Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002763
Title: To compare the effects of stretching exercise versus aerobic dance in primary dysmenorrhea among collegiates
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: This study was aimed to compare the effects of stretching exercise versus aerobic dance on pain and stress in primary dysmenorrhea. Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual symptom in women of reproductive age, which usually affects the quality of life. Exercises are usually preferred as an evident remedy for menstrual symptom in control of pain. Hence, the purpose of the study was to compare the effect of stretching exercise versus aerobic dance in controlling pain as well as in the management of stress. Methodology: This study is an experimental study of pre- and post-comparative type which was carried out in Faculty of Physiotherapy at Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute. After the approval of the study by the institute research review board, 30 samples were recruited and trained for a period of 8 weeks for about 45 min for 3 days/ week. Girls aged 17–23 years with regular menstrual cycle and visual analogue scale (VAS) scoring >6 and depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) scoring >19 were included in the study. Athletes, married women, and girls who were regularly exercising, having any pelvic pathology, abnormal menstrual cycle, or taking painkiller medications were excluded from the study. Outcome measures: VAS and DASS-21 questionnaire was used to asses pain and stress during pre and post intervention period. Procedure: Participants were randomly divided into two groups, namely Groups A and B. Group A was trained with stretching exercise and Group B with aerobic dance. Both groups were trained for 3 days/week for a period of 8 weeks. Stretching exercise concentrating on muscles of whole body was given for about 45 min. In aerobic dance, each session was carried out for 45 min, which includes 10 min of warm-up session and 25 min of training followed by 10 min of cool down session. Training was avoided during the period of menstrual cycle. Results: Both the groups showed reduction in pain and stress, but Group B showed more reduction in symptoms. On comparing pre-test and post-test within Group A and B on VAS and DASS, highly statistically significant difference was found in mean values at P ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Aerobic dance was significantly efficient than stretching exercises in reduction of pain intensity and duration as well as stress in primary dysmenorrhea.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002748
Title: Effect of proprioception training and backward walking training among diabetic neuropathy patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to find the effect of proprioception exercise and backward walking training among diabetic neuropathy patients. Background of the Study: The physical activity is the key element in prevention and management of diabetes mellitus. Physiotherapy intervention, such as aerobic exercise, resisted exercise, and endurance exercise lower blood glucose level, among diabetes mellitus patients. The background of the study is to find the effectiveness of proprioception training and backward walking training among diabetic neuropathy patients for the improvement of proprioception sensation of lower limbs and improve the quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients. Materials and Methods: Once the study is approved by the Institutional Review Board, 30 patients both male and female were selected from clinically diagnosed diabetic neuropathy. The study setting was in Chennai. The source population includes patient with a clear history of diabetes mellitus, the patient has symptoms of neuropathy such as numbness and tingling sensation of extremities, loss of sensations, and abnormal sensation (dysesthesia), for example, burning and electric pain and both male and female. The age group was within 40–55 years. The Patient who score <20 s in time up and go test. Patient who score 21–40 in berg balance scale (BBS) grading test. Clinically diagnosed diabetes mellitus. The study population excludes severe traumatic illness in lower limbs, poor vision that affects walking, severe cardiopulmonary insufficiency, presence of other forms of neuropathies such as mononeuropathy, severe pain, and muscle weakness, and psychiatric illness. The samples were fully explained about the benefits of participating in the study. They were asked to fill the consent form duly signed by the samples and therapist. Data regarding the balance were collected using the BBS and time up and go test. Result: The result of this study shows that both proprioception exercise training and backward walking training are effective in increasing proprioception sensation of lower limbs. However, proprioception exercise training was better than backward walking training in improving the proprioception sensation of lower limbs among diabetic neuropathy patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002702
Title: A qualitative study of teenagers’ decisions to undergo orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Orthodontic treatment is usually provided to the individuals with malocclusion that may negatively influence psychosocial well-being or oral dysfunction. The most important motivating factor is a strong subjective dissatisfaction with the appearance of the teeth. Hence, it is essential to understand teenager’s subjective motives for undergoing orthodontic treatment. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study is to describe and to analyze the thoughts of the teenager’s decision to undergo orthodontic treatment. Result: From the analyzed data, it is evident that the need for orthodontic treatment was about 61% but the awareness about malocclusion among the teenagers was about 40%, and this proves that the teenagers were unaware of the malocclusion and the orthodontic treatments available for the malocclusion, they are afraid to visit the orthodontist for the treatment. Conclusion: This study shows that awareness toward the correction of malocclusion should be increased among the teenagers and their problems toward the orthodontic treatment should be rectified.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002699
Title: Impact of stress/depression among adolescents - A survey study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Stress and depression are the common thing will happen in humans. However, nowadays, about half of the people, particularly teens, are mostly affected by stress/depression. Not even a single person in this world is without stress. Stress management is just about taking responsibilities and management of our lifestyle, problems, and about how you react to your depression. Nowadays, most of the people are with stress due to many reasons. Due to depression, many of the peoples are gone through a wrong way like they are becoming mentally ill or committing suicide. The suicidal risk and various physiological and biographical factors in teenagers and young adult are already well documented. Hence, the role of stress in the stressful life events has to be specified. The aim of this survey is to know about the methods to overcome the depression, stress/tension by common individuals and to create awareness. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among the people of Chennai between the age group of 18–25 years. Sample spaces of 100 people were taken for this survey. A questionnaire was consisted of 15 questions and distributed in the online survey. The survey was conducted to find out mainly if the individuals get stressed in their day-to-day life. Results: About 75% of people experiencing stress in daily life, for the past 3 months and 25% of people mentioning they rarely affect by it. 77% of the people are unable to concentrate on their works and daily life, 61% of the people are feeling fatigued and tired even after having an adequate sleep, and 75% of the participants mentally affect for their cause due to depression. 46% of them used to hear music for relieving from their stress. Conclusion: This survey confirms the educational course, psychological vulnerability has given rise to occurrence of stressful life events. Most of the people who are suffering from stress are likely to overcome by sharing the cause of stress with their friends and family which has also been proved to be a great method to relieve from stress.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002700
Title: A survey on prevalence of heart diseases in women after menopause
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The menstrual cycle is a cycle unique to female reproductive system as it is responsible for the pregnancy. This cycle is required for the production of ovocytes and the preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. The menopause or also called the climacteric is referred to as the inhibition of the menstrual cycle for a continuous period of 12 months. The main aim of this study is to create awareness among the menopausal women about the prevalence of heart disease. Materials and Methods: The female subjects were selected from the outpatient ward of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. The female subjects are selected between the age group of 40 and 60 and postmenopausal female subjects were selected. The females were given a questionnaire and they were asked to fill the required data. They responded to the questionnaire with what they were aware of it. Results and Conclusion: This study proves that postmenopausal women are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases. Hence, they need to be more careful about their food habits and their lifestyle changes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002701
Title: The effect of ethanol on platelet count, bleeding time, and white blood cells in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Alcohol consumption is suggested as a major cause of many health impairments and diseases worldwide which contributes in 15–30% of admission cases in different counties. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of alcohol on platelet counts, bleeding time, and white blood cell (WBC) count in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into five groups, each group with five rats in separate cages. Three cages were gastric lavage fed with different ethanol concentrations (15%, 20%, and 25%) continuously for 21 days, while in the rest two groups, one was control fed with water only and the other were given aspirin solution to compare with alcohol effect on bleeding. Results: The findings of the present study showed that there is significant change in bleeding time (P* > 0.05), but there is no significant change in platelet and WBC counts. Conclusion: In conclusion, alcohol may be used with caution to patients taking antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs as alcohol is shown increasing in bleeding time; in addition, patients with immune-compromised risk should consider alcohol taking which may affect WBC mobilization rather than its count.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002703
