucous fibrosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aims and Objectives: The objective of this case–control study was to evaluate the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in the patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and to determine the role of TNF-α in OSMF. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 30 patients who were diagnosed with OSMF and from 30 age- and sex-matched healthy participants. Serum was separated by centrifugation of blood samples in 2500 rpm for 10 min. TNF-α was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: The mean TNF-α level of study group and control group was 3.97 ± 2.57 and 16.83 ± 5.65, respectively. The difference between the TNF-α levels of these groups was statistically significant (P ≥ 0.000) according to the Student’s t-test. Conclusion: This study reveals that TNF-α level is increased in OSMF patients. That indicates TNF-α could play a key role in transformation of OSMF into malignancy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002640
Title: Effect of teaching aids on student’s academic performance in professional courses
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to conduct a survey on the effect of teaching aids on the student’s academic performance in professional courses. Introduction: The teaching aids are designed for effective and easier learning of concepts and to have a positive effect on students. These include aids such as pictures, dynamic videos, diagrams, and mind maps. From learning and instruction point of view, the effect of these aids is concerned with cognitive learning. Hence, rather than reading from a textbook to understand a concept, different presentations and practical learning can be done for easier understanding of that concept. Different students will have preferences for different teaching aids. These teaching aids will help students in gaining interest in the subject, consequently showing good performance in their academics. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire is prepared and an online survey is conducted among students studying in Saveetha Dental College to evaluate the influence of teaching aids in their academic performance and to know whether students prefer them to be implemented or not. Results: It was seen that about majority of the student population are aware of teaching aids and about 94% of the students wanted teaching aids to be implemented in the lecture classes by professors. About 66% of the students preferred clay modeling as a good teaching aid and 94% of the students preferred picture cards.Conclusion: The students have positive views about visual aids and majority of the students prefer teaching aids to be implemented by their lecturers in their classes in professional course.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002641
Title: Evaluating the role of extracellular matrix molecules and enzymes in periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Inflammation of the gums and supporting structures of the teeth are known as periodontitis. It is said to be one of the most common inflammatory diseases in the human oral cavity. This inflammatory condition is caused by certain bacteria (known as periodontal bacteria) and by the local inflammation triggered by those bacteria. The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a vital role on bacterial adhesion and degradation of ECM, and it is caused by the acute and chronic inflammation induced by periodontitis pathogens. Aim: The aim of this case–control study was to compare patients with a healthy periodontium and patients affected by periodontitis, evaluating the occurrence of enzymes and ECM molecules in oral tissues. Materials and Methods: About six patients were divided into two groups as follows: one group with dental implants with a diagnosis of peri-implantitis and one control group with implants classified as being “healthy.” The glycoproteins and mucin content were estimated, and the enzymes, such as cathepsin D, were assayed.Results: In periodontitis patients, the glycoproteins and ECM enzymes are decreased compared to normal control group. Conclusion: The role of ECM molecules and enzymes in periodontitis was evaluated.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002642
Title: Evaluation of lipid profile status in metabolic syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is known as a group of cardiovascular risk factors associated with insulin resistance, hypertension, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). It is a major worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study is to analyze the lipid profile status in MetS. Materials and Methods: Healthy individuals and individuals with MetS underwent serum analyzed for fasting blood sugar (FBS) by glucose oxidase-peroxidase method, serum cholesterol by cholesterol esterase-oxidase method, serum triglycerides by colorimetric enzymatic method, HDL-C by phosphotungtic acid method, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and very LDL-C (VLDL-C) were calculated by Friedwald’s formula and lipid profile status was compared between the two groups. Results: All the data were analyzed using the SPSS package. The mean value of FBS, triglyceride level, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and VLDL-C in individuals with MetS was found to be 105 ± 31.22, 151.1 ± 38.80, 191.15 ± 35.12, 20.7 ± 6.31, 140.3 ± 35.37, and 30.42 ± 6.76, respectively. Conclusion: From this study, it is evident that individuals with MetS have most of the risk factors that increase the person’s risk of heart attack and stroke. Aside from the increase in waist circumference, most of the disorders associated with MetS have no symptoms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002644
Title: Assessment of pulmonary function test in athletes
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: An athlete is one of the greatest sports who compete in one or more sports that involve in physical strength, speed, or endurance. Athletics is one of the finest sports in maintaining the lung function. Lung function parameters tend to have relationship with lifestyle such as regular exercises and non-exercise. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the pulmonary function in athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects were selected and divided into two groups. In that, 30 of them are professional athletes (study group) and the other 30 were non-athletes people (control group), and pulmonary function test was performed. The readings were recorded as per standard procedure using spirometer. The parameters used to assess the lung function are forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and FEV1/FVC. Results: Pulmonary function profile was analyzed and compared between the study groups and the control group. In the study, the athletic group was having higher average mean value of FVC 4.01 ± 0.63, FEV1 3.33 ± 0.70, PEFR of 6.1 ± 0.69, and FEV1/FVC ratio of 85% as compared to control group. p value is <0.01, so it is highly statistically significant. Conclusion: The FVC, FEV1, PEFR, and FEV1/FVC ratio were higher in athletes than in the normal sedentary control individuals. This study suggests that regular exercise has an important role in determining and improving lung functions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002645
Title: Evaluating the potency of active compounds from Eurycoma longifolia jack roots extract as prostate cancer therapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Scope: Prostate cancer will occur when immortal cells develop in the prostate gland. It was frequently diagnosed in men and becomes the fourth most common cancer in the world in 2014. In Indonesia, it has high prevalence of about 16 cases in 100,000 of men. Furthermore, Indonesia has an endemic plant called Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) which is well-known as traditional medicine and cancer therapy. The root extract of Pasak Bumi consists of eurycomanone, quassinoid, and canthin. Therefore, this study aimed to predict the potency of E. longifolia active compounds as prostate cancer therapy. Material and Methods: There are four essential protein targets in prostate cancer such as Bcl-2, RAS, MAPK, and CASP. The three-dimensional structure of active compounds was retrieved from PubChem, and protein target was downloaded from Protein Data Bank. The interactions were calculated using Pyrx.0.8. Thus, the molecular interaction was analyzed using LigPlus. Moreover, the biological activity of the active compound was analyzed using PASS server. Results and Discussion: Results showed that each active compound is strongly bind to RAS and only RAS -quassinoid complex which has the lowest binding affinity score about −9.3 Kcal/mol. Based on the structure-activity relationship analysis, only eurycomanone and quassinoid which potentially involved in the anticancer mechanism as antineoplastic and apoptosis agonist. It means these compounds are blocking the active site of RAS protein to inhibit the cell proliferation. Conclusion: It can be concluded that all active compounds have the lowest binding affinity to RAS. Moreover, quassinoid is the most active compounds which have the influence to RAS. It shows that quassinoid potentially as a therapeutic agent.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002646
Title: Analysis of health professionals and patients opinions about information systems in public health through a sociological survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The global priority for strengthening the health system is the need to improve health information systems. The effectiveness of medical institutions work depends on the statistical data processing quality and speed, which makes the use of information systems in health care currently relevant. Experimental: 1233 respondents took part in the sociological survey, including 352 health professionals working with AIS (Automated Information System “Polyclinic”), “Attached Population Register” (APR), Electronic Dispensary Patient Register (EDPR). Result and Discussion: 70.4% responded - “significantly improved” to the question about improving the organization of medical care in health care facilities after the introduction of information systems. And, also we have studied the “Electronic Dispensary Patient Register (EDPR)” portal, where 881 patients (18-63 years old) with arterial hypertension are on dispensary registration. Conclusion: Results of sociological surveys on health informatization have shown that information systems in health-care facilitate access to information, save time for medical personnel, improve management of work processes and improve the efficiency of medical institutions

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002647
Title: Alloplastic bone grafts in periodontal surgery
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are biorestorable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation. Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone with material from patient’s own body, an artificial, synthetic, or natural substitute. Bone grafting is possible because bone tissue has the ability to regenerate completely if provided the space into which it has to grow. As natural bone grows, it generally replaces the graft material completely, resulting in a fully integrated region of new bone. The most serious consequence is the loss of the periodontal support structure, which includes cementum, the periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Conventional periodontal treatments, such as root planing, gingival curettage, and scaling, are highly effective at repairing disease-related defects and halting the progression of periodontitis. These are important steps; however, the conventional therapies do relatively little to prompt the regeneration of lost periodontal supporting structure. The more effective techniques that predictably promote the body’s natural ability to regenerate its lost periodontal tissues, particularly alveolar bone still need to be developed. Bone grafting is the most common form of regenerative therapy today and is usually essential for restoring all types of periodontal supporting tissue. The histological evidence in humans indicates that bone grafting is the only treatment that leads to regeneration of bone, cementum, and a functionally oriented new periodontal ligament coronal to the base of defect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002648
