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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002949
Title: The periodontal-endodontic interrelationship: A review on management
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The interrelationship between periodontal and endodontic disease has aroused confusion, queries, and controversy. Differentiating between periodontal and endodontic problems can be difficult. A symptomatic tooth may have pain of periodontal and/or pulpal origin. The nature of that pain is often the first clue in determining the etiology of such a problem. Radiographic and clinical evaluation can help clarify the nature of the problem. In some cases, the influence of pulpal pathology may create periodontal involvement. In others, periodontal pathology may create pulpal pathology. This review article discusses the various clinical aspects to be considered for accurately diagnosing and treating endo-perio lesions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002970
Title: Critical analysis of Sara concept and its utility in disease management
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Vikriti Vigyan, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
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The clinical examination of a patient is the preliminary subject of medicine which is also available in a very illustrative form in the classical texts of Ayurveda. The modern advancement in pathological approach to disease is gradually replacing the extensive clinical method comprising medical history, clinical examination, and ancillary investigation followed by an assessment of strength of the body as well as diseases to generate systemic approach for the management of any diseases. These approaches indicate that each individual is unique and independent in terms of physical and physiological characteristics. Charakokta Dashavidha and Sushrutokkta dwadashavidha are the two approaches described to assess the strength of the patient and disease. The word Sara means “Sara Shabdena Vishuddhataro Dhatur Ucyate” which means that Sara in real sense is the essence or excellent proportion present in respective dhatus in the form of super quality; as a result, it provides strength (physical power, mental power as well as power of resistance against the diseases) and stability to the body. The Sara Pariksha is important because external appearances of plumpness and robustness may at times be misleading. While some people are looking lean and emaciated may actually be strong from within, hence one should not jump to the conclusion by seeing the outer appearance of an individual. Those looking hale and hearty may be disease prone due to inherent weakness in their Dhatu composition

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00002956
Title: Review on production of biofuel from photosynthetic microorganisms
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Editorial
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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During the 1970s, world fuel crises raised awareness among many countries of their susceptibility to oil interdiction and shortage. More attention was given on alternative fuel sources with a special emphasis on bioethanol. At present, the economics of ethanol production has feasible and can compete equal to the standard of diesel. Ethanol being a renewable resource is a great advantage. Fermentation of photosynthetic microorganisms leads to produce ethanol. This is an alternative approach to produce next-generation biofuels from photosynthetic bacteria. Moreover, photosynthetic microorganisms like Cyanobacteria, especially Synechocystis sp. and Synechococcus can utilize saline and wastewater streams for their growth and development. Highly versatile and genetically tractable photosynthesis microorganisms need to capture solar energy and convert atmospheric and waste CO2 to high-energy chemical products. Understanding of the metabolism and the efficient metabolic engineering of the photosynthetic organisms enables the enhancement of the feasibility of biofuel and biochemical production. Thus, recombinant Cyanobacteria with Zymomonas mobilis genes induced in it will enhance the biosynthesis of ethanol.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002960
Title: Novel antiplatelet agent ticagrelor in acute coronary syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Medicine, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Ticagrelor is a cyclopentyl-triazolopyrimidine, is an orally active, reversible, and selective adenosine receptor antagonist used in acute coronary syndrome. Ticagrelor is rapidly absorbed and inhibits platelet aggregation to a faster extent; hence, thereby, it reduces the primary composite endpoint of death from vascular causes. The beneficial effect of ticagrelor is achieved without a significant increase in the rate of major bleeding. This review explores on the therapeutic potential of ticagrelor. Scientific study shows numerous benefit of ticagrelor. Hence, it will be advantageous to review ticagrelor and bring awareness of its potential.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002893
Title: Antimicrobial prophylactic activity of pomegranate juice on oral bacteria as a pre-procedural rinse
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Surgery Proteoglycans, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial prophylactic activity of pomegranate juice as a preprocedural rinse. Objective: The study was done to analyze whether pomegranate provided prophylaxis in reducing the bacterial load when compared to the gold standard chlorhexidine mouthwash as a pre-procedural rinse. Background: The growing resistance to various antibiotics has lead scientists to look for newer medications. As fruits are a part of our daily diet, evaluating their medicinal and prophylactic properties has gained momentum. Fruits such as pomegranate, guava, and apple have an inhibitory effect on the oral bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: The study was done by dividing the patients undergoing scaling treatment into two groups, namely A and B. A was the control group which was advised on chlorhexidine mouthwash before the procedure, whereas B was the study group who were advised to rinse with pomegranate juice. Salivary samples were collected pre and post of the mouth rise, and culture was prepared from these samples. The colony-forming units were counted and the comparison was made. The study was done using simple methods of evaluation for better understanding of the prophylactic activity of pomegranate.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002894
Title: Comparative evaluation of commercially available calcium hydroxide with custom-made calcium hydroxide intercanal medicaments on Enterococcus faecalis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the efficiency of the commercially available calcium hydroxide preparation with custommade calcium hydroxide used as intercanal medicaments. Background: Calcium hydroxide is an age-old compound widely used as intercanal medicaments due to its antimicrobial activity. The custom-made calcium hydroxide will have additional properties due to the inclusion of different vehicles proven to be adjunct in contributing to its efficacy. Materials and Methods: An in vitro evaluation is done using natural teeth, grouping them into control and sample groups and contaminating it with bacteria followed by dressing the canal with medicaments to evaluate their efficacy. Result: The efficiency of commercially available and custom-made calcium hydroxide intercanal medicaments are found to be different and custom-made calcium hydroxide intercanal medicaments were found to be more effective.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002895
Title: Knowledge and awareness about formocresol used in pulpotomy among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to enquire about the use of formocresol in pulpotomy and awareness about it among dental students. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire to know the use of formocresol in pulpotomy was e-mailed to 120 dental students out of whom only 107 responded. Data management and statistical analysis were performed using statistical software. Results: The results showed that 77.57% use formocresol in pulpotomy of primary teeth. Of which 63.9% used diluted concentration. Most of the dental students used 1:5 dilutions and preferred calcium hydroxide (29.9%), mineral trioxide aggregate (27.1%), and formocresol in pulpotomy (22.4%). Conclusion: Formocresol being cost-effective was used by many students of Saveetha Dental College. Although diluted formulations were used, the effective dose and concentration causing minimal harm are yet to be determined.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002896