Title: Evaluation of correlation between cervical vertebra, MP3 and canine calcification in Chennai population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to establish a correlation between changes in cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI), median phalanx of the third finger (MP3), and mandibular canine calcification. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects (15 male and 15 female) aged between 11 and 13 years were enrolled. The study was based on a radiographic evaluation of lateral cephalograms, orthopantomogram, and intraoral periapical radiograph of the same patient. The lateral cephalogram was evaluated for the level of maturation of the cervical vertebra, the orthopantomogram showed the stages of canine calcification, and the intraoral periapical radiograph showed the stage of development of the epiphysis and diaphysis of the median phalanx of each individual. The growth status as suggested by each of these skeletal maturity indicators were tabulated and subjected to statistical evaluation. Result: The local Chennai population with an age group of 11–13 years showed that the growth status of the male and female population was the same. Comparison between CVMI and MP3 reveals that, at a given age group, CVMI and MP3 showed a significant difference. CVMI in male patients showed initiation, acceleration, and transition with a greater percentage in initiation contrary to females who were evenly distributed through the different stages. In male patients, most of them were in the prepubertal stage or progress toward puberty. Conclusion: All three methods of assessing growth can be used to predict the developmental stage of the individual although there is no correlation between the three methods.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00002704
Title: Extraction and quantification of lutein from sweet potato leaves (Ipomoea batatas)
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Sweet potato leaves are discarded as waste after harvesting of tubers, which has high level of carotenoids, particularly lutein. Lutein is an important carotenoid commonly found in dark green leafy vegetables, fruits, as well as in corn and egg yolk. Since lutein cannot be synthesized in the body, it is supplemented through diet as the main source. It is absorbed and concentrated in part of the eye which protects eye health by filtering out harmful light with its antioxidant properties. The average intake of lutein was estimated to be 1.78 mg/person per day. The intake of lutein through diets is important in the prevention of diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases and also in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration. Objective: The aim of this study is to extract lutein from sweet potato leaves and determine its yield and to enhance the bioavailability. This study focuses on the effect of different types of processing conditions on the lutein content to determine the most desirable source which offers high yield and affordability.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002705
Title: Estimation of age from physiological changes of teeth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Age is an essential factor in establishing the identity of a person. Teeth are one of the most durable and resilient parts of the skeleton. Various methods of age estimation are in practice, but the first technique was discovered by Gustafson using six physiological retrogressive changes in the teeth. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the age of a person using the physiological changes occurring in the teeth. Materials and Methods: The six physiological changes in teeth are attrition, periodontal disease, root translucency, secondary dentin deposition, cementum apposition, and root resorption. These changes were studied in 20 persons. Teeth were selected, and the section was made. Degree of attrition and extent of periodontal disease were recorded before the extraction of the tooth. Tooth was extracted, preserved in formalin and then ground section was prepared by hand grinding. The root translucency was noted. Grinding was further done. Finally, cleaned and dried sectioned tooth was mounted on a slide and viewed under a microscope for secondary dentin deposition, cementum apposition, and root resorption. Data collected were statistically analyzed and results obtained. Results: The study sample consisted of 20 teeth (20 persons). 11 were female and 9 were male with maximum number of patients in 20–30 years age group. All six age-related changes were evaluated and the scores are given. Total score was plotted against actual age, and a regression line was drawn, and a regression formula was obtained - Y = 4.62X + 10.57 (X - total score, Y - estimated age). In age estimation, a mean error of 3.045 ± 0.55 years was observed. Conclusion: Among the various factors considered for determination of age, teeth are very useful as they are the most durable structures in the human body which are better preserved even in the acidic soil. Thus, six physiological factors of teeth (attrition, periodontal disease, secondary dentin deposition, root translucency, cementum apposition, and root resorption) can be utilized to identify the age of a person.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002706
Title: A review on smile arc - An orthodontist’s perspective
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Smile is one of the most important features of face contributes to the facial esthetics and also plays a significant role in personality development and social interaction. There are eight major components of a smile - lip line, smile arc, upper lip curvature, smile symmetry, lateral negative space, frontal occlusal plane, dental components, and gingival components. These components determine an attractive smile. A smile analysis can be conducted for better understanding of smile in the following sequence: General facial analysis, dentofacial analysis, dentolabial analysis, the dentogingival analysis, and finally the esthetic (dental) analysis. To achieve a balanced composition among the elements of the smile, it is important to consider the eight major components in the analysis while planning the orthodontic treatment. The aim of this review article was to explore the smile arc in smile analysis and the important aspects that have to be considered during smile designing. Clinical significance: While the patients visit an orthodontist to correct their unsatisfactory smile, the orthodontists tend to have their mind set on dental correction. Hence, it is mandatory that dental occlusion is made to synchronize with the overall orofacial esthetics as a part of smile designing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002708
Title: Analysis of phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Nowadays, natural remedies play an important role in the medicinal field. Medicinal plants are the potential source of medicinal substances. An enormous number of plant species has significant therapeutic value, and they are used by us to cure many disease conditions. Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to analyze bioactive constituents, and antimicrobial properties of aerial parts extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical compounds of C. halicacabum extract was evaluated by qualitative method and antimicrobial properties were screened against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans by agar well diffusion method. Results: The phytochemical screening of the extract indicated the presence of carbohydrates, protein, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, and tannins. This extract showed the significant antimicrobial activity against microorganisms tested. Conclusion: The traditional medicinal plant - C. halicacabum Linn possessed effective antimicrobial activity against human pathogens due to the existence of bioactive phytochemical compounds.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002709
Title: Guide flange prosthesis after mandibular resection - A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Country: India
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Loss of the continuity of the mandible destroys the balance and the symmetry of mandibular function, leading to altered mandibular movements and deviation of the fragment toward the surgical side. Surgical resection of mandible usually produces problems in prosthetic reconstruction such as mandibular deviation. An interdisciplinary approach is required between the oral surgeon and prosthodontist. The prosthodontist plays a key role in reestablishing normal or near-normal function in patients who have undergone mandibular resection in the course of removal of a neoplasm. The clinicians must wait for an extensive period of time for completion of healing and acceptance of the osseous graft before considering the definitive prosthesis. This case report describes early prosthodontic management (during initial healing period of the reconstructed mandible) of a patient who has undergone hemimandibulectomy treated with acrylic guidance flange prosthesis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002710
Title: Efficacy of custom-made mandibular advancement appliance on patients with obstructive sleep apnea: A prospective clinical trial
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: In edentulous patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), nocturnal use of oral appliance may be recommended as it shows improvement of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen saturation and increase in pharyngeal space overcoming the potential oral health risks. Hence, this prospective clinical trial is conducted to validate the efficacy of oral appliance at night in completely edentulous patients with OSA. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the volumetric changes in the airway using mandibular advancement device in completely edentulous patients with OSA. Materials and Methods: The eight completely edentulous subjects were included in this study. An adjustable mandibular advancement device (Medical Dental Sleep Appliance [MDSA]) was fabricated for each patient. Before the fabrication of the device, the baseline values for each patient were collected subjectively with an Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) questionnaire, and an objective evaluation from an overnight home sleep study (9 channel study) and volumetric assessment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done. Results: AHI reduced from 16.025 ± 5.47 to 14.050 ± 4.31 showing a 25% reduction, oxygen desaturation was 95.8 ± 1.48–95.06 ± 2.56 and snoring index was 110.35 ± 86.9–101.33 ± 80.42 which showed a minimal reduction and heart rate was 68.33 ± 8.7–70.75 ± 4.3 showing a minimal increase from the baseline values. MRI values showed statistical significance in the anteroposterior direction (P = 0.016) and lateral direction (P = 0.021). Conclusion: The nocturnal use of the oral appliance showed a significant effect on AHI, oxygen saturation, and snoring index, (ESS) which can reduce systemic implications in patients with OSA and can also be used as a treatment modality for patients with mild to moderate OSA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002711
