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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002824
Title: A study to compare the effectiveness of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in postmenopausal women with low bone mass
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. MGR Educational and Research Institute, Velappanchavadi, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The aim of the study is to compare the effectiveness of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Materials and Methods: Sample size of 20 subjects taken randomly from ACS medical college and hospital. It is a comparative study design with pre- and post-type and the sample size is 45–60 years of age, and normal, lean, obese persons were included. Calcaneal ultrasound, pillows, pen, aerobic step, backpack with heavyweights, dumbbells, andf chair are the materials used. Calcaneal ultrasound is the outcome measures. Result: On comparing the mean values of Groups A and B on bone mass density (BMD) test values, it shows a significant increase in the post-test mean values Group B shows (−1.38) which has the higher mean value is effective than Group A (−1.74) at P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Thus, the study reveals that there is more significant difference between the comparison of resistance exercise and aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise is more effective than aerobic exercise on postmenopausal women with low bone mass.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002821
Title: Effect of periodontal treatment on C-reactive protein levels in periodontitis patients: A pilot study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant produced by the liver in response to inflammatory stimuli. The acute-phase response is a non-specific process that may occur in the initial host response to injuries, infections, ischemic necrosis, or malignancy. Recent studies have shown that CRP serum levels in periodontitis patients are elevated. Due to the potential relation between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease, in patients with systemic infection, serum level of CRP can be a useful marker for tracking the course of the infection. Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine whether the presence of chronic periodontitis and subsequent periodontal treatment could influence the serum levels of CRP. Materials and Methods: In this study, a single serum sample was collected from adult periodontitis patients (n = 10) by venipuncture. The serum sample was collected from the periodontitis patients at their initial visit to evaluate the CRP level at baseline. Periodontal disease status was evaluated by measuring probing depth and clinical attachment level. Phase I was followed by flap surgery after 4 weeks. 4 weeks after flap surgery, serum samples were again taken to check for post-surgical CRP level. Results: The initial CRP value varied from 0.89 mg/L to 3.7 mg/L. This variation in the initial CRP level did not correlate with the severity of periodontal disease. Following periodontal therapy (flap surgery), the serum CRP level significantly decreased (P = 0.000). Conclusions: Considering the obtained results and the methodology used in this study, it may be concluded that the periodontal treatment can demonstrate concomitant reduction of serum CRP level.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-CA-00002802
Title: Anaerobic digestion of biogas production from the mixtures of cow dung, banana and mango peels from Bahir Dar Zuria, Ethiopia
Category: Compounds ( Natual and Synthetic ) Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Aksum University, Axum, Ethiopia
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Objective: Biogas technology is being seriously promoted as an important option to meet the growing energy demand of rural areas in developing countries, particularly Ethiopia ongoing progress, nowadays, cow dung (CD), banana peels (BPs), and mango peels (MPs) promising application for biogas generation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness and the performance characteristics of anaerobic digestion of CD mixed with fruit peels for biogas production. Materials and Methods: The study was done with three different digesters containing a mixture of varying levels of three different substrates (CD + BP MPs) labeled as digester A to C. In each digester, the substrates were mixed with the appropriate amount of water in the ratio of 1:10. They were subjected to anaerobic digestion for production of biogas under a 15 days retention period and mesophilic temperature range of 26–35°C. Results: Significant amount (43.5 L) of 60–70% methane composition, flammable biogas was produced from the dry sample mixtures of CD and fruit pills (digester-A) compared to digester-B and digester C starting from the 3rd day of the digestion period. Conclusion: The result of the present study shown that anaerobic digestion from the mixture dry sample of CD, BPs, and MPs can be formed a renewable energy production process and comfortable and easy ways of replace fossil fuel as an environmentally friendly.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002808
Title: Levothyroxine dosage requirement during pregnancy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
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Background and Objectives: Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease affecting up to 5% of the general population worldwide. The present study was aimed to determine the levothyroxine dose to treat hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Methods: It was a clinical trial study which had conducted on 90 pregnant women diagnosed with either subclinical (n = 45) or clinical or overt hypothyroidism (n = 45) referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ahvaz city, Iran. At the beginning of the study, all subjects were measured weight least dressed condition, and then, LT4 dosage was calculated according to the patients’ weight in µg/kg. The mean daily LT4 dose was compared between the two groups of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. The data were analyzed with the Statistical Package of the Social Sciences (version 19, Windows) using descriptive statistics and analytical tests (t-test and Mann–Whitney). For all statistical tests, the level of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The results showed that the mean daily LT4 dose in the overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was, respectively, 2.69 ± 1.78 and 2.17 ± 1.60 µg/kg, indicating statistically significant difference between the two groups (t=−8.662 and P = <0.001). Conclusion: For efficient treatment of hypothyroidism, it is recommended to use appropriate dosage of LT4 according to the stage of the hypothyroidism where subclinical stage needs lower dosage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002785
Title: Microbiocenosis of the intestine of patients with exudative and hyperkinetic mechanisms of diarrhea
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Medicine, JSC “Astana Medical University,” Republic of Kazakhstan - 010 000, Astana
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Aim: A retrospective and prospective analysis of 63 outpatient cards of patients with organic (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and intestinal polyposis) and functional (irritable bowel syndrome) lesions of the gastrointestinal tract was performed. Method: The basis for the selection of patients with gastroenterological pathology has been the mechanisms of the development of diarrhea. All patients underwent microbiological analysis of feces for dysbacteriosis. Results: The carried out researches allowed to conclude that the shifts in the intestinal microbiocenosis of the examined patients toward reducing obligatory flora and the activation of opportunistic pathogens, combined with genetically determined biological changes, lead to an increase in intestinal permeability and, as a consequence, the development of clinical manifestations of the disease. Conclusion: Thus, the analysis of our own studies of patients with organic and functional intestinal lesions as well as the results of various research groups indicates that a change in the intestinal microbiocenosis in the direction of declining obligatory flora and activation of opportunistic microorganisms, combined with genetically determined biological changes, leads to an increase in intestinal permeability and, as a consequence, the development of clinical manifestations of the disease with the development of dysbiotic shifts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002800
Title: Evaluation of pulmonary function test in coffee workers
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Coffee processing causes organic dust exposure which may lead to the development of respiratory symptoms. Primary coffee processing or coffee curing is done in coffee-growing countries; it involves mechanical cleaning of debris from parchment coffee, hulling, grading green coffee beans, and packing. Secondary coffee processing involves polishing, roasting, and grinding, and these processes are mainly done in importing countries. Dust from coffee-processing activities is reported to consist of large and small particles of husks, microorganisms and fungi, and endotoxin. This study assesses the lung function of coffee workers who are exposed to these dusts. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects were selected and divided into two groups. 30 normal people taken as a control group and the 30 coffee workers taken as a study group and the pulmonary function tests were recorded as per standard procedure using spirometer. The parameters used to assess the lung function in the study are FVC, FEV1, PEF, and FEV1/FVC. Results: The mean of FVC was observed to be 1.98, FEV1 was 1.32, and FEV1/FVC was 66%, and P < 0.05, and it is statistically significant when compared with the control group. Conclusion: In the study, it was seen that the ventilatory function of coffee industry workers was lower when compared to the controlled group.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002775
Title: Pulmonary function test in passive smokers and healthy individuals - A study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cigarette smoking has an extensive effect on the respiratory function, and it has been clearly implicated in the etiology of respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial carcinoma. The World Health Organization reported that tobacco smoking killed around 100 million people worldwide in the 20th century and warned that it could kill around 1 billion people around the world in the 21st century. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 individuals of age Group 20–40 were included for the study. It comprised 30 control group. The materials which were used in this study were a computerized Records Management system medical spirometer. Pulmonary function tests were performed in them the parameters measured includes forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow. Data were analyzed statistically. Results and Conclusion: The present study indicates the slight impact of passive smoking as a potential hazard to the lung and the respiratory system. In conclusion, our study has shown a slight reduction in lung function values among men exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. The adverse effects of passive smoking on pulmonary function in adults emphasizes the importance of preventing exposure of non-smokers to cigarette smoke. This study also suggests to ban cigarette smoking in public places due to its adverse effects in innocent people who get affected by just breathing the polluted air.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002773
Title: Awareness of obstructive sleep apnea among people of above 30 years
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: One of the most common types of sleep apnea is obstructive sleep apnea and obstruction of the respiratory tract which may either be partial or complete causes this. This disease is a chronic condition and if left untreated or undiagnosed may lead to cardiovascular problems, stroke, etc. It is characterized by loud snoring, headaches which keep recurring, and also tiredness even after waking up in the morning. The aim of this study is to create awareness regarding obstructive sleep apnea in people above the age of 30 years. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire of about 20 questions is prepared. A survey among the people above the age of 30 years is taken. This survey is taken among the South Indian population. The questions were such that they questioned the participants’ awareness level and their presence of symptoms which could indicate the acquiring of obstructive sleep apnea in a few years. Some of the questions also inquired regarding the patient’s lifestyle and inherited qualities which may lead to obstructive sleep apnea. Result: 70% of people are not aware of the condition called obstructive sleep apnea and their possibilities of getting this chronic condition was evaluated, and some of the important ratios have been presented to spread awareness. Conclusion: We have come to know that the awareness level is less among the people pertaining to this survey about obstructive sleep apnea.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002770