Title: Clinical and laboratory indicators in pregnant women with preeclampsia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medical Biological Disciplines, Belgorod State University, Belgorod, 308015, 85, Pobeda Street, Russia
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Objectives: The objective of this study is to compare clinical and laboratory indicators in pregnant women with preeclampsia (PE) compared with women with physiological pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The study group included 459 women: 209 women with physiological pregnancy and 250 pregnant women with PE. We studied coagulogram data, biochemical blood analysis, and the level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure before and during pregnancy. Results: It was established that pregnant women with PE have higher blood pressure indicators than women without PE. The content of fibrinogen in the blood and the rate of thrombin time in pregnant women with PE are higher, and the prothrombin ratio, partial thromboplastin time, and the total protein content in the blood are lower compared to women without PE (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Thus, as a result of this study, significant associations of blood pressure and hemostasis in pregnant women with PE were established, compared with women with physiological pregnancy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002897
Title: Pharmacotherapy for the prevention of the progression of chronic heart failure in elderly patients with coronary heart disease
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation:  Department of Hospital Therapy, Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russia
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Aim: Chronic heart failure (CHF), which occurs as a result of common cardiovascular diseases in the elderly, combined with age-related changes in both structural and functional features of the heart. Myocardial remodeling is an essential substrate that determines the occurrence and progression of CHF in elderly patients. In all forms of left ventricular (LV) myocardial remodeling, there is a decrease in both LV diastolic relaxation and atrial filling. The object of our study was 140 elderly men suffering from CHF who had a myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods: The object of our study was 140 elderly men with CHF on the background of long-term chronic coronary artery disease who had suffered AMI, whose average age was 68.4 ± 7.8 years. Results: It was determined that the majority of elderly patients with coronary heart disease, post-infarction cardiosclerosis develops hypertrophic remodeling, while a smaller number of patients myocardial remodeling occurs by dilation type. In our study, the maximum reduction of diastolic relaxation was found in patients with eccentric hypertrophy, which is accompanied by the most significant drop in the ejection fraction (EF). Conclusion: With concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart and concentric remodeling, the decrease in diastolic filling and atrial filling is accompanied by the preservation of the rate of circular shortening of fibers (CSF) and EF.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002898
Title: Aneurysm of internal carotid artery, which simulated paratonsillary abscess (clinical case)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Surgery with a Course of Topographic Anatomy and Operative Surgery, Belgorod State National Research University, 85, Pobedy Street, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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The aneurysms of the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) are one of the most common diseases of vascular surgery. Besides, the inflammation of paratonsillar tissue is also one of the common problems in otorhinolaryngology. This article describes a rare case of paratonsillar abscess imitation among the patients with the aneurysm of ICA. The purpose of the study is to describe the methods of this disease diagnosing using the example of a clinical case, to give a general description of this nosology occurrence frequency, and to recommend a detailed approach to the differential diagnosis among this category of patients. The article provides guidance on the management of such patients

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002900
Title: Resource provision of the cardiological service and population health status of the South Kazakhstan Region
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Practice, Hoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University, Shymkent, Kazakhstan
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Aim: The main goal of the article is to enhance the organization and cardiac care management of the population in the administrative districts of South Kazakhstan Region (SKR) by studying the state of its resource provision. Materials and Methods: A comparative assessment of morbidity and mortality from circulatory system diseases (CSDs) of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the economically developed countries of Europe and North America was conducted, which revealed 2-fold excess level of health indicators in our country. Results: The differences in the morbidity and mortality from the CSDs in the regional entities of the SKR were studied using statistical data of the cardiological services. Correlation and regression methods allowed to establish the risk factors of socioeconomic, demographic, and medical-organizational nature. It is shown that the resource potential of the cardiological services is of the greatest importance. Conclusions: A mathematical modeling methodology was developed and tested to evaluate the effectiveness of various scenarios for managing public health. New facts were obtained describing the implementation effectiveness of the Republican program in the South Kazakhstan event to improve the organization of medical care for patients with vascular diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002901
Title: Age-related features of the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease and sensitivity of patients’ DNA to cytoprotectors
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Belgorod State University, 85, Pobedy Street, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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Introduction: The high prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and the increase in mortality from this nosology among patients of older age groups determine the urgency of the problem of improving the provision of medical care to this category of patients. This research is devoted to the study of the effect of cytoprotective therapy on the course of coronary artery disease in elderly patients in terms of its necessity and feasibility. Objective: The objective of the study was to study the age-related features of the pathogenesis of CHD and the sensitivity of patients’ DNA to cytoprotectors: Meldonium, phosphocreatine, and cytoflavin. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted in 160 patients with coronary artery disease: Stable exertional angina. The patients were divided into two groups depending on their age: The Group 1 consisted of 82 patients of middle age (from 45 to 60 years old, on average 51.56 ± 0.61 years); the Group 2 consisted of 78 elderly patients (from 60 to 75 years old, on average 66.76 ± 0.57 years). All patients underwent coronary angiography, blood test for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in serum by spectrophotometric method. DNA status of blood leukocytes of patients in response to the introduction of metabolic correctors (meldonium, phosphocreatine, and cytoflavin) in vitro was assessed by the comet assay. Results: The age-related factor has a significant effect on the pathogenesis of CHD: In the elderly, involutive hypoergosis is observed (a decrease in the serum ATP content to 207.20 ± 3.52 μmol/l compared to patients of middle age 227.39 ± 4.34 μmol/l, P = 0.001), a more pronounced atherosclerotic impairment of the coronary vessels with the involvement of at least 4 vessels with an average degree of stenosis from 23% to 64% (41.09 ± 2.75%), a longer history of concomitant diabetes mellitus, with greater severity of its course, despite significantly less common risk factors for smoking and obesity. The studied metabolic correctors (meldonium, phosphocreatine, and cytoflavin), according to in vitro testing, have a more favorable profile of influence on the DNA of cells in elderly patients compared to middle-aged patients, which indicates the possibility of their use as geroprotectors. Conclusion: On the one hand, the identified pathogenetic features of CHD in elderly patients in the form of involutive hypoergosis and more pronounced atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels, necessitate the inclusion of cytoprotectors in the treatment program; on the other hand, the detected geroprotective properties of the studied metabolic correctors determine the feasibility of their use in old age.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002902