Title: Quality of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students in Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of root canal treatment (RCT) performed by undergraduate (UG) dental students in Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals using radiographic records. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the radiographic technical quality of root canal fillings done by UG dental students in Saveetha Dental College based on the length of the obturation, density, and taper. Methods: A total of 107 post-operative obturation radiographs of RCT done by the UG students were collected. The quality of the filling based on the length of the obturation, density, and taper was assessed. Scores of 0, 1, and 2 were given by 2 experienced endodontists. Data collected were documented, and statistical analysis was done. Results: Perfectly acceptable length of the root filling was found in 36.27% of teeth, while 44% were acceptable length and 18.90% were unacceptable. Perfectly acceptable density was found in 16.77% of teeth, acceptable density was found in 60.41% of teeth, and unacceptable was found in 22.86% of teeth. Regarding the taper of the root canal filling, 19.30% were perfectly acceptable, 68.37% were acceptable, and 19.06% were unacceptable. The frequency of root canal with acceptable obturation was significantly higher than the acceptable. Conclusion: The technical quality of root canal filling performed by UG dental students was mostly acceptable. However, to improve the quality of treatment performed by these students, the course of endodontic has to be improved at both preclinical and clinical levels.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002712
Title: Effect of noni as a pre-procedural rinse in gingivitis patients: A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Morinda citrifolia (Noni) has been used for decades in traditional Asian medicine. It has a lot of pharmacological properties and clinical implications. It has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. It can be used in a number of diseases such as cancer, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and also female-specific problems. Noni also exerts its curative effect on gingivitis and periodontitis which are also inflammatory in nature. The most common form of the gingival disease is plaque-induced gingivitis which is caused due to the interaction between bacteria in the dental plaque, the tissues, and inflammatory cells of the host. There have been numerous research studies done in animals and humans to assess the effect of noni. This study was done to assess the effect of noni as a pre-procedural rinse. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients with moderate to severe gingivitis were selected for the study and divided into an experimental group (n = 5) and a control group (n = 5). The experimental group was given noni, and the control group was given chlorhexidine mouthwash as a pre-procedural rinse. Saliva samples were collected before and after the use of pre-procedural rinse from both the groups. The total colony-forming units were counted by inoculating nutrient agar by the pour plate method. Results: Noni (P = 0.039) as a pre-procedural rinse has statistically significant results compared to chlorhexidine (P = 0.061). Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of noni was seen to be effective in gingivitis patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002713
Title: In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of ajwain oil on enteric pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Essential oils are recently explored for many of their therapeutic potentials, and ajwail oil is traditionally well known for its diverse therapeutic uses. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of ajwain oil on selected enteric pathogens. Materials and Method: Different concentrations of ajwain oil (40, 80, and 100 µl/mL) were tested for its antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus Faecalis, and Klebsiella, using agar well diffusion technique using Mueller-Hinton agar. The zone of inhibition was measured to find the antibacterial activity of ajwain oil. Amikacin was used as the positive control. All the tests were done in triplicate to minimize the test error. Results: The study showed that ajwain oil exhibits antibacterial activity against the enteric pathogens in a dose-dependent manner, and the maximum activity was shown against E. coli with a zone of inhibition of 40 mm at the maximum dose used for the study. Conclusion: The antibacterial activity of ajwain oil against these microorganisms provides a scientific background for its use in infections caused by the tested organisms. The presence of thymol in the ajwain oil may be responsible for its antibacterial effect against E. coli, E. faecalis, and Klebsiella.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002714
Title: Comparison of oral microbiota among smokers and non-smokers - A pilot study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The relationship between humans and their oral microflora begins shortly after birth and lasts a lifetime. Cigarette smoking is a public health issue. It is the major cause of oral cancer, periodontitis, color change on the teeth, halitosis, and other health implications. It brings about a drastic decrease in the commensal population of normal flora in the oral cavity leading to an increase of pathogenic microbes. The study was designed to determine the changes caused by tobacco smoking on the microbial profile and oral health conditions of cigarette smokers. Materials and Methods: This study included 20 adults aged 18–65 years visiting the Dental Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. Patients were randomly selected depending on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the subjects signed informed consent and filled out Fagerstrom nicotine dependence test questionnaire. From each subject, one sample which was the swab from the buccal mucosa was obtained and sent to the microbiological laboratory for analysis of the presence of any microorganisms. Results: Staphylococcus and Bacillus species were the most prevalent bacterial isolate, followed by Enterococcus and Micrococcus species among smokers, while Streptococcus was the most prevalent isolates among nonsmokers followed by Enterococcus and Bacillus species. Conclusion: Smokers had a diverse microbial colonization than nonsmokers. Our study suggests that smoking alters bacterial acquisition and oral mucosal colonization in favor of periodontal pathogens. Awareness should be created for the public on the health implication of smoking and poor oral practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002715
Title: Medicinal and therapeutic uses of Rauwolfia serpentina - Indian snakeroot
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Rauwolfia curving usually referred to as the Indian snakeroot or devil pepper may be a species of the flower within the dicot family. It’s native to the Indian subcontinents and East Asia. Associate degree erect under-shrub, it’s a species of flowering plants. The leaves are 7–10 cm long, spear-shaped. The flowers are one in long, white and violet. It contains nectar at the deep of the curl tube. The blooming time is within the month of August and Gregorian calendar month. The foundation is branched and stem. It’s used as a helpful herb within the Ayurveda, and homeopathy treatments. The plant grows well in extremely acidic and neutral soil. In India, it’s seen in Jammu and geographical region, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, state, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, MP, Tamil Nadu, Assam, Punjab, geographic area, and alternative North East regions. It’s additionally according to China and South East Asia. Completely different species of it are according in South America, Europe, Africa, and Australia. Rauwolfia curving is mature beneath a good vary of climate conditions. It flourished in hot, wet conditions and may be mature each within the sun and in partial shade. In its natural surroundings, the plant thrives beneath the shade of forest trees. It prefers a tropical or sub-tropical belt having the good thing about monsoon rains, ideally the South- west. Localities within the Deccan land that are with additional equitable climate throughout the year as compared to the sub-Himalayan tracts are aforesaid to be additional suited to a profitable cultivation of this plant. A climate with a temperature varies of 10–30% looks to be suited to this plant.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002716
Title: Knowledge and attitude toward stem cell therapy in health and disease
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the ability to divide and give rise to identical and undifferentiated cells. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a life-saving treatment for numerous diseases including malignant conditions, immune disorders, and certain inherited metabolic diseases. Research evidence showed great benefits of stem cell therapy such as a successful treatment of leukemia and many other hematologic disorders. Aim: This survey is done to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of medical students toward stem cell therapy in health and disease. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional survey where a questionnaire consisting of 10 questions were distributed to 100 individuals of age group 18–24 and the results were evaluated. The survey was carried out using a self-administered, anonymous, 29 item, structured, hand, and mail-delivered questionnaire. Results: This study is done to evaluate the knowledge and attitude toward stem cell therapy in health and disease in medical students where majority of the students were aware of stem cell therapy in various diseases. Conclusion: Majority of the medical students are aware of the use of stem cells in various medical and dental therapies in health and diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002717
Title: Estimation of luteinizing hormone level among obese individuals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Luteinizing hormone (LH), also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin, is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. In females, an acute rise of LH (“LH surge”) triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum. The main aim of this study is to explore the association between LH levels on obese individuals. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly selected from the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospital and divided into two groups. Each group consists of 25 individuals of age group 18– 35 years. Group I consists of normal healthy individuals and Group II consists of obese individuals. Body mass index (BMI) is a person’s weight in kilogram divided by the square of height in meter. BMI more than 1 Class II was included, and BMI more than Class III were excluded from this study. Result: All the data were analyzed using SPSS package. Paired sample t-test analysis was performed to find the significant differences between the two groups. All the tests were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. The control LH level was found to be 5.986 ± 13.54. The level of LH in obese patients is 12.88 ± 6.69. This is the deviation of LH level between obese individuals and normal individual. In this study, there is a positive correlation of LH which is highly significant in overweight/obese women. Conclusion: Through this research, we get to know that obese girls also show reduced LH pulse amplitude throughout puberty. Low LH amplitude in obese girls may be analogous to the inverse relationship between BMI and both mean LH and LH amplitude in polycystic ovarian syndrome, which in part reflects reduced gonadotrope responsiveness to GnRH and increased LH clearance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002718
Title: A survey on preference among parent in board of education for senior secondary education