Title: Attitude of dental undergraduate students toward choosing oral and maxillofacial surgery as a career
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of undergraduate dental students toward considering oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) as their future career option. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted among 160 undergraduate dental students from the 3rd year, 4th year, and interns of Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. It consisted of 10 questions regarding choosing OMFS as a career option. Responses were graded on 5-point Likert scale. Data obtained were statistically analyzed and results obtained. Results: A total of 160 undergraduate students participated in the study, of which 89 were male and 71 were female. The age distribution was in between 17 and 23 years. Participation varied according to the years of study (3rd year, final year, and interns). There was a high attitude of 51% among dental students in choosing OMFS as a career option, and the students had a high attitude toward the subject with the increase in the year of the study. Conclusion: Most of the students exhibited a high attitude toward choosing OMFS as a career option, which showed that they had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be taken by both dental council and by the dental colleges, to further develop OMFS specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it. This will also help in increasing the number of dental personnel who are specialized in implementation of oral health policy, to meet up to the demands that exist in India.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002771
Title: Body donation and its relevance in anatomy learning
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Without cadaver dissection, anatomy learning becomes very difficult. There is a lack of practical knowledge, without dissection. As the whole world faces shortage of cadavers, people should be motivated to come forward to donate one’s body after his/her death, which will be very useful in medical field. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between body donation and its relevance in anatomy learning. Materials and Methods: The sample size of this study is 100. All the 100 were given a questionnaire individually and were asked to fill in the same. Results: From the study conducted, it is seen that 80% of the participants are willing to donate their body for medical/research and for learning purpose and about 40% of the participants find body donation to be against their religious beliefs. Conclusion: Thus, this study shows that about 80% of the participants willing to donate their body/organ for the good cause and will also encourage their relatives and friends to donate their body/organ for the same cause.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002772
Title: Awareness of occlusal concepts in complete dentures among general dental practitioners: A knowledge, attitude, and practice survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation:
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Background: Occlusion is an important factor which governs the retention and stability of the complete denture. The occlusal concepts should be selected carefully depending on the situation of the patient. Aim: The aim of this study focuses on evaluating the knowledge, attitude, and practice of occlusal concepts in complete dentures among general dental practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing questions on awareness of occlusal concepts in complete denture were given to a total of 100 general practitioners in Chennai. The data collected were computerized and analyzed statistically. The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics software 23.0 Version. To find the significant difference between the bivariate samples in the independent groups the unpaired sample t-test was used. For the multivariate analysis, the one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test was used. Results: For patients with U-shaped arches, the majority of general dental practitioners preferred balanced occlusion and for V-shaped arches they preferred canine guided occlusion. For patients with increased interarch space, they preferred balanced occlusion followed by lingualized occlusion, and for patients with decreased interarch space, they preferred canine guided occlusion and monoplane occlusion. For patients with highly resorbed as well as well-formed ridges, balanced occlusion was the choice. For patients with Skeletal Class I, balanced occlusion was preferred, for Skeletal Class II, Balanced and Canine Guided were preferred, and for Skeletal Class III, lingualized occlusion, and canine-guided occlusion and Balanced occlusion were equally preferred. Conclusion: The knowledge and awareness about occlusal concepts among general dental practitioners should be improved, and the occlusal concept should be selected depending on the situation of the patient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002774
Title: Effect of skipping breakfast and its impact on blood pressure
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Breakfast is often described as the most important meal of the day, providing as it does sustenance and energy (i.e., calories) for whatever activities lay ahead. Nutritionist’s advice that breakfast should be eaten within 2 h of waking. A healthy breakfast should provide calories in the range of 20–35% of guideline daily allowance. Eating a healthy breakfast is shown to promote greater health heath which includes cholesterol and healthier weight. People who tend to skip breakfast regularly will have an unhealthy lifestyle. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 individuals were taken for this research where 20 were the study group, and the rest 20 were the control group. The blood pressure of the individuals was measured using sphygmomanometer. Results: The results indicated that the blood pressure people who skipped breakfast were almost the same as the people who did have breakfast regularly. Conclusion: The study shows that skipping breakfast did not have a huge impact on blood pressure. However, by skipping breakfast for a short period of time does not leave to any health regularities but skipping breakfast for a long duration, say more than 2 or 3 months can lead to various other complication. However, skipping breakfast is not healthy. It is important to have at least three meals a day. To avoid other complications, we must consume breakfast regularly.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002776
Title: Evaluation of the comfort level of patients in clinics with variation in fragrances
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Undergraduate, Saveetha Dental College, SIMATS, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the compare the effectiveness of citrus fragrance and lavender fragrance and deduce which fragrance is more efficient with respect to patient’s acceptability to a treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in a standardized clinic of an area of 4500 sq feet. The clinic had 34 working cabinets. The sample size of the study was 70. The clinic set-up had 33 working dental students. The fragrance used in this study was Lavender and Citrus Flavor of Freshmatic® Ultra Automatic Sprays, Air Wick®, USA. The fragrance was placed in every cabin to ensure proper spread of the fragrance. The dispensers used were automatic dispensers when release the fragrance for every 10th , 32nd , and 48th min once it’s switched on. Results: A one-way ANOVA between subjects was conducted to compare the procedure acceptance for the patient between different fragrances; lavender, citrus, and control. There is no significant difference between these three fragrance at P < 0.05 level in the procedure acceptance for the patient (F [2, 57] = 0.935 P = 0.398). Hence, the groups were not significant. Conclusion: In the present study, on comparison of both the fragrances no significant result was shown by both the fragrances on influencing the acceptance of treatment by the patients. And also, we can conclude that the fragrance itself does not play a role in the acceptance of the procedure by the patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002777
Title: Docking studies for anticancer activity using anthraquinone derivatives
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies (VISTAS), Chennai, Tamilnadu-600 117, India,
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Aim: Anthraquinone, also called anthracenedione or dioxoanthracene, is an aromatic organic compound with formula C14H8O2. Several isomers are possible, each of which can be viewed as a quinone derivative. These derivatives are having fruitful results for anticancer activity, and this study was designed to get to know regarding the binding affinity and pKi value with respect to the targets. Materials and Methods: The targets are chosen from G4LDB Database, and the database consists of 28 G-Quadruplex targets and contains >800 reported G-Quadruplex ligands that are associated with 4000 related activity study records. Targeting G-quadruplex has become valid and proven approach for inhibiting telomerase enzyme. Many leading compounds that target these structures have been reported, and a few of them have entered preclinical or clinical trials. However, the selectivity of G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds has yet to be improved to discover more acceptable and potent telomerase inhibitors. Results and Discussion: With a better understanding of the structural properties of G-quadruplexes and information obtained from previously known inhibitors, it is expected that a wealth of new potent and selective G-quadruplex stabilizing telomerase inhibitors could be identified. Identification of minimum requirements of structural features and pharmacophoric groups for G-quadruplex stabilizing telomerase inhibitors was hampered due to lack of molecular modeling studies. Hence, it was planned to study regarding the binding energy and pKi as well to rationalize the structural requirements for G-quadruplex ligands based on docking study using G4LDB database. Anthraquinone derivatives have been selected from literature survey, and these ligands are docked with the 28 G-Quadruplex targets to study the binding affinity with the ligands. Conclusion: From the results, we have selected only three best targets and two anthraquinone derivatives which show equivalent pKi value with respect to the standard anthraquinone compound (2,6 diamidoAnthraquinone) with the selected three targets. This study could be used in identification and optimization of newer telomerase inhibitors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002778
Title: In vitro evaluation anti bacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum extract in reducing Streptococcus mutans count
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Coriandrum sativum L. is a medicinal plant, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine. The C. sativum extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf life of foods by preventing their spoilage. The aim is to investigate the effect of C. sativum in reducing Streptococcus mutans count. Materials and Methods: The test organism used was S. mutans. The organism was isolated from saliva sample using selective media Mutans-Sanguis Agar (HiMedia M977) and maintained in Nutrient Agar Slope at 4°C. Agar plate dilution technique was followed to screening the activity of C. sativum extract in reducing the S. mutans count. Results: The antibacterial activity of the C. sativum at different concentrations was screened by agar dilution technique, and the bacterial growth was recorded as colony-forming units. The results are the plate with extract at concentration 1000 µg/ml and 2000 µg/ml which did not show any bacterial growth but the plates 250 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml showed bacterial growth which was decreasing. Conclusion: Hence, it can be concluded that C. sativum extract reduces the count of S. mutans and thus can be used to treat dental caries by adding it in toothpaste and mouthwash.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002779
Title: Use of flaxseeds as a daily dietary supplement in patients with gingival inflammation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the supporting structures of the teeth. It is a multifactorial inflammatory disease. Host modulatory therapy (HMT) in periodontics is used as adjuncts to conventional periodontal treatment. Omega-3 fatty acids are among the common HMT in periodontal therapy. Various types of omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid serve as important precursors for lipid-derived modulators of cell signaling, gene expression, and regulating inflammatory processes. Flaxseeds are known to be a rich source of plant- derived polyunsaturated fatty acid. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flaxseed (omega-3 fatty acid) supplements before and after standard rehabilitation program (SRP) on periodontal inflammation by analyzing serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels pre- and post-SRP. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 adults with newly diagnosed chronic periodontitis were enrolled in the study. The individuals in the test group were asked to consume one flaxseed tablet per day (Inlife®500 mg) for 1 month. The control group received no supplementation. The serum CRP levels were analyzed for both the groups at baseline and again at 1 month for the test group. Results: The present study showed that the mild periodontitis and gingivitis group had higher mean CRP levels when compared with the healthy individuals. The CRP values were seen to reduce after supplementation with flaxseeds. Conclusion: This study showed a reduction in the CRP levels in the test group which was statistically significant; however, further studies need to be carried out with longer duration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002780