Title: Genotoxigenic isolates of microorganisms detected in patients with colorectal cancer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of  Microbiology, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation Kazan, Russia Kazan, Russia
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Aim: In our study, we spent molecular-genetic analysis of microbial cultures isolated from patients with colorectal cancer according to genetic determinants controlling adhesive, hemolytic (hlyA), and toxigenic activity. Methods: Genomic DNA extracted from samples of bacterial cultures, isolated from malignant tumor of the rectal mucosa as well as from normal mucosa colorectal of cancer patients was investigated using molecular genetic studies. Results: We found presence of colibactin (clb) and cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) toxigenes using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis of genetic determinants controlling an adhesive (papC, papH, afa, eae, and bfpA), hlyA , and toxigenic (lthB, sta, stx, clb, cnfI, cdtB, cif, and colE) activity of microbial cultures test samples. clb -producing microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia), isolated from the patients’ rectal mucosa, as well as E. coli, are known to be producents of cancer- causing toxin (CNF1). Conclusion: They also could be considered as etiologic agents of colorectal cancer, which is also desirable to be taken into account in the development of laboratory diagnostic and treatment-and-prophylactic measures.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002903
Title: Assessment of facial asymmetry among Indian origin Malaysians with pleasing facial appearance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the perception of facial asymmetry in Indian origin Malaysians with pleasing facial appearance among dental students. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 frontal photographs of Indian origin Malaysian students in Saveetha Dental College were taken using digital single lens reflex camera with negligible variation in distance between the lens and the object. The right and the left halves of the face of all participants were cropped separately. Each half was flipped and joined with the unflipped half of the same side using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, California), and two composite photographs were created for every individual. When the right side and left side composite photographs of the same individual were compared, they looked unequal. Undergraduate dental students were shown the right and left side composite photographs and their perception of facial asymmetry was assessed using a questionnaire. Results: The undergraduate dental students’ response was that there is significant facial asymmetry between the right and left sides of people with pleasing facial profile. Conclusion: Even in people with pleasing esthetic profile, there could be subclinical asymmetry which may go unnoticed often as it does not affect the social life of the individual.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-PCS-00002904
Title: Liposomes as targeted drug delivery system: A review
Category: Pharmaceutics
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutics, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Liposomes have drawn the attention of various biological researchers which act as potential carriers as well as targeted drug delivery system that would contain various bioactive molecules which have a wide range of therapeutic application. Liposomes are artificial spherical vesicles made up of phospholipids which are non-toxic in nature and cholesterol. They are known promising systems of novel drug delivery since it has a definite size, shape, and hydrophilic and hydrophobic property. Liposomes are made up of lipid body and subcellular components which resemble the structure of ribosomes in which active drug is encapsulated inside the vesicles. Liposome encapsulation is widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry where liposomes are used as curative promoters in the proposal if targeted drug delivery. They are the submicroscopic foams which act as the biological barrier against the saliva, stomach, alkaline juice of the intestine, bile, intestine flora as well as free radicals and also defended from oxidation and degradation. Phospholipid remains intact until all contents are dispatched to targeted site or organ. The main purpose is to increase therapeutic index and decrease side effects. In this review, the structure, classification, method of preparation, characterization, and applications are discussed below.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002906
Title: Recent advances in dental radiography for pediatric patients: An unstructured review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental radiography is considered to be a diagnostic tool for a proper treatment planning of the disorders of oral cavity such as periodontal diseases, different oral pathologies, and dental caries. In pediatric dentistry, radiography is a part of daily practice because of its unusual and unique role. As the child is brought in the clinic for the first time, radiology has been proven to be an acceptable and a painless method to introduce a child for dental treatment. The confidence of the patient can be, thus, successfully achieved through radiographs. The main objective of the review is to find the advances in dental radiograph to give a brief overview of dental radiography in children including specialized radiographic techniques and different modifications that can successfully be used in infants, young and handicapped children, children with gag reflex, and mentally disabled children.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002907
Title: Myths related to dentistry - An overview
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Myths are part and parcel of everyone’s life. There is an increase in the people’s expectations regarding health care and it is essential to know about the prevailing myths to provide needed health care to people. Dentists usually face many myths and other untested beliefs which are passed from one generation to another. Some of these myths had a significant impact on the oral health of the population. Traditional Indian beliefs and taboos were found to be correlated inversely with preventive dental health behavior in the population. Every culture has its own beliefs, and some of which have an important influence on the incidence of disease. Understanding the myths and misconceptions about oral diseases is of prime importance in providing excellent care and health education to both patients and healthy individuals, as the high prevalence of these myths will further prevent such population from obtaining proper dental care even if it could be made available to them. The purpose of this review was to assess the information available in the dental literature on oral health-related myths and beliefs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002908