Title: Choice of antibiotics in the management of dentoalveolar abscess among dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Dentoalveolar abscess is infections of dental origin, the majority with an endodontic or a periodontal pocket origin. An antibiotic plays a major role in limiting the spread of infection. It is found that variety of dosage, frequency, and duration for antibiotics used in the treatment of dental infection. Dentoalveolar abscess is an abscess around the root of a tooth in the alveolar cavity. It is usually the result of necrosis and infection of dental pulp following dental caries. The formation and accumulation of pus in a tooth socket or the jawbone form around the base of a tooth. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the choice of antibiotics used among the dental practitioners for the management of dentoalveolar abscess. Materials and Methods: The aim is to investigate the knowledge of dental practitioners about therapeutic prescribing of antibiotics in the management of dentoalveolar abscess. A questionnaire study was performed on 100 dental practitioners. A self-administered validated semi-structured questionnaire to assess the antibiotic prescribing patterns among dental practitioners utilized in this study and the first three sections were used. The questionnaire composed of three sections. The demographic information regarding gender, principle work role, working experience, and being general or specialized dentist was sought first. The second section of the questionnaire was composed of a table to record: The first choice of antibiotic for the treatment of dentoalveolar abscess. The third section contained questions regarding therapeutic antibiotic prescriptions for various clinical signs. A questionnaire describes about clinical signs are elevated temperature and evidence of systemic spread; localized fluctuant swelling; gross swelling; restricted mouth opening; difficulty in swallowing; and closure of the eye due to swelling. It also explored about an antibiotic prescription. This would be a reason for prescribing antibiotics. The practitioners were asked to state the antibiotic they would prescribe, its dose, interval, and duration, for patients who were not allergic to penicillin. A practitioner was also asked what antibiotic they would choose if the patient was allergic to penicillin for the management of dentoalveolar abscess. Data entry and analysis were done. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 100 dental surgeons and questionnaires were received back from the respondents. The respondents consisted of 49 males and 51 female dentists. Amoxicillin is the antibiotic of choice for dentoalveolar abscess without known allergy with the percentage of 45% and clindamycin is an antibiotic of choice for dentoalveolar abscess with known allergy to penicillin with the percentage of 46%. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrate that majority of the surveyed dentists prescribe antibiotics for dentoalveolar abscess and their clinical sign, where local management would be sufficient. It is also highlighted that there is a need of developing guidelines regarding antibiotic prescription by the regulatory bodies based on available literature for development and regulating appropriate use of antibiotics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002649
Title: Knowledge and awareness on biomedical waste management among students of four dental colleges in Chennai, India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental waste is a subset of biomedical waste (BMW). It has been observed that most of the dental health facilities and the guidelines for proper management of dental waste are not adopted and not up to the prescribed standard. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the current knowledge and awareness of undergraduate dental students regarding BMW management. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during the academic year January–March 2018 in randomly selected four dental colleges, Chennai. Undergraduate dental students who were willing to participate were included in the study after obtaining informed consent and ethical committee clearance. A total of 100 students were selected randomly, and a self‑administered questionnaire was given to the respondents. The questionnaire consisted of 16 structured questions to assess the students’ knowledge levels, attitude, and awareness regarding BMW management. Results: The survey was conducted on 100 dental students, of which 25 were 3rd years, 40 from final year, and 35 were doing internship. The knowledge score according to the year of study was 64%, 52.5%, and 80% for 3rd years, 4th years, and interns, respectively. Overall, 67% of respondents were aware about the correct color coding management system for hospital waste management that prevails in India. Conclusion: The results indicate that not all dental students were aware of BMW management. A large population of the dental students were not practicing proper method of health‑care waste disposal; hence, there is an utmost need to educate almost the dental students and practitioners regarding proper practice of BMW management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002650
Title: A study of variations in the origin of facial artery
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Anatomical variations are among one of the important aspect seen during dissection of the cadaver. Such variations have been described elaborately in anatomical literature, and many such studies are still being reported for the first time. Among the anatomical variations vascular particularly arterial variations are encountered quite often during dissection. Facial artery is the important artery that gives major blood supply to the face. It is one of the anterior branch of external carotid artery (ECA). Origin of facial artery may be separate from ECA, or as linguofacial trunk, or thyrolinguofacial trunk. Materials and Methods: Facial arteries in 42 hemifaces in 21 cadavers were studied and analyzed in the Department of Anatomy at Madras Medical College, Chennai, and Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi Institute of Medical Sciences, Melmaruvathur. During dissection, the origin of the facial artery is noted and photographed clearly for further analysis. Results: Separate origin of facial artery from ECA was found in 29 out of 42 (69%), common linguofacial trunk was observed in 13 out of 42 (31%), bilateral linguofacial trunk was observed in 5 out of 21 (24%), unilaterally in 3 out of 21 (14%), high origin of facial artery in 1 out of 42 (2%), and hypoplastic or rudimentary facial artery in 1 out of 42 (2%). All the structural variations were photographed for representation. Conclusion: Vascular variations are one of the most important studies on anatomical variations. Such studies and reports throw light on the vascular patterns found in different individuals for surgeons. Thereby, it creates a detailed knowledge about the vascular alterations and alarm about the situation during surgery. The knowledge of these variations is necessary for the surgeons operating on the face during conditions in raising vasculocutaneous flap.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002651
Title: Awareness about amalgam and composite as restorative materials in dentistry among general population in South India - A cross-sectional survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the awareness about amalgam and composite as restorative materials in dentistry among the general population in south India. Objective: The objective of the study was to know whether there is enough awareness about the most commonly used restorative materials. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 100 participants in south Indian population. A questionnaire containing 12 close-ended questions was prepared and given for filling up. The answers were analyzed and evaluated using SPSS software and the results obtained were tabulated in bar graphs. Result: From the present study, we can infer that among the total participants 18% say amalgam is more esthetic. 36% of people think composite has an extended life and 73% feel composite is safer than amalgam, and 64% of people think composite is cheaper than amalgam. Conclusion: On analyzing the results obtained from the present study it is clear that there is not enough awareness among the general population about amalgam and composites; thus, awareness must be created among the south Indian population, and it totally lies in the hands of the dental practitioner to clearly explain the patients about the restorative materials and provides them enough knowledge to choose the right material of their choice for a better treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002652
Title: Estimation of orbital index for gender determination
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Orbital morphometric study provides parameters for pre-operative planning and prediction of post-operative outcome. Among modern human groups, there is considerable variability in the characteristics of the orbit. The orbital index (OI), the proportion of the orbit height to its breadth multiplied by 100 is determined by the shape of the face and varies with race, regions within the same race and periods in evolution. The aim of the study is to find whether OI is a reliable parameter for gender determination. Materials and Methods: After getting the informed consent the orbital height and the orbital width was measured using a sliding Vernier caliper in 60 individuals 30 males and 30 females aged between 17 and 22 years. The data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean OI in males was calculated as 84.31. The mean OI in females was calculated as 61.92. In males, the OI was distributed as megaseme, mesoseme, and microseme. In females, microseme type was predominant. Using the data t value was calculated as −9.43. The difference between males and female indices was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that OI can be used as an effective parameter for gender determination.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002654
Title: Effect of sublingual non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - ketorolac and piroxicam and its effectiveness in management of post extraction pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of sublingual nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the management of post-extraction pain. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the effects of sublingual NSAIDs in the management of post-extraction pain. Background: The surgical removal of tooth is one of the most frequently performed procedures in oral maxillofacial surgery, and afterward complications such as post-operative pain, swelling, and trismus may occur. As prostaglandins are presumed to be primary mediator of acute postsurgical inflammatory changes. NSAIDs are regarded as effective medications in the management of pain and other discomforts associated with oral surgery and exert their therapeutic effect through inhibition of cyclooxygenase, which inhibits prostaglandin production whose synergistic interactions with other mediators promote local inflammatory reactions and hyperalgesia. Materials and Methods: A clinical, double-blinded, split-mouth randomized control trial which included 25 patients undergoing extraction of maxillary premolars for orthodontic purposes was carried out. After allocation concealment and blinding, two NSAIDs piroxicam (Group A) and ketorolac (Group B) were given after extractions, and their effect on post-operative pain control was assessed using a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 100. Results: The mean post-operative pain scale for group ketorolac was 4.54, the mean post-operative pain scale for Group B was 4.74. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Mann Whitney U-test at 5% significance. This test revealed no statistical difference between two drugs (Z = −0.18, P = 0.85). Conclusion: This study observed equal effectiveness between sublingual piroxicam and ketorolac in post-extraction pain reduction and thus can be used in clinical situations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002655