Title: Anticarcinogenic effect of Ocimum tenuiflorum on oral cancer cell lines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental college, Saveetha university, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Cancer is defined as the uncontrollable growth of cells that invade and cause damage to surrounding tissue. Oral cancer appears as a growth or sore in the mouth that does not go away. Oral cancer, which includes cancers of the lips, tongue, cheeks, floor of the mouth, and hard and soft palate, can be life threatening if not diagnosed and treated early. Tulsi is well known for its myriad medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antipyretic, antioxidant, antiseptic, and anticancer. Materials and Methods: Tulsi oil extract procured from cyrus enterprises. The anticarcinogenic activity was studied by MTT(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide) colorimetric assay using 96-well microtiter plate.  Results: The in vitro cytotoxicity study of Tulsi extract showed the direct cytotoxic effect on KB cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner and the half maximal inhibitory concentration value was found to be 100 µg/ml. The percentage of cell inhibition was found to be 88.45% at concentration 400 µg/ml, which is considered significant when compared to control tamoxifen which showed 96.35%. Conclusion: Through the research, it can be concluded that tulsi is effective in the treatment of oral cancer as well. Hence, tulsi can be effectively used for the cancer treatments.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002781
Title: Role of chewing gum in oral hygiene maintenance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim and objective of this review are to gain knowledge on sugar-free chewing gums in oral hygiene maintenance. Background: Dental caries and periodontal diseases have historically been considered the most important global oral health burdens. Hence, the dental care needs to apply strategies for oral health problems. Chewing gum gained interest due to its ability to stimulate salivation and accelerate the clearance of fermentable carbohydrates from the dietary intake. Chewing gum with xylitol has received special attention due to its mechanical cleaning together with saliva stimulation. These actions could lead to a therapeutic and caries lowering action and various other oral health benefits. Xylitol is indeed becoming quite popular, especially in dentistry, and for good reason, it helps to prevent cavities. It is a natural sugar alcohol similar to other so-called sugar alcohols such as mannitol and sorbitol used as sugarless sweeteners. Xylitol also has the added effect of stopping the saliva from becoming acidic so that decay not only does not start but also rather your mouth becomes an environment that favors non-acid producing bacteria. Researchers have found that systematic use of xylitol chewing gum significantly reduces the relative risk of caries when compared to chewing gums containing sorbitol and sucrose. In addition, xylitol gum is more frequently associated with halting the progression of very tiny cavities versus other combination of chewing gum. The use of other products containing xylitol such as mints, candy, and cookies has shown a decreased incidence of dental caries by arresting active decay. Reason: This review was done to gain knowledge about the benefits of sugar-free chewing gums which is an excellent way to protect the overall oral health and even prevent cavities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002782
Title: Cytotoxicity of SK surgical implants used for anchorage in orthodontics: In vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Velappanchavadi, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The material used for mini implants (temporary anchorage devices [TADs]) must be nontoxic and biocompatible, possess excellent mechanical properties, and provide resistance to stress, strain, and corrosion. Commonly used materials can be divided into three categories: Biotolerant (stainless steel and chromium-cobalt alloy), bioinert (titanium and carbon), and bioactive (hydroxyapatite and ceramic oxidized aluminum). Due to titanium’s characteristics (no allergic and immunologic reactions and no neoplasm formation), it is considered an ideal material and is widely used. Bone grows along the titanium oxide surface, which is formed after contact with air or tissue fluid. However, pure titanium has less fatigue strength than titanium alloys. Titanium alloy is used to overcome this disadvantage. This study was done to determine the cytotoxicity of the SK surgical mini implants, which is one of the most commonly used TADs in India due to its economic feasibility. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity of SK surgical implants used in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: An in vitro cytotoxicity test using indirect contact method was performed using test sample as per the ISO 10993:5. The culture medium from the L929 cell monolayer was replaced with a fresh agar medium. Test sample, control in triplicates was placed on the cells after incubation at 37 ± 1°C for 24–26 h. Monolayer was examined microscopically to determine the cytotoxic effect before and after removing the test sample from the agar medium. The reactivity was graded as 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 based on the zone of lysis, vacuolization, detachment, and membrane disintegration. Results: This method showed that the SK surgical implants have Grade 1 cytotoxic reactivity. The viability of the cells was found to be >90%. Conclusion: From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the SK surgical implant is biocompatible with Grade 1 or slightly reactive cytotoxic effects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002783
Title: Antibacterial activity of dry ginger against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a Gram-positive, it is any strain of S. aureus that has developed, through horizontal gene transfer and natural selection, multiple drug resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. It is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen. Spread of S. aureus (including MRSA) generally is through human-to-human contact. The rise in antibiotic resistance has resulted in a decreasing number of fully active antimicrobial agents available to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria that are the MRSA. The aim is to find out whether the dry ginger can suppress the activity of the MRSA. Materials and Methods: The extracts were prepared in different concentrations in sterile water, 5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml, and 20 mg/ml. The screening of antibacterial activity of the dry ginger extract was carried out using the agar well diffusion method. Lawn culture of the test organism was made on the Muller-Hinton agar. A sterile cork borer was then used to make wells (6 mm diameter) for different concentrations of the extracts, 100 μl of the varying concentrations (500 µg/ml, 1000 µg/ml, and 2000 µg/ml) of the extracts were introduced into the wells with the help of micropipettes. The culture plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. After 24 h, antibacterial activity was determined by measurement of diameter of zones of inhibition (mm). Results: The investigation of antibacterial activity of dry ginger extract against, MRSA was done by agar well diffusion method. Mean zones of inhibition of different concentrations were measured and compared with the control. The extract showed good antibacterial activity at different concentrations with maximum zone of inhibition of 24 mm at concentration of 2000 µg/ml.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002784
Title: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of endodontic sealers in combination with cinnamon oil
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Microbes are considered as the primary etiological agents in endodontic diseases. The ways of reducing these agents are root canal debridement, antimicrobial irrigants, and antibacterial filling materials. However, the complexity of the pulp canal system presents a problem for chemomechanical preparation. One of the factors determining the success of endodontic treatment is the sealing material with a potent antimicrobial effect. Cinnamon oil is known for its antimicrobial activity, and its study would be beneficial. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial efficacy of commercially available root canal sealers, namely zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) and AH plus, was evaluated individually and also in combination with cinnamon oil against Enterococcus faecalis which was isolated from necrotic pulps and endodontic lesions using the disc diffusion technique. Results: Zone of inhibition of the test organism around each sealer were evidenced. The inhibitory zones were measured in millimeter diameter. Wider zones of inhibition were indicative to greater antimicrobial activity of involving sealers. Among the sealers tested, ZOE had the maximum zone of inhibition. Conclusion: Therefore, cinnamon oil is inherently antimicrobial in nature and can be used with endodontic sealers without hindering the sealer’s efficiency.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002786
Title: Pathophysiological mechanisms of spasmodic torticollis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Reflexotherapy and Osteopathy, Kazan, Russian Federation
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Aim: Spastic torticollis, like other forms of local muscular dystonia, refers to the most complex and least studied forms of extrapyramidal disorders. Pathogenetic mechanisms of spastic torticollis development are still not sufficiently understood. It is known that muscle hyperactivity, characteristic of focal dystonia, is mediated by neurophysiological disorders in the basal ganglia, brainstem, and cortical zones. Forced tilt of the head can be associated with a violation of the functional balance of different parts of the motor cortical-subcortical circle and their supporting neurotransmitter systems. These mechanisms provide for a special role for sensory control and sensory influences on the course and variability of hyperkinesia. Materials and Method: One of the most important achievements of neurophysiology was the discovery of systems that perform complex functions of maintenance of a coordinated distribution of muscle tone by regulating the afferent influx. Discussion of the role of central and peripheral factors in the pathogenesis of spastic torticollis has predetermined an in-depth study of reflex excitability. The authors attempted to study segmental-suprasegmental interactions with spastic crooked by means of neurophysiological methods, in particular, studies of polysynaptic reflex excitability and induced brain potentials, as well as transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results: The paper presents the results of a clinical and electroneurophysiological examination of 106 patients with spastic torticollis. The study of the spinal-stem polysynaptic reflex and the phenomenon of inhibition convincingly showed that spastic torticollis is accompanied by various integrative reactions of the supraspinal structures. It was revealed that the spinal barrel polysynaptic reflex and the phenomenon of inhibition are as more stable as greater the degree of clinical manifestations of hyperkinesis is. The study of evoked acoustic stem potentials and evoked somatosensory potentials revealed a grosser distortion of the main parameters in the group of patients with tonic–clonic form of spasmodic torticollis. The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation made it possible to obtain a quantitative characteristic of the functional state of the pyramidal tract in spastic torticollis and revealed a decrease in inhibitory processes in the motor parts of the cerebral cortex and an increased readiness for reflex responses. Conclusion: These studies showed that spastic torticollis is accompanied by a violation of the entire system of movement control, which is manifested by increased excitability of the reflex arches of the brainstem, changes in reactions to afferent stimuli, and a decrease in inhibitory processes. These disorders are more pronounced in the tonic–clonic form of spasmodic torticollis. Diagnostic value of clinical and instrumental tests including the investigation of the spinal-stem polysynaptic reflex and the period of inhibition, and induced brain potentials (acoustic and somatosensory) is substantiated for assessing the severity, course, and prognosis of spasmodic torticollis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002787
Title: Voltammetric and flow injection amperometric determination of insulin, uric acid, and ascorbic acid at the electrode modified by iridium oxides