Title: A study on the nephro protective effect of Caesalpinia bonducella on nicotine-induced rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Central Research Laboratory, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research (Deemed to be University), Central Research Laboratory, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the protective effect of Caesalpinia bonducella leaf extract on reactive oxygen species, antioxidant potential, and histopathological changes in nicotine-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Experimental design: Adult male Wistar rats were used and divided as Group I: Control; Group II: Nicotine-induced nephrotoxicity; Group III: Nephrotoxicity-induced rats treated with ethanolic extract of C. bonducella leaf (500 mg/kg body weight/day, orally for 30 days); and Group IV: Control rats treated with C. bonducella leaf ethanolic extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, orally for 30 days). At the end of the treatment, control and experimental animals were subjected to reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2 O2 , *OH, and lipid peroxidation [LPO]), antioxidant enzymes, liver/kidney function markers, electrolytes, and histopathological studies. Results: Nicotine-induced rats showed an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (*OH and H2 O2 ) and LPO with concomitant alterations in the renal tissues. Conversely enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant levels were found to be decreased. However, an oral effective dose of C. bonducella leaf extract (500 mg/kg b.wt) increased the antioxidant enzymes and retrieved the altered levels of ROS and LPO as well as histopathological changes which were induced by nicotine. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present findings that C. bonducella leaf extract exhibits nephron protective role through the restoration of reactive oxygen species and histopathological changes as well as antioxidant enzymes in the kidney tissue of nicotine-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Hence, C. bonducella leaf extract may be one of the therapeutic options for the treatment of nicotine-induced nephrotoxicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002909
Title: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Cone Beam Computed Tomography for periodontal diagnosis among Orthodontists and Periodontists
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze about the knowledge about cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) on periodontal diagnosis among orthodontists and periodontists. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared with a set of 10 questions about CBCT to 50 orthodontists and 50 periodontists in Chennai population through an online survey. Results: The responses varied among both the groups in each question. Discussion: Both imaging modalities had the same over- and under-estimation rates for periodontal bone defects. Periodontal bone level measurements are reproducible on film-based conventional radiography, while examiners’ agreement is not enhanced using intraoral digital imaging systems. Nevertheless, the latter reduce radiation exposure and offer potentials for image analysis, optimization, and quantification, such as contrast enhancement, periodontal filtering, and digital subtraction. Conclusion: Though the knowledge among the orthodontists and periodontists with the use of CBCT for diagnosis is equally distributed, the necessity of using advanced technology for better management and smooth handling of the patients is to be incorporated among all dentists for accurate diagnosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002910
Title: Management of peri-implantitis - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Peri-implantitis is a progressive and irreversible disease of implant-surrounding hard and soft tissues and is accompanied by bone resorption, decreased osseointegration, increased pocket formation, and pus discharge. The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge and awareness of dental practitioners regarding the management modalities of peri-implantitis. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 10 questions pertaining to various aspects of peri- implantitis such as definition, etiology, signs and symptoms of peri-implantitis, and various modalities for the management of peri-implantitis was prepared. 100 questionnaires were given to various dental practitioners across Chennai. These responses were analyzed and compared with other similar studies done before. Results: When the characteristic radiographic signs of peri-implantitis were asked, 56.9% of the practitioners chose saucer-shaped defect as the right answer. A majority of 52% of the dentists’ chose rubber cup and polishing paste and interdental brush as the instruments of choice for local debridement. The best non-invasive method of surface decontamination was chosen as photodynamic therapy (61%), followed by photosensitization and laser therapy. The best method of surgical resection at the site of peri-implantitis was suggested as autogenous bone graft covered by membrane by a 76% of the dental practitioners. Finally, causes for the explantation of implant were asked for which 49% chose excess bone loss. Conclusion: It was observed that the knowledge of dental practitioners with regard to the basics of peri-implantitis such as clinical signs and radiographic features was satisfactory, whereas their knowledge about the various management modalities had to be improved as only about half the practitioners had the awareness of the various management modalities

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002911
Title: Resin luting agents - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The selection of an appropriate luting agent influences the long-term clinical success of fixed prosthodontic restorations. There are varieties of luting agents available from conventional water-based to contemporary adhesive resin cements. However, no single luting agent is capable of meeting all the stringent requirements. Introduction of adhesive resin systems has completely changed the face of fixed prosthodontic practice leading to an increased use of bonded all-ceramic crowns and resin-retained fixed partial dentures. This review aims at presenting an overview of current cements and discusses physical properties, biocompatibility, and other properties that make particular cement the preferred choice depending on the clinical indication.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002912
Title: Recent advances of metronidazole - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole drug that is still being used for the treatment of various infections by anaerobes, parasites, and bacteria. It was first developed in the year 1959. It differs from the other types of antimicrobials as it has the ability to react with a large quantity of molecules. Metronidazole is a prodrug that gets toxic when it is reduced to its nitro group. Only at very low concentrations of oxygen, reduction of metronidazole into its nitro group takes place. This explains why metronidazole is highly toxic to the anaerobic microorganisms. In the present day, it is seen that the resistance rate among the various pathogens treated using metronidazole is still low. Resistance to metronidazole occurs from time to time and is generally seen during the treatment of some pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori. The working of metronidazole has almost become useless in parts around the world. This review will help give an understanding on the current status of research on metronidazole mode of action and metronidazole resistance.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002913
Title: Evaluation of antiangiogenic and antioxidant activity of Harpagophytum procumbens (devil’s claw)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