Title: Rehabilitation of a partially edentulous arch with implant-supported and tooth-supported fixed prostheses: A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Rehabilitation and restoration of partially edentulous/completely edentulous dentitions with loss of vertical dimension are essential to maintain a harmonious relationship in the stomatognathic system esthetically and functionally. With an array of prosthetic options available to restore edentulism, implant therapy occupies the first place, followed by fixed partial denture therapy. A 55-year-old female patient reported to the dental op with a chief complaint of multiple caries and multiple missing teeth. The patient was evaluated clinically and radiographically, and implants were placed in 14, 15, and 36 regions and were rehabilitated with a fixed partial denture in relation to 18–14, 13–11, and 45–47, implant supported crowns in 24, 25, amd 36, and individual crowns in 21, 22, 23, and 26. A single arch restoration was done along with lower posterior rehabilitation to restore form function and esthetics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002657
Title: A Systematic review on surface treatment of tantalum
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: With an increase in awareness and acceptance of implants as a modality for replacement of missing teeth, research, and development in its material aspect has reached leaps and bounds. In this article, we have touched the perspective of the surface treatment of new material in dental implantology. Tantalum being one of the latest materials of interest of application in dental implantology several studies on its various facets is still being performed. Aim: The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on various surface treatments of tantalum and their effects for medical applications. Search Strategy: The databases of PubMed and Medline were searched for literature on current status of tantalum and its utility in medical science using suitable keywords. Bibliographies of studies and reviews, identified in the electronic search, were also analyzed for studies published outside the electronically searched journals. Results: The search yielded a total of 32 articles of which 23 were discarded after reading the title and abstracts. A total of nine articles were obtained based on the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Alkali-treated tantalum showed superior properties than unpolished tantalum and other metals regarding better bonding, increased surface roughness, increased thickness of surface oxide layer, and formation of surface crystals indicating osseointegration. From this review, we may conclude that porous alkali-treated tantalum may be a promising material in the field of oral implantology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002659
Title: Prevalence of sleep disorder among dental students - A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and objective: The aim and objective of this study are to investigate the prevalence of sleep disorders among dental students and to determine the effect of sleep patterns on the academic performance of students. Background: Sleep disorders can be described as the disruption of the quality and/or quantity of sleep due to certain disturbances and habits. The degree and depth of sleep disorders can hinder every aspect of a person’s life. Sleep plays a vital role in daytime functionality, as well as long-term effects on overall health. Dental specialty exerts heavy stress on students and demands long hours of study and practice, which might exaggerate the poor quality of their sleep. Dental studies and practice, especially in the clinical years, require high levels of concentration, cognitive performance, and motor dexterity. Poor sleep quality or sleep deprivation can affect performance negatively. It can also be concluded that sleep quality plays a significant role in the academic performance of dental students, especially in the clinical years. Students should accustom themselves to a healthier sleep pattern to enhance their academic performance and avoid related health and psychological hazards. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 150 dental students was taken. A short pre-tested questionnaire of 15 questions was given to them. The questionnaire was designed to assess their sleep pattern and its effects on the academic performance of the students. Data obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed, and the results were obtained. Results: In this study, about 38.6% of dental students have a problem in falling asleep, in which 46% of students reported <8 h of actual sleep at night. 30% of student reported facing difficulty in initiating sleep, and sometimes, 59.3% of students felt sleep during daytime was reported. It can be noted that 39.3% of students felt disturbed sleep. Conclusion: Within the basis of this study and on the basis of results obtained, we concluded that dental students in general have poor sleep quality, which may be unknown to them. It can also be concluded that sleep quality plays a significant role in the academic performance of dental students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002660
Title: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory action of Illicium verum - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Illicium verum is a medium-sized evergreen tree native to northeast Vietnam and southwest China. A spice commonly called star anise. Star anise refers to aromatic herbs which are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and their fragrance. Star anise is the major source of the chemical compound, shikimic acid which is a pharmaceutical synthesis of anti- influenza drug. It also has raw materials needed for fermentation of the food. Star anise has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties. It has many medicinal properties which can also be used to treat cancer as well as gastric problems. It is an easily available herb in the market and is easily affordable by many people; it can be used in the treatment of various diseases. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using protein denaturation assay and the results were read spectrophotometrically. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was studied by its ability to inhibit protein denaturation. It was effective in inhibiting heat induced albumin denaturation at different concentrations. Maximum inhibition, 77.87 ± 1.55 was observed at 500 µg/ml. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration value was found to be 105.35 ± 1.99 µg/ml. Conclusion: The result obtained was compared to the commonly available nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. This research conducted to make the herb worthy for further investigation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002661
Title: Pre- and post-operative anxiety in patients undergoing dental extractions
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Anxiety in the dental clinic is very common as most of the patients have a fear of dental treatment. Fear and anxiety can negatively influence post-operative pain and patient recovery. Hence, anxiety and pain management in the dental office is an important task for dentists during routine dental extractions. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of anxiety and fear, preoperatively and postoperatively in patients undergoing dental extractions. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted during the academic year January–March 2018, randomly among 50 dental patients who visited the outpatient Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, for single tooth extraction. Anxiety levels of patients were measured using the visual analog scale for dental anxiety (VAS -A), before and after dental extractions. Data collected were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows, Version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and results obtained. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between anxiety scores preoperatively and postoperatively at P < 0.05. The results showed that the percentage of pre-operative anxiety levels was higher compared to post-operative anxiety levels. Conclusion: Anxiety levels were higher before extraction of teeth compared to post-operative anxiety in most of the patients. Pre-operative dental anxiety has a major implication on pain experienced during and after dental extractions. Most of the patients develop preoperative anxiety due to the fear of pain and the fear of injection. Hence, before dental extraction, the patient should be well informed about the extraction procedures, likely outcomes, and complications that might occur. Furthermore, reduction in pre-operative anxiety levels using pharmacologic modalities such as sedation and anxiolytics during dental extractions in apprehensive patients will help to achieve uneventful recovery in the post-operative period.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002662
Title: Evaluation of microbial contamination in stored anatomy specimens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Dried bone specimens are used to teach osteology in anatomy laboratories. These bones are first boiled, made free from soft tissues and then dried and coated with turpentine. A microorganism is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or a colony of cells. Microorganisms that can cause infections from the contaminated bone specimens include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. These dried bone specimens are handled by the students and faculty for learning, so there is a need to check for microbial contamination present in the bone specimens to reduce the chances of infections among the students. Materials and Methods: The estimates sample size of 10 was chosen, and sample was collected aseptically by rotating sterile cotton swabs moistened with peptide water over the dried bone specimens used for teaching in the anatomy laboratory. The swabs are then cultured in nutritional agar medium and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The growth on the plates was differentiated and identified by morphology and Gram staining. Results: From the study, it was found that although there was no fungal contamination in the bone specimen, there was bacterial contamination found to be present in a few of the bone specimens. Conclusion: Not all the dried bone specimens are free from contaminations, a few bones have shown microbial contamination. Micrococcus occurs in a wide range in water, dust, soil, etc. The predominant method to prevent the cross infection is by practicing adequate hygiene practice. Hence, it is very important to maintain proper sterility of the dried bone specimens used for teaching anatomy so that there is no spread of cross infections in the future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002663
Title: Determining the position of jugular foramen with reference to mastoid process