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Examinations are tests which are conducted to select a student who is eligible for the college. They are done to test the efficiency and the student’s capacity and capabilities. In the recent years, there has been an increasing number of entrance examinations emerging to test the abilities of the student. The entrance examinationsyllabus is mainly on the senior secondary syllabus. Hence, with the increase in entrance examinations, parent’s opinions on the board of education for their children in senior secondary education would have changed drastically. The main aim of this study is to find the preference among parents in the board of education for senior secondary education. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared and was given to the parents. 50 parents were asked to fill the questionnaire. Their responses were filled online, and they are analyzed statistically. Results: The questionnaire results were noted, and all the answers were statistically analyzed. Parents think that CBSE is much more preferred for entrance examination. Conclusion: We have come to know the preference among the parents in the senior secondary board of education. CBSE Board is more preferred because of its syllabus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002719
Title: A survey-based study of sleep cycle patterns among dental and management students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Sleep is an essential daily requirement, absence of which has serious physiological consequences. Getting enough sleep is an underestimated but critical part of learning. Too little sleep can lead to an increase in body weight by changing levels of the hormones that control satiety and hunger, resulting in overeating, overweight, and obesity. The aim of this study is to study and compare the sleeping patterns of BDS and management students. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire-based study. An online form is circulated among 100 BDS and 100 Management students which will include questions regarding the sleeping habits of an individual and the factors that affect it. Students answer this online questionnaire enquiring their sleeping patterns and the reasons for their irregular sleeping pattern. Results are obtained using proper statistical methods, and the sleep pattern of students is studied. Result: In general, it was observed that management students had a more sufficient sleep cycle than BDS students. A larger proportion of management students slept for more than 8 h, and their main cause for late-bed timing was watching movies and listening to music whereas BDS students had a smaller sleep-span and spent more time studying late into the night. Conclusion: BDS students followed a more stressful sleep cycle than management students. Thus, the sleeping pattern of management students, though disrupted, is better cycle than that of BDS students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002720
Title: Awareness on the effects of caffeine among students - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Caffeine acts as a natural stimulant by activating central nervous system mainly in concentration, memory enhancement, and physical performance improvement. Chronic caffeine consumption lowers the risk rate of developing neurogenerative diseases. The main aim of this study is to create awareness on the effects of caffeine among students. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire-based study was carried out online through a SurveyPlanet link about 350 participants. The participants who undertook the survey were undergraduate students of various medical and dental colleges. A total of 30 questions were given and it was based on to detect the awareness of the effects of caffeine on the body, addiction of caffeine intake, and its withdrawal symptoms. Based on the responses from the subjects, statistical analysis was performed and the results were tabulated systematically. Results: Around 78.9% were found to admit that they consume caffeine, among which around 69.8% preferred to consume in the form of coffee/tea, 27.1% in the form of Coke/Pepsi, etc., and 3.1% as energy drinks such as Redbull and Monster Energy. 44.3% of the subjects believed that it was habitual and only 9% believed they are addicted to caffeine and 15.4% don’t know the reason why they are taking caffeine. 65.4% of the subjects stated that they will limit their caffeine consumption after going through this questionnaire and participating in this survey. Conclusion: Caffeine has been demonstrated to increment sharpness as well as alertness level of the individual and has preference among the students. Uncontrolled admission of caffeine may cause unfavorable impacts, for which there is a need to keep a check on the admission of caffeine. More research might be required to edify the general public on the consumption of caffeine and its antagonistic impacts for the well-being of the society.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002721
Title: Evaluation of peak expiratory flow rate among periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent oral diseases worldwide. According to the WHO, about 60– 70% of populations having respiratory diseases due to periodontitis. Peak expiratory flow also called peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is a person’s maximum rate and speed of expiration. The aim of this study is to evaluate the PEFR among periodontitis individuals. Materials and Methods: Patients were selected from the Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals and divided into two groups; each group consists of 20 individuals. Group I consists of normal healthy individuals and the other group consists of individuals with periodontal disease. Results: The results were obtained and used paired t-test for significance. The PEFRs are 420 ± 21.37 and 317 ± 21.05 in control and periodontitis individuals, respectively. P values for these criteria were <0.005. Conclusion: This study revealed that expiratory flow rate for periodontitis has lesser than normal individuals. Hence, by maintaining good oral health and hygiene will be helpful for reducing the incidence rate of respiratory diseases due to periodontitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002723
Title: Association of insulin and insulin resistance in obese people
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. It is a disease that is highly prevalent at all ages and is quickly reaching pandemic proportions. Obese people were having higher chance of getting cardio arrest and diabetes mellitus type 2. This study is conducted to calculate the insulin and insulin resistance (IR) level in obese patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients were selected from the outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. An informed consent was obtained from the patient before sample collection. 5 ml of fasting venous blood was collected and distributed in plain collection tubes and centrifuged in 3000 rpm for serum. Then, serum was separated and analyzed to estimate the fasting blood sugar (FBS) by glucose oxidase-peroxidase method using ERBA CHEM 5 plus analyzer. Insulin was analyzed by ROBONIK ELISA READER. IR was calculated by HOMO IR calculation. Result: The means FBS, insulin, and IR were high in obese individuals when compared to healthy individuals. The serum of FBS, insulin, and IR level in control group was 9.3 ± 8.29, 3.63 ± 2.02, and 0.83 ± 0.43, respectively. The serum level of FBS, insulin, and IR level in obese group was 100.3 ± 17.04, 7.81 ± 1.73, and 1.93 ± 0.47, respectively. There was significant difference between these two groups with P < 0.0001. Conclusion: From this research, we have found that, in obese individuals, the level of IR, FBS level, and the insulin level was high as compared to normal individual.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002725
Title: Evaluating the effects of video games on blood pressure and heart rate
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Heart rate and blood pressure (BP) are measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person’s health. Two types of video games are used, and a comparative study is done. This is useful because it helps in comparing the amount of stress given by a M-rated game when compared to a E-rated game. This study on video games and heart rate was conducted to find the effects of video games on the health. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 individuals between the age group of 12 and 18 were selected (both males and females) for this study. They were allowed to play two games - one E rated and another M rated. Their heart rate and BP were recorded before and after the games using an electronic BP monitor. The data were recorded and assessed. Result: The normal average values of systole, diastole, and heart rate were found to be 127.5 mmHg, 86 mmHg, and 84 bpm, respectively. After E-rated games, the values were found to be 128.3 mmHg, 86.4 mmHg, and 85 bpm, respectively. After playing M-rated games, the systole was found to be 130.67 mmHg, diastole was 87 mmHg, and the heart rate was 87 bpm. Conclusion: The study revealed that M-rated games increased BP and heart rate more when compared to E-rated game. The comparative study between variation in heart rate of males and females shows that variation is more prominent in males than in females.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002726
Title: A survey on awareness and perception about tattoos among college students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Tattooing simply involves insertion of various colored pigments into the skin’s underlying dermis. Tattoos are used to represent various cultures, to commemorate a special life event, to express affection to important people, and to show self-identification. It has been found that people with multiple tattoos can handle stress better, have higher cortisol and immunoglobulin A levels. The aim of this survey was to create awareness about the beneficiary and side effects of tattoos and also to study the perception about tattoos. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 134 students of the age group of 17–22 years. The students were both from professional and vocational streams. The questionnaire contained 15 questions which assessed the awareness about the benefits and side effects of tattoos and tried assessing the perception people held about tattooed people when compared to normal people. The survey was conducted online, and the results were interpreted using proper statistical analysis tools. Results: The surveys main goal is to understand the view that people hold toward tattooed people. Almost 42% of the sample responded that they would not feel uncomfortable if a tattooed person serves them in a public place. Almost 75% of the sample space responded that they would not judge a tattooed person differently when compared to a non-tattooed person. Almost 77% of the sample population was not sure about the health risks related to the art of tattooing. Almost 80% of the population responded that they were not aware that multiple tattoos can strengthen the immune system. Conclusion: Most of the adolescent populations were not quite aware of the health risks linked toward faulty tattooing, and most of the population’s perceptions were quite positive toward tattooed people.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002727
Title: Depression control with drugs - Is it worth it