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Alexander Butlerov Institute of Chemistry, Kazan Federal Universit, Kazan, Russia
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Aim: Mixed valence oxides of iridium, immobilized on surface of carbon electrodes by potentiodynamic electric sedimentation demonstrate electric catalytic activity and oxidation of insulin, uric acid (UA), and ascorbic acid. This leads to the reduction of overvoltage of considered compounds oxidation and increasing of their oxidation current relatively to current of modifier oxidation. Materials and Method: Possibility of jointed voltammetric determination of insulin, UA, and ascorbic acid on glassy carbon electrode modified by iridium oxides (IrOx s) is established. Difference of potentials of these compounds oxidation peaks is 300 mV. Method of flow injection amperometric determination of insulin and UA on dual planar electrode modified by IrOx s is proposed. Results: Linear dependence of analytic signal from concentration of organic compounds is observed in interval of 5 × 10−8 to 5 × 10−4 М for insulin and of 5 × 10−7 –5 × 10−3 М for UA. Developed method of flow injection amperometric determination on insulin and UA is distinguished by high sensitivity, repeatability, as well as rapidity, and productivity of analysis method (up to 480 determinations per hour). Conclusion: Proposed method was used for the determination of insulin and UA in human saliva.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002788
Title: Interrelations of quantitative signs with the yield in genotypes Pisum sativum L. with non-distributed pods
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, Institute for Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya Street, Kazan 420008, Russia
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Aim: The beans without a parchment layer in the sections based on donors with recessive allele’s p and v were used as the selective feature in the selection Pisum sativum L. This led to the restructuring of crop element structure, their variability and interrelationships among new genotypes. Materials and Method: The grades of beans without a parchment differ in response to environmental condition changes. The genotypes with a moustache type of leaf implement a high-yield potential in the conditions with an insufficient moisture. Results: They isolated the sample KT-6489 with a high resistance to the humidification mode fluctuations. They determined stable correlations of signs: The number of beans, seeds, and productive nodes on a plant, the weight of seeds on a plant and the weight of 1000 seeds, and the number of beans, seeds, and a productive node weight, equally directed irrespective of environmental conditions. They offer the signs of 1000 seeds weight and the number of seeds per productive unit, which have a direct positive contribution to the yield, as the main features during the selection of the non-parchment form of pea seed. Conclusion: The obtained data on the variability and the conjugation of quantitative traits can be used in selection work during the selection and the development of selection process technology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002789
Title: The influence of static load on the state of hemodynamics of schoolgirls with vision impairments
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Health, Kazan Federal University, 18, Kremlyovskaya Street, Kazan, 420008, Russia
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Aim: The article describes the results of an investigation of the functional state of the cardiovascular system (CVS) of visually impaired 7–8-year-old girls, under conditions of relative rest and after a dosed local static load. Their comparative characteristics with the parameters of healthy children are also given in the work. Materials and Method: The following differences in the hemodynamic state of visually impaired and healthy girls, most pronounced at the age of 7, were revealed: Significant increase in the stroke and minute volume of blood, systolic and average hemodynamic blood pressure (BP) in children with visual impairments, and compared with healthy persons. Results: Moreover, different age-related changes in the heart rate (HR), stroke, and minute blood volume have been revealed in the studied groups from 7 to 8 years of age. Functional test in the form of a local static load (dynamometric test) shows that the reaction of the CVS of schoolgirls depends on their age and the state of the visual analyzer. The changes in hemodynamic parameters after static muscular load were not revealed in 7-year-old girls with vision impairments. However, a significant increase in the HR and BP, and a decrease in the stroke volume were defined in girls at the age of 8. Conclusion: Whereas in healthy 7-year-old children, the local static load causes pronounced changes in all the studied cardiovascular parameters, indicating their ability to sustain the volitional effort for a long time during static muscle tension, due to better physical fitness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002790
Title: Closed heart injury in medical practice: Review of literature
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Fundamental Basis of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Biology and Fundamental Medicine of the Kazan Federal University, 420012, Russia, Kazan
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Aim: This paper reviews the publications and analyzes modern literature on pathogenesis, classification, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of closed heart injury. Closed heart injury is a heart damage, which develops in the immediate period after an injury or as a result of metabolic disorders arising from the injury. Its severity depends on the nature of injury, the phases of cardiac activity at the time of injury, and the pre-injury state of the myocardium and coronary vessels. At the same time, there are hemorrhages, degenerative, and necrotic changes in the myocardium, as well as metabolic disorders observed in the heart. Materials and Method: The following main factors are identified in the pathogenesis of closed heart injury: Heart compression with increased pressure in the cardiac cavities, heart damage with the fragments of ribs, heart displacement in the chest, stress disorder of the autonomic regulation of the heart, and myocardial metabolic disturbance; development of cardiac arrest is possible. Clinical manifestations of closed heart injury are either concussion or contusion of the heart, myocardial rupture, and traumatic myocardial infarction. Results: Heart concussion starts with arrhythmias in the form of premature ventricular contraction, atrial fibrillation or flutter, bradycardia, and conduction disorders. Heart contusion can simulate angina and be accompanied by weakness, shortness of breath, pallor, Crocq’s disease, and rhythm disorders. Traumatic myocardial infarction is more common in the elderly against the background of coronary artery disease, and more severe, it may be complicated by pulmonary edema. The detachment of the intima of the coronary arteries is also possible to occur, leading to a heart attack in the absence of atherosclerosis. A traumatic outer myocardial rupture promotes hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade, resulting in death, as well as cardiac arrhythmias. An internal myocardial rupture leads to acute heart failure in combination with traumatic shock that makes an unfavorable prognosis. An acute valvular insufficiency is typical of the initially modified valves. The aorta may also be damaged in the form of break at the point of attachment to the spine due to the intercostal arteries. Possible consequences of a closed heart injury are also a myocardial dystrophy, which ends in either complete recovery or persistent arrhythmias. Conclusion: Knowing the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of a closed heart injury is an important element of the competence of a modern physician.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002791
Title: Comparison of hemodynamics in people with hearing loss
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Man’s Health Protection, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russia
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Aim: Values of parameters of hemodynamics are informative indicators of a cardiovascular system condition. The exact data obtained in real time with each blow of heart are of value. Materials and Method: Diagnostics of work of cardiovascular system are of special importance at the persons having congenital diseases of other systems which could influence normal development of an organism in ontogenesis. The congenital or acquired at early age hearing pathology can be one of such factors. Results: When carrying out measurements of parameters of hemodynamics in real time by means of the ultrasonic monitor at young people with various extent of loss of hearing deviations both from norm, and from indicators of control group were revealed. A number of parameters of hemodynamics such as were analyzed: Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, shock volume, index of shock volume, warm emission, warm index, system vascular resistance (SVR), and index of SVR (SVRI). Authentically, higher values of the majority of indicators of hemodynamics and low values of SVR at persons with heavy degree of relative deafness are received. The expressed influence of sympathetic nervous system on hemodynamic parameters at persons with heavy extent of loss of hearing is noted. The assumption of the reason of this phenomenon is made. Conclusion: These researches can be used when performing medical examinations at students, persons with limited opportunities of health, primary reception by the cardiologist of persons with associated diseases, and functional diagnostics in sports medicine (at professional athletes, fans, and participants of Paralympic games).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002792
Title: Age changes of parameters of the cardiovascular system in children with violation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Health, Kazan Federal University, 18, Kremlyovskaya Street, Kazan, 420008, Russia
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Aim: The functional state of central hemodynamics in visually impaired girls of 7 and 8 years old, depending on the age and degree of impairment of their visual analyzer, was studied and compared with the indices of healthy children of the control group. Materials and method: The functional state of the cardiovascular system (CVS) was assessed by the parameters of the stroke volume (SV) of the blood, determined by tetrapolar thoracic rheoplethysmography, heart rate, minute blood volume, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP, and mean hemodynamic BP. The adaptation potential of the CVS was studied at the beginning and at the end of the school year as a manifestation of the functional and adaptive capabilities of the circulatory system and the organism as a whole. Results: It was found that changes in the parameters of the CVS from 7 to 8 years in visually impaired girls do not correspond to the generally accepted ideas about its age dynamics: There are an increase in the frequency of cardiac contractions and a decrease in the SV and minute volume of blood and SBP. In this case, girls aged 7 years with a severe visual impairment (total detachment of the retina, glaucoma, and microphthalmos) experience the greatest stress in the state of hemodynamics in comparison with other visually impaired children and control girls. Conclusion: Thus, the period of adaptation to school in children with an abnormal visual analyzer proceeds more strenuously, and the adaptation reactions of the CVS predominate over the age-related dynamics of its parameters.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002793
Title: Risk for health of adolescents of the city of Kazan related to water consumption
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya St., 420 008 Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation
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Aim: We assessed the non-carcinogenic risk to the health of the adolescent population by oral intake of chemical compounds with drinking tap water on the basis of regional exposure factors. Materials and Method: The selection of study areas was carried out on the basis of the location of the permanent air pollution observation posts and the children’s polyclinics serving these areas (No. 1, 2, 3, 4) for the purpose of the subsequent complex assessment of multisided risk. Results: Results for non- carcinogenic risk assessment in delivery of chemicals to drinking water showed that the highest level of total hazard factor (HI = 7.5 and 3.5) was observed in Vakhitovsky zone (zone1) and Volga regions (zone 4). The main contribution to the risk 1 zone is made: Petroleum - 54%, nitrates (by NO3) - 12.8%, chloroform - 9.8%, fluorides - 6.4%, magnesium - 4.7%, and iron - 4.7% of the total risk. Runner risk level 4 occupies a zone where the main fraction is also determined risk value nitrite (for NO3) - 32%, oil, 29.7%, 13.2% chloroform, 9.1% chlorine fluorides - 5.6%. This trend is typical for other areas of the city: Chloroform, fluorides, nitrates, iron, and oil products which account for 67.4–73.1% of the total risk. Conclusion: The ranking by risk and the percentage distribution of the obtained data demonstrate that the main critical organs and systems are blood (12.1–28.2%), central nervous system (CNS) (10.09–10.6%), kidneys (3.5–23.07%), the endocrine system (7.0– 125%), cardiovascular (6.29–17.3%), bone system (6.6–7.3%), and teeth (2.7–6.4%).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002794