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Introduction: Harpagophytum procumbens an indigenous plant to southern Africa which has a wide pharmacological activity. It is also known as Devil’s Claw and it historically been used to treat a wide range of conditions, including pain and arthritis. The plant is traded internationally and it is difficult to cultivate. Objective: The present study is designed to investigate the possible anti-angiogenic activity and to search for the presence of different phytochemicals in Harpagophytum procumbens methanol extract. Materials and Methods: The method includes qualitative analysis of various secondary metabolites by specific chemical tests which is carried out on the extract and the ex vivo rat aorta ring assay is used to screen the extract for possible anti-angiogenesis activity. This assay is also used to determine the dose-response effect of the active extract. Moreover, five concentrations of crude extract are tested (100μg/ml, 50μg/ml, 25μg/ml, 12.5μg/ml & 6.25μg/ml) on rat aortic rings to assess the dose response relationship. Results: preliminary phytochemical investigation of alcohol extract indicates the presence of various chemical constituents and it is showed a significant (P*<0.001) dose-dependent blood vessels inhibition in comparison to the 1% DMSO. Conclusion: The extract of H. procumbens is shown an antioxidant and antiangiogenic so substance neutralizing the oxidative stress and highly angiogenesis process can be used as a modulatory or adjuvant treatment to maintain the hemostasis of the organisms and diminish the risk of diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002914
Title: Invisible appliances in orthodontics treatment - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Orthodontic treatment is mainly composed of metals such as wires and brackets. This esthetic compromise prevents adult orthodontic patient from accepting the treatment. Tooth-colored brackets and wires had been created to overcome these limitations, but it had not been proved to be great option when compared to metals because of its bulk and cost. For the past few decades, lingual orthodontics has gained worldwide popularity in terms of esthetics, but its increase in use is restricted because of complexity in bracket positioning, treatment mechanics, limited access to the lingual or palatal surface, and cost. In addition, bracket bonding procedure endangers the precious enamel to chemical insult, making it unesthetic and susceptible to microbial attack. Therefore, clear aligners have emerged as an option for adult orthodontic patients also. [1-3] Invisalign braces is a removable clear appliance which is commonly used in orthodontic therapy. It gives some effects on the movement of teeth through an invisible way of straightening teeth without the need of antiquated metallic braces and wires. It applies the method of fabricating clear custom fabricated aligners designed to gradually and sequentially move teeth to their predict positions assisted by computer technology. It is also called as aligners or repositions. Clear aligner treatments can be divided into two basic categories. The first category comprises of those thermoformed appliances, sometimes called as Essix Retainers, that are fabricated by making adjustments to the tooth positions on plaster or stone models and fabricating one or more aligners to correct a minor malocclusion. [4] These kind of appliances are sometimes fabricated in the orthodontist’s office, or sometimes, they cannot be sent out to commercial laboratories. It had been used since 1994. Invisalign[5] is a proprietary orthodontic technique that utilizes a series of computer-generated custom plastic aligners to continue guide the teeth into proper alignment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002915
Title: Effect of isolated bioactive flavonoid apigenin-7-o-β- d-glucuronide methyl ester on cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Adikavi Nannaya University, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India
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Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester is a bioactive flavonoid and has been isolated from the ethyl acetate leaf extract of Manilkara zapota, shown in vitro anticancer activities. Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate the possible inhibitory activity of apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester on the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. Materials and Methods: MCF-7 cell lines were cultured in monolayers in RPMI 1640 and antiproliferative activity of apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), a yellow tetrazolium (MTT) assay with different concentrations, the levels of COX-2 gene expression were measured by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: The results showed that apigenin-7-O-β-D- glucuronide methyl ester (1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 μg/mL) shown significantly exhibited a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cell with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) value of 40.17 µg/ml comparing with standard tamoxifen with IC50 values of 7.72 µg/ml. From the RT-PCR analysis showed apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester significantly inhibited the COX-2 gene expression fold −2.5 and −10.31 in MCF-7 cell lines. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester, significantly inhibits the growth and attenuates the COX-2 gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002916
Title: Alginate impression material - A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Alginates have been used for many years, and some advances and modifications have been introduced over time. The purpose of these advances and modifications is mainly to improve its use. Alginate is an elastic, irreversible hydrocolloids impression material which was originally developed in the 1930s. This impression material has been used in dentistry by dental practitioners for over 50 years. Alginate is one of the most frequently used dental materials as it is simple, cost- effective, and indispensable part in dentistry. Alginate impression material has been a staple of most dental practice. Alginate is flexible, easily mixed and manipulated, inexpensive, yields highly accurate single reproductions, and is easily prepared. An idea impression material should be peasant taste and odor, not contain any toxic and irritating ingredients, adequate shelf life, easy to disinfect without loss of accuracy, compatible with die and cast material, dimensional stability, good elastic properties, easy manipulated, adequate setting characteristics, high degree of reproduction details, and economical. Hence, this review intends to describe in detail about alginate as an impression material.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002917
Title: Morphological changes of the mandibular condyle following orthodontic treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Craniofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Technical and Medical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Morphological changes of the condyle are a sequel of orthodontic treatment which can be noted radiographically. Morphological changes can be either in the form of condylar remodeling or resorption. Condylar resorption is an idiopathic condition and affects female more common, with a female-to-male ratio of 9:1. A number of diseases can cause condylar resorption which includes osteoarthritis, reactive arthritis, and avascular necrosis. Condylar resorption is characterized by severe morphologic changes with decreased condylar configuration and volume and decreased ramus height, therefore leading to relapse after orthodontic treatment. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphological changes in the head of the condyle following orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The post- and pre-operative records were collected from 20 patients who underwent orthotreatment in the Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. For radiographic evaluation of condylar changes (resorption), orthopantamograph (OPG) was advised. The post- and pre- treatment OPG were traced using tracing paper, in which a ramus tangent and a line perpendicular to it through the superior point of the condyle were drawn. The distance from the top of the condyle to the inferior point of the tangent was measured as the height of the ramus. Height-to-width ratio of the condyle was measured. The surface of the condyle was subdivided into superior, anterior, and posterior part. Condyle was classified based on modified Kranjenbrink classification. Data obtained were analyzed and the results were obtained. Results: The result revealed that, of 20 patients, 19 patients had condylar remodeling.Conclusion: It is concluded from our study that orthodontic treatment over a long period of time can cause changes in the morphology of the mandibular condyle.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002918