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Depression has become a universal problem among people. Depression is a mood disorder characterized by pessimism and sadness. Clinical and pre-clinical studies suggest that stress is the key mediator in the pathophysiology of depression. The extent of depression is so much that, sometimes, suicide is attempted. Antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors provide relief from depression but can have side effects such as blurred vision, nausea, and dizziness. These antidepressants also have withdrawal effects such as crying spells, irritability, and vivid dreams. The review considers the literature on major depression beginning with its types, its brief historical overview, symptoms, cause of depression, treatment, side effects of prolonged treatment, and alternative treatment. The objective of this paper as a pharmacist is to understand the causes of depression and to highlight that, instead of relying on antidepressants which have more of side effects, one should go for psychotherapy, meditation, yoga, cognitive, and behavior therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002728
Title: Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals, antibacterial activity, and mycelial growth inhibition of three different plants
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The objective of this study was to screen the phytochemical compounds, antibacterial activity, and mycelial growth inhibition of three different medicinal plants, namely Couroupita guianensis, Morinda tinctoria, and Tabernaemontana divaricata. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of methanolic leaf extracts was determined by well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined by seeded agar technique and its phytochemical screening was also performed. Results: Among three plants, C. guianensis methanolic leaf extract shows better antibacterial activity. In mycelial growth inhibition, all three plants possess complete mycelial growth inhibition against some tested fungi, but C. guianensis leaf extract possesses better inhibition against all tested fungi. Conclusion: Among three different plants, C. guianensis methanolic leaf extract exhibited better antimicrobial activity and this may be due to the presence of phenolic compounds, tannin, and terpenoids.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002729
Title: Cancer nanotechnology: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Cancer is a highly complex disease. The challenges encountered in cancer detection and management include delayed detection, invasive investigation methods such as biopsy, comorbidity due to non-specific systemic distribution, inadequate drug concentration, and inability to monitor therapeutic responses. Through this article, we would like to throw some light on the use of nanotechnology and nanoparticles in the early detection and management of cancer, their advantages, limitations, and the various recent advancements in the field of nanomedicine and their use for the treatment of cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002730
Title: Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activities of Croton macrostachyus stem bark extracts
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Croton macrostachyus (Broad-leaved Croton), belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, has been used for the treatment of several human health problems including diabetes, malaria, and dysentery. An emerging antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens brings the most serious public health problems. Therefore, scientists are forced to explore new antibacterial agents from the medicinal plants. Objective: The present study aimed to analyze and evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol and methanolic extracts of C. macrostachyus stem barks against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, and Shigella boydii. Materials and Methods: The stem barks of C. macrostachyus were extracted with ethanol and methanol and the antibacterial activities were evaluated against test bacteria by agar disk diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentrations were determined using broth dilution method. Results: The results revealed that the ethanolic extracts of C. macrostachyus stem bark showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 150 mg/ml with the zone of inhibition of 18.00 ± 1.00 mm and 16.66 ± 0.57 mm, respectively. S. typhi was the most resistant bacterial pathogen to both crude extracts showing inhibition zones of 13.0 ± 1.0 mm and 14.66 ± 0.57 with methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. macrostachyus at 150 mg/ml, respectively. Phytochemical screening of the methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. macrostachyus indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and steroids while flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of C. macrostachyus served as a potential source of natural antibacterial agents, further purification of the active chemical compounds and testing them against a variety of pathogenic bacteria is suggested for the future for the development of therapeutic antibiotics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002731
Title: Analysis of quality and quantity control of herbal compounds using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy: A review journal
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Combination Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with multivariate calibration, namely chemometrics, has been developed for identification and quantification of the second metabolite in herbal medicine. Chemometric methods with the advance of computer technology have become a leading tool among the scientific communities toward faster analysis and shorter results. Among others, principal component analysis (PCA) is the most often multivariate method used for handling the data without prior knowledge about the samples. For assign, unknown samples into the pre-defined class models have also been applied to the analysis of IR spectra, using soft independent modeling of class analogy based on making PCA models. Review of these methods is an alternative technique for quality control of raw material that is rapid, no sample preparation, and not involving solvents and reagents. This paper summarizes how FTIR is used to quantify different quality and second metabolite from raw materials of herbal medicine. Hence, FTIR spectroscopy can turn out to be potent alternative roommates over other analytical methods which are time consuming and laborious.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002732
Title: Role of magnesium in the expression of MSX-1 and PAX9 molecules during early tooth development
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Oligodontia is defined as the congenital absence of more than five teeth excluding the third molars. This severe form of tooth agenesis is associated with systemic entities, multiorgan syndromes or can appear in an isolated sporadic form or as an isolated family characteristic. Among those notable for their relationship to oligodontia are PAX9, MSX1, and AXIN2, MSX1 is transcription factors expressed in the mesenchyme during the initial stages of dental development in response to epithelial signals. Aim: To analyse the role of magnesium in the expression of MSX-1 and PAX9 molecules during early tooth development.Materials and Method:The orofacial cleft DNA samples and normal DNA isolated purchased from Acme Progen Ltd., India, and gene expression of Msx-1 and Pax9 was studied. Results: The elective tooth agenesis is associated with mutations in human MSX and PAX9 genes. Pax9 and Msx1 are coexpressed during craniofacial development and an early arrest of tooth formation. Earlier studies have demonstrated that protein-protein interactions between Pax9 and Msx1 can occur; it is unclear so we aim to study this using gene expression techniques. The data also suggest that a combined reduction of PAX9 and MSX1 gene dosage in humans may increase the risk for orofacial clefting and oligodontia. Conclusion: Magnesium increased the expression of these genes and helped in prevention of orofacial clefting.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002733
Title: Targeted drug delivery systems used in dentistry - A short review
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Targeted drug delivery is a specialized form of drug delivery which involves the controlled release of drugs in the desired location over a period of time. The main goal of target drug delivery system is to prolong, localize the target action to provide a protected drug interaction with the diseased tissues. The drug is delivered selectively to targeted areas of action or absorption and helps in preventing damage to non-targeted cells, tissues or organs. It provides a better method of drug delivery when compared to systemic dosage forms. These drugs are in the form of nanoparticles which are released in the target area, thereby avoiding interactions with healthy tissues. This can be achieved through means of active targeting or passive targeting in the region of diseased tissues. Drugs can be delivered through different vehicles such as polymeric micelles, liposomes, lipoprotein based drug carriers, nanoparticle drug carriers and dendrimers. These drug delivery systems have various applications including stem cell therapy, regenerative procedures and cancer treatments. In dentistry, the various drugs administered through this technique which is found to be beneficial in patients with gingivitis, periodontitis and other oral diseases. This study was done to assess the benefits of these target drug delivery systems to prevent discomfort or any other side effects for the patients and to analyze its scope in future dental practice. Hence, this review article aims at critically analyzing the different local drug delivery systems used in dentistry and analyze the indications, contraindications, benefits, and side effects of these systems for their effective use in patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002734
Title: An assessment of the erosive potential of commonly used Indian spices
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Spices are an important part of Indian cooking. They not only increase the flavor of food but also have several medicinal and antibacterial properties. However, these spices can lower the pH of the mouth thereby causing erosion of the teeth. This study aims at assessing the erosive potential of the spices which are commonly used. Materials and Methods: Five extracted lower molars were chosen, and five commonly used spices were selected - chili powder, turmeric powder, cumin powder, coriander powder, and garam masala. 5 g of each individual spice powder was mixed with 50 ml of water to obtain an aqueous solution. The obtained mixture was stirred vigorously to get a homogenous solution. One tooth was immersed in each homogenous spice solution and left undisturbed for a period of 10 days. After 10 days the tooth was removed from the solution the iodide permeability test was used to evaluate the erosion of the teeth. Results: According to our study turmeric powder has the highest erosive potential whereas coriander powder had the least erosive effect. Conclusion: All the spices had an erosive effect on the tooth immersed in them; hence, we should consume all spices with caution.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002735