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The jugular foramen (JF) of the human skull is a complex bony canal, which transmits vessels and nerves from the posterior cranial fossa through the skull base into the carotid space. The neural and vascular compartments are generally separated by a bone projection called the intra jugular process. Most of the approaches such as retrosigmoid and transjugular craniotomy for resection of tumors require partial petrosectomy traversing the jugular fossa. Thus, the knowledge of anatomical details of the position of JF would be a great help to surgeons while approaching this area. The aim of this study is to determine the position of JF in relation to mastoid process. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 dry human skulls of unknown sex and age were obtained from the Anatomy Department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University. The distance between the apex of the mastoid process and the outer border of the JF (fossa) of both sides was measured using Vernier caliper; all measurements were tabulated and analyzed statistically. Result: The distance between mastoid process and JF and the range for this is about 14.0–26.7 mm on the left side and 15.0–28.9 on the right side. The mean distance between mastoid process and JF on the left and right sides is 19.6 and 21.5, respectively. Conclusion: A precise knowledge of the JF morphometrics is essential to the neurosurgeon, often posed with the colossal challenge of approaching this area to treat various pathologies affecting this area. Our study would help for the precise location of the foramen from the mastoid process.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002664
Title: Evaluation of microbial contamination in stored anatomy specimens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Microorganisms can cause infections from the contaminated specimens include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The specimens used in the anatomy department are used for the teaching aids for understanding of subject. Those specimens are stored in fluid containing a mixture of formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, methanol, and other solvents. These specimens are handled by the students and faculties for learning. Microorganisms can cause infections from the contaminated specimens include bacteria, fungi, and viruses so there is a need to check for microbial contamination present in the specimens to reduce the chances of infections among the students. The aim of the study is to evaluate the microbial contamination in stored anatomy specimens. Materials and Methods: Swabs were collected from 10 different stored specimens used in anatomy department. The swabs are then cultured in nutritional agar medium and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The growth on the plates was differentiated and identified by morphology and Gram staining. Results: From this study, it was found that there was no microbial - fungal and bacterial contamination in the stored anatomy specimens. Conclusion: From this study, it is evident that when the specimens are well preserved using the appropriate solvents they are free from microbial contamination. We can also conclude that a proper hygiene is been followed in the anatomy laboratory. Hence, these specimens are safe to handle.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002665
Title: Estimation of nasal index for gender determination in south Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The study of nasal index and its comparison forms the basis of racial and ethnic difference among the different population. Finding the gender difference using the nasal index has its own importance in the field of forensic science, clinical uses, and anthropological studies Our aim is to compare the nasal index of both males and females and hence find out if it can be used as a parameter for estimating the gender difference among the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: South Indian people of various age groups were chosen, and the nasal index of 41 males and 39 females were calculated. The width of the nose and the nasal height was measured using a Vernier caliper. The nasal index of both males and females was then calculated to check if the nasal index can be used as a parameter to estimate gender difference. A cross-sectional studies of the nasal parameters were, thus, taken to estimate and thereby compare the nasal index. Results: The mean nasal index for females was 84.71, and for males, it was 91.61. In our study, 65.85% of males are of mesorrhine type while in females both mesorrhine and platyrrhine were found to be common. P value is 0.0029 and the t-value is 2.83. The result is significant at P < 0.05. This shows that nasal index can be used a reliable parameter in estimating the gender difference. Conclusion: The nasal index of the South Indian males slightly higher than that of the females, the nasal index is statistically significant between genders, so it can be used as a parameter to estimate gender difference.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002666
Title: Anthropometric measurement and variations in positions of infraorbital foramen and its surgical importance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Infraorbital margin (IOM) is formed laterally by the zygomatic bone and medially by the maxilla. Infraorbital foramen (IOF) is situated about 1 cm below the IOM for the passage of infraorbital nerves and vessels. The knowledge about the position of the IOF provides important data in giving local anesthesia in maxillofacial and plastic surgeries. The aim of this study is to determine shape, the position of IOF in relation to maxillary teeth, the presence of accessory IOF, transverse distance from the IOM, and distance from the malar prominence. Materials and Methods: This study was done with 40 skulls of unknown age and sex from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, of which only 26 skulls turned out to be ideal skulls for this research. Each skull was examined for shape, position with respect to maxillary teeth, the presence of accessory foramen and using Vernier caliper distance from IOM and distance from malar prominence was measured. All data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: In the present study, it is clear that the mean distance between IOF and IOM is 7.02 mm in the right side and 7.41 mm in the left side and mean distance between Malar prominence and IOF is 22.36 mm in the right side and 20.98 mm in the left side. Most of the IOF are oval in shape. The position of the IOF was found to be variable in relation to maxillary teeth. Conclusions: The result of this research may assist the surgeons to localize the important maxillofacial openings, avoid injury to the neurovascular bundles and facilitates surgical, local anesthetic, and other invasive procedures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002667
Title: Onychophagia - An awareness based survey on its situation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Onychophagia is a habit of compulsive nail biting. Nail biting is most commonly seen in both children and youth. Boredom, excitement, fear, stress, and other emotional disorders are the main causes of onychophagia. Modern treatments and measures like manicure are necessary to correct the habit of chronic nail biters. Materials and Methods: This was a survey of 14 questions and was conducted in an online forum, survey planet. This survey was taken by about 103 people who had the habit of nail biting. All their responses were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: From the survey, it is recorded that all age people take up this nail biting as a habit in various situations to relax their stress, as a sign of breaking their anger, even in immense excitement. Hence, in this study, it is recorded to be that, 64 participants of 103 follow this habit as a stress buster more during their boredom and an interesting event noted from the survey is, 57% of participants stop themselves from biting their nails in front of young people, especially kids, aiming not to influence the growing generation toward a bad habit. From the surveys analysis it is noted that 87.8% of the participants wanted to quit nail biting permanently and they do have tried quitting it by following prevention methods, but ended up as failed attempts and continued with their biting habits again. Conclusion: Hence, among the South Indian population, their perspective among the dangers and risks of onychophagia are clear-cut, and they also aware of the side effects of their own habit. Yet, above all their determination and self-control only plays a key role in quitting this nail biting habit permanently.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002668
Title: Prevalence of awareness of dental health care among people in Kallidaikurichi, India - 2017
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Dental health is the one should be taken care by people very seriously. In developing countries like India, people are not aware and not educated enough about to protect and maintain it. The present study was done to assess the common knowledge; people have about their dental health and analyzing them through the presence of dental caries, their regular checkup to dentists and other factors such as economic status, their maintenance of oral hygiene, and adverse habits. Methodology: The present study was done in a private clinic located in Kallidaikurichi, a village in Southern India. People who are aged from 21 to 70 who came to the clinic for treatment were checked for dental caries, their regular visits to dentist, oral hygiene habits, and adverse habits with the help of predesigned questionnaire. Results: A total of 100 people participated in the study, and the people who have good oral hygiene with no adverse habits were found to be 6.44%. People who have high income and well-educated possess better knowledge about dental health, and people who have very low income and not much educated were not aware of dental health. However, awareness is nil regarding regular dental health checkups. Conclusion: Basic dental health-care knowledge should reach the common people particularly the rural people to prevent diseases and to take the knowledge to the next generation. All the people must be made aware about the benefits of regular dental health check-ups like regular body checkups so that any systemic disease can be diagnosed and treated at the early stage itself as mouth is the index of the body. Many underprivileged people must be encouraged to visit the dentist for regular checkups and treatment. Government must make treatment affordable for the poor people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002669
Title: Prevalence of dental caries among children in Kallidaikurichi, India - 2017
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Dental caries is the most social disease in developing countries like India. People are not aware and not educated enough about to prevent and maintain it. The present study was done to assess the prevalence of dental caries in children by analyzing the presence of dental caries and other factors contributing to it such as economic status, maintenance of oral hygiene, presence of more than one sibling, and working nature of the mother. Methodology: The present study was done in a private clinic in Kallidaikurichi, rural area in India. Children who are aged from 3 to 11 who came to the clinic for the period of 1 week were checked for dental caries, oral hygiene habits with the help of predesigned questionnaire, and physical examination after the approval of Dr. Perumal Ramanujam who owns the clinic and from the parents of the children who accompanied them during May 1, 2017. Results: A total of 60 children participated in the study and the prevalence of dental caries was found to be 70.2%. The children who hail from lower income family, who have two or more siblings, who have working mothers and poor oral hygiene maintenance have the higher incidence of dental caries. Conclusion: Dental health care should reach the common people particularly the rural people to prevent caries and to guard our next generation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002670