Title: Variability in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants Brassica oleracea var. sabellica in different growing conditions
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Respublika Tatarstan, 420 008 Russia
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Aim: Effect of plant growth regulator on antioxidant status of kale in freezing conditions was studied. Materials and Method: On stage of 3–4 leaves, plants were treated by growth regulators through spraying in the following concentrations: Gibberellic acid 10−6 М, novosil 5 g/ha, Ecopain 0.25 g/ha, and brassinolide 10−6 M. Samples for analysis (leaves) were taken after 90 days (after first freezing, night temperatures were −5°С for 3 days) after treatment. Results: Part of the plants was taken into laboratory conditions after freezing and was left to grow again for 2 weeks at the temperature of 20°С. While lowering the degree of reactive oxygen species cell damage, different groups of growth regulators were using different systems of antioxidant protection for this purpose. For instance, compounds of terpene nature (gibberellic acid and novosil) were activating enzymatic antioxidant systems (peroxidase) and increased carotenoids content, to greater extent, while compounds of steroid nature (brassinolide) increased flavonoid content more than other plants growth regulators. Conclusion: By intensifying these processes, growth regulators were thus promoting lesser damage of plants at freezing impact and accelerated reparation processes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002795
Title: Use of keratinase to maintain pre-washing glycoprotein profiles of edible bird’s nest
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Nusantara University, Jalan KH Achmad Dahlan 76 Mojoroto, 64112 Kediri, Indonesia
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Aim: Edible bird’s nests (EBNs), a delicacy made from bird nests of Collocalia spp. swiftlets, are well known for also having health benefits. Washing processes for EBNs with water after harvesting the nests dissolve potential bioactives such as glycoproteins and reduce the potential health benefits of EBNs. Materials and Methods: One alternative washing method is use keratinase enzymes, but the impact on the glycoprotein profile of EBNs remains unknown. Results: This research attempted to analyze glycoprotein profiles before and after washing with keratinase. Fourier transform infrared and nucleic molecular resonance were used to observe these profiles. The results showed that there is no change between the glycoprotein profiles of EBN before and after washing with keratinase. Conclusion: Thus, keratinase washing is effective in maintaining the profiles of glycoproteins in EBNs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002796
Title: Study of nasal index among students of Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to study the nasal index (NI) using nasal parameters such as nasal width and nasal height. Introduction: Anthropometry provides a scientific method and technique for taking various measurements in different geographic regions and races. NI itself is a complex anatomic unit, so the anthropometric study was devised on the same, might play an important role during the reconstruction of rhinoplasty and facial surgeries. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study. A random sample of 50 subjects with 25 males and 25 females within the age group of 18–19 were selected from Saveetha Dental College, in Chennai. Measurements were taken in Frankfort’s plane with subjects in comfortably sitting position using a sliding Vernier caliper. Results: The mean NI of the male and female was found to be 73.50 and 66.98, respectively. When the values for males were compared with the values for females, there was significant sexual dimorphism observed with male values being higher. Conclusion: The NI of the students of Saveetha University has been determined. The population predominantly falls under leptorrhine nose type, with a mean NI of 66.98.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002797
Title: Phytochemical screening and cytotoxic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Rhizophora apiculata blume against Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 breast cancer cell lines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Rhizophora apiculata is an important traditional medicinal plant used in many people in Asia and Africa for curing of both infectious and non-infectious diseases. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect and observation of cell morphology changes of breast cancer (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 [MCF-7]) cell lines of after the treatment with the methanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of the methanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata was tested against MCF-7 cell lines by using MTT assay and to find the cell morphology of MCF- 7 cells upon exposure to the methanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata by using phase contrast microscope Results: The results showed that the methanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata with different concentrations (25,50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) had shown significant concentration-dependent anticancer (cytotoxic) activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell by showing 48.27% of cell viability with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values are of 140.97 µg/ml, comparing with standard tamoxifen by showing 80.80% of cell viability with IC50 values of 61.88 µg/ml. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the methanolic leave extract of R. apiculata could be serve as a potential source of plant-derived, anticancer agents for the development of therapeutic anticancer drugs and further study has been focused on the isolation of bioactive anticancer compounds present in the methanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata by bioactivity-guided fractionation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002798
Title: Diagnostic methods for cracked tooth by two endodontic tools
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A cracked tooth or a craze lines are most common outcome of trauma and mostly are neglected as they are asymptotic. Diagnosis at an early stage is required, because at later stages, it may become symptomatic to the patient. After it becomes symptomatic, they reach a situation where they need to undergo an root canal therapy (RCT) or may sometimes need to go in for an extraction. Materials and Methods: The study focuses on visualization of the tooth with cracks or craze lines clinically, using an endodontic tool such as loupes. Results: More number of crack lines are visible when visualized under the loupes. Estimating the crack lines clinically is not a good diagnostic criteria as most of the crack lines would not be visible to the naked eye unless viewed under the dental loupes. Conclusion: The inability to visualize the extent of the crack through clinical examination alone is one aspect that leads to the complexity of accurately determining an endodontic diagnosis. Early diagnosis can prevent the RCT or extraction of the tooth. Misinterpretation can lead to several problems. The patient might have to undergo RCT, and in severe cases, it might lead to extraction of the tooth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Qs-00002799
Title: Quantitative structure activity relationship predictive models for antimitotic agent through machine learning on high-throughput screening of noscapine derivatives
Category: QSAR studies
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from plants of the poppy family, identified as an anti-mitotic agent and able to arrest mitotic cell division. Its derivatives have also proven less cytotoxic in animal models. Objective: Our objective is to identify efficient noscapine analogs which are less toxic than the existing anti-mitotic agents. Methods and Materials: We have adopted machine learning approach to screen similar structures and substructures of noscapine compounds from the PubChem database. SMILE molecular entries retrieved from the database were processed for descriptor calculation. KNIME workbench was built using modules like OpenBabel, RDKit,InchI and CanonSMILES. Descriptor calculation was done using KNIME workbench. 122 descriptors were generated for each molecule using KNIME workbench. Feature selection was done as a prior step to machine learning to eliminate inappropriate data. Two feature selection algorithms were used for attribute selection and ranking namely correlation based feature selection and information gain feature selection. Training data set containing active compounds and inactive compounds (decoy set) was prepared with ranked attributes. Mining classifiers namely Naïve Bayes, LibSVM, Random Forest and J48 were chosen to train the dataset. Cross validation was carried out for the built models. Conclusion: Among the four classifiers Random Forest has given good accuracy for our dataset. Thus an implementation of high throughput screening approach using machine learning to rank efficient noscapine derivatives has been achieved.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002801
Title: Confocal calcium imaging to study the molecular pharmacology of methacholine and atropine on muscarinic receptors
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Baghdad, College of Pharmacy, Baghdad, Iraq
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Introduction: Many studies are studying the pharmacology of important ligands on different receptors. Cholinergic receptors are one of the interested fields to study; as it is connected to many diseases and particularly Parkinson and Alzheimer. Objective: The aim of the research is to study the molecular pharmacology of atropine and methacholine on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors using confocal microscope to measure Ca level. Moreover, atropine and methacholine are used to study their molecular pharmacology on cholinergic receptors and especially muscarinic one on neuroblastoma cells (SH- SY5Y). Materials and Methods: The method was designed to treat SH-SY5Y cells with two different ligands (methacholine and atropine) separately, and then, atropine was added before loaded the cells with methacholine. Results: The results are as follows: Methacholine shows agonist effect with high potency while atropine is very controversial because it can be explained as either allosteric modulator or non-competitive antagonist in addition to its already approved competitive mechanism. Conclusion: In conclusion, atropine can be investigated for more pharmacological mechanisms which can help in different pathological conditions and specifically in neurological disorder.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002803
Title: Inflammatory biomarkers in oral submucous fibrosis patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the current study is to find the correlation between tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and their expressions in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and to develop a cheaper and effective biomarker for evaluation of this condition. Materials and Methods: Venous blood was collected from 60 healthy and OSMF diagnosed individuals; venous blood was collected from the participants and blood was distributed in the plain collection tube and centrifuged in 2500 rpm for 10 min. The serum was separated and analyzed for CRP by Turbilatex method using ERBA CHEM 5 plus analyzer. Moreover, then TNFα was analyzed by standard enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay technology (ELISA) method using ROBONIK ELISA reader. Results: There was an elevation in TNF-alpha and CRP in OSMF patients where the mean TNF-alpha of normal patients are 2.06 ± 0.86, and OSMF patients had 4.76 ± 1.51. There was a statistically significant difference where P < 0.001 and the CRP of normal individuals is 2.96 ± 1.14 whereas CRP of OSMF patients was 9.87 ± 3.84. Conclusion: TNF-alpha and CRP are two inflammatory mediators which prove to be efficient biomarkers in the diagnosis of OSMF and in determining the prognosis of the patient by effective characterization and staging of the patient. These values can be interpreted at the bedside, with the full knowledge of all other clinical and pathological results.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002804