Title: Prevalence of common dental diseases in 6–15-year-old children visiting Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to find out the prevalence of common dental diseases in 6–15-year-old children visiting Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. Background: Dental disease in primary teeth has been widely studied in many countries worldwide. Since it is known to be one of the most common oral diseases of childhood, there are insufficient studies that prove information’s on dental diseases that are common in children. Materials and Methods: The samples were composed of 108 subjects of both sexes and data were collected in the Department of Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. The study was gathered by clinical examination of the various pediatric patients. Results: The number of male participants in the study was 72 and the number of female participants was 36. From the given clinical study, the most common dental disease occurring between the ages of 6–15 years old is dental caries having a count of 36%. Gingivitis seen in children was found to be 24%. Malocclusion of teeth was a complaint in about 16% of participants, while broken teeth due to trauma add to 10% followed by mobility, which was diagnosed in about 8% of the participants. Stains of the anterior teeth region were found to be only 6%. Conclusion: From the present survey, it can be concluded that the most common dental diseases occurring are caries, while the least commonly occurring is the stains.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002737
Title: Recent developments in dental plaque
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to study the efficiency of erythrosine and fluorescein dye as a disclosing agent in identifying dental plaque. Objective: The objective of this study is to disclose dental plaque with erythrosine and fluorescein. Methodology: The study included 30 child patients reported to the Department of Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry of Saveetha Dental College. Erythrosine and fluorescein dyes were applied for disclosing dental plaque in 30 children of age group 6–14 years. The color difference was noted. Result: It was found that fluorescein differentiates between soft tissues and the plaques more appropriately as it stains the plaque and the soft tissue with different colors. In contrast, erythrosine stained both the surrounding tissues and plaque with red. Therefore, fluorescein disclosed plaque in a more efficient way. Conclusion: Since erythrosine stained both the tooth structure and the surrounding tissue red, it is hard to differentiate the disclosed plaque. On the other hand, fluorescein stained the tooth structure yellow and the surrounding structures as green, so it was easy to differentiate from the surrounding tissue. Hence, this study concludes that fluorescein is advantageous over erythrosine in this aspect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002738
Title: Comprehensive review on ultrasound and microwave extraction of pectin from agro-industrial wastes
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities. Food wastage and its accumulation are becoming a critical problem around the globe due to the continuous increase in the world population. The exponential growth in food waste is imposing serious threats to our society such as environmental pollution, health risk, and scarcity of dumping land. Food waste is a rich source of essential components such as protein, carbohydrate, oil, mineral, and fat that can be converted to many value-added products. In conclusion, there is a necessity of eco-friendly technologies to develop and utilize agro-industrial wastes as a powerful source of alternative food products or food additives such as pectin, starch, protein, and cellulose and as well as of proper methods of food waste management that can prevent it.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-FPE-00002739
Title: Comprehensive review on cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose from agro-industrial wastes
Category: Food Processing and Engineering
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Food additives supply to the overall convenience, protection, value, nutritive importance, and economy of foods. In the current trends, functional carbohydrates such as cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose from agro-industrial waste gained a major concern as a derived raw material due to the considerable amount, low cost, renewable nature sources, and environmental issue associated to the current most regular ways of clearance. Polysaccharides are fruitfully employed in food industrial sector for their physicochemical properties and the pharmaceutical industrial sector because of their antigenic properties. Environment-friendly technologies develop and utilize agro-industrial wastes as a source of alternative food products.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002740
Title: Knowledge and awareness about the importance of undergoing early orthodontic treatment, the importance of undergoing functional and myofunctional appliance, and acceptance among public
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, awareness, and attitude about the importance of undergoing early orthodontic treatment, functional and myofunctional appliance therapy, and acceptance among public. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire with 15 questions were printed and distributed among patients and general public and their responses regarding the importance of undergoing early orthodontic treatment, functional and myofunctional appliance therapy were recorded. Results: The results were interpreted in pie chart, and the patients and general public were aware of the condition but were not completely aware of the treatment procedure, treatment timing, the sequential timeline followed for each procedure, and in managing the skeletal jaw base problems. Conclusion: The knowledge, awareness, and attitude about the importance of undergoing early orthodontic treatment, functional and myofunctional appliance therapy, and acceptance among public are necessary for proper timely care and efficient treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002741
Title: Estimation of bacterial load in iPad and mobile phones used by dentist in clinics
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate the amount of bacterial load in iPad and mobile phones used by a dentist in clinics. Background: Microscopic organisms surround us on all sides. Gadgets such as iPad and mobile phones may serve as the breeding site for microbes associated with skin. iPad and mobile phones are the most essential accessories for professionals, and it becomes a part of day-to-day life. It also acts as a potential microbiological threat to transfer contamination from place to place. Method: The sample collected was 20 in number of which 10 samples were obtained from mobile phones and 10 samples from iPad’s. The samples were inoculated into brain heart infusion agar using spread plate technique. The culture plates were inoculated at 37°C for 24 h and observed for microbial growth. The colony forming units were manually counted and tabulated. Result: This study shows that the mobile phones and iPad used by dentist were contaminated with various microorganisms. Conclusion: The main aim of the study is to insight the dentist regarding the use of iPad and mobile phones in clinics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002742
Title: Morphological changes of the mandibular condyle following orthodontic treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Morphological changes of the condyle are a sequel of orthodontic treatment which can be noted radiographically. Morphological changes can be either in the form of condylar remodeling or resorption. Condylar resorption is an idiopathic condition and affects female more common, with a female-to-male ratio of 9:1. A number of diseases can cause condylar resorption which include osteoarthritis, reactive arthritis, and avascular necrosis. Condylar resorption is characterized by severe morphologic changes with decreased condylar configuration and volume, and decreased ramus height, therefore, leading to relapse after orthodontic treatment. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphological changes in the head of the condyle following orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The post- and pre-operative records were collected from 20 patients who underwent ortho treatment in the Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. For radiographic evaluation of condylar changes (resorption), orthopantomograph (OPG) was advised. The post- and pre-treatment OPG was traced using tracing paper, in which a ramus tangent and a line perpendicular to it through the superior point of the condyle were drawn. The distance from the top of the condyle to the inferior point of tangent was measured as the height of the ramus. Height-to-width ratio of the condyle was measured. The surface of the condyle was subdivided into superior, anterior, and posterior part. Condyle was classified based on modified Krajenbrink classification. Data obtained were analyzed and results obtained. Results: The result revealed that of 20 patients, 19 patients had condylar remodeling. Conclusion: It is concluded from our study that orthodontic treatment over a long period of time can cause changes in morphology of the mandibular condyle.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002743
Title: Genotypic characterization of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from patient undergoing endodontic treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Enterococcus faecalis, the predominant human enterococcus, has been also related to oral diseases, such as caries, endodontic infections, periodontitis, and peri-implantitis. It has been frequently implicated in failure of endodontic treatment, due to high resistance to endodontic medicaments, and the ability to form recalcitrant biofilms both in treated and untreated root canals. The aim of the study is genotypic characterization of E. faecalis isolated from patient undergoing endodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The purpose of the study was to isolate the virulent genes causing endodontic treatment failure by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. A total of 40 isolates of E. faecalis were collected from patients undergoing endodontic treatment. The samples were inoculated in MacConkey Agar and Brain Infusion Agar. DNA was extract, quantified and identified spectrometrically and electrophoretically. The gene enterococcal surface protein (ESP) was amplified by PCR amplification technique using specific primer and conditions. Result: Among the results of PCR for virulence gene screening 25 (62.5%) showed amplification of ESP gene. Conclusion: Virulence factors of E. faecalis enable adherence to host tissue, invasion, and modulation of host inflammatory response, and secretion of various products which enhance biofilm formation. Hence, we can conclude that there may be a correlation between virulence factors detected and pathogenicity of E. faecalis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002744
Title: Adjunct techniques for painless intraoral local anesthesia - A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Local pain management is a critical aspect of patient care in most dental procedures. Pain management is also of paramount importance to enable patient comfort which, in turn, results in patient compliance and satisfaction with the ongoing dental therapy. This overview of adjunctive equipment available today provides the practitioner an array of options to effectively manage the pain associated with dental procedures. We searched PubMed central for related topics from 1998 to July 2017. All studies and articles that compared novel techniques of administration of painless intraoral local anesthesia during extractions, root canal therapy, and other minor surgeries were selected for this review. Reduced post-operative pain and improved patient compliance (outcome) were evaluated on the use of the novel techniques. No significant differences were found between the various novel adjunct methods of administration of intraoral local anesthesia. Further, high-quality studies assessing the efficacy and cost-efficiency of various modes of administration are required to confirm the utility of advanced adjunct techniques for painless intraoral anesthesia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002745