Title: Survey on back pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Back pain is a common reason for absence from work. Although back pain may be painful and uncomfortable, it is not usually serious. Even though back pain affects people of any age, it is significantly more common among adults aged between 35 and 55 years. Major causes for back pain are irregular exercise, over body weight, and posture while sitting. The aim of the study is to conduct a survey on back pain. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 questionnaires were prepared, the survey was conducted among the males and females of age 35–55 years, Chennai, data were collected, and the sample size contains 53 females and 31 males. The survey was prepared on SurveyPlanet and circulated among the people and the questionnaire related to this survey. The survey was conducted among 85 males and females. Results: As per the result, the back pain was noticed high at the age of 35–55 years in that age they had heavy work and repeated stress in that particular area, and it gradually decreases their energy level and inhibits them from doing exercise and their regular activities. The result shown that most of them are suffered from back pain. Conclusion: Thus, this study shows that back pain is highly noticed in 35–55 years of age. From this survey, it is evidently proved that about 80% of people are suffered from back pain, and major causes for back pain are irregular exercise, over body weight, and posture while sitting.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002671
Title: Awareness about childhood vaccination among parents with children below 15 years of age
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The study aimed to create awareness about childhood vaccination among parents with children below 15 years of age. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify whether the parents with young children are aware about regular childhood vaccination such as hepatitis, influenza, diphtheria, and tetanus and whether the children are given regular time intervals following the vaccination schedule. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 100 parents in south Indian population who have children between the age group of 1 and 15 years. A questionnaire containing 14 close-ended questions was prepared and given to parents for filling up. Answers were analyzed and evaluated using SPSS software and the results obtained were tabulated in bar graphs. Results and Conclusion: On analyzing the results obtained from the present study, it is clear that there is not enough awareness among parents about childhood vaccination and further research needs to be initiated in this field to prevent the occurrence of health problems among children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002672
Title: In vitro evaluation of anti-biofilm activity of Orange peel extract on Streptococcus mutans
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Biofilm inhibition is considered as major drug target for the treatment of various bacterial and fungal infections, and so the pharmacological development of drugs is now extensively studied in all the parts of the world. Citrus sinensis is the widely grown crop which is easily available all over the world. The various medicinal properties of the orange peel extract such as action against colic, upset stomach, cancer, diuretic, cormunative, immune-enhancing, and skin has been listed. It can also be used to treat and prevent vitamin deficiencies, colds, flu, and scurvy and also contain antibacterial and antiviral activities. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the in vitro anti-biofilm activity of orange peel extract on Streptococcus mutants. Materials and Methods: The S. mutans which are obtained from the saliva samples are been treated with orange peel extract which is been commercially obtained from the markets. The inhibitory action of orange peel extract on biofilm formation by S. mutans was quantified by in vitro study using microtiter plate assay. Results: After incubation, the results are recorded spectrophotometrically, the extract showed 85.49% activity at concentration of 100 µg/ml. Conclusion: The inhibition activity of the orange extract on the S. mutans was significantly high. Hence, we can suggest that use of higher concentration of the orange extract will totally inhibit the activity of the S. mutans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002673
Title: Antimicrobial activity of Allium cepa against bacteria causing enteric infection
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Allium is the largest and important representative genus of the Liliaceae family comprises 450 species. Onion (Allium cepa) is a bulbous plant widely cultivated in almost every country of the world. Bacteria commonly involved in enteric infection are Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Enteric infections are characterized by diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, nausea, and vomiting. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of A. cepa against bacteria causing enteric infection. Methods: The screening of antibacterial activity of extracts was carried out using the agar well diffusion method. The culture plates were allowed to stand on the working bench for 30 min for prediffusion and were then incubated in upright position at 37° C for 24 h. Standard antibiotic discs ciprofloxacin (30 mcg/disc) were used as positive control. Results: The extracts at different concentration exhibited antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains tested. The extract was more effective against E. coli with a zone of inhibition of 28 mm (at conc. 200/µg) and was least effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zone of inhibition of 16 mm (at conc. 200 µg.). Staphylococcus aureus showed a zone of inhibition of 23 mm diameter (at conc. 200 µg.). Conclusion: We conclude that the extracts of A. cepa can be used as antimicrobial agent against bacteria causing enteric infections.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002674
Title: Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficiency of tea tree oil and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Streptococcus mutans is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Tea tree oil is extracted from Mehknca leaves (Myrtaceae family). Cineole is a skin-irritating substance and terpinen-4-01 is presumed to be the most important antimicrobial agent of the tea tree oil. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antimicrobial efficiency of tea tree oil and chlorhexidine (CHX) on S. mutans. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of tea tree oil was screened against S. mutans using agar well diffusion assay, and the zone of inhibition was recorded. Result: In this present study, the inhibition levels of tea tree oil and CHX were tested with S. mutans. The inhibition is different at different concentrations. However, it may also be noted that CHX is found to be more potent than tea tree oil in the majority of the concentrations. Conclusion: Tea tree oil has a significant antimicrobial effect compared to controlled group. The tea tree oil was as effective as an anticaries mouthwash as CHX.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002675
Title: Prevalence of caries in smokers and non-smokers - A clinical study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Dental caries is the scientific term for tooth decay or cavities. It is caused by specific types of bacteria. They produce acid that destroys the tooth’s enamel and the layer under it, the dentin. The bacteria turn sugar and carbohydrates (starches) in the foods we eat into acids. Different types of bacteria normally live in the human mouth. They build up on the teeth in a sticky film called plaque. The aim of the study is to find out the difference in the caries status between the smokers and non-smokers in the local population. Methodology: A total of 100 male dentate patients (50 non-smokers and 50 smokers) ranging between 20 and 60 years. Caries were recorded. Results: The mean of the proximal caries in the smokers is 2.12. The mean of the proximal caries in the non-smokers is 1.4. The mean of the occlusal caries in smokers is 3.16. The mean of the occlusal caries in non-smokers is 2.52. Our study confirmed the prevalence of caries in smokers and non-smokers. The percentage of subjects with the prevalence of caries was significantly higher in chronic smokers than in smokers. Conclusion: Cigarettes smoking exerts a strong and chronic effect on tooth and causes caries. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was an association between heavy smoking and severe dental caries. The conducted analysis revealed that heavy smoking is associated with increased severe dental caries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002676
Title: Economic evaluation of cochlear implantation for children in Kazakhstan
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Hearing impairment in children around the world is a particularly serious obstacle to their optimal speech development and education. According to research in various countries for 1000 newborns or young children account for 0.5–5 children with congenital or previously acquired severe or profound sensor neural hearing loss. A cochlear implant is an electronic medical device that does the work of damages parts of the inner ear to provide sound signals to the brain. In Kazakhstan, the program on cochlear implantation has been implemented since 2007. More than 100 surgical interventions are carried out annually. The purpose of our study is to provide information on the medical cost of cochlear implantation in children. Methods: Criteria for the selection of our studies included systematic reviews from PubMed, Cochrane, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CDR). Studies were included in English from the period 2005 to 2018, aged 0–18 years. Administrative data related to the cost of surgical interventions, hospitalizations, and other data on cochlear implantation were also included. Results: By a discussion between the two authors, all studies involving economic cost and effectiveness of unilateral cochlear implantation were included. We revealed that the cost of the device is according to the data of other countries from 64.4% to 78% of the total cost of the pre-operative and operational period, while in the Republic of Kazakhstan it was 97%. The cost of various treatments is also comparatively very low in the RK. Conclusion: For the Republic of Kazakhstan, there is a need for additional studies to identify the reasons for prolonged hospitalization of patients, and also to study post-operative costs for analyzing the economic efficiency of investing funds for cochlear implantation. In international practice, for the analysis of economic efficiency, studies such as cost-utility analysis are carried out, which would be acceptable in Kazakhstan for decision makers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-TE-00002678
Title: Acute toxicity studies of Acanthus illicifolius leaves ethanolic extract on male mice
Category: Toxicity evaluation