Title: Evaluation of qualitative, quantitative phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic leaf extract of Boerhaavia diffusa (Linn.)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: An oxidative stress result from the imbalance between the free radicals and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Boerhaavia diffusa (BD) (Linn.) is a well-known medicinal plant used in Indian traditional medicinal system. Objective: The objective of the present study was to find the qualitative, quantitative phytochemical and evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extract of BD (Linn.). Materials and Methods: The qualitative, quantitative phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant activities such as 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide, superoxide hydroxy radical, and reducing power of methanolic leaf extract of BD (Linn.) were performed using established procedures. Results: The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the methanolic leaf extract of BD (Linn.) revealed that the presence of considerable amount of flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, saponins, and alkaloids, and further, the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extract of BD (Linn.) showed significant scavenging activity on increasing order of H2 O2 (inhibitory concentration [IC50] value 178 µg/ml) DPPH (IC50 value 205 µg/ml) OH (197 µg/ml) and O2 (313 µg/ml) compared to that of standard ascorbic acid. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the methanolic leaf extract of BD (Linn.) has shown the significant in vitro antioxidant activity and it may be used as a potential source used as antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress-related diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002919
Title: Collagenase gel: Effect on wound healing processes in the experiment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Belgorod National Research University, 85 Pobedy st., Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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Introduction: Collagen is one of the key targets of dermatotropic drugs. In this regard, the collagenase-based gel requires a deep preclinical study. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on 36 male rats. Using a blade, a linear wound length of 50 mm was modeled. Animals were divided into four groups: (1) Control, (2) collagenase (500 mg of gel with collagenase per wound area for 7 days), (3) Actovegin (500 mg of Actovegin gel on the wound area for 7 days), and (4) Contractubex (500 mg of Contractubex gel for 7 days wound area). About the wound healing effect of drugs was judged by studying the physicomechanical properties, determining the concentration of hydroxyproline (HP) and calculating the ratio of collagen 1 and 3 types. Results: The greatest strength of the wound defect, significantly higher than in the control (P < 0.01), was observed in the group that received the gel Actovegin (12.60 ± 0.63 N, P < 0.05). Significantly lower (P < 0.01) than in the control strength was obtained in the group using Contractubex (9.65 ± 0.59 N). The lowest strength (7.04 ± 0.55), significantly lower than in the control group (P < 0.01), characterized skin flaps obtained from animals treated with collagenase gel. During calorimetric analysis, it was found that the highest concentration of HP contained in the tissues of wound defects in animals treated with Contractubex; however, no statistically significant difference was found with the control group. Tissue from simulated wounds in animals treated with collagenase gel (73.4% of the control) contained a significantly lower concentration of HP compared with the control (P < 0.05). When assessing the ratio of collagen I and III in the tissues of the wound defect when dyeing with picrosirius red, it was found that by the number of mature collagen fibers, the studied groups can be arranged in the following sequence (descending): Actovegin> Collagenase> Control> Contractubex. Conclusions: Despite the demonstrated negative effects, the ability of cocollagenase to reduce the concentration of РЗ, increasing the relative amount of mature collagen, allows us to recommend this drug for further preclinical studies on models of scar defects.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002924
Title: Anti-inflammatory activity of Bischofite gel using felt granuloma model in rats
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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Introduction: Bischofite is a promising pharmacological compound with anti-inflammatory and immunotropic activity, which has been used for several decades to treat a wide range of diseases. Objective of Study: The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of bischofite using the felt granuloma model in rats. Materials and Methods: In male rats (n = 40) weighing 200–220 under anesthesia (chloral hydrate 300 mg/kg), a sterilized roller of 15 mg was implanted under the skin of the back. Evaluation of the severity of exudative and proliferative reactions was performed on the 8th day by weighing the extracted implants immediately after removal, as well as after 48 h of drying in a thermostat at 37°C. Results: In the control group, the average mass of tissues that emigrated to the roller before drying was 262.50 ± 12.32 mg, and after drying - 35.75 ± 2.32 mg. In the group that received the gel with bischofite, the average weight of the tissues that emigrated to the roller was significantly lower and amounted to 235.00 ± 18.11 mg and after drying - 29.55 ± 2.85. In the group treated with vulnuzan, where the average weight of the emigrated tissue was 183.25 ± 14.20 mg, of which the dry residue was 21.01 ± 2.42 mg. The use of Contractubex, in turn, led to a pronounced pro-inflammatory effect, which was manifested in a significant increase in edema to 300.50 ± 19.40 mg (dry residue - 44.75 ± 3.12 mg). Conclusion: Bischofite had a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect, significantly different from the control, but showed less efficacy than vulnuzan. The use of Contractubex in this model has led to an increase in the size of the granuloma.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002926
Title: Experimental substantiation of an opportunity the use of exenatide and vildagliptin for cardioprotection
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Medical Institute, Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russia
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Introduction: In world practice, there are data on the positive impact of glycerol-1-phosphate phosphohydrolase-1 (GPP-1) on the state of the cardiovascular system, both due to indirect action and due to the effects associated with a direct effect on the GPP-1 receptors in the myocardium. Research Tasks: To investigate the cardioprotective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, the exenatide, and the dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor-4, the vildagliptin, on doxorubicin-induced cardiopathy model. Materials and Methods: Cardioprotective action of exenatide (10 mcg/kg/day) (“Baeta,” Eli Lilly and Company, USA) and vildagliptin (0.2 mg/kg/day) (“Galvus,” Novartis, Switzerland) was studied on isolated rat heart. Animals were injected intraperitoneally by doxorubicin (20 mg/kg/day) for 2 days. Cardioprotective effect was evaluated by the results of functional tests with high-frequency stimulation (480 bmp). For a comprehensive evaluation of cardioprotection was assessed by biochemical markers in the homogenate of the myocardium. The complex evaluation of the myocardial damage included the assessment of creatine phosphokinase muscle/brain (CPK-MB) isoenzyme and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). The activity of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated by measuring the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and diethenoid conjugant (DC). Results: Exenatide (10 mcg/kg/day) and vildagliptin (0.2 mg/kg/day) demonstrate a cardioprotective effect on the model of doxorubicin-induced pathology, resulting in a decrease of diastolic dysfunction to 5.3±0.1 units and 6.5±0.2 units, respectively, compared to control 8.3±0.1 units. The cardioprotective effect was confirmed by a decrease in the levels of damage markers of CPK-MB and LDH, as well as by prevention of the accumulation of products of the LPO of MDA and DC in the ventricular myocardium. Conclusion: Exenatide (10 mcg/kg/day) and vildagliptin (0.2 mg/kg/day) decrease diastolic dysfunction, resulting in the recovery of the contractile function of the heart, reduction of the “diastole defect” (StТТI ), and the decrease in irreversible damages of cardiomyocytes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002927