Title: In vitro evaluation of the inhibitory effect of lutein from marigold flower on sorbitol accumulation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: In diabetic state, the slow and steady activation of sorbitol pathway results in augmented accumulation of intracellular sorbitol which ultimately ends in diabetic complications. By preventing the intracellular accumulation of sorbitol, diabetic-related complications can be averted. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lutein from marigold flowers on sorbitol accumulation. Materials and Methods: Sorbitol accumulation in the presence of lutein was evaluated by fluorescent spectrophotometry. Heparinized rat blood was used for the study. 200 μl of washed erythrocytes was added to 1 ml of Hank’s balanced salt solution containing various concentrations of lutein or ascorbic acid (5–100 μg/ml). The reaction mixture contained the appropriate protein-free supernatant, 50 mM glycine buffer, 0.2 mM NAD+, and 1.28 units of sorbitol dehydrogenase. The mixture was incubated at 37°C for 30 min, and the relative fluorescence due to NADH was measured by a fluorescence spectrometer at an excitation wavelength of 366 nm and an emission wavelength of 452 nm. The experiments were performed in triplicates. Results: In the present study, lutein inhibited the sorbitol accumulation with maximum percentage inhibition of 81.58 ± 0.51% at 100 µg/ml. Standard ascorbic acid showed maximum percentage of 84 ± 0.68% at similar concentration. The half maximal inhibitory concentration value of lutein against sorbitol accumulation was found to be 38.39 µg/ml and that of the ascorbic acid was 37.37 µg/ml. Conclusion: Prevention of intracellular sorbitol accumulation is a widely recommended concept to avert diabetes-related complications. Hence, lutein may be used judiciously for the control of diabetic complications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002746
Title: Morphological and morphometric analysis of mandible bone for determination of sex
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Mandible is the largest, strongest, and lowest bone in the human face. It is the sexually dimorphic bone of skull. Sex of an unknown individual is determined based on the morphology and metric features of skull and mandible. The aim of the study is to determine the sex of unknown human adult mandible using metrical parameters. Materials and Methods: A random collection of undamaged human adult mandibles of South Indian population at the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, was subjected to metrical parameters such as bigonial breadth, bicondylar breadth, and mandibular length and also ramus height as well as the shape of chin to determine their sex. Results: The mean values of all the metric parameters were higher in males than that of females. The difference is significant for all kind of metric parameters. Conclusion: It is concluded that a morphological and morphometric parameters are very helpful to determine the sex of the mandible.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002747
Title: Hematological parameters in severe chronic periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Chronic periodontitis is a chronic infectious, inflammatory disease associated with various systemic conditions. Anemia is big social problem. It is mainly due to bone marrow deficiency or disorder and iron deficiency. However, anemia may be due to chronic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplastic disorders also, which is called anemia of inflammation. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association between anemia and chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects were divided into 2 groups of healthy (25 individuals) and chronic periodontitis (25 individuals) from dental Outpatient Department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) count, and packed cell volume (PCV) using BC 2300 MINDRAY HEMATOLOGY analyzer. Statistical analysis was performed using student t-test. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Result: Mean Hb level, RBC count, and PCV of healthy individuals were 14.14 ± 1.86, 5.28 ± 0.63, and 43.27 ± 5.83 and chronic periodontitis patients were 7.29 ± 1.68, 4.09 ± 0.99, and 25.9 ± 8.93, respectively. They were significantly lower in chronic periodontitis patients when compared to healthy individuals with P = 0.0001. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that severe chronic periodontitis is strongly associated with anemia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002749
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and attitude on cleft lip and palate management among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, awareness, and attitude on cleft lip and palate management among dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire with 10 questions was printed and distributed among dental undergraduate students and knowledge, awareness, and attitude on cleft lip and palate management was assessed. Results: The results were interpreted in pie chart, and the undergraduate dental students were aware of the condition but were not completely aware of the treatment procedure, treatment timing, the sequential timeline followed for each procedure and the role of each specialty in managing the cleft lip and palate. Conclusion: The knowledge, awareness, and attitude on cleft lip and palate management among dental students is necessary for proper timely care and efficient treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002750
Title: Validation of a facial image scale to assess child dental anxiety
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study aims to examine the validity of a scale that uses faces as an indicator to evaluate the children’s dental anxiety. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 children (age: 5–18 years) and their parents/guardians were approached in the waiting area of the Department of Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry, Saveetha Dental Hospital. They were asked if they would agree to take part in a study investigating on how children emotionally feel about the dentist. Two scales, namely facial image scale (FIS) and Venham picture test (VPT), were used. The FIS comprises a row of five faces ranging from very happy to very unhappy. The children were asked to point at which face they felt most like at that moment. The VPT comprises eight cards, with two figures on each card, one anxious figure and one non-anxious figure. The children were asked to point at the figure they felt most like at that moment. All cards were shown in their numbered order. The VPT was administered first, with every second participant to control for order effects. Both scales were shown to the children held at an angle such that the parent could not see the choice their child was making, each parent was also asked not to contribute to their child’s choice. Results: A strong correlation was found between the two scales, indicating good validity for the FIS. Findings also showed that a small, but significant, number of children are anxious in the dental context. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the FIS is a valid means of assessing child dental anxiety status in a clinical context.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002759
Title: Relationship between nasolabial angle and maxillary incisor proclination in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to find the relationship between maxillary incisor proclination and nasolabial angle (NLA). Reason: Most orthodontic treatment with proclined anteriors was treated by extracting premolars and retracting the anterior teeth. As the teeth get retracted, the lips fall back and the NLA increases. Even though there is a thought that proclined upper anteriors lead to an acute NLA and as teeth are retracted, the NLA would also increase, and we have come across a few cases where the anterior teeth severely proclined, but still the NLA is obtuse or normal. Hence, this study is undertaken to find the correlation between NLA and proclined anteriors.Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 114 patients were traced, and the values of NLA and angle of maxillary incisor inclination in S-N plane were found out. The correlation was found using Pearson correlation coefficient(r) test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Lateral cephalograms of 57 males and 57 females were analyzed, and average NLA was found to be 96.28 and 92.73°, respectively. Furthermore, the average maxillary incisor inclination was 32.4° and 33.18° for males and females, respectively. The Pearson correlation value was calculated as 0.175 for males and 0.086 for females and its coefficient of determination as 0.0306 and 0.0074, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that, for males and females, t value was found to be 26.156 and 17.263, respectively. Similarly, P value was found to be <0.00001 in both males and females. Conclusion: There is a positive correlation between the NLA and inclination of the maxillary incisors. It is, thus, important to record soft tissue details and utilize them during diagnosis and treatment so that both functional and esthetic harmony is obtained.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002760
Title: Comparative study on the sleeping pattern between hostellers and day-scholars among the South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Sleep affects physical growth, mental growth, behavior and emotional development besides determining cognitive functioning, learning, and attention. Apart from physiological, psychological and environmental factors, sociocultural factors also play a major role in determining sleep pattern of a person. Troubled sleep is considered both a predictive sign and symptom of many illnesses and is associated with a large amount of problems in the quality of life. Hence, the aim of this study is to compare the sleeping pattern between the day-scholars and hostlers among South Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study is the questionnaire-based survey. The survey questionnaire comprises questions pertaining to a comparative study on the sleeping pattern between hostellers and day-scholars among South Indian population. This survey was administered to the participants through the survey planet link. The result obtained was statistically analyzed. The survey was conducted among 100 students in South Indian population. Results: From the survey, it has been concluded that there a high prevalence of insufficient sleep and irregular bedtime schedule among day-scholars and hostellers. Conclusion: Sleep is very important for an individual to function normally in life. Continuous irregularity in sleep may lead to conditions of insomnia as well as lead to dark circles and sluggishness during the day. Hence, adequate and peaceful sleep is very much required and should be followed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002761
Title: A systematic review on obsessive-compulsive disorder