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Acanthus ilicifolius leaves in mice. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity study of extracts was carried out on 20 male mice using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 425 guidelines. Mice divided into 4 groups, i.e. control, ethanol extract dose 1000, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight (BW) by oral administration single dose of extract. Observation of toxic symptoms, BW, relative organ weight, and mortality of mice performed for 14 days. The animals were then sacrificed for blood biochemical, macro pathological and his to pathological examinations of vital organs on the end of the study. Results: Acute toxicity study results showed that male mice in all groups showed no toxic symptoms. Ethanol extract of A. ilicifolius leaves does not affect the development of BW and relative organ weight of the mouse. Histopathology of vital organs of male mice showed that the administration of ethanol extract caused changes in vital organs. The lethal dose (LD50 ) ethanol extract is >5000 mg/kg BW. Conclusion: A. ilicifolius leaves ethanol extract practically non-toxic at single dose oral administration with LD50 values >5000 mg/kg BW caused changes in some vital organs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002679
Title: Variations in the normal ratio of the anteroposterior and transverse diameter of the chest wall
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Respiratory disorders such as asthma and acute respiratory distress syndrome are more prevalent diseases affecting people. People whose normal ratio of the anteroposterior and transverse diameter varies may develop chest wall deformities such as kyphoscoliosis, emphysema, and thoracic kyphoscoliosis which are all caused mainly because of changes in the spinal curvature. Barrel chest most commonly relates to osteoarthritis as the age increases. Emphysema may later lead to barrel chest, which is due to the variations in the normal ratio of the anteroposterior and transverse diameter of the chest wall. Materials and Methods: After getting proper informed consent, the anteroposterior and transverse diameter of the chest wall (in cm) of randomly chosen 30 male subjects were taken using cardboards and ruler. For measuring the anteroposterior diameter, cardboards were placed in dorsal and ventral position. For transverse diameter, cardboards were placed in lateral position. Result: The normal ratio of the anteroposterior and transverse diameter of the chest wall should be in the ratio 5:7 in humans for the proper maintenance of normal respiration. Normal ratio of 30 men’s was measured and nearly, 73% of them have normal and near normal ratio of the anteroposterior and transverse diameter of the chest wall. 27% have altered ratio of the same, indicating the presence of an underlying respiratory or cardiac disease and should be evaluated for the same. Conclusion: 22 of the participants have normal ratio of the anteroposterior and transverse diameter of the chest wall. Remaining 8 have variations in the chest wall indicating the presence of an underlying respiratory or cardiac disease and should be evaluated for the same

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002680
Title: Rotator cuff tear - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Rotator cuff tear is the common tear occurring in shoulder. The main muscles involved are supraspinatus, teres major, subscapularis, and infraspinatus. The bursa is present as the lubricating sac. The tear types are partial thickness and full thickness tear. The males are more affected than females. Older population is affected the most. Tendon degeneration and impingement syndrome are main etiologies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning is considered the gold diagnosis in which the acute tear can be detected. Ultrasound is used in diagnosing higher tear and in dynamic testing. Conservative management is recommended in the initial stages. Physiotherapy has been increased in case of partial and full thickness tear. The new arthroscopic polyglycolic acid sheet patch graft is the treatment for irreparable rotator cuff tear. This particular review was done on the basis of a collection of 120 articles, of which 30 articles were used for this review. The articles were based on study design and specific objective. The main prospective is that the arthroscopic study, treatment, and diagnosis were analyzed and established. Demographic information, rotator cuff tear characteristics, operative technical details, objective and subjective outcome measurements, and complications were gleaned from the studies. Rotator cuff tear is the most prevalent tear in our body. It is common for both males and females. The abnormalities related to rotator cuff tear are increasing with age. The consequences varied from person to person. Symptoms are different for adolescents and older people. The diagnostic methods are advanced. MRI and ultrasound play the key role in diagnosis. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. Reduction in the stem cells might help the rotator cuff tear to heal on its own. Surgical methods also get advanced. Conservative management plays the main role in initial tears. Proper care and good conservative management might help them to get rid of this tear. Though advancements are seen in rotator cuff tear, there is still a long way of analyzing the tear types, diagnostic methods, and treatments. Immediate rehabilitation is necessary. Better healing and further study on this have to be encouraged.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002681
Title: Correlation of facial and nasal index in gender determination
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Anthropometry is associated early tool of anthropology; it’s been used for identification, for the needs of understanding human physical variation. In palaeoanthropology, it makes an attempt to correlate physical with racial and psychological traits. Facial index refers to the length of the face to the width of the face multiplied by 100: Often used in comparative anthropology. Nasal index refers to the nasal width by nasal height multiplied by 100. This research aims to correlate the facial and nasal index in gender determination and to estimate which is more significant for gender determination. Materials and Methods: South Indian people of various age groups were chosen, and the nasal index of 41 males and 39 females were calculated. Nasal height and width as well as facial height and width were measured using a Vernier caliper. Both the parameters were calculated to estimate gender difference. The obtained data were subjected to statistically. Results: Using the nasal parameters such as nasal width, nasal length, and nasal indices, the comparison between the nasal indices of the males and the females of South India was done and recorded. For females, the mean nasal index was 84.72, and for males, the mean nasal index was 91.61 P = 0.002909 and the t = 2.83591. The result is significant at P < 0.05. Using the facial parameters such as facial width, facial length, and facial indices, the comparison between the facial indices of the males and the females of South India was done and recorded. For females, the mean facial index was 90.14, and for males, the mean nasal index was 85.73. The result is significant at P < 0.05. Conclusion: The study concludes that the nasal index is greater in male south Indian population than that of females. Similarly, the facial index is greater in male south Indian population than that of females. Since the difference of between nasal index is significant than the facial index (i.e., 6.89 and 4.41, respectively), we can conclude that nasal index is also a useful parameter to estimate gender difference.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002682
Title: The effect of short-term heavy strengthening training on muscles of upper limbs
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Maintaining muscle mass and muscle strength is very important in the upper extremities. The building strength and muscle mass in the arms are very important for the activities of everyday life. This research is to estimate the effect of short-term heavy strengthening training on the size of the muscles of upper limbs for different volunteers. This research is to find out whether short-term training has a good result in the development of biceps. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 normal healthy volunteers were selected. Their bicep circumferences were noted. Then, the same volunteers were subjected to heavy strengthening training for the development of their biceps for 1 month. The volunteers and their biceps sizes were monitored regularly. After the period of 1 month, again the bicep circumference of these same 30 volunteers was measured and noted. The pre- and post-training data were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean bicep circumference of the pre-strengthening training was 30.5 cm. The mean bicep circumference of the post-strengthening training was 33 cm. At the end of this comparative study of the pre- and post-training reports, there was an increase in the bicep circumference of the volunteers. The value of t = 8.233476. The value of P < 0.00001. The result is statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: At the end of this study period, it is concluded that the short-term heavy strengthening training is having a good result in the development of muscle size.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002683
Title: Morphological study of accessory foramina in the mandible
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: An natural passage through which the neurovascular passes through is known as the accessory foramina. The accessory mental, mandibular, retromolar, and lingual foramina are the various accessory foramina found in the mandible. In this research, the study on the various accessory foramina is done with its clinical significance. To avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. The aim of this research is to study the various accessory foramina in the mandible and its clinical significance. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken on 58 dry mandibular bones. The collection of mandibular bones was taken from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai. The accessory foramina on the mandibular body and ramus were examined manually. Results: In this study, 58 dry mandibular bones were taken in which the accessory mandibular foramina at th right side had a total of 17 foramina, and at the left, it was 14; likewise in mental foramina at the right, it was 4, and at the left, it was 7; in retromolar foramina, it was 4 on the right and 4 on the left; and next coming to the lingual foramina, it was found to be 44 in the superior and 20 on the inferior side. Conclusion: The present study establishes the incidence of various accessory foramina and its clinical significance. Care should be given to prevent any damage to neurovascular bundles passing through the accessory foramina during any anesthetic, surgical, and implantation procedures of the mandible by diagnosing with the help of panoramic radiographs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002684
Title: Awareness on the effects of ergonomics interventions on work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders among undergraduate dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the injuries and disorders affecting muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, join cartilage, or spinal disc. It is the most important work-related problems currently reported. Dentists are the most common worker more often susceptible to MSDs. They are subjected to many pathological disorders such as tendinitis, synovitis, tenosynovitis, and bursitis. Hence, the objective of this study is to study the awareness of MSDs among undergraduate dental students. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire-based study conducted among 100 undergraduate dental students of Saveetha Dental College. It consist of questions regarding the musculoskeletal status of the participants and their knowledge regarding ergonomics and its practice. Results: In this study, 95% of the students are aware of the incidence of musculoskeletal pain among dental practitioners, and 73% of the students have been affected by musculoskeletal pain. The common sites which they have affected were neck (82%), back (72%), shoulder (62%), and few with arm (34%), hands (31%), and legs (3%). Of 73 students, about 45% of the students used physiotheraphy, 14% of the students used home remedies, and 20% of the students used drugs to relieve their pain, while the rest (45%) did nothing to relieve their pain. Of 100, 77% of the students are aware of the ergonomics in dental practice and 72% reported that their pain got reduced by following ergonomics. Only 38% of the students prefer to use mouth mirror to get direct view. Only 39% of the students are aware of the symptoms caused by the musculoskeletal pain. Only 26% of the students are aware of the ergonomics procedures to be followed. Conclusion: This study shows that most of the students are not aware of the ergonomics and their effect in musculoskeletal pain. Most of the students are affected by the pain due to their lack of knowledge in ergonomics. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include their education in dental ergonomics and awareness regarding the importance of work-related risk factors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002685