Title: Pharmacological approaches to the correction of radiation- induced endothelial dysfunction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology Institute of Medicine, Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russian
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At the end of the past century, a broad relationship between the effects of ionizing radiation and cardiovascular pathology was found. At present, discovery of molecular pathways of the radiation-induced vascular lesion can open up wide opportunities for pharmacological correction. Ionizing radiation damages deoxyribonucleic acid, leading to genotoxic stress and secretory phenotype associated with aging (senescence-associated secretory phenotype). It means that the cell is prone to hyperproduction of a wide range of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, matrix proteases, and growth factors, and is also in a state of oxidative stress. Ionizing radiation activates inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase transcription and increases nitrite content. Since the inducible form of NO synthase has a very high activity, there is the resulting NO interacts with reactive oxygen species, increasing nitrosative stress nitrosative stress leads to the destruction of arginine and aggravates endothelial dysfunction. In accordance with the described pathogenesis, several groups of pharmacological preparations including statins, antioxidants, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, erythropoietin, sulfur-containing compounds, and melatonin can be proposed for the radiation-induced endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, remote complications of radiotherapy, among which the cardiovascular occupy a leading position, are becoming increasingly important.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002928
Title: Study of the pharmacological activity of arginase II low molecular selective inhibitor on a monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension model
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Medicine, Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russia
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Introduction: Nitric oxide imbalance is one of the main pathogenesis elements of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Compound ZB49 as an arginase II selective inhibitor can be potentially used for the treatment of this disease. Materials and Methods: The work was performed on 40 adult male Wistar rats weighing 180–220 g. Simulation of monocrotaline (MCT) PH was performed on 20 animals using a subcutaneous injection of a spirit aqueous solution of MCT. After 4 weeks from the start of the experiment, animals were anesthetized and subjected to the measurement of the right and left ventricular pressure during sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine injection with the subsequent calculation of the coefficient of endothelial dysfunction (CED). Results: The intragastric administration of an active pharmaceutical substation ZB49 at a dose of 5 mg/kg against the background of simulating MCT-induced PH revealed a statistically significant decrease in the CED, systolic pressure in the cavity of the right ventricle, average pressure in the cavity of the right ventricle, diastolic pressure in the cavity of the right ventricle, the maximum rate of contraction (dP/dt max), and the minimum rate of contraction (dP/dt min). At the same time, a statistically significant is positive effect of ZB49 on the gas composition of the blood. Conclusion: Compound ZB49 is able to improve cardiohemodynamics, blood gas composition, and decrease the mass of right ventricular of the heart in rats with PH.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002929
Title: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y reconstruction in a patient with afferent loop syndrome and peptic ulcers of gastroenteroanastomosis - A first experience
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Clinical Hospital No. 1 (Volyn) of the Office of the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia,
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This paper is devoted to the description of a currently rare clinical observation of the surgical treatment of a patient with post- gastroresection syndrome (afferent loop syndrome and peptic ulcers of gastroenteroanastomosis) - resection of the stomach stump with laparoscopic Roux-en-Y reconstruction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002930
Title: Risk factors for the preservation of morphological changes in the gastric mucosa after eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection in children with chronic gastritis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics With a Course of Children’s Surgical Diseases, Belgorod State University, 308015, Belgorod, Russia
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We conducted a clinical, morphofunctional examination and standard treatment of 155 children with chronic gastroduodenitis associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. Subsequently, 100 children were examined after 3 and 6 months of proven HP eradication. It was revealed that after 6 months lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the gastric mucosa (GM) preserved in 37% of cases, and unspecified atrophy - in 9%, increased C3 and C4 components of the compliment - in 19% of children, antroduodenal discoordination on the background of postprandial secretin and cholecystokinin level - in 25%, as well as disorders of the intestinal microbiota. Factors that have a prognostic effect on the preservation of inflammatory changes in the GM according to discriminant analysis include the presence of the pathogenicity factor HP (CagA+), changes in the intestinal microbiota, impaired motor function of the stomach, changes in the immune system (increased C3 and C4 components of the compliment), a vegetative dysregulation, and the presence of comorbid pathology (more than three associated diseases).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002931
Title: In vivo study of the Rapitalam cholinoblocking activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Belgorod State University, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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Introduction: Rapitalam is perspective antiparkinsonian drug due to its ability to block glutamate receptors. The objective of this study was to check the cholinolytic activity of this compound. Materials and Methods: The study included 60 rats (six groups), which were injected intragastrically within 10 days of the test compounds. All groups of animals except the control 1 group, 30 min after the administration of rapitalam and levodopa, oxotremorine solution was administered in a dose of 1.5 mg/kg in a volume of 5 ml/kg. Animals from the group of control 1 in the same way injected solvent (saline) in an equivalent volume. Results: Rapitalam at a dose of 3 mg/kg of the test compound caused a significant reduction in the severity of tremor after 50 min compared to control, at a dose of 1 mg/kg 30, 40, and 50 min after administration of oxotremorine. Furthermore, rapitalam at a dose of 3 mg/kg resulted in a decrease in the percentage of rats in the group with tremor manifestations after 60 min and further at a dose of 10 mg/kg - in 50 min and beyond. Conclusion: Rapitalam at doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg, as well as the drug levodopa at a dose of 50 mg/kg, reduced the manifestations of oxotremorine-induced tremor in rats, which indicates a pronounced anticholinergic effect.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002932
Title: Ethoxidol influence on the morphofunctional state of the cardiovascular system in conditions of endogenous nitric oxide deficiency
