Journal Menu

Issues

Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
  Scopus Indexed ( link http://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100202909&tip=sid&clean=0)
Indexed in
NCBI NLM Catalogue,
SCOPUS, EMBASE (Elsevier),
SCIMAGO, CAS,
ROAD, CABI, Google Scholar,
Open J-Gate, Biblioteca,
Science Central,
Index Scholar, Indian Citation Index,
 AYUSH Research Portal, 
Indexed Copernicus, EBSCO, PSOAR,
Ulrichs Directory of Periodicals, etc.

Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002833
Title: Radiographic assessment of prevalence of pulp stones in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of pulp stones in Indian population sample using radiographic records. Materials and Methods: The study is conducted to assess the prevalence of pulp stones using radiographic records among Indian population. The radiographs that were included in analysis comprised 187 male and 187 female radiographs. In each radiograph, only premolars and molars with complete roots and sound crown were examined for pulp stones. Results: The panoramic images of 374 subjects were examined which include 187 female and 187 male. Among them, almost 54 subjects were observed with pulp stone; of which, 35 were female (65%) and 19 were male (35%). Pulp stones were detected in 119 teeth in a total of 54 subjects. Among them, female were found to be more than male subjects. The most affected arch was found to be maxillary arch, and most affected teeth was found to be maxillary first molar. Conclusion: The prevalence of pulp stones varies among each population. From the study, the prevalence of pulp stone was found to be more in women than men in South Indian population. This may be due to various factors such as bruxism, iatrogenic factors such as trauma, and longstanding irritation to the pulp.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002830
Title: Comparison of intercanine and intermolar width of the maxilla as an aid in gender determination: A preliminary study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: Gender determination of skeletal remains is a part of archaeological analysis and medicolegal cases. The method of identification may vary, but the ultimate goal is to determine the gender of suspecting skeletal remains. The identification of skeletal remains gains utmost importance in cases of mass fatality such as in earthquakes, tsunami, cyclones, and flood. The aim of this study is to determine and evaluate the usefulness of intercanine and width of intermolar arch of the maxilla for gender determination. Materials and Methods: The sample size was of 60 volunteers with equal gender distribution, aged between 18 and 35 years in Saveetha Dental College. A Vernier caliper was used to measure the intercanine and intermolar distance, and the measurements were recorded and analyzed statistically. Results: Intercanine width in maxillary arch for male and female was 34.22 ± 1.50 mm and 34.49 ± 1.40 mm, respectively, with t value of 4.00. Intermolar width in maxillary arch for male and female was 46.74 ± 2.09 mm and 49.44 ± 1.82 mm, respectively, with t value of 6.13. On using the receiver operating characteristic curve to deduce sensitivity and specificity of the measurements taken, maxillary intermolar arch width gave high specificity of 92% with the best sensitivity, i.e., 64%. Conclusion: Based on the results, the intermolar arch width may be useful in determining the gender of dental remains accurately or of individuals with missing canine teeth. It may be more accurate in gender determination than intercanine arch width in the maxilla.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002831
Title: The assessment of alcohol effects on red blood cell indices in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
View Article

Introduction: Alcohol has many serious effects on cells and tissues and consequently causes major health diseases. Erythrocyte functions are depending on many factors which are shown increased in red blood cells (RBCs) dysfunction is related to alcoholism. Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of alcohol on erythrocyte indices. Materials and Methods: The experiment includes 20 rats divided into four groups under the same environment and same weight which are continuously fed with different alcohol concentrations (15%, 20%, and 25%), and one control that feeds with water only for 21 days. Results: The findings are that RBC’s indices increased significantly (P* < 0.05) with the alcohol concentrations such as mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH), MCH concentration, Hb, and hematocrit except the RBC counts. Conclusion: In conclusion, alcoholism can induce different effects on RBC indices particularly size and mass of Hb and its concentration in RBCs which can cause anemia and may return normal after alcohol abstinence.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002832
Title: Conservative treatment strategy in the management of premenstrual dysphoric disorder among different age groups: A pretest-posttest, single-blind, quasi-experimental study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute, Maduravoyal, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Background: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a periodic, recurrent, debilitating condition with severe psychological or affective symptoms during the late luteal phase. Pilates plays an important role to ease premenstrual syndrome (PMS), but the effect of exercises in the more severe form of PMS needs to be investigated. Aim: The aim of the study was to find the effectiveness of Pilates exercises among three different age groups of women affected with PMDD. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 females with PMDD were recruited by the stratified random sampling to participate in this pretest-posttest, single-blinded, quasi-experimental study. Recruited females with PMDD were randomly allocated into three groups, 20 in each, according to three different age groups, Group A (13–17 years), Group B (18–29 years), and Group C (30–40 years). All the three groups received Pilates training for 4 weeks’ period, consisting of 12 sessions. Each session lasted for 30 min/day × 3 days/week × 4 weeks. Daily record of severity of problems (DRSP) was documented at baseline and 4th week after the intervention to assess the severity of symptoms at different phases of the menstrual cycle and analyzed. Results: Both the Groups A and B demonstrated a significant difference (P = 0.03) in DRSP when compared to Group C. Conclusion: The Pilates Training Program is effective among the females with PMDD in all the three age groups, but more effective changes are seen in the age groups <30 years than above.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002834
Title: Examining the risk factors of conversion to open surgery in patients with urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Surgery, Isesaki Municipal Hospital, 12-1, Tsunatorihonmachi, Isesaki, Gunma, Japan
View Article

Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard for treating gallbladder disease. However, approximately 2–15% of patients require conversion to open surgery for various reasons. In this study, we investigated predictive risk factors of conversion in patients undergoing LC for acute cholecystitis. Materials and Methods: We included 143 patients with acute cholecystitis who underwent LC from January 2010 to December 2014 in our Isesaki Municipal Hospital. A total of 15 patients needed conversion to open cholecystectomy (OC). Patients who completed LC and required conversion to OC were compared in terms of age, sex, body mass index, fever (>38°C), Murphy’s sign, laboratory and computed tomography (CT) findings, pre-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, operation time and bleeding, and duration of hospital stay. Results: The overall conversion rate was 10.5%. Univariate analysis showed that age, sex, fever, Murphy’s sign, raised white blood cell, blood platelet, C-reactive protein, gallbladder wall thickness on CT, and operative bleeding were significantly correlated with conversion. Conclusions: It is possible to predict the risk of conversion. We should emphasize the possibility of conversion to those patients preoperatively.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-MSNS-00002835
Title: Microclonal propagation of plant process modeling and optimization of its parameters based on neural network
Category: Microbiological Study (on Natural/ Synthetic drug)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Information Management Systems, Institute of Engineering Technology and Natural Sciences, Belgorod State University, 85 Pobedy Street, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
View Article

Objective: This article describes the development and study of the models of neural networks for the evaluation and prediction of the results of the sterilization stage. These results allow to optimize its parameters and to conduct a required amount of simulation experiment with simultaneous changes of several (including all) parameters. Methods: For modeling study, researchers used two paradigms of artificial neural network, i.e., multilayer perceptron and radial basis function network. Preliminary laboratory experiments confirmed the adequacy of the developed models, while the smallest approximation error corresponds to the model in the form of a radial basis function network. Seeds of rare, disappearing, and medicinal plants growing on the territory of the Belgorod region were considered as explants. Results: This article carried out an imitation experiment based on the developed model. This experiment made it possible to identify the optimal parameters of the sterilization stage (the type of sterilant, its concentration, and the time of processing of plant explants) for plants seeds that were not used to construct the model, for which no laboratory experiments were used. Conclusion: The highest predicted percentage of sterile explants and aseptic viable seedlings was determined for these plant species.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002836
Title: New phenomena in the clinical and morphological aspects of osteoporosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Belgorod State University, Pobedy str., 85, 308015, Belgorod, Russian Federation, Russia
View Article

Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the biochemical indexes of phosphorus-calcium (Ca) metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome of 1–5 stages, associated with osteoporosis with morphological picture of bone tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 248 patients (99 men and 149 women) in the age from 60 to 69 (mean age was 64 ± 3.5) were examined during the study. Results: The results of the study of biochemical indexes of phosphorus-calcium (Ca) metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome associated with osteoporosis were presented in the article. The clinical picture is compared with electronic microscopically features of bone tissue and indexes of elements in it. It was shown that phosphorus- Ca imbalance in patients with metabolic syndrome has already determined on the 2nd stage of the metabolic syndrome and it is represented by decreasing of 1.25 (OH)2 Vitamin D and increasing of parathyroid hormone in blood serum, what is associated with beginning of osteoporosis. Conclusion: Bone mineral density is decreased in patients with metabolic syndrome of 1–4 stages as metabolic syndrome progresses. Osteoporosis/osteopenia is more expressed in bones of the forearm, and it is connected with hyperparathyroidism in patients with metabolic syndrome of the 5th stage.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002837
Title: Enterovirus infection: Epidemiological situation, problems, and solutions
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Sanitary, Kazan Federal University, Medical Sanitary, Kazan State Medical University, Russian Ministry of Health Russia
View Article