Title: Stature determination using length of zygomatic arch
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Stature estimation is a process used in forensics study. The most conventionally used method to estimate stature. In forensic cases, mathematical and anatomic techniques are used in stature estimation. In the anatomical method, skull height, height of vertebral column, and lower limb lengths are added, and soft tissues correlation factor is applied. From independent variables using mathematical techniques, stature is estimated, such as long bone lengths, using equations that reflect the linear relationship between stature and the variable. The most commonly used and accurate method is anatomical method that mathematical method. However, anatomical method requires all the parts of the bones in our body. In forensic cases, the available of mutilated body parts or incomplete skeletal material based on measurement of the length of the isolated bones, the height can be determined. Materials and Methods:The 35 male subjects were selected for this study. Using Vernier caliper scale, the length of zygomatic arch was measured . and their height was calculated and correlation between them is analyzed. Results: From this study, there is no correlation between height of the person and length of his zygomatic arch.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002686
Title: A short review on safety and availability of blood
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: An ample and authentic supply of safe blood can be assertive by a stable base of voluntary or unpaid blood donors. These donors are also the safest group of donors as the prevalence of blood-borne infections is lowest among this group. There is a difference in the level of admittance to blood between low- and high-income countries. The whole blood donation rate is an indicator for the general availability of blood in a country. Background: Providing safe and ample blood should be a fundamental part of every country’s national healthcare policy. The age profile of blood donors shows that, proportionally, more young people donate blood in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Demographic information of blood donors is important for formulating and monitoring recruitment strategies. The capacity to provide patients with the different blood components they require is still limited in low income countries: 50% of the blood collected in low-income countries is separated into components, 59% in lower-middle-income countries, 92% in upper- middle-income countries, and 97% in high-income countries. In high-income countries, transfusion is most commonly used for concerned care in cardiovascular and transplant surgery, massive trauma, and therapy for hematological studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002687
Title: Survey on the people undergoing paleo diet
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The aim of the study is to estimate the effect of paleo diet and to determine current knowledge on the same and to create awareness on Palaeolithic diet. The Palaeolithic diet is called as paleo diet, caveman diet or stone age diet is mainly based on foods presumed to be available to Palaeolithic humans. Like other famous diets, the paleo diet is promoted as a way to improve health. Limited data exist on metabolic effects on humans eating the die, though the available data suggest following this diet may lead to improvements in terms of body composition and metabolic effects as compared to the typical western diet. The diet is a fast growing trend and hence changes and awareness have to be made. Even though the diet is very diverse, most people don’t follow correct diet patterns and tend to eat the wrong food. Therefore, it is imperative that awareness is generated about the diet. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among the paleo diet people through an online survey. The questionnaire comprised of 24 questions which aimed to assess the populations current knowledge on the composition of diet, benefits and side effects of paleo diet. About 53 responses were collected and analyzed. Result: The questionnaire results were noted and all the answers were statistically analysed. People think that paleo diet is comparatively better than our normal diet. Conclusion: We have come to know the preference of diet among the people is paleo. Palaeolithic diet is more preferred because of its benefits.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002688
Title: Antimycotic activity of Zingiber officinale extracts on clinical isolates of Candida albicans
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The widespread use of herbal remedies and health-care preparations. Plants produce a diverse range of bioactive molecules, making them a rich source of different types of medicines. Since ancient times, plants have been model source of medicines as they are a reservoir of chemical agents with therapeutic properties. Zingiber officinale is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or folk medicine. They also have very minimal side effects and also are found in large amounts at a time and can also be easily cultivated. This makes plants a vital contributor to medicine. Materials and Methods: Candida albicans was isolated from clinical samples and cultured and maintained on Subouraud’s Dextrose Agar medium at 30°C. The ethanolic extract of Z. officinale was obtained commercially and used for the study. The extracts were prepared in the different concentrations in sterile water and were loaded on sterile filter paper The discs were dried and kept aseptically. The antimycotic activity was analyzed using disc diffusion methods. Result: The extract showed good antifungal activity at different concentrations with a maximum zone of inhibition of 21 mm at concentration of 2000 µg/ml. Conclusions: In the study, ginger extract was effective in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans. The positive control (fluconazole, amphotericin B) produced significantly sized inhibition zones with C. albicans. The study indicates that ginger extract might have promise in the treatment of oral candidiasis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002689
Title: Antibacterial action of bio nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutants and Enterococcus faecalis - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Bionanotechnology combines biological principles with physical and chemical approaches to produce nano-sized particles with specific functions. These nanoparticles due to their smaller size could be very effective as they can improve the antibacterial activity through lysis of bacterial cell wall. Applications in the field of medicine include formulations of many potential antimicrobial agents that are effective against human pathogens, including multidrug- resistant bacteria which have become a serious public health problem. The aim is to study the antibacterial effects of bio nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: The bio nanoparticles were prepared in the following concentrations in sterile water: 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml so that 100 µl of extract of different concentrations delivers 250 µg, 500 µg, and 1000 µg, respectively. The screening of antibacterial activity of the bio nanoparticle was carried out using the agar well diffusion method. The bacterial strain was inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C overnight. Mean zones of inhibition of different concentrations were measured and compared with the control and tabulated. Results: The particles showed good antibacterial activity at different concentrations with a maximum zone of inhibition of 23 mm and 19mm for Streptococcus mutans and E. faecalis, respectively, at concentration of 1000 µg/ml. Conclusion: The particles showed good antibacterial activity at different concentrations with a maximum zone of inhibition of 23 mm and 19 mm for S. mutans and E. faecalis, respectively, at concentration of 1000 µg/ml. Hence, we can conclude that silver bio nanoparticles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002691
Title: Depressive state among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin-dependent period
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common non-communicable disease in the world. There are many factors that influence the development of this disease. Depression is a widespread condition and one more factor that aggravates the condition of patients. The importance of depression in the development of diabetes is well known. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the depressive state in patients with type 2 DM on permanent subcutaneous insulin infusion (or insulin pump therapy) and multiple injectable insulin therapies. Methods: We selected the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the depressive syndrome of patients with DM. Results: Comparative analysis showed that, among patients with type 2 DM on the insulin-dependent period, more mild and moderate degrees of depressive syndrome were identified. According to the results of our study, it was revealed that, in women, the depressive condition was expressed, who was on multiple injectable insulin therapies, and in the men, on the contrary, was expressed in patients on insulin pump therapy. Conclusion: It can be said that the method of treatment for the duration of the disease affects only patients with type 2 DM up to 15 years of age. If we analyze by age subgroups, then further study of the influencing factors on depression in this age category is required.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-CPS-00002692
Title: In silico design, docking, and synthesis of 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors
Category: Chemistry and Parallel Synthesis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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In the present work, the docking studies were performed for the proposed compounds against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl- coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. All the proposed compounds showed nice docking score. The synthesis serine compounds with azetidinone nucleus were carried out. These compounds were expected to show antihyperlipidemic activity from the literature review. The compounds prepared by refluxing serine with different substituted aldehydes give an intermediate Schiff bases (1a-1f) which on treatment with chloroacetyl chloride give substituted azetidinones (2a-2f). The structure of the compounds was confirmed by spectral data. The final synthesized compounds act as a potent HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Furthermore, the azetidinone nucleus serves as a synergist by inhibiting the cholesterol absorption from the intestine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002693