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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A wide range of psychiatric and medical disorders have been hypothesized to be related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and thus, together, to form a family of disorders known as obsessive-compulsive (or OCD) spectrum disorder. The grouping of these conditions is based on their phenomenological similarities with OCD (i.e., obsessive thinking and/ or compulsive behaviors), as well as their having courses of illness, comorbidity and family history patterns, biological abnormalities, and treatment responses similar to OCD. Proposed OCD spectrum disorders have included body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, anorexia nervosa, trichotillomania, and some forms of delusional disorder, and among others. However, conditions with impulsive features have also been hypothesized to belong to this family, including impulse control disorders in general, paraphilias and nonparaphilic sexual addictions, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, and Tourette’s disorder. We review the evidence supporting the grouping of these conditions into an OCD spectrum disorder family. We conclude that these disorders are different in some ways from OCD, but that they also have many similarities with OCD, and may, therefore, be related to one another and OCD. In addition, we hypothesize that some of the differences among them may be explained in part by variation along a dimension of compulsivity versus impulsivity. Finally, because most of these conditions appear to be related to mood disorder, we hypothesize that the OCD spectrum disorder family may belong to the larger family of affective spectrum disorder. OCD is an anxiety disorder, characterized by repetitive unwanted obsessions and compulsions, with a prevalence of 0.5–1%-4% in childhood and adolescence. The exact pathogenesis of OCD remains uncertain, but multiple components such as hereditary/genetic, cognitive, biological, environmental, and behavioral factors have been implicated.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002762
Title: Evaluation of handgrip strength of labors of construction site
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: A grip strength dynamometer is useful for testing your handgrip strength (HGS). Valid evaluation of hand strength can provide an objective index of general upper body strength. The power grip is the result of forceful flexion of all finger joints with the maximum voluntary force that the subject is able to exert under normal conditions. The study aims to evaluate the HGS of labors at construction site. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 individuals were taken. They were said to hold the dynamometer in the right hand not touching their body, and they were subjected to press it for around 3 s and the readings were measured. Results and Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the labor at construction site has average HGS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002764
Title: Assessing knowledge, attitude, and practice of parents regarding infant oral health among outpatients of private dental college in Chennai - A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The life of a child from conception to age 3 is clearly the most profound period of a human being’s growth and development. The mouth occupies an important place in the initiation of an individual’s physical, social, and emotional functioning. Once the teeth have erupted in an infant, they are susceptible to dental caries. The major contributing factor to this problem is the prolonged amount of time the child spends nursing each day. Early recognition and treatment are necessary to save the child’s teeth, but prevention is the key. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding infant oral health among parents visiting outpatient of a private dental college in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study which involved parents of infant visiting outpatient of a private dental college in Chennai. Following convenience sampling, 256 parents were selected. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the parents and descriptive data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The study sample consisted of 256 subjects, of which 90 were male and 166 were female, of which only 34% had good knowledge and 59% had positive attitude.Conclusion: Infant oral health care is important from the very beginning. The present study shows that there are poor knowledge and practice about infant oral health among few section of the society.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002765
Title: Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of 16 s rRNA in bacteria causing dental caries
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Dental caries also known as tooth decay or cavities,primarily caused due to activities of bacteria. The cause of caries is a bacterial breakdown of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum). The most common bacteria associated with dental cavities are the mutans streptococci, most prominently Streptococcus mutans and streptococcus sobrinus, and lactobacillus. The mouth contains a wide variety of oral bacteria, but only a few specific species of bacteria are believed to cause dental caries: S. mutants and Lactobacillus species among them. These organisms can produce high levels of lactic acid following fermentation of dietary sugars and are resistant to the adverse effects of low pH, properties essential for cariogenic bacteria. Dental caries is a growing risk factor, and breakthrough with preventive measures would be helpful for which a phylogenetic analysis would assist in the process. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the 16s rRNA nucleotide sequence and establish a relationship among these species which cause dental caries. Materials and Methods: The phylogenetic analysis was done using software known as MEGA. Results: Phylogenetic analysis has proved a close proximity between the organisms Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus parasanguinis , thus a similar treatment would work most of the time once the causative organism has been identified. Conclusion: This study will help in treatment planning for dental caries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002766
Title: A review on strategies for improving nasal drug delivery systems
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Over the recent decades, the interest in intranasal delivery as a non-invasive route for drugs is increased. The convenience of administration and improved patient compliance is important in the design of nasal drug delivery system. Nasal route is more suitable for those drugs which cannot be administered orally due to gastric degradation or hepatic first-pass metabolism. Nasal mucosa is highly vascularized and most permeable giving rapid absorption and onset of action. Different strategies have been applied to improve the intranasal absorption such as the use of mucoadhesive polymers, permeation enhancers, cosolvents, and the use of enzymatic inhibitors. Intranasal drug delivery was found much promising route for administration of peptides and protein drugs. This review sets out to discuss strategies to improve nasal drug delivery.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002767
Title: In vitro evaluation of accuracy of apex locator in the presence of herbal and non-herbal root canal irrigants
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of apex locator in the presence of herbal and non-herbal root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 single-rooted extracted intact premolars were used in this study. The cusp tips were flattened using diamond disks. Standard access preparations were made, and the orifice was flared using ProTaper (SX). The teeth were standardized to 18 mm from apex to cusp tip. The canals were cleaned and shaped up to #40 K-file diameter following step back technique. The electronic apex locators (EALs) tested were the Root ZX (J. Morita Co., Kyoto, Japan). Results: In the current study, we can see that Tulsi solution, Turmeric solution, and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid showed significant results whereas the results shown by 3% NaOCL were not significant. A Bonferroni test to compare each group to another was done, and it was seen that 3% NaOCL was not significant when compared to any of the other groups. Conclusion: The study successfully compared herbal and non-herbal irrigants. NaOCl has been observed to highly affect the working accuracy of an electronic apex locator when compared to the other irrigants tested. In comparison to the non-herbal irrigants, herbal solutions have a multitude advantage and also have a minimal deviation from the actual working length when used with an EAL, further studies are recommended to improve herbal solutions as strong endodontic irrigants and to compare other herbal solutions to standard non-herbal irrigants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002768
Title: Sex determination of an individual by studying the mandibular canine index
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Teeth are excellent material in living population for anthropological, genetic, odontological, and even in forensic evidence. Of all teeth, canines are considered as the key for personal identification also mandibular canines are least impacted as compared to maxillary canine. The aim of this study is to determine the sex of an individual using the mandibular canine index (MCI). Materials and Methods: About 30 participants (15 girls and 15 boys) from Saveetha Dental College under the age group of 17–20 were taken into the selection. The mesiodistal width of the mandibular canine and intercanine distance of the mandibular canine was measured. Using these measurements, we can determine the sex of the individual. Inclusion Criteria: Participants without any missing teeth and with proper teeth arrangement are included in the study. Exclusion Criteria: People with abnormal teeth arrangement, mission of the anterior teeth, excessive spacing or crowding of the anterior teeth, caries teeth, canine teeth with attrition, and trauma to canine teeth are excluded from the study. Result: It is found that we can determine the sex of an individual using the mandibular canines. Conclusion: It is clear from the research that the sex of an individual can be identified from the mandibular canine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: Sept [ Special Issue 1 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002769
Title: Effect of Vrikshasana on depression patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Yoga is a physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which is originated in ancient India. There is a broad variety of yoga schools, practices, goals, and also for people to come out of their depression. People with more stress and depression can undergo certain asanas for themselves to calm down and be in a normal posture. The study is done to evaluate the effect of Vrikshasana on depression people. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 depression patients were chosen from yoga center. Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM-D) was used to analyze the depression level before and after Vrikshasana. Results: Using the values taken by the HAM-D, it is proven that Vrikshasana has an effect on depression. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Vrikshasana has a positive impact on depression patients. Vrikshasana will relieve depression patients from long-term medications.