Enterovirus infection is an actual problem in the modern world. The causative agents of this infection are widespread and characterized by various variants of the disease clinical course (from the signs of acute respiratory viral infection to serous meningitis or myocarditis), which requires a detailed differential diagnosis during the provision of medical care to the patients with various clinical patterns. The methods of epidemiological analysis and generally accepted methods of variational statistics were used in this work. The work carried out by the authors showed that regional health-care systems and certain medical organizations have the problems of dealing with infected enterovirus infection, carrying out antiepidemic (preventive) measures in epidemiological foci of enterovirus infection, the organization of work in the framework of hygiene education, and others. The epidemiological analysis of 2012–2017 allows to talk about the tendency of enterovirus infection incidence increase in Russia (4.7 times) and the Republic of Tatarstan (14.3 times) and the increase of the incidence of enterovirus meningitis in Russia (2.3 times). This problem requires the adoption of effective management decisions, as well as their careful implementation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002838
Title: Epidemiological features of meningococcal infection in Russian Federation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Deputy Chief Medical Officer, Kazan Federal University, Medical Sanitary, “Kazan State Medical University” Russian Ministry of Health Russia, Moscow, Russia
View Article

Objective: Meningococcal infection is an actual problem due to the clinical and epidemiological features of the disease. A real infection is characterized as an acute anthropogenic infectious disease. Methods: In this paper, we used the methods of epidemiological analysis and generally accepted methods of variational statistics. Over the period of 2013–2017, the incidence of this infection among the general population of Russian Federation (Russia) decreased by 35%, among children and adolescents (0–17 years) by 34.3%. Results: It was found that during the study period, the share of the generalized form of meningococcal infection in the general structure of the infected also decreased from 88.4%, 2013, to 81.7%, 2017. There is also the decrease in the proportion of the generalized form of meningococcal infection among children and adolescents (0–17 years) from 93.3%, 2013, to 84.5%, 2017. During the period of 2013–2017, there is the tendency of lethal case number reduction from meningococcal infection in Russia both among the general population and among children and adolescents (0–17 years). Conclusion: The obtained results indicate the effectiveness of preventive measures in the fight against meningococcal infection, which allows to talk about the compliance with sanitary legislation at various levels and the provision of sanitary and epidemiological welfare at the federal level.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002839
Title: Our experience of patient treatment with knee fractures: A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine named after N.E. Bauman, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russia
View Article

In 2000–2012, the Center of Traumatology of the Republican Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Tatarstan treated 145 patients with different types of intra-articular fractures of the knee joint. All patients underwent transosseous osteosynthesis (TOOS) with external fixation devices. They studied the results of treatment among 136 patients out of 145. The observation period was from 1 to 12 years. The results were evaluated on the basis of clinical X-ray examination data of patients. Thus, the analysis of the long-term results after the treatment of 136 patients with different kinds and types of intra-articular fractures of the knee region showed good reposition capabilities of TOOS by external fixation devices. In all cases, reposition was achieved on the operating table. Excellent and good results were noted in 118 of 136 fractures, which made 86.8%. Positive results obtained in most cases allow to consider this method of treatment as the method of choice for intra-articular fractures of knee joint area. TOOS by external fixation devices provides an accurate reposition and a stable fixation of fractures, and it is the gentlest method of surgical treatment. TOOS by external fixation devices can be used for various types of knee joint fractures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002840
Title: Regulation mechanism of heartbeat rate, shocked blood volume, and their formation heterochronousity among small laboratory animals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine Named After N.E. Bauman, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russia
View Article

Objective: The purpose of this study was to study the peculiarities of HR, SVB, and the mechanisms of their regulation development among rats from the 1st day of life and up to the age of 70 days. Methods: The method of tetrapolar thoracic rheography was used to determine the HR and shock volume of blood (SVB). The principle of impedance electroplethysmography method is to record the oscillations of the complex electrical resistance (impedance) of a bioobject for high-frequency current; the fluctuations of resistance are proportional to the changes in blood supply. Results: In experiments on white mongrel laboratory rats, it was established that from the 1st day of life to the age of 70 days, the periods of the greatest change in the heart rate of rats alternate with the stages of a significant increase in the shock volume of the blood. In the mechanisms of regulation of the shock volume of blood in rats, the sympathetic regulatory effect is manifested much earlier than the parasympathetic. Conclusion: However, in the future, their ratio changes somewhat: A more pronounced sympathetic regulatory effect on UCS persists up to 70 days of age, whereas from the 8-week-old age, the parasympathetic effect is significantly reduced.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002841
Title: Changes of blood shock volume among the children with hypokinesia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine Named after N.E. Bauman, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia
View Article

Objectives: Peculiarities of the changes in the indexes of the pumping function of the children’s hearts, with different levels of preliminary physical readiness, were studied with a subsequent sharp restriction of motor activity. Materials and Method: The studies were conducted at the Traumatology Center of the Republican Clinical Hospital of RT Ministry of Health for 2 years. They examined indicators of pumping function of child heart among the hospital children with the fractures of the lower extremities, as well as with injuries of the spine. Results: It was found that in children who systematically engaged in sports before admission to the hospital, with subsequent severe restriction of motor activity, the shock volume of blood does not undergo significant changes during the 4 weeks of hypokinesia. Conclusion: In children who are not engaged in physical culture and sports before entering the hospital, the magnitude of the shock volume of blood during the first 3 weeks of the restriction of motor activity does not change, and in the subsequent, i.e., in the 4th week of strict bed rest (hypokinesia) is reliably reduced.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002842
Title: Peculiarities of heart rate change among children with hypokinesis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Medicine, Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine Named After N.E. Bauman, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russia
View Article

Objective: The purpose of the study is to study the response of indicators of heart pumping function indicators among the children with a sharp restriction of their motor activity (hypokinesia). Method: The heart rate (HR) was recorded using the Reo assembly for computer analysis RPKA2-01, designed to work as the part of hardware and software complexes for medical purposes. Tetrapolar thoracic rheography was used to determine the HR. Results: They revealed the peculiarities of heart pumping function parameter change among the children with different levels of physical fitness, with a sharp limitation of motor activity. For the 1st time, they revealed that among the children who engage in muscle training systematically, with a sharp restriction of motor activity during the first 3 weeks, the HR does not undergo significant changes, and only by the 4th week of hypokinesia, there is the tendency to HR increase. Conclusion: The children with a sharp restriction of motor activity, who do not engage in physical activity and sports regularly, demonstrate HR changes at the beginning of the 2nd week of hypokinesia and their subsequent change at a significant pace.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002843
Title: Assessment of the ecological state of Lake Ilinskoe (Russia) and the possibilities of landscape improvement
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Institute of Management, Economics and Finance, Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya Street, Kazan 420008, Russian Federation, Russia
View Article