Title: The effect of solvents and extraction time on total xanthone and antioxidant yields of mangosteen peel (Garcinia mangostana L.) extract
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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This study aims to evaluate the effect of different solvents and extraction time on total xanthone and antioxidant yield of mangosteen peel extract. The research was conducted by extracting mangosteen peel using seven solvents: Ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol, hexane, acetic acid, and aquadest at different times: 24, 36, and 48 h. Total xanthone was examined using visible UV spectrophotometer at the particular wavelength, and antioxidant yield was observed from the extract and then dried using rotary evaporator and freeze dryer. The result reported that the solvents and extraction time significantly (P < 0.01) affected total xanthone and antioxidant yield. Mangosteen peel extracted by acetone shows the best results on total xanthone at 48 h. Meanwhile, mangosteen peel extracted by ethanol for 24 h was the best result on antioxidant yield. Total xanthone levels and antioxidant yield are affected by solvents and extraction time. Total xanthone levels were best found at long extraction times, while the best levels of antioxidant yield were found at short extraction times. Acetone and ethanol solvents which have medium polarity index (5.1 and 5.2, respectively) show the highest levels of total xanthone and best antioxidant yield compared to other treatments.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002694
Title: Proximate analysis of the methanolic and aqueous leaves extracts of Moringa stenopetala
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: M. stenopetala is a promising medicinal plant, which is most common in Ethiopia and Kenya,it has an enormous potential to contribute to improved diet and health.The people in the Konso district of southern Ethiopia get their food from M. stenopetala, People in the Gamo Gofa zone have a long tradition of consumption of M. stenopetala, locally called Haleko. Objective: The present study was amied to evaluate the Proximate analysis (nutritional value) of methanolic and aqueous leave extract of M. stenopetala, from Shire Endaslassie (SE), and Abi-Addi (AA) from Tigray region, Ethiopia. Methods: 50 g of the plant powder of M. stenopetala leaves was subjected to maceration and decoction extractions using methanol and aqueous as solvent, respectively, and the extracts were filtered, then proximate composition such as moisture content, total ash content, crude lipid content, crude fiber content, crude protein content, carbohydrate content, and energy value was evaluated using standard biochemical methods and using various titration methods. Results: The result of the present study was indicated that M. stenopetala leaves have rich source of nutritive value such as moisture, ash, crude lipid content, crude fiber content, crude protein content, and energy value from SE compare to AA. Conclusions: The nutrient contents in the methanolic and aqueous leave extract of M. stenopetala, from SE and AA, were found at different levels. Therefore, it has a potential to be used as a feed additive for humans and could contribute immensely toward meeting human nutritional needs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00002695
Title: Mineral analysis of the methanolic and aqueous leaves extracts of Moringa stenopetala collected from Shire Endaslassie, and from Abi-Addi, of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Moringa is a tropical plant belonging to the family Moringaceae that grows throughout the tropics, and the genus Moringa consists of 13 species, are important edible plant in Ethiopia and Kenya. Objective: In the present study, the mineral contents such as zinc, iron, and copper of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Moringa stenopetala were evaluated with standard methods. Replace deleted text with corrections. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the mineral contents such as zinc, iron, and copper of methanolic, and aqueous leaf extracts of M. stenopetala from Shire endaslassie (SE), and Abi-Addi (AA) from Tigray Region, Ethiopia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and besides, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium were determined by flame atomic emission spectrophotometer using the association of analytical chemists standard methods. Results: The result of the present study was indicated that methanolic leaf extracts of M. stenopetala from AA contained a high amount of magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, and copper (78.10 ± 0.13, 762 ± 0.82, 6.42 ± 0.13, 2.01±0.03, and 2.17 ± 0.09 mg/100 g), respectively, than for SE. Moreover, the concentrations of the calcium (1080.70 ± 2.49 mg/100 g) in aqueous leaf extracts of M. stenopetala were found highest compared to the other two areas. Conclusions: The mineral content of leaf extracts of M. stenopetala was found at different levels different in two regions (SE and AA). The methanolic and aqueous leave extracts from AA contained a significant amount of micronutrients such as magnesium, sodium, zinc, iron and copper, and calcium. Therefore, leaves of M. stenopetala from AA have a potential to be used as a nurse improver for humans and could contribute enormously toward meeting human nutritious requirements.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002696
Title: Formulation and characterization of gastroretentive drug delivery system of noscapine
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Noscapine belongs to the class of antitussive agents and is used to treat patients suffering from a cough. Noscapine is rapidly absorbed on oral administration and has good solubility in acidic pH, but it has a very low bioavailability of nearly 30% as it undergoes hepatic first pass metabolism. Therefore, gastroretentive drug delivery system, i.e., floating tablets were designed so as to retain the dosage form in the acidic media where its solubility is more and also helps to minimize first pass effect leading to increased bioavailability of noscapine. Method: Gastroretentive floating tablets of noscapine were successfully prepared with polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, HPMC K100M, and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy studies have shown that there is no incompatibility between the drug and the selected polymers and excipients. Noscapine floating tablets were prepared by direct compression method and are evaluated for various parameters such as weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, swelling index, Buoyancy lag time (BLT), floating duration, and in vitro dissolution studies. Result and Discussion: The BLT of all the formulations was in the range of 35 s–1.33 min and exhibited good swelling properties over a period of time. From the in vitro dissolution analysis, it was found that the batches containing HPMC K4M and K100M showed greater release than the batches with polymer HEC. It was observed that the increasing concentration of polymers had a retarding effect on the drug release from the polymer matrices. Conclusion: Based on these evaluation results it was concluded that formulation F2 is the best formulation among all the developed formulations fulfilling the objective of the study.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002707
Title: Orthodontic implants - A review on biological and mechanical considerations
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Implants are used to augment anchorage in orthodontics. They serve as temporary anchorage devices (TAD). They are used to preserve anchorage particularly in complicated tooth movements with different prescriptions of fixed orthodontic appliances. The multitude of problems encountered requires an array of designs of the TAD. The purpose of this review was to indicate the various mini implant designs to suit requirement in orthodontics with respect to the surgical procedures and healing time, biomechanics and forces, loading time, implant maintenance, post-treatment consideration, and disadvantages. It also focuses on the different designs that cater to address malocclusions in different situations. It can be concluded that mini implants are an excellent adjunct to provide stable, bone-based anchorage for the application of orthodontic biomechanical force systems when strict biological considerations are adhered.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002899
Title: Analysis of the influence of chronic heart failure type on changes in the microelement composition of myocardial tissue in patients of senile age
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Conduct a comparative analysis of the content and distribution of macroelements (Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, and Na+) in myocardial tissue according to autopsy data in elder patients with CHF, depending on the LV EF. Materials and Methods: Methods of optical plasma emission spectrometry of parallel action with inductively coupled plasma-9000 and scanning electron microscopy (FEI Nova Nano scanning electron microscope) were used to conduct a comparative analysis of the content of macronutrients in the tissue of myocardial autopsy of the patients of senile age with chronic heart failure depending on the degree of myocardial contractility - the ejection fraction of the left ventricle. Results: According to the created profiles of maps of macronutrient tissue composition and calculations of heterogeneity, it was found that changes in myocardial tissue of senile patients with systolic dysfunction were represented by significant differences in the heterogeneity of macronutrient distribution (Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, and Na+), while statistically significant differences in the absolute values of macronutrient content in cardiomyocytes were absent. Conclusion: Thus, areas of increased Ca2+ content of Group U1 indicate a local calcium overload of CMC, which results in local contractile dysfunction of myocardial tissue. This statement is reasoned by the presence of dyssynchrony confirmed by the EchocG method in patients of this group.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002905
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and perception of students toward computer-based tests in competitive examinations
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Due to the inclusion of computerized tests in education, it is required to reconsider and rethink, modify, or change the traditional examination methods. Electronic assessment tools had reduced the burden of teachers and facilitate to conduct examinations purposefully. Computer-based examinations can be used to promote more effective learning by testing a range of skills, knowledge, and understanding. The aim of this study is to find out the perception of students on computer- based tests for competitive examinations for professional courses. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 participants actively participated in this survey from different parts of Tamil Nadu. 15 questions were asked to them which were related to creating awareness about computer-based tests for competitive examinations and the results were analyzed by statistical tools. Discussion: In this survey, more than 70% of the students have given positive feedback about the computer-based tests for competitive exams. Remaining 30% faced difficulties due to the lack of knowledge in computer operations. The basic problem was understood that students from a rural background were not much aware about computer-based tests and had a lack of practice. Conclusion: Many people got to know about computer-based tests in and are now aware about them; thus, this survey has become beneficial to the population. The survey concludes that computer-based tests are very useful in most of the ways and few of the implementations will give 100% successful rate by the community.