Title: Antimicrobial efficacy of four different intracanal medicaments on contaminated extracted teeth: In vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This aim of the study is to compares the antimicrobial efficacy of triple antibiotic paste (TAP), chitosan, and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis. The aim of the present study is to analyze the sustained release of TAP, chitosan, and calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicaments and evaluate the antimicrobial action against E. faecalis. Materials and Method: A total of 50 freshly extracted single-rooted teeth were used in this study. Access canal preparation and canal preparation was done. The teeth were contaminated with E. faecalis for 12 days, and the intracanal medicaments chitosan, TAP, calcium hydroxide, and cinnamon were placed and incubated for 3 days. The dentinal shaving was collected after removal of intracanal medicament and was inoculated in brain heart infusion agar and incubated for 24 h and the colony forming units (CFU’s) were manually counted and recorded. Results: The control group had a mean CFU count of 1208 while chitosan has 716, TAP has 192, calcium hydroxide has 432, and cinnamon has 256. This shows that there was chitosan has decreased 24% of the bacterial load while calcium hydroxide reduced 55% of the bacterial load and cinnamon extract reduced 77% of the load, and TAP decreased 80% of the microbial load after the placement of intracanal medicament. Conclusion: Complete eradication of microbes in root canal system is an impossible task, while reduction of the microbes to the maximum helps in the long-lasting success of the endodontic therapy. Under the limitations of this in vitro study, calcium hydroxide and chitosan were not as effective as TAP and cinnamon extract.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002805
Title: Intranasal anesthetic spray for maxillary anterior teeth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of intranasal anesthetic spray for maxillary anterior teeth. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine and assess the effect of intranasal anesthetic spray for maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients having mild-to-moderate endodontic pain were selected, of which 15 patients receiving intranasal (IN) anesthetic spray and the next 15 receiving infiltration. Baseline pain level was noted before the spray was given and pain level was noted 30 min after administration of the spray. Result: From this study, it was evident that there is a significant difference in the visual analog scale score infiltration and IN anesthetic spray. Conclusion: The pilot clinical study shows that the post-operative effects of IN lignocaine can be used as an adjuvant for performing maxillary anterior root canal therapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002806
Title: Intraosseous anesthesia in dentistry - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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To comprehensively review about the intraosseous (IO) anesthesia in dentistry. Effective local anesthesia is arguably the single most important pillar on which modern dentistry stands. The traditional aspirating syringe is the most common method by which local anesthetics are administered, newer technologies have been developed that can assist the dentist in providing enhanced pain relief with reduced injection pain and fewer adverse effects like IO systems for local anesthetic injection. The IO injection allows placement of a local anesthetic solution directly into the cancellous bone adjacent to the tooth to be anesthetized. Because infiltration injections with lidocaine solutions are not effective for anesthesia of the mandibular molar teeth due to the thickness of the cortical plate. The IO injection overcomes this problem by allowing direct access to the cancellous bone. The review is to know more about the uses, techniques, advantage, and disadvantage of IO anesthesia.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002807
Title: Comparison of specificity and sensitivity between peak expiratory flow rate and forced expiratory volume in one second in bronchial excitable test
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Air Pollution and Respiratory Disease Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
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Background and Objective: Asthma is a chronic disease involving the airways in the lungs. These airways, or bronchial tubes, allow air to come in and out of the lungs. Therefore, the present study aims to compare the sensitivity of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) specificity and sensitivity indices in the diagnosis of reactive airways increased in patients referred to the clinic hospital lung Imam Khomeini under the test, an excitable airways were located, was implemented. Materials and Methods: The present study was cross-sectional with analytical descriptive approach. 300 information of patient’s medical record with age between 65 and 14 years who is referred to lung clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ahvaz during 1392–1394 and tested by methacholine, and FEV1 and PEFR values are measured and recorded simultaneously. The results were analyzed by SPSS statistical version 20. The descriptive and analytical tests such as Pearson correlation, independent t-test, and Chi-square were analyzed. The significant level was considered 0.05. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of age patient under study was 84.35 ± 62.11. Chi-square test showed that there is no significant relationship between FEV1 and gender (P = 0.17). As well as, the relationship between PEFs with the gender was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Based on the results of the Pearson test, there is a linear relationship between the weight (P = 0.24) and height (P = 0.001) with the PEF was observed. Conclusion: According to the results of this study can be used the spirometry in difficult situation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002809
Title: Determination of the preference of chewing side for different textured foods
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Graduate Student Department of  Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Adult willingness to take new foods and accept specific foods has strong-to-moderate heritability. Inherited willingness to food is moderated by cultural differences in early exposure to both the taste and texture of foods giving rise to different patterns of food acceptance. Breastfeeding not only confers an advantage in food and taste acceptance but also may give rise to a preference for high palatable “junk food.” Modeling and flavor conditioning may also contribute to a preference for junk foods. This may indicate another area where food acceptance is genetically determined. Different food textures affect chewing movement, but it is not known whether it also affects the preference for choosing the chewing side. This study determines the chewing side preference (CSP) of three foods with different textures during habitual chewing. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy dental students of both the sexes aged 18–20 years were asked to chew pieces of three foods with different textures such as peanut chikki, banana, and almond on two separate sessions (2 days apart). In each session, the subjects are asked to chew the three food materials, and a video was recorded using mobile phone camera until swallowing. The displacement of the chin with respect to the other two reference points is marked vertically along the facial midline. A slow-speed video playback was used to identify the chewing side of each cycle. The total number of preferred sides for chewing was recorded, tabulated, and analyzed. Results: The chewing side pattern (right preference, left preference, and bilateral preference) in each individual was determined from the recording. Participants were grouped by their sex, and there were 65 females and 35 males. The results showed that, of overall 65%, 25% of subjects did not have any side preference, 35% preferred to chew on the right side, 20% on the left side, and 45% bilateral chewing. Almost the chewing on the right side is more when compared to the left and bilateral side. The chewing side pattern remained unchanged between three food types in about half of the subjects. Conclusion: It is concluded that CSP is not a fixed characteristic. Food texture seemed to influence the side preference and also the occurrence of bilateral usage on the mouth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002810
Title: Hair fall due to stress factors - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Hair loss provokes anxieties and distress more profound than its objective severity would appear to justify. This reflects the profound symbolic and psychosocial importance of hair. Stress has long been implicated as one of the causal factors involved in hair loss. From this, the study conducts a survey to understand the effect of stress on hair loss. Materials and Methods: It is a questionnaire-based survey. A set of 10 questions to assess the hair loss of participants of different age and different stress factors were given. The data were collected and statistically evaluated. Results and Discussion: As per the results, the hair fall was noticed high during high school where they had stress and fear of examinations and it gradually decreased their sleep-wake cycle. The hair loss started from high school and was progressive throughout their life. The result shown that most of them are non-anemic (82%) and are free of thyroid-related diseases (96%). Conclusion: Thus, this survey evidently proves that stress and hair loss are interrelated and are a growing threat affecting emotional and social well-being of people, especially among teenagers. Stress is felt by teenagers with their examinations for adults due to their work pressure apart from illness. Thus, the necessary measures to be taken to lead a happy socioemotional life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002811
Title: Accessory foramen in the body of sphenoid
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: An accessory foramen is observed in the body of the sphenoid bone in the middle cranial fossa of a base of dried skull. The knowledge of these foramina may be important to the radiologists, endocrinologists, and anthropologists. The aim of the current study is to determine the incidence of accessory foramen in the body of sphenoid in dried cranial cavities. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 cranial cavities were taken to check for the incidence of the accessory foramen in the body of sphenoid. These skulls were taken from the archives of the Department of Anatomy of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. Five were discarded due to damage in the body of sphenoid. Results: A total of 27 bones were examined in which the incidence of accessory foramina in the body of sphenoid was 18.51% of cranial cavity. In the five bones observed, two were in clivus, two in the hypophyseal fossa, and one in the left lateral surface of the body of sphenoid. Conclusion: The knowledge of the normal and variant positions of canals and foramina of skull is important for the radiologists, neurosurgeons, endocrinologists, and anthropologists.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002812
Title: Zygomatic complex fracture – A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures are a group of fractures that can significantly alter the structure, function, and appearance of the midface, including the globe. Like other facial fractures, the optimal management of operative ZMC fractures requires anatomic reduction of all fractures followed by rigid internal fixation. However, surgical treatment of these fractures can be quite challenging with potential for high rates of complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 84 articles were identified through the database searches. Articles which were found to be review papers, summaries of other studies, or contained no data to inform the research questions were rejected, and a total of 34 articles were included in the review. Discussion: The ZMC fracture is also known as a quadripod fracture or quadramalar fracture, and formerly referred to as a tripod fracture or trimalar fracture has four components: The lateral orbital wall, separation of the maxilla and zygoma along the anterior maxilla, the zygomatic arch and the orbital floor near the infraorbital canal. The buttress is of two types (1) horizontal buttress and (2) vertical buttress. Classification - non displaced, displaced, comminuted, orbital wall fracture, zygomatic arch fracture knight, and north classification. Clinical features (1) anesthesia/paraesthesia of that side of the face, (2) inability to open the mouth, and (3) flattening of zygomatic area. Diagnosis - (1) computed tomography scan imaging, (2) endoscopy, and (3) enophthalmos. Majority of the patients were managed conservatively or Gillie’s procedure. Conclusion: The discussion about zygomatic complex fracture includes buttress system, classification, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. Surgical technique results in good bony alignment and esthetics. From this review, awareness on zygomatic complex fracture and treatment available for zygomatic complex fracture is known.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002813
Title: Evolution of temporomandibular joint - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India