Objective: Multiyear research of Lake Ilinskoe, located in the protective zone of the Volga-Kama State Nature Biosphere Reserve, was performed. Physicochemical parameters of water and indicators of zooplankton community were investigated. The state of the coastal zone of the lake was assessed. Materials and Method: 37 species of zooplankton were identified in Lake Ilinskoe in 2013–2017. Rotifera is the basis of the community. The summer abundance of zooplankton varied from 244.2 thousand specimens/m3 to 980.1 thousand specimens/m3. The values of biomass varied from 1.51 g/m3 to 17.13 g/ m3. The water body refers to α-mesotrophic - α-eutrophic type. According to the value of the Shannon index, Lake Ilinskoe corresponds to oligotrophic type. The values of the Simpson index did not reveal any significant changes in the structure of community. According to the value of saprobity index, the water object in most cases referred to oligosaprobic zone. Results: Hydrochemical studies revealed an increase in the content of biogenic elements in the water, supersaturation of the surface layers of water with oxygen, and its deficiency at the bottom, the presence of hydrogen sulfide, and high content of organic substances in the water. All of the above indicates the intensive process of eutrophication. Conclusion: The analysis of the state of lake’s coastal area shows that one of the main problems is the intensive recreational load. Uncontrollable recreational use of the coastal zone and the lake leads to littering of territory, trampling of vegetation, and pollution of the lake with compounds of biogenic elements and oil products.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002844
Title: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from heartwood extracts - Family of Fabaceae
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: In recent science, nanotechnology is a burning field for the researchers. Nanotechnology deals with the nanoparticles (NPs) having a size of 1–100 nm in one dimension used significantly concerning medical chemistry, atomic physics, and all other known fields. In biological approach is the most emerging approach of preparation, because, this method is easier than the other methods, eco-friendly, and less time consuming. The objective of the study has been made for the synthesis and optimization of silver NPs (AgNPs) from heartwood extract of Acacia catechu. Materials and Methods: The heartwoods were chopped into fine pieces and soaked into distilled water for 20 min and the resultant extract was used to synthesize AgNP. The solution was filtered through Whatman No.1 filter paper. The filtered extract was stored in the refrigerator for further experiments. In a typical experiment, the heartwood extract different extract was added to 10 ml of 1 mM silver nitrate aqueous solution. The bioreduced aqueous component (0.5 ml) was used to measuring ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra of the solution. Discussion: The synthesized NPs exhibited surface plasmon resonance (SPR) property at 420 nm which corresponds to the silver SPR. Silver was of a particular interest for this process due to its evocative physical and chemical properties. A different ratio of sample extract to silver NPs was prepared and the color change was observed which proved the formation of NPs by optimized at time. Conclusion: The NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and further study extended to Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, etc. The NPs were found the size ranges from 380 nm to 450 nm. In future, the prepared AgNPs can be made as a nano drug use for various fields as biological, medical, and several other applications.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002845
Title: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of commercially available herbal toothpaste - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: The presence of Streptococcus mutans has been consistently linked with the etiology of many oral problems such as the dental caries due to their mechanisms of plaque biofilm development and accumulation of acids. As synthetic dentifrices commonly used contain chemical agents, which are known to produce harmful side effects on prolonged use. Several antimicrobial chemicals, incorporated into toothpaste, can be beneficial in the prevention of dental caries. Inhibition of each step in this process of caries formation contributes to the prevention of dental caries. Several medicinal plants have been recently found to have antimicrobial properties. Hence, the extracts of these plants have been used to improve dental health and oral hygiene. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antibacterial activity of herbal toothpaste on S. mutans level - an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: Eight commercially available herbal toothpastes were included in the study. Antimicrobial efficacies of dentifrices were tested by measuring the maximum zone of inhibition at 24 h on the Muller- Hilton agar media inoculated with microbial stain using disk diffusion method. Results: The study showed that herbal toothpaste containing clove was effective against S. mutans than the fluoridated toothpaste with a zone of inhibition of 22 mm. Conclusion: The antibacterial properties of eight dentifrices were studied in vitro and concluded that the use of herbal toothpaste may reduce the streptococcus count due to their antimicrobial activity and could help lower the prevalence of dental problems and maintain oral hygiene in the population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002846
Title: The assessment of restoration of zooplankton community of Lake Chishmyale (Kazan, Russia) after eco-rehabilitation
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Institute of Management, Economics and Finance, Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya Street Kazan 420008, Kazan Federal University, Russian Federation
View Article

Objective: The assessment of restoration of zooplankton community of Lake Chishmyale (Kazan, Russia), after performed measures for eco-rehabilitation, was made. Lake Chishmyale is located in Kazan (Russia), on the territory with multistorey residential buildings. Materials and Method: The materials for the study were zooplankton samples, taken from two stations, during the vegetation periods of 2016–2017. Periodicity of sampling is once in 10–14 days, from May to September. Samples of zooplankton were taken by straining of 50 L of water through the Apshtein net. Fixation was carried out with 40% formalin solution. Laboratory investigation was carried out according to conventional hydrobiological methods. Results: In 2010, the lake was completely covered up with soil for building a fuel filling station. However, at the demand of residents, construction works were stopped. On the former building site, accumulation of surface waters was observed. This led to the reformation of a small body of water in this area. It was decided to restore the lake and to create a garden square. The activities on eco- rehabilitation included restoration of the lake within the previous boundaries, artificial feeding of the reservoir, landscape gardening, and creation of a garden square. The aim of the work was to assess the restoration of zooplankton community of Lake Chishmyale after performing of measures for eco-rehabilitation. The research of zooplankton community was carried out during the vegetation periods of 2016–2017. Quantitative indices were estimated, and biotic indices were calculated. At present, species composition of zooplankton includes 42 items. Conclusion: However, the number of species, detected in samples, is not large, on average 6.5. Zooplankton community is characterized by low abundance and biomass. The deficit of oxygen in water in summer period restrains the development of zooplankton. Thus, the conducted researches showed a partial restoration of zooplankton community.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002847
Title: Adenomatous lesions of the major duodenal papilla in conjunction with pancreatic heterotopia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russia
View Article

Objective: The aim of the research was to study adenomatous and adenomyomatous lesions of the major duodenum papilla with its normal structure and the presence of heterotopic pancreatic tissue in it. Materials and Method: The study was carried out on the material of 327 pathoanatomical autopsies taking into account the sex, age, clinical data, pathoanatomical, and clinical diagnoses. The material is divided into two groups: The 1st group - without an ectopic pancreatic tissue in the major duodenum papilla (279 cases) and the 2nd group - with different variants of ectopic pancreatic tissue (48 cases). In each of them, the distribution was carried out according to sex, age, and cause of death. Results: Adenomyomatous lesions of the papilla of Vater often combined with pancreatic heterotopia in it - in 23 of 48 cases, various changes were observed in both the papilla wall and ectopic tissue. These include atrophy of the epithelial structures of the papilla, primarily glands, hyperplastic changes in the mucous membrane and glands, significant ductal and cystic transformation, and foci of adenomyosis. Conclusion: In the areas of hyperplastic changes in the epithelium of the cystically altered ducts, hyperplasia of stromal elements with a smooth-muscle immunophenotype was determined.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002848
Title: Optimization approaches to dispensary observation of patients with polymorbid pathology on the metabolic syndrome background
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Belgorod State University, Ulitsa Pobedy, 85, Belgorod, Belgorodskaya oblast 308015, Russia
View Article

Objective: Development of new approaches to the implementation of dispensary observation (DO) of patients with polymorbid pathology against the background of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and the evaluation of their efficiency were considered. Method: The method of complex evaluation of polymorbidity, developed as an instrument of DO, evaluates polymorbidity qualitatively and quantitatively, taking into account its structure, the presence of risk factors, target organ damage, functional disorders, and provides information to the physician about the patient’s signs of persistent disability, the possibility of sanatorium treatment, cardiovascular risk in the conduct of planned surgical interventions. Results: The innovative program of DO focuses on the modification of the lifestyle, the personified approach, and the use of the therapeutic and prophylactic potential of the patient’s microsocial environment. For 6 months, 110 patients with chronic non-infectious diseases, polymorbid pathology, and MS were observed. They were divided into two groups: 1st group (n = 61) traditional (normatively approved) DO program and 2nd group (n = 49) - innovative DO program. Reliability, sensibility, and validity of the complex evaluation method of polymorbidity were reliably established. With the use of this method, the median time of patient dispensary appointment is significantly less than without its application. In the second group of the innovation DO program, statistically significant fewer cases of exacerbations of chronic diseases, the number of calls for emergency medical services and hospitalizations, and the number of days of the incapacity for work in comparison with the 1st group were registered in the six. Conclusion: The use of new approaches in the course of DO of the patients with polymorbid pathology on the background of MS allows to optimize and improve its implementation in medical organizations that provide assistance in outpatient and polyclinic conditions

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002849
Title: Medical students’ attitude to persons with mental disorders and psychiatrists after the study of psychiatry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Narcology and Clinical Psychology, Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation
View Article

This study aimed to verify and compare the degree of stigmatization of persons with mental disorders by future doctors, depending on the knowledge in the field of psychiatry, to develop recommendations for destigmatization. A solid sample of 276 medical students (139 4th -year students who have not studied psychiatry and 137 5th -year students after studying psychiatry and passing the exam) was interviewed using medico-sociological method (anonymous questioning). It was found that the study of psychiatry made softer the medical students’ attitude toward people with mental disorders. The level of archaic beliefs decreased, and views on the genesis of mental disorders become more realistic. The position regarding work and intimate relations becomes softened. There is no dynamics of notions about the necessity of administrative and legal restrictions, restriction of freedom for the sake of society’s safety. In addition, there remains a high level of stigmatizing in terms of treatment of the somatic pathology in persons with mental disorders. The development of destigmatization programs is necessary. They can be implemented within the courses “biomedical ethics” and “introduction to specialty.” It will help to make future doctors’ attitude toward people with mental disorders softer and decrease the stigmatizing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002850
Title: Medical and psychological characteristics of the 1st year students of medical and pedagogical institutes and their features of educational adaptation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Narcology and Clinical Psychology, Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russian Federation, Russia
View Article

Objective: The process of education in a medical institute is accompanied by a high level of anxiety and depression among students that have a negative impact on their mental and physical health. The aim of our work is to develop recommendations for reducing the level of educational stress on the basis of studying the medical and psychological characteristics and peculiarities of educational stress among students of medical and pedagogical institutes. Materials and Method: We used medical-sociological and psychometric methods for examining 160 students (100 medical and 60 pedagogical) at the age from 17 to 24 (18.3 ± 1.4) years. Results: It was found that the high educational load, problems with study, lack of night sleep, and inability to cope with stress cause medical students to have a high level of educational stress (Me = 5 points and higher). Clinically significant symptoms of social phobia and generalized anxiety were revealed in 16% of medical students and in 5–6.6% of pedagogical students. Symptoms of depression (according to the depression anxiety stress scale-21 scale) were observed in 34% of physicians and 17% in pedagogues. The probability of depression in medical students is 4 times higher than that of pedagogical students. Subclinical and clinical levels of depression were more common among those admitted to the university than on their own initiative: 18.5–42.1%, respectively. A direct correlation dependence of the subjective evaluation of the complexity of study with the level of stress, anxiety, and depression in medical students was revealed. A high level of anxiety among medical students was observed more often than among pedagogical students: 35–8.3%, respectively; in addition, the probability of developing anxiety in them is 6 times higher. It is required to optimize the schedules of classes and the academic load of medical students for the prevention of educational stress, anxiety, and depression. Conclusion: In addition, it is expedient to develop and implement the programs of “time management” and “stress management” in the 1st year of education.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002851
Title: Evaluation of antimycotic activity of black cumin seed extract: In vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: This study aims to study the antimycotic activity of Nigella sativa extract in vitro. Background: N. sativa Linnaeus (Family Ranunculaceae), a herbal plant commonly referred to as black cumin seed and Karunjeeragam (in Tamil), is immune stimulating, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anticancerous, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and spasmolytic and also has bronchodilating properties. An antimycotic medication is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycoses such as athlete’s foot, ringworm, and candidiasis. Using herbal alternatives against chemical alternatives are thus explored in this research. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of N. sativa was tested for antifungal (antimycotic) activity against Candida albicans. Agar well diffusion method was used to study the antifungal activity by measuring the zone of inhibition compared with control. Results: N. sativa extract displayed antimycotic property against C. albicans. Conclusion: Fungal infections are prevalent throughout South India. Antimycotic effect of herbs such as N. sativa can, thus, be purified and used as an additional ingredient in mouthwashes and toothpaste.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002852
Title: Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of conventional and nanohydroxyapatite crystals incorporated pit and fissure sealants on permanent molars - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: Pit and fissure sealants considered to be one of the most successful methods in preventing and arresting dental caries of primary and permanent teeth. In vitro studies form the fundamental part of understanding the physical, mechanical, and biological properties of dental materials. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to compare and evaluate the shear bond strength of conventional and nanohydroxyapatite (NHAP) (crystals added pit and fissure sealants applied to the enamel on the buccal surface of permanent molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 extracted third molars were included in the study. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups. Group I: Conventional sealant (Clinpro3M ESPE) and Group II: 15% of NHAP crystals incorporated pit and fissure sealant. Buccal surfaces of each tooth were pretreated with the acid etchant, and the respective sealants were placed perpendicular to the buccal surfaces using an elastomeric mold. All the samples were embedded in resin block and shear bond strength was evaluated using universal instron machine. Independent t-test was used to compare the difference in mean shear bond between the groups, and the level of statistical significance was set at a value of P < 0.05. Results: The mean shear bond strength of Group I sealant was found to be 14.26 ± 1.11 megapascal pressure unit (MPa), and for Group II, it was 18.52 ± 1.03 MPa. Group II presented a significantly higher shear bond strength than that of Group I (P = 0.001). Conclusion: NHAP crystals incorporated commercial pit and fissure sealant (Group II) had better shear bond strength when compared to that of Clinpro sealant (Group I).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002853
Title: Antibacterial effect of the crude extract of garlic on Streptococcus mutans
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, India
View Article

Introduction: Streptococcus mutans is one of the most common bacteria that are present in the saliva. It is a Gram-positive cocci, non-motile, either aerobic or facultative anaerobic microorganism that plays a major role in initiation of dental caries as they can metabolize carbohydrates. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a herb known for its antimicrobial effects as it has inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Its antibacterial activity depends on allicin produced by enzymatic activity of alliinase. Aim: This study was performed to analyze the antimicrobial effect of the crude extract of A. sativum - garlic (test group) against the S. mutans and compared the same with chlorhexidine (positive control group). Materials and Methods: The crude extract of garlic which was made into a paste was filled in the cavities made on the culture medium with strains of S. mutans and checked for the zone of inhibition. Zone of inhibition was also checked for chlorhexidine. Result: The crude extract of garlic showed a zone of inhibition against S. mutans but not as effective as chlorhexidine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002854
Title: Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome among dentists in Chennai, India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a neuromuscular disorder, which commonly affects the dentists. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of probable CTS among various branches of specialties practiced by dentists in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 dentists practicing in Chennai, India. A self-administered two-part questionnaire consisting of demographic of the individual and work characteristics in the first part and the Boston CTS questionnaire consisted of the second part of the questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis using SPSS software 20. Results: Among the dentists who participated in the study, 63.3% were females, the maximum number of dentists was in the age group of 30–40 years, and 52.5% held a master degree. 61.7% of dentists work for 7–8 h a day. A total of 25.7% of dentists reported with symptoms of CTS, among them 15% reported mild disability, 9.1% reported moderate disability, and 1.6% reported severe disability. Periodontics was most affected specialty (41.66%) followed by endodontics (33.33%). Oral medicine, oral pathology, and public health dentistry were specialties who were unaffected in this study. Conclusion: The prevalence of CTS among dentists in this study population is relatively high, and awareness of the condition and method to prevent it need to be implemented.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002855
Title: Early callus induction and batch kinetics studies for in vitro production of triterpenoids in suspension cultures of Euphorbia hirta Linn
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, School of Agriculture and Biosciences, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Objective: Early callus induction and optimizing the growth-related kinetics study of cell suspension in Euphorbia hirta have been always a challenge in the production of triterpenoids under in vitro for snake venom treatment. The present research focuses on optimizing the method for early callus induction, analyzing growth kinetic parameters for in vitro production of triterpenoids and purification of the triterpenoid compound. Materials and Methods: The callus induction from leaf explants of E. hirta was optimized on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different hormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (2,4-D/BAP), and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)/BAP at concentrations of 1 mg/L, 2 mg/L, and 3 mg/L. Pre-treatment of leaf explants with hormones at different incubation times (20 min and 30 min) before inoculation in MS medium was performed to optimize early callus induction, and the biomass yield was also determined. Suspension cultures were initiated in MS broth supplemented with hormones α-Naphthalene acetic acid/6-Benzylaminopurine at 1.0 mg/L or determination of growth curve and growth kinetic parameters analysis. Quantitative analysis of the production of triterpenoids in cell suspension was performed to determine the yield. Purification of the compound was performed using column and compounds were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Results: Leaf explants inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D and 2,4-D/BAP (1.0 mg/L) resulted in callus induction between 12 and 14 days in comparison to NAA/BAP on 15–17 days. Further 30 min pre-treatment of leaf explants with hormone 2,4-D (1.0 mg-L) resulted in early callus induction on the 10th day when compared to control. Biomass yield of callus observed on the 25th day for all concentrations revealed that explant pretreated for 30 min to have a higher value than control. The log phase in growth curve was observed between 8th and 20th days. The concentration of triterpenoids was found to be increased in cell suspension culture in comparison to callus. LC-MS analysis detected the presence of a compound as taraxerol in the purified fraction IV (53, 55, 60) at m/z 427.3 [M+H]+ . Conclusion: The present study is a first attempt to optimize conditions for early callus induction and in vitro production of triterpenoids of E. hirta. Based on the results obtained enhanced production of triterpenoids under in vitro conditions can be optimized using elicitors in future and the work is in progress.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002856
Title: New honey chewable tablet formulations using Aerosil ®200
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
View Article

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the formula of chewable tablets of honey using Aerosil®200. Materials and Methods: The research method including honey quality analysis, formulate three chewable tablet formulas prepared with various honey, and mixed Aerosil: 35%, 40%, and 45%, with content, honey on 20% formula, granule mass evaluation, tablet quality evaluation, and hedonic test along with its statistical tests. Results: It was obtained three formulas of chewable tablets with a direct compressed method using Aerosil® 200 obtained a mixture of honey and Aerosil by 35%, 40%, and 45%, with honey levels, respectively, in the formula 20%. From the statistical analysis using analysis of variance method to test the favorite color of chewable tablets of honey did not show any significant difference from the three formulas, whereas for taste and fragility test count >F table, then tested continued with Newman-Keuls test showing Formula I (FI), FII, and FIII a significant difference. FI was the most preferred formula in terms of color, taste, and fragility. Conclusion: The honey quality test result showed all parameters examined fulfilled Indonesian National Standard and did not find hazardous metal content. FI was the most preferred formula. Chewable tablets showed an attractive appearance and almost uniform color. Similarly, for uniformity of size, weight, and hardness of tablets and tablet fragility tested did not indicate any significant deviations and all met physically demanding requirements. The formula of this study may be used as is or as a basic formula for medicinal chewable tablets.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002857
Title: Periodontal status in different stages of orthodontic treatment: A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: The study helps to evaluate the influence of brackets and other components of the fixed appliance on the periodontal status of the patient. Background: The study involves a total of 75 patients with a minimum of 15 patients examined in each stage say 3th month from the start of the treatment 5th ,7th ,9th ,12th month. Oral hygiene status is evaluated in each stage with OHIS index. Results: All values of the periodontal indices started to increase after the placement of fixed appliances. Maximum values were reached at 3 months after fixed appliance placement followed by a decrease in the past registration period 6 months after the placement of fixed appliances. Conclusions: Treatment with fixed appliance increases the values of all periodontal indices in the initial phase of the treatment suggesting a need for increased oral hygiene care in this phase of treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002858
Title: Knowledge and awareness among undergraduate students on human immunodeficiency virus transmission
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the HIV. As the disease progresses, it interferes with the immune system increasing the risk of common infections such as tuberculosis well as other opportunistic infections and tumors that rarely affect people who have working immune systems. Bloodborne transmission can be through needle sharing during intravenous drug use, needlestick injury in hospitals, transfusion of contaminated blood or blood product, or medical injections with unsterilized instruments. Aim: The aim of this study is to review the knowledge of dental undergraduate students on the transmission of HIV. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing 12 questions was prepared and distributed to 100 undergraduate students who consisted of final years and interns who belonged to the age group of 21–25 years. The data were collected and interpreted. Results: 72% of the students had a good basic knowledge on HIV transmission and 89% on clinical manifestations, 76% of the students wear protective gloves, masks, and eyewear, and 83% follow proper recapping of needle techniques and disposal of contaminated sharps after use. Conclusion: Most of the students had good knowledge about HIV/AIDS and the precautions to be taken. Overall, the students showed a positive attitude toward learning more about the universal precautions and oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002859
Title: Management strategies of necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: The aim of this study was to review the various literature on the signs and symptoms, diagnosis, investigation, and treatment of necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (NUP). Background: NUP is the most severe inflammatory periodontal disorders caused by bacterial plaque and usually run an acute course. Clinical features in NUP are characterized by the presence of punched out, ulcerated and necrotic lesions that may be covered by a pseudomembrane of necrotic tissue. The ulcerations are extremely painful and show spontaneous bleeding. An important feature of NUP is the rapid and severe loss of clinical attachment and alveolar bone in few days or weeks. Other clinical features include the presence of oral halitosis, adenopathies, fever, and general discomfort. Methodology: A Medline literature search was conducted on the management of NUP. The articles ranging from 1988 to 2016 were searched. 14 articles were relevant to this review article of 43 articles that were searched. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment planning is crucial in treating necrotizing periodontal diseases. In human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, the lack of oral hygiene, plaque accumulation, and reduced CD4 counts increase the risk factor for periodontal diseases and other opportunistic infections.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002860
Title: Conscious sedation in dentistry - An update
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Some patients are anxious about routine dental treatment; others, who may be able to cope with uncomplicated treatment, are worried by more unpleasant procedures such as minor oral surgery. Despite its excellent safety record there remains disquiet about the provision of conscious sedation for dental care. Management approaches to anxiety vary according to its severity, the age of the patient, the degree of cooperation and the patient’s medical history. An increasing number of patients are managed with conscious sedation techniques in combination with local anaesthesia. As patient awareness of the risk of anaesthesia and the availability of sedation have increased, so the popularity of conscious sedation for dentistry has increased.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002861
Title: Knowledge and awareness on status of malocclusion among adolescents in urban area
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Background: Malocclusion is a common finding, although it is not usually serious enough to require treatment. Correction of malocclusion may reduce the risk of tooth decay and help to relieve excessive pressure on the temporomandibular joint. Orthodontic treatment is also used to align for esthetic reasons. Malocclusions may be coupled with skeletal disharmony of the face, where the relations between the upper and lower jaws are not appropriate. Most of the skeletal malocclusions can only be treated by orthognathic surgery. Extra teeth, lost teeth, impacted teeth, or abnormally shaped teeth have been cited as causes of malocclusion. Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate the knowledge and awareness on the status of malocclusion among adolescents in urban area. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared. The survey was conducted among the adolescents in an urban area. This survey was done with the consent of parents and questions were asked. A total of 75 responses were collected. The questionnaire consists of 16 questions. Results: A total of 75 people responded for the online survey. The adolescents who responded were in the age group of 11–18 years. Malocclusions are mostly seen in adolescents. It is not only misalignment of teeth but also includes crowding of teeth and spaces between their teeth. This research shows that, nowadays, most of them maintain oral hygiene and they take time out to do so. Conclusion: It can be concluded that this survey study alone is not necessarily a suitable predictor to tell if the adolescents are facing this problem. Most of them are aware of malocclusion but not the ill effects. Moreover, almost all of them are going through orthodontic treatments, nowadays, that they pay more attention toward oral health and hygiene.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002862
Title: Digital education and their role in developing students aptitude
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Background: Professional education nurtures the naive to think logically and try to elaborate and share something new with the peers or colleagues. In the digitalized world, where everything is accessible from the palm of our hands, why should we scuffle among black and white pages with no overt interactive content for proficiency. The process of acquiring new or modified existing knowledge, skills, behavior, preferences, and values is learning. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the most beneficial study method. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, located in south part of India. 80 students from the final year undergraduates (2016–2017) participated voluntarily in 3 min questionnaire survey. The questions were phrased so as to assess which teaching and learning method had an overall effect on their understanding, aptitude development, and help them during the examinations. The results were statistically analyzed by paired t‑test using SPSS 3.0 software. Results: The conventional textbooks are monotonized with no overt interactive content. iBooks has 24% acceptance rate. Problem‑based learning (18%) aided in mastering the subject and in aptitude development (17%) but had a lesser role in presentation during theoretical examinations (13%) in comparison to iBooks (24%). Conclusion: There is a marked increase in student’s performance during the course of survey. This survey demonstrates the pivotal role of iBooks in student’s perception toward gaining knowledge along with other components. It is the best possible invention for tutors to impart educational information to students and improve their overall confidence.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002864
Title: Functional and health-promoting bioactivities of dragon fruit
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Hylocereus sp. or commonly referred to as dragon fruit (pitaya) has its origin from Central and Northern South America, and it is widely present in regions of Florida coast to Brazil. Pitaya is a night flowering ornamental plant and also as a fruit crop. It is widely grown in Vietnam and Asian countries in southeastern countries. It is found in subtropical and tropical American rain forests. It is a rich source of nutrition such as Vitamin C, calcium, and phosphorous. It has higher medicinal values like reducing hypertension, diabetes. It has greater anti-oxidant activity. Also it has beneficial effects in carbohydrate metabolism, strengthening of teeth and bones, helps in formation of heart tissues. It balances blood production and its compositional value of total ascorbic acid, total dietary fibre, pectin and iron content to increase haemoglobin and erythrocyte level. It also reduces aortic stiffness. They also can improve the function of kidneys and sharpness of eyes and strengthen the brain function; it also prevents colon and prostate cancer. This draws an attention of medical studies toward its role in controlling various diseases and vital health-promoting factors.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002865
Title: Comparing the dimensions of canine tooth in different species
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth are known as cuspid. In case of dog teeth and fangs or within the case of maxilla it’s known as eye teeth that is comparatively long and pointed teeth. In some species, they seem to be flattened which cause them to appear like incisors and lead them to make incisiform (resembling an incisor). They are totally developed and are primarily used for firmly holding the food so as to tear it apart; they additionally may use it as weapons. They are truly the largest teeth in a mammal’s mouth. Most species that develop them ordinarily have four per mammal, 2 canines within the maxilla, and 2 canines within the lower jaw; they are separated by incisors inside each jaw. The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the differences in dimensions of canine tooth in different species. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 articles were identified through the database searches. An additional 5 articles were identified through a recent HTA publication. After removal of duplicates, non-English publications and unrelated articles a total of 48 articles were taken into consideration, and the review was done. Results: The length of canine tooth, skull length, and length of canine crown for each specimen was tabulated. The tiger had the largest canine length (56.1 mm). Lion has the biggest skull of 302.00 mm. Humans have got 31.7 mm canine length and crown length of 10 mm. Cheetah has got 30.13 mm canine length. Conclusion: The current study presents that the canines have a lot of variations in shapes and sizes. The change in size and shape of canine occurring due to evolution depends on the changes of dietary habit.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002866
Title: Problems associated with amblyopia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy , Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India
View Article

Introduction: Amblyopia is reduced visual acuity in one or both eyes in the absence of any demonstrable abnormality of the visual pathway. With amblyopia, the brain suppresses one of these images and this negatively impacts a person’s binocular vision. It is not immediately resolved by the correction of refractive error. The amblyopia eye must have the most accurate optical correction possible. The aim of this review is to study the various problems related to amblyopia and treatments available to it. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 articles were identified through the database searches. An additional 10 articles were identified through a recent health technology assessment publication and two systematic reviews on amblyopia screening and treatment. After the removal of duplicates, articles were rejected at title if they were not related to the subject area and a total of 29 articles were included in the review. Discussion: Amblyopia is a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity that cannot be accounted for by any structural abnormality, either in the eye or in the visual pathways. A commonly used term for this condition is “lazy eye.” In some cases, however, amblyopia may be the result of a misaligned eye or severe amblyopia may cause a misaligned eye. Amblyopia is usually corrected by making the child uses their weaker eye. The treatment for amblyopia should be given at the initial stage of the problem. If there is no proper treatment given in case of amblyopia, it may turn into severe problem. Conclusion: The outcome of treatment for amblyopia and the factors that affect this is not well understood. A major reason for this has been the exclusion from previous large studies of a sometimes unknown number of patients because of failure to comply with treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002867
Title: Determining the relationship between handedness and chewing side preference
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: Chewing side preference (CSP) is said to occur when mastication is recognized exclusively/consistently or predominantly on the same side of the jaw. It can be assessed using the direct method - visual observation and indirect methods by electric programs, such as cinematography, kinetography, and computerized electromyography. Medical professionals further acknowledge the existence of the dominant foot and eye. Thus, there might be the presence of dominant CSP related to our favored hand. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 students were selected and were visually observed on their handedness and chewing side. The data were noted and analyzed. Result: From the total sample of 40 subjects, only 6 subjects (15%) were left-handed, and 34 subjects (85%) were right-handed people. As far as the preferred chewing side (PCS) is concerned, there were 15 subjects (37.5%) used the left side of the mouth as the preferred side for chewing and 25 subjects (62.5%) used the right side of the mouth as the preferred side for chewing. There was a notable relationship between handedness and PCS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002868
Title: Incidence of foramen of Huschke in temporal bone
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: The foramen of Huschke (FH) otherwise known as foramen tympanicum represents a developmental defect in the anteroinferior aspect of the bony external auditory meatus and is an uncommon disorder. It is posteromedial to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) occurs due to a defect in normal ossification in the first 5 years of life. The FH may predispose individuals to TMJ pathology or it may be associated with salivary discharge into the external acoustic canal during mastication. The aim of this study is to find the incidence of FH in the temporal bone. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 dry adult skulls of unknown sex and age were observed from the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. Results: FH was observed in two dry human adult crania of the 34 human crania with an occurrence of 5.8%. Both the FHs were present on the left side of the crania and were circular in shape. Conclusion: This case report describes one of the variations of a temporal bone, the FH with its embryological and clinical aspects. This study might enhance the knowledge of temporal bone in the field of osteology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002869
Title: Green synthesis of nanoparticles and their applications
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Nanotechnology is a field which is making an impact in all spheres of human life. Manufacturing of nanomaterials is one of the most demanding one in the field of nanotechnology. Most of the chemical methods used for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) are too expensive, and they also involve the use of toxic, hazardous chemicals which are responsible for various biological risks. “Green synthesis” of NPs makes use of environment-friendly and non-toxic reagents. Synthesis of metal NPs using plant-mediated method has many advantages such as less time consumption and non-effective to human beings. Silver, zinc, copper, and gold NPs have been chosen for this study due to its wide range of applications and importance in different fields. This review explains different plants and microbial sources used for the synthesis of NPs and their applications for various causes which will provide information for future studies.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-PP-00002870
Title: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic leaf extract of Rhizophora apiculata blume
Category: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: An oxidative stress results from the imbalance between the free radicals and the antioxidant system, and up regulated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been associated with oxidative stress diseases. Rhizophora apiculata Blume is an important medicinal plant long time used by many people in Asia and Africa continents for curing both the infectious and non-infectious diseases. Objective: The objective of the present study was to find the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical and evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of the methanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata Blume. Materials and Methods: The qualitative phytochemical analysis, quantitative estimations of total phenolic, alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, and saponin content, and in vitro antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH], hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, and hydroxy radical) of the methanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata Blume were performed using standard procedures. Results: The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the methanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata Blume revealed the presence of considerable amounts of tannins (95.14 µg/ml tannic acid equivalents/g), flavonoids (87.18 µg/ ml quercetin equivalents/g), phenolic compounds (54.56 µg/ml, gallic acid equivalents/g), saponins (4.17 µg/ml), and alkaloids (3.78 µg/ml), and further, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata Blume showed significant scavenging activity on increasing order of H2 O2 > DPPH > OH > O2 compared to that of standard ascorbic acid. Conclusion: Based on the present results, the methanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata Blume contained high amount of flavonoid, tannin, and phenolic compounds, thereby existing significant in vitro antioxidant activity, and the ethanolic leaf extract of R. apiculata Blume can be used as a potential source of desired bioactive natural antioxidants for the development of therapeutic antioxidant drugs

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002871
Title: Patient self-reported satisfaction with dental implant treatment among outpatients visiting - A Private Dental College Hospital
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: A dental implant is an artificial tooth root that is placed into the jaw to replace a tooth or teeth lost due to periodontal disease, tumors, infections, dental caries, trauma, or developmental anomalies. Prosthetic rehabilitation of people with missing teeth is one of the most complex topics in dentistry due to its gnathological, psychosocial, esthetic, and functional implications. The loss of teeth can represent a severe handicap that directly impacts on the quality of life. Dental implant is known to be one of the most preferred treatment options as they are the nearest equivalent replacement to the natural tooth. The aim of the study was to evaluate patients’ experiences of surgical and prosthetic procedures as well as their opinions regarding function, esthetics, comfort, and satisfaction with dental implant treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Chennai. Patient who underwent implant-supported prosthesis treatment in the Implantology Department, Saveetha Dental College was included in the study. Sample size N = 70. Patient satisfaction questionnaire was used to assess about the various aspects of implant-supported prosthesis such as chewing ability, appearance, health of gums, food entrapment, shape and position of restoration, frequency of visit, speech, and patient overall satisfaction with dental implant treatment. Results: The study sample comprised 70 participants, of which 34 (49%) were female and 36 (51%) were male. Anterior implant was placed in 44 (63%) of study subjects and posterior implant was placed in 26 (37%) of study subjects. In general, 88.6% of the patients were highly satisfied with their implant restoration. About 91.4% of the patients were satisfied with function of their restoration. 87.1% were highly satisfied with the implant restoration with esthetics of their restoration and 91.4% of the subjects were satisfied with the gingival health around the implant restoration. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest patient satisfaction with implant position, restoration shape, phonetics, mastication, and overall satisfaction. Effect on phonetics and mastication was a critical factor for patient satisfaction with dental implant treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002872
Title: Antiproliferative activity of isolated bioactive flavonoid apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester from ethyl acetate leaf extract of Manilkara zapota
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Adikavi Nannaya University, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India
View Article

Introduction: Cancer is one of the major causes of death among the world, demonstrating a substantial public health problem. Medicinal plants have been a great source of secondary metabolites with antiproliferative activities. Apigenin- 7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester is a bioactive flavonoid and has been isolated from the ethyl acetate leaf extract of Manilkara zapota, shown in vitro antiproliferative activities. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of bioactive flavonoid apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester against cancer cell lines such as human breast cancer (MCF-7), human hepatocellular carcinoma HEP G2, and human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29). Materials and Methods: Antiproliferative activity of apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazolium assay. Results: The results showed that the apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester (1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 μg/mL) has exhibited significant shown a concentration- dependent moderate anticancer activities against HT-29 (colon cancer cell line) and MCF-7 breast cancer cell with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values are of 42.09 µg/ml and 40.17 µg/ml comparing with standards 5-fluorouracil and tamoxifen with IC50 values of 8.17 µg/ml and 7.72 µg/ml. Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester shown strongest antiproliferative activity against HEP G2 (liver cancer cell) with IC50 value of 38.92 µg/ml compared with standard paclitaxel with IC50 values of 7.72 µg/ml. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester exhibited significant anticancer activity on HEP G2 (liver cancer cell) and could serve as a potential source of plant derived, anticancer agents for the development of therapeutic anticancer drugs

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002873
Title: Oral health impact profile of residents of poonamallee municipality, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences,Saveetha university, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: There are several challenges being faced in delivery of oral health care to the rural population such as lack of workforce and inaccessibility which are amplified by poverty and illiteracy. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and oral health status among residents of Poonamallee, a suburb of Chennai. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Poonamallee. Total population census and list of houses in Poonamallee were obtained from the respective authorities. Using stratified random sampling, every third house was selected. Equal representation of north, central, and south zone was taken until the sample size of 201 was achieved. Demographic information of the participants, oral health behavior, utilization of dental care services questionnaire, and clinical examination (World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form, 2013) were assessed and health education was given. After examination, OHRQoL was measured using the oral health impact profile (OHIP)-14 by interviewing the individuals. The data were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. Results: In this study, correlation between dentition status, periodontal status, tooth trauma, oral mucosal lesions, and mean OHIP-14 scores among Poonamallee population shows a positive correlation. Conclusion: The OHRQoL and oral health status were poor among the population residing in the semi-urban regions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002874
Title: Remineralizing effect of zinc reinforced synthetic nano-hydroxyapatite on caries-like lesion in human permanent teeth - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha University, , Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Introduction: Dental caries is among the most common chronic disease worldwide. A number of research projects are now focusing on the development of remineralizing agents to cease the progression of initial dental caries. Synthetic nano-hydroxyapatite  (NHA) has the same physicochemical properties as those of apatite in the enamel. It shows strong affinity to the tooth and can strongly adsorb on enamel surfaces. Zinc is a trace element of valuable importance in the oral cavity. Zinc and synthetic NHA has the potential to reduce demineralization and promote remineralization of incipient caries lesion. Aim: This study aims to evaluate and compare the remineralizing effect of synthetic NHA and zinc reinforced synthetic NHA on dental caries-like lesion in extracted human permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 21 maxillary premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were included in the study. Synthetic NHA was synthesized using calcium hydroxide and orthophosphoric acid. There are three groups, the first group for demineralized teeth specimen, the second group for 10% synthetic NHA solution, and the third group - zinc reinforced hydroxyapatite solution as treatment agents. Enamel window formation of 4 mm (length) × 4 mm (width) was created in teeth specimen. Initial enamel lesion was prepared with an acidic buffer followed by tooth specimens are subjected to pH cycling. Analysis of caries lesion depth after demineralization and remineralization of tooth specimens was done using polarized light microscope. Results: The mean dental caries lesion depth in demineralized solution group was 160 ± 32.6. In this study, the mean dental caries lesion depth in 10% synthetic NHA solution group and zinc reinforced synthetic NHA was 135.49 µm and 111.78 µm. Conclusion: Synthetic NHA has a remineralizing effect due to deposition of calcium phosphate ions in the porosities of demineralized area. The remineralizing potential of zinc reinforced synthetic NHA was found to be higher than synthetic NHA. Zinc reinforced synthetic NHA showed an additive remineralizing potential compared to synthetic NHA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002876
Title: Evaluation of biocompatibility of irrigants used for root canal disinfection
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,
View Article

Introduction: Irrigation is important for disinfection of the root canal system and participates in periapical repair, so their biocompatibility is of utmost importance to avoid tissue damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of sodium hypochlorite, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and modified salt solution in the periapical tissue of rats according to the inflammatory reaction. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 18 male Wistar rats. Incision was made in the dorsal side on the mandibular region of the rats and the paste was placed in surgical holes drilled in the bone. After 7 days, the animals were euthanized and the specimens were subjected to histotechnical preparation. The hematoxylin and eosin-stained histological sections were analyzed by light microscopy. Scores were established according to the inflammatory process and statistically compared by the Tukey test (α = 5%). Results: The connective tissue was moderately inflamed at 7 days when contacting the experimental paste. The analysis of histological sections showed significant inflammatory reaction in the periapical region in all the three groups. The results were statistically significant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, modified salt solution is used as alternative for sodium hypochlorite and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as an irrigating solution.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002877
Title: Attitude, materials, and methods employed by endodontists to determine the working length of root canal in Chennai - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: The aim of this study is to find the attitude, materials, and methods employed by endodontists in working length (WL) determination for root canal treatments (RCTs). Objective: The objective is to determine the attitude, materials, and methods employed by endodontists in WL determination for RCTs. Background: WL determination is an important step in endodontic treatment to ensure the success of the RCT. It helps to find the length and the anatomy of the root canal and provides a foresight for proper shaping and obturation. Different methods and materials have been found and recently introduced such as the digital tactile sense and electronic apex locator. Recent advances in dentistry has made root canal determination more easier and more accurate which would help to provide better treatment and better success rate for endodontically treated teeth. Conclusion: This survey shows that the endodontists practicing in Chennai have a thorough and proper knowledge on WL determination and use appropriate materials and methods for proper diagnosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002878
Title: Types of needles used in the irrigation of root canal system - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

The aim of this study is to review about the types of needles used in irrigation of root canal systems. The main objective is to review about the different types of needles used in irrigation of root canals and their advances in root canal treatment. Bacteria in the root canal systems help in the formation of periapical inflammatory lesions. The main aim of root canal treatment is to eliminate these microbes from the infected root canal and prevent reinfection. Irrigants are delivered to root canal space using syringes and metal needles of different gauges and design. To increase the efficiency of irrigants delivered by syringe, different types of needles have been used. There is still no consensus regarding the superiority of any of the types of needles. To review the knowledge regarding the various types of needles used in irrigation of root canal system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002879
Title: Role of interleukin-1 in peri-implantitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: To emphasize the etiology, microorganisms involved, pathophysiology of peri-implantitis and role of Interleukin-1 in peri-implantitis. Background:The survival rate of dental implants has become one of the serious issues in present day as successfully integrated implants are susceptible to disease conditions that cause loss of the implant. Although these implants are placed by periodontists, maxillofacial surgeons and prosthodontists, the maintenance of the oral cavity is completely on the patients. Poor oral hygiene subjects the surrounding tissues to inflammatory conditions similar to periodontal disease and it requires treatment. Bacterial infection causes an inflammatory response which results in bone decomposition and destruction of extracellular matrix. The above mentioned condition is peri-implantitis. Conclusion:Interleukin-1β can be used as a characteristic biomarker in peri-implantitis as it is found in gingival crevicular fluid and peri-implantitis crevicular fluid.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002880
Title: Invasive lumineer prosthodontic correction of malaligned teeth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Siddhartha Institute of Dental Science, Chinoutpalli, Gannavaram Mandal, Andhra Pradesh, India
View Article

Laminate veneers are one of the most conservative techniques when compared to all other kinds of prosthodontic restorations. Making veneers with porcelain supplement will minimize the amount of tooth reduction and bacterial accumulation, also improve esthetics, and allow to provide life-like tooth structure in the name of shade and shape of the tooth. Till now, various designs were been explained by various authors, majorly concentrating on maximum tooth preservation and minimal intervention techniques. Here, in this article, we aimed at presenting two cases in which lumineers were been chosen as the treatment option considering the age of the patient, esthetic requirements, and time consumed for the treatment. Two different clinical conditions are presented here to illustrate the esthetic outcome of lumineers with minimal intervention.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002881
Title: Conventional fabrication of prosthetic fingure with silicone: A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Siddhartha Institute of Dental Science, Chinoutpalli, Gannavaram Mandal, Andhra Pradesh, India
View Article

Maxillofacial prosthesis is an artistic branch of dentistry which is able to give life to the lost structures of not only head and neck but also some lost structures of the body. The success of the prosthesis starts right from planning of the prosthesis to sculpting and choosing of the material. Here, in this article, a case report has been presented which is a custom-fabricated finger prosthesis, in evidence of its comfortability in its use and esthetical acceptance by the patient using silicone material.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002882
Title: Antibacterial activity of Caralluma fimbriata against Lactobacillus acidophilus - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) against Lactobacillus acidophilus. Background: C. fimbriata is an appetite suppressant. It possesses good antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticancer activity. It is an indigenous herb with lots of medicinal value. It exhibits anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiobesity activity. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity is determined by disc diffusion method by adopting in vitro standard protocol. Results: According to the obtained results, the inhibitory activity (maximum zone of inhibition) CFE against L. acidophilus is observed in 25 mg/ml in disc diffusion method. Conclusion: The results indicated that CFE showed antibacterial effect in disc diffusion method.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002883
Title: Transdermal patches - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

To review the effect of transdermal patches used for dental pain relief. Transdermal patches are medicated adhesive used as an analgesic. Its gaining popularity in modern medicine as it is a non-invasive, simple, painless, and convenient method of drug delivery. These patches ensure controlled absorption and uniform plasma drug concentration. Bioavailability of the dug is also improved as first-pass metabolism is avoided. There are various forms of transdermal patches that are available in practice today whose uses can be expanded. The main drawbacks of these patches are the local irritation and sensitivity caused at the site and also it’s expensive when compared to the other routes of drug delivery. The exploration of usage of transdermal patches can pay the way for new painless methods of drug delivery.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002884
Title: Radiotherapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Radiotherapy is also called as radiation therapy that uses ionizing radiation for the treatment of cancer due to its ability to control cell growth. It is used in synergistic with other treatments such as chemotherapy and surgery during the treatment plan. Radiotherapy goals are to control symptoms for incurable cancers, shrink tumor size, restrict or destroy malignant cells and also prevent tumor recurrence. It can also be used as a palliative or a therapeutic treatment. The accurate treatment fixation depends on the type of tumor, location, stage, and the general health of the patient. It is not only used for the treatment of cancer but also has its application witnessed on non-malignant conditions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002885
Title: Complications of ceramic brackets
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

An expectation of beautiful smiles at the end of orthodontic treatment is a primary concern to each patient but is also equally concerned with appearance while undergoing treatment. Many attempts have been made by manufacturers to meet this demand. It includes by making metal brackets smaller, developing lingual or “invisible” brackets, making plastic brackets, and finally, introducing translucent ceramic brackets. Ceramic brackets are now popular as esthetic appliances which could withstand orthodontic forces and resist staining better than plastic brackets. Several clinical complications may arise from the use of ceramic brackets. The effects are enamel damage during debonding, attrition of teeth occluding with ceramic brackets, and increased friction in the orthodontic appliance. Solutions to these problems are discussed which indicate the need for careful selection of the teeth to be bonded with ceramic brackets. This article will help clinicians about the potential hazards and clear contraindications to the use of ceramic brackets. Apart from offering esthetics, ceramic brackets exhibit excellent biocompatibility. There has been much concern regarding the allergic and cytotoxic effects induced by constituents and the corrosion products of the stainless steel brackets. Nickel and chromium are the most common causes of metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis in man. Nickel has recently been reported to be moderately cytotoxic. Hence, the advantages offered by the ceramic brackets, namely excellent esthetics, biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, stability in the oral environment, and non-toxic nature, have made them an integral part of the orthodontists’ armamentarium. The aim of this review is to gain a clear knowledge about the potential hazards of ceramic brackets due to its properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002886
Title: Analgesic efficacy of ibuprofen compared to paracetamol in the management of post-extraction pain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of ibuprofen and paracetamol in the treatment of post-extractive dental pain. Objective: The objective of this study was to segregate post-extraction patients into two groups where one group will be prescribed paracetamol and the other group with ibuprofen. Materials and Methods: Patients reporting to Saveetha Dental College and Hospital with the chief complaint of pain and advised extraction were included in the study. Each participant was given a brief explanation of the study, and an informed consent was obtained from each participant before inclusion in the study. The extraction of the tooth was done, and the drug paracetamol was administered to half of the patients and the drug ibuprofen to the remaining patients. Result: The result of the study showed that patients taking ibuprofen had less dental pain compared to the patients on paracetamol. Ibuprofen scored 91.4% compared to 83% of paracetamol in Score 0. Ibuprofen scored 85.6% compared to 69% of paracetamol in Score 1. In Score 2, ibuprofen was 66.6% and paracetamol 52.4%. In Score 3, ibuprofen got 60% and 44.6% for paracetamol.Conclusion: From the result of this study, it is clearly evident that a patient who received ibuprofen had less dental pain when compared with a patient who received paracetamol. This will help clinicians in prescribing medication after dental extraction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002887
Title: A review on the medicinal properties of Gingko biloba
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

The purpose of this review is to enlighten the reader on the usage of alternative herbs which can be used as medical supplement. One of the most famous herbs used is ginkgo which has been the subject for a number of investigations in the scientific community. It is a genus of non-flowering plants originally from China. It is now cultivated all over the world for its medicinal properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002888
Title: Major weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. as a propitious plant with its free radical scavenging activity and anticancer activity against A549 lung cancer cell line
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biosciences and Technology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activity of the Parthenium hysterophorus L. against A549 lung cancer cell line. Background: P. hysterophorus L. is a pernicious herb which is a weed with dominating nature in the productive crop field, by collecting minerals and water before the productive crop takes. P. hysterophorus L. belongs to the family of Asteraceae and grows energetically even in low water supply in all fields and gardens. Many recent research findings have shown that the weeds are having immense medicinal potency including anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: In this study, the methanolic extract of the leaves of P. hysterophorus L. was analyzed for the presence of various biological active phytochemicals through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and its antioxidant activity. The P. hysterophorus L. was also analyzed for its anticancer activity against A549 cancer cell line. Outcome Measure: The P. hysterophorus L. weed which can be grown easily can be used for the human beneficial and the discovery of the new therapeutic drugs. Results: The GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of betahistine, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, phytol, benzaldehyde, 4 (dimethylamino), pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-, and methyl ester which are biologically active compounds. The methanolic extract of the P. hysterophorus L. was tested for the free radical scavenging activity by doing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and its inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was found to be 122.85 µg/ml. The anticancer activity was analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)2,5-diphenyl-2,4 tetrazolium bromide assay against A549 lung cancer cell line. An increase in cancer cell growth inhibition was observed with an increase in the concentration of the drug and its IC50 value is 73.74 µg/ml. Conclusion: From the study results, it is evident that the weed P. hysterophorus L. is a rich source of phytochemicals as shown by GC-MS report which can be used in different medication for the human welfare. This P. hysterophorus L. is found to have a good antioxidant property as well as a promising anticancer effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002889
Title: Basal implants - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

The primary indication of implant prosthesis, essentially the endosseous implants, is to replace the missing tooth or teeth structure with a prosthesis that mimics the morphology of an original tooth and facilitates function and aesthetics. However, the main disadvantage of this prosthesis is that it shows very less success rate in the areas with less residual bone present. One of the designs to combat this problem is the use of basal implant in areas of very less bone height. This review aims to elaborate the features of the basal implant design.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002890
Title: Dental practice-related factors associated with occupational musculoskeletal complaints among dentists in Chennai city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Tagore Dental College, Rathinamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Background: Occupational musculoskeletal complaints (OMSCs) are responsible for a reduction in the quality of life among many workers. They are multifactorial in origin and of global concern today. Dentists are prone to develop these OMSCs. The study aims to determine the prevalence of OMSC among dentists in Chennai city and explore the various practice- related factors for the development of OMSC. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among dentists in Chennai city in India. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the demographic information, occupational history, risk factors, and ergonomic awareness with job task details. Data were entered into MS Excel and analyzed through SPSS software. Results: A total of 297 dentists of 600 who participated in the study had OMSC. The various practice- related factors for the development of OMSC were working hours, number of patients treated, rest periods, posture, etc. Conclusion: This study found that there is a high prevalence of OMSC among dentists in Chennai city. The practice-related factors were determined.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: November [ Special Issue 3 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002891
Title: Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice toward use of herbal medicine in endodontics among dentists in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
View Article

Background: Endodontic treatment aims complete disinfection of entire root canal system. Herbal medicines are the emerging trend in endodontic treatment. The knowledge and understanding of natural approach of the treatments among dental practitioners are still questionable. In this context, the present study was undertaken among dentists in Chennai to assess their knowledge and attitude toward the use of herbal products in endodontics. Aim: The study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAPs) toward the use of herbal medicine in endodontics among dentists in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A detailed performed validated questionnaire having both open-ended and close-ended questions to assess KAPs was given to 108 dentists in Chennai chosen randomly. The results from the questionnaire are to be evaluated statistically. Results: The mean knowledge scores for endodontists and general practitioners were 20.6 ± 2.62 and 2.80 ± 5.66; the mean attitude scores were 1.47 ± 0.5 and 1.09 ± 0.64; and the mean practice score was 2.14 ± 1.05 and 1.3 ± 0.92, respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between the knowledge and practice score (0.000) and knowledge and attitude score (0.000). Conclusion: The overall KAP of the sample population representing the dentists in Chennai toward the use of herbal products in endodontics is not satisfactory. Endodontists had better knowledge about herbal medicine compared to general practitioners.