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Belgorod State University, 85, Pobedy Street, Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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Introduction: The search and study of compounds with the ability to improve endothelial function are one of the main tasks of modern pharmacology. One of the promising drugs with endothelial protective activity is the 3-hydroxypyridine derivative ethoxidol. Materials and Methods: The study included 40 Wistar rats, divided into four equal groups: (1) Intact, (2) nitro- L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 25 mg/kg for 7 days, (3) L-NAME (25 mg/kg) + Ethoxidol (50 mg/kg) for 7 days, and (4) L-NAME (25 mg/kg) + ethoxidol (90 mg/kg) for 7 days. To assess the effect of ethoxidol on endothelial function in animals, the coefficient of endothelial dysfunction (CED) was determined. In parallel with this, the morphological picture of the myocardium was studied (the diameter of myocardiocytes was determined), the carotid arteries (the intima-media ratio was determined), and the mass of adrenal glands. Results: The 7-day administration of L-NAME led to the development of severe endothelial dysfunction. The use of ethoxidol on the background of relatively high blood pressure values reduced CED by 30% with a low dose and by 49% with a large dose. With a relatively high diameter of cardiomyocytes in all studied groups that received L-NAME, a significant (P ≤ 0.05) difference with control was obtained in all the regimens of therapy. When studying the intima-media ratio in the carotid artery, a significant decrease in the ratio to the control in the group treated with ethoxidol at a dose of 90 mg/kg was also obtained. Significant differences in the mass of the adrenal glands when comparing the studied groups were not obtained. Conclusions: The study of endothelial protective activity in modeling the deficiency of endogenous nitric oxide demonstrated that ethoxidol has pronounced endothelio-, vaso-, and cardio-protective activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002933
Title: Testosterone and lower urinary tract symptoms
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Мedical Institute, Belgorod State University 308015, Belgorod, Pobeda Street, 85, Russia
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The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has reached the epidemic threshold in Europe and North America. Related coronary and cerebral catastrophes and impaired glucose tolerance require effective preventive measures. In patients with MS, testosterone lowering, erectile dysfunction, and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are more common than in the population. In modern scientific literature are increasingly published works that aim to study the relationship between the components of the MS and LUTS in late-onset hypogonadism. The results obtained postulate that testosterone replacement therapy in patients with MS eliminates the phenomena of hypogonadism, normalizes carbohydrate metabolism, and can contribute to the treatment of LUTS. However, the mechanism of the effect of testosterone deficiency on the lower urinary tract and prostate remains unclear and often controversial.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002934
Title: Association of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder between gender, partial edentulism, and morphological occlusion among dental patients in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its relationship between gender, partial edentulism, and malocclusion among dental patients in Chennai. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 244 subjects, of which 58% were female and 42% were male and belonged to the age group of 20– 60 years. Research diagnostic criteria for TMD proposed by Shiffman et al. were used to assess the signs and symptoms of TMD. Intraoral examination was done to assess for the number of missing teeth and malocclusion status among study population. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software (version 20). Results: The prevalence of signs of TMD was found to be 33.7% and symptoms were found to be about 25% among the study population. Females showed higher prevalence for signs of TMD compared to males. There is statistically significant association between missing teeth and jaw deviation (P = 0.000), and missing teeth and muscle pain (P = –0.000). Class 1 malocclusion is significantly associated with signs of TMD (P = 0.000). Conclusion: A thorough knowledge of joint anatomy and function serves as a basis for understanding the effect of dysfunction on temporomandibular joint component parts. It is duty of a dentist to thoroughly examine the patient because many dental patients usually present with signs rather than symptoms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002935
Title: Nanoparticle disinfection of root canals
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The aim of this comprehensive review is to highlight the importance of bacterial biofilm in root canal and role of nanoparticles (NPs) in disinfection of the canal. The widespread recognition of microbial biofilm as the contributory factor for human infection and constant increase in antimicrobial resistance warrants the discovery of a reliable and effective antimicrobial strategy to infectious diseases. The success rate of the endodontically treated tooth highly depends on the complete removal of the bacterial biofilm from the root canal. This eventually brought about various NPs to improve the root canal disinfection. NPs with its unique properties have led research toward new prospects in treating and preventing dental infections. This review article focuses on the scientific knowledge about the various developments of NPs which is used to disinfect the root canal.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002936
Title: Effect of temperature before local anesthesia deposition on pain of injection and anesthetic success: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the effect of temperature before local anesthesia deposition on pain of injection and anesthetic success - a review. Background: The objective of the review was to assess the effect of cold and hot temperatures before local anesthetic injections. Local anesthetic agents are being used in almost all aspects of health care in both general surgical and dental surgical procedures. Some patients can find this injection painful, and in such persons, the pain perception can be totally or partially reduced or eliminated by warming or subjecting the local anesthetic injection site to warmth or cold stimulus. Warming the local anesthetic solution to temperatures of around 25–30°C also proved to reduce the pain in the local anesthetic site in patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002937
Title: Association of abdominal obesity and pelvic asymmetry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute, Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim of the Study: The aim of this study is to estimate the association between abdominal obesity and pelvic asymmetry in college-going students. Background of the Study: Pelvic asymmetry is an unequal distance from the iliac crest to the acetabuli bilaterally. When excessive abdominal fat is deposited around the stomach and abdomen, it causes abdominal obesity. It has a negative impact on health. There is a correlation between abdominal obesity and pelvic asymmetry. Methodology: This study is an analytical study of observational type. The study is setting in Faculty of Physiotherapy Department ACS Medical College and Hospital around Chennai. 100 patients of both male and female between the age of 18 and 25 years will be taken. The study duration is 6 weeks. Both male and female between the age of 18 and 25 years body mass index (BMI) >30 students will be included in the study. Individuals with BMI <30 will be excluded in the study. BMI, waist-hip ratio, measuring scale, and goniometer will be the outcome measures. Results: The statistical table and graph reveal that the Pearson Correlation of coefficient “r” value and P-value between abdominal obesity and pelvic asymmetry in college-going students. The value of r is −0.233. The value of R2 , the coefficient of determination is 0.05. The value shows that there are negative association and weak correlation between abdominal obesity and pelvic asymmetry