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Introduction: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the joint of synovial variety between mandible and temporal bone of cranium. It is a unique joint because it has dual function, the translatory, and the rotatory. It is also called as the ginglymoarthrodial type of joint. It has sliding movement between the bony surfaces along with hinge movements. Materials and Methods: A total of 67 articles were identified through the database searches. Articles which found to be review papers, summaries of other studies, or contained no data to inform the research questions. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. Discussion: The TMJ evolves from the reptiles and the amphibians. Form this review; it is evident that pelycosaurs were more concerned to be the ancestors of mammals. From this review, we come to know that in the mammalian jaw, the dentary bone increases in size and the post-dentary homes decrease inside and are less firmly attached to the dentary. Conclusion: The meticulous review of this study declares the evolution of TMJ occurs in a complex and long time process amongst reptiles and amphibians.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002814
Title: Estimation of stature using clavicle bone
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Establishment of an identity is very much important in both civil and criminal cases. Stature is one of the criteria of personal identification. The present study is an attempt to evaluate a possible correlation between stature of an individual and the length of the clavicle. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 male individuals of age 18–45. The length of clavicle was measured using a centimeter scale. Stature was measured in centimeter (cm). Each subject was asked to stand barefoot on a flat surface on the ground. Upright height was taken from the vertex to the foot according to the anatomical position and Frankfurt plane. To minimize subjective errors, all the measurements were taken 3 times, and then, mean was calculated. Results: A sample of 50 individuals was considered, and the measurements were taken randomly using standard tapes. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using Microsoft Excel software, and the average living stature for an adult male was determined. The linear relationship between the living stature and length of clavicle of each side was worked out in the form of regression equation. It was found that the clavicle length showed a positive correlation with the stature. Conclusion: It was concluded that the length of the clavicle could be used in the estimation of stature among adults. If the measurement of clavicle is obtained, the stature can be calculated, respectively; this would be useful for anthropologists and Forensic Medicine experts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002815
Title: Clinical measurement of maximum mouth opening in children and its relation with different facial types
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Maximal opening of the mouth is described as the greatest distance between incisal edge of maxillary central incisor to the incisal edge of mandibular central incisor when the mouth is opened as wide as possible painlessly or as the interincisal distance plus the overbite. Maximal mouth opening (MMO) is an earliest marker in detecting any TMD. However, MMO varies considerably with age, gender, facial type, and weight. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation of MMO with age, gender, height, weight, and facial type. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among 150 pediatric patients who visited Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals for their routine dental checkup. They were randomly divided into three age groups: Group I - children of age 6–8 years, Group II - children of age 8.1–10 years, and Group III - children of age 10.1–12 years. For each child, three readings of MMO were noted and mean of those values was considered. Age, sex, facial type, height, and weight of the children were recorded simultaneously. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between the different parameters. Results: The estimated average MMO measured for girls and boys in the age group of 6–8 years was 43.54 ± 1.26 mm and 43.87 ± 1.19 mm, respectively, in 23 children having euryprosopic facial type. Among 26 leptoprosopic facial type children, the average MMO was 43.44 ± 1.18 mm and 43.96 ± 0.73 mm for girls and boys, respectively. In case of 18 children having mesoprosopic facial type, the average MMO was found to be 43.52 ± 1.16 mm for girls and 43.88 ± 1.20 mm for boys. The estimated average MMO measured for girls and boys in the age group of 8.1–10 years was 45.97 ± 0.38 mm and 47.46 ± 0.37 mm, respectively, in 13 children having Euryprosopic facial type. Among 14 leptoprosopic facial type children, the average MMO was 46.5 ± 0.55 mm and 44.78 ± 0.39 mm for girls and boys, respectively. In case of 13 children having mesoprosopic facial type, the average MMO was found to be 45.85 ± 1.23 mm for girls and 45.25 ± 0.52 mm for boys. The estimated average MMO measured for girls and boys in the age group of 10.1–12 years was 46.38 ± 1.44 mm and 48.55 ± 0.16 mm, respectively, in 21 children having euryprosopic facial type. Among 14 leptoprosopic facial type children, the average MMO was 43.87 mm and 47.84 ± 1.15 mm for girls and boys, respectively. In case of 13 children having mesoprosopic facial type, the average MMO was found to be 47.61 ± 1.83 mm for girls and 47.51 ± 2.26 mm for boys. Conclusion: There was a significant difference in MMO between males and females, with males having higher values in all age groups. MMO is seen to increase with age in a statistically significant manner.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002816
Title: Correlation of facial form and profile shape in patients with Class I, II, and III malocclusion
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of BDS, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: A number of authors have suggested that there is close relationship between the facial form and also profile shape with Class I, II, and III malocclusion. Malocclusion is a morphological variation among individual that can be associated with the pathological condition in some cases. It is has the long last implication to the facial form and profile shape due to overbite and overjet condition. The most common malocclusion is Class I malocclusion in which the individual generally has mesocephalic head shape and straight facial profile. Aim: The scope of the research was to study the correlation between facial form and profile shape and in patients with Class I, II, and II malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 subjects were recruited in this study that having malocclusions age ranging from 18 to 60 years. All the subjects were clinically examined for different types of malocclusion. The facial form and profile shape were assessed by viewing from the superficial facial features from the subject’s coronal and sagittal side, respectively. Result: 11 out of the total subjects were having Class l, the majority of them were mesoprosopic (82%), and both euryprosopic and leptoprosopic had equally 9% each. For Class II, 25% were euryprosopic and 75% were mesoprosopic. There was no significant subject having leptoprosopic facial morphology in Class II. Facial index in Class III show majority of leptoprosopic facial index (75%) followed by mesoprosopic with the percentage of 33. According to the gender, it was that both sexes had equivalence in molar Class II. Conclusion: The face and skeletal morphology does have a specific type of dental malocclusion, which can be related to the attribution of germ layer during growth development. This is in concordance to the result that subjects with mesoprosopic facial type have more likely to have Class I and Class I dental malocclusion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002817
Title: Effectiveness of training on postural stability in mild‑to‑moderate diabetic neuropathy patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Depatment of Physiotherapy, Saveetha College of Physiotherapy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetic neuropathy is a well-known microvascular complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus attributed to chronic hyperglycemia with peripheral nerve dysfunction. Postural instability is the major clinical impairment which leads to increased risk of falls. Therefore, this study aims to retrain the postural stability and to reduce risk of falls by means of prescribed exercise training program in mild-to-moderate diabetic neuropathy patients. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental - pretest/post-test design included 34 subjects with diabetic neuropathy. Patients were recruited who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Outcomes were measured using clinical neurological examination (CNE)-Valk score, Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), Multidirectional reach test, and unipedal stance test. Patients were given a prescribed training program of 3 weeks at home with a regular follow-up. Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference in the clinical neurological evaluation, FES, and unipedal stance time (UPS) (P < 0.000). Multidirectional reach forward and right (P < 0.000), backward (P < 0.001) and left (P < 0.002) shows significant changes. Conclusion: Training postural stability in mild-to-moderate diabetic neuropathy patients has beneficial effects in improving the UPS and multidirectional reach and in reducing the risk of falls. CNE score was significant but not highly significant as expected. Training may not have a greater influence and effectiveness in clinical symptoms but beneficial in improving one’s stability limits. Early assessment and training program should be considered in diabetic neuropathy to reduce the risk of falls in the disease progression state.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002818
Title: Comparative morphometric analysis of sella turcica in males and females: A radiographic study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Sella turcica is situated in the middle cranial fossa in the sphenoid bone. The dimension of the sella turcica varies between gender and races, and it has forensic importance. The aim of this study is to assess the difference in the morphology of sella turcica in male and female patients through cephalometric analysis of sella turcica by its shape and size. Materials and Methods: Sella turcica is a superior depression seen in the sphenoid bone. It contains the pituitary gland and thus serves as a cephalometric landmark. The use of modern radiological imaging techniques plays a major role in the investigation of hypothalamo-pituitary abnormalities identified through size and shape of sella turcica. In this study, 50 cephalometric radiographs each of males and females are analyzed to identify the difference in morphology between individuals. Therefore, morphometric differences can be analyzed in males and females through this study. Results: From this study, through the morphometric differences of sella turcica in males and females, the mean length and mean depth were found to be more for females than the males and the mean anteroposterior diameter was found to be approximately the same in both males and females. Therefore, from the above results, P value was found to be P > 0.001 which is not statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on the study, precise anatomical knowledge of the sella turcica is important for both neurologists and dental practitioners or surgeons who deal with operating in the surrounding structures. Therefore, any morphological variation can lead to abnormality or dysfunction of the gland or organ, leading to craniofacial deformities. In addition, it also serves a morphometric characteristic in forensic personal identification.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002819
Title: Magnetic twin block - A comprehensive review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Functional appliances are defined as loose fitting or passive appliances which harness the natural forces of the orofacial musculature which are transmitted to the teeth and the alveolar bone through the medium of the appliance. These appliances transmit, guide, or eliminate the natural forces of the orofacial musculature to bring about the new morphologic pattern. Twin Block appliances are simple bite blocks that achieve rapid functional correction of malocclusion by the transmission of favorable occlusal forces to occlusal inclined planes that cover the posterior teeth in a jaw. The aim of Twin Block appliance therapy was to produce a technique that could maximize the growth response to functional mandibular protrusion using an appliance system that is simple, comfortable and is also esthetically acceptable to the patient. Magnets are incorporated in Twin Block appliances specifically to accelerate the correction of arch relationships. The main goal of the magnets is to increase occlusal contact on the bite blocks to maximize the favorable functional forces applied to correct the malocclusion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002820
Title: Effect of radiation from mobile devices on mercury leaching in dental practice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: With the growing usage of mobile phones in our daily lives, it is necessary to recognize the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on our health. Radiation from mobile devices has been known to affect the autonomous nervous system after prolonged use. It has been documented that electromagnetic radiation increases leaching of mercury from amalgam fillings. Aim: This study aims to study the effects of radiation from mobile devices on mercury release from amalgam restorations. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 natural teeth were selected and amalgam restorations were done. The teeth were then separated into a control group and experimental group and placed in artificial saliva. The experimental group was subjected to mobile phone radiation for 160 min. The control group was placed away from all types of radiation. The artificial saliva was then tested for to evaluate the amount of mercury leached in the experimental and control groups. Results: The mean concentration of mercury in the experimental group was 0.047 ± 0.020 mg/L and the concentration in the control was 0.029 ± 0.008 mg/L. The difference in the concentration of mercury in the artificial saliva in the control and experimental groups was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study provide evidence of the harmful effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile devices on dental amalgam. Further, investigations are required to identify the long- term effects of radiation emitted from mobile devices on health in general.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-DFA-00002822
Title: Response surface methodology for optimization of simvastatin-loaded self-emulsifying drug delivery system
Category: Drug or Formulation Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, I.T.S College of Pharmacy Muradnagar, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
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Objective: The objective of this research work was to formulate, optimize, and evaluate a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) of simvastatin (SIM) by employing a systematic formulation strategy using response surface methodology, i.e., Box–Behnken design (BBD) and to acquire basic concepts that assist in the evolution of such systems more practicable. Methods: Screening of oils and surfactants was done on the basis of solubility studies and phase diagrams were constructed to define the upper and lower limit of oil and surfactant for formulation development. BBD was applied involving three variables (concentration of oil, concentration of surfactant, and mixing time) and two responses (emulsification time and percentage transmittance). This approach aided in predicting the effect of individual component on the responses with the help of response surface curves and to investigate the interactions between excipients and thus to discover the best formulation. Results: Run order 3 was selected which was further validated using optimization of data. Finally, formulation OF1 was optimized and characterized for particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, emulsification time, percentage transmittance and in vitro dissolution studies. For OF1, the value of particle size, PDI, zeta potential, emulsification time, and percentage transmittance was 162 nm, 0.194, −22.3 mV, 93 s, and 99.45%, respectively. In vitro release studies from optimized formulation, OF1, displayed highest drug release as compared to SIM API and marketed preparation, thus enhancing the dissolution. Conclusion: This study confirms that for emergence of a successful SEDDS with enhancement in dissolution of a BCS Class II drug for oral administration can be more relevant by employing experimental design.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002823
Title: In vitro anticancer activity of methanolic leaf extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. against MCF-7 cell line
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among the females, the medicinal plants are potential source for the treatment of cancer. Breast cancer cells have increasingly shown resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Plant-derived secondary metabolites are proved to be an important source of anticancer drugs. Boerhaavia diffusa is an important medicinal plant used in many people to curing both infectious and non-infectious diseases. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect (anticancer activity) and observation of cell morphology changes of breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines when treated with the methanolic leaf extract of B. diffusa. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic effect of the methanolic leave extract of B. diffusa against MCF-7 cell lines was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), a yellow tetrazolium (MTT) assay and observable changes of cell morphology of MCF-7 on exposure to the extract using phase contrast microscope. Results: The results demonstrated that the methanolic leave extract of B. diffusa with different concentrations (2550, 100, and 200 μg/mL) had shown a dose-dependent significant cytotoxic activity of 13.9%, 27.96%, 43.65%, and 52.86, respectively, with half maximal inhibitory concentration of 69.18 µg/ml and 47.14% of cell viability was observed at 200 µg/ml concentration of methanolic leave extract of B. diffusa. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the methanolic leave extract of B. diffusa shown significant anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell lines and the methanolic leave extract of B. diffusa could be used for the treatment of breast cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002825
Title: Grape seed extract as a potential remineralizing agent - A structured review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of mankind. Dental caries development is considered to involve a triad of indispensable factors that can be concluded as bacteria in dental plaque, carbohydrates in the diet and susceptible teeth. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a rich source of proanthocyanidin (PA), mainly composed of monomeric catechin and epicatechin, gallic acid and polymeric, and oligomeric procyanidins. It verified that GSE, composed mainly of PA, can positively affect the tooth structure, thus offering a new therapy for carious lesions. Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the existing literature on the remineralizing effect of GSE on caries-like lesion compared to other remineralizing agent. Materials and Methods: Search strategy - The Data Bases of PubMed, Cochrane, Science direct, Lilacs, and Google Scholar were searched for the period from January 2000 to October 2017. References of selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications. Selection criteria - a in vitro study evaluating the remineralizing potential of GSE on enamel, dentin, and root caries on human permanent, primary teeth, and bovine teeth. Results: The systematic search revealed a total of 340 publications from PubMed, Cochrane, Science direct, Lilacs, and Google Scholar. The articles were scrutinized based on present inclusion and exclusion criteria. 11 publications fulfilled all the inclusion criteria, and 329 publications were excluded from the review. Conclusion: With the available evidence, GSE was found to have remineralizing effect on dental caries. In the future, GSE with its antimicrobial, antigingivitis, and anticaries effect can be utilized in preventive and restorative materials to preserve the dental health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002826
Title: Knowledge and awareness of biomedical waste management among dental students and auxiliary staff - A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Biomedical waste (BMW) is a global issue today. BMW is defined as “any solid, fluid, or liquid waste, including its container and any intermediate product, which is generated during diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings. Dental offices generate a number of hazardous wastes that can be detrimental to the environment if not properly managed. Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge of handling of this dental waste may have serious health consequences and a significant impact on the environment as well. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess knowledge and awareness about BMW management among undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) dental students and auxiliary staff. Materials and Methods: Self-structured questionnaire consisting of 15 close-ended questions was distributed among randomly selected 90 participants (30 UGs, 30 PGs, and 30 dental auxiliary staff) in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: This survey shows that 62% of PGs, 47% of UGs, and 43% of auxiliary staffs have knowledge about BMW and 84% of PGs, 73% of UGs, and 57% of auxiliary staffs are aware of BMW management. PGs have the highest level of knowledge and awareness toward dental waste disposal when compared to UGs and dental auxiliary. Conclusion: The findings from this survey imply that proper training, continuing education programs, and short-term courses about BMW management and infection control procedures are required to motivate the dental students and dental auxiliaries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002827
Title: Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) as a free radical scavenger and an anticancer agent
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, School of Agriculture and Biosciences, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences (Deemed to be University), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to explore, extract, and validate the leaves of Morinda citrifolia L. plant for the presence of phytochemicals against KB3-1 oral human cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: In the current investigative study, the methanol extract of leaves of M. citrifolia L. a traditional Polynesian medicinal plant (180 mg/kg bd.wt) which was taxonomically identified and authenticated was examined for its protective effect against KB3-1 oral human cancer cell lines. The antioxidant scavenging assay was done using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, H2 O2 , and the reference was ascorbic acid. The percentage of inhibition and regression curve for the leaf extract was plotted. Results and Discussion: The results revealed the concentration of sample required to scavenge the free radicals. The inhibitory concentration 50 value of M. citrifolia L. was obtained. The cytotoxicity studies of the leaf extract on KB3-1 oral cancer cell lines done using MTT assay reported that the extract might have potent anticancer properties. These were validated when the methanolic extract of M. citrifolia L. leaves was subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and the components with a probability of 25% and above were listed where the presence of the probable components must be the reason for the anticancer activity which gives the cytotoxic advantage to the plant in the study. Conclusion: The present exploration suggests that the methanolic extract of leaves of M. citrifolia L. has a protective effect against KB3-1 human cancer cell line and exhibits potent anticancer cytotoxicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002828
Title: A study to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound therapy along with conventional treatment for diabetic foot ulcer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Saveetha College of Physiotherapy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease outbreak in India with the incidence of 69.2 million (8.7%) among the total population in the year 2015. However, it was estimated to be 62 million in the year 2014. The main complication of diabetes is diabetic ulcer which is the challenging one in the present medical field in the mean of healing. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects with diabetic foot ulcers based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed; these include subjects with the age group of above 35 years, ulcer without infections, and ulcers Grade 2 based on Wagner grading. They are divided into two groups by odd and even method. Group A consists of 30 participants, receiving ultrasound therapy (UST) and conventional medical management for 4 weeks, 6 days/week, and Group B consists of 30 participants, receiving conventional medical management for 4 weeks, 6 days/week. Outcome measures were taken at the baseline and after 4 weeks of the treatment protocol. Results: This research work states that Group A which received UST showed significant reduction in wound size when compared with Group-B. Hence, from the above results, it was proved that UST is more significant and effective method for diabetic wound healing. Conclusion: From the result, it has been concluded that UST is more effective in decreasing the healing time.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: October [ Special Issue 2 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002829
Title: Instrumentation techniques for pulpectomy in primary teeth - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood which presents significant clinical issues in primary teeth. If dental caries is left untreated at initial stage, it progresses towards pulp which subsequently leads to infection, abscess and premature tooth loss. The inflammation of pulp tissue occurs as a result of dental caries progressing deep into the tooth. Pediatric endodontics has evolved much new advancement in the past few decades. The variation of the root canal system in primary teeth makes difficult to remove the necrotic pulp by instrumentation. This success of pulpectomy requires proper instrumentation techniques. The intention of the present review on various instrumentation techniques for pulpectomy in primary teeth is for better outcome of the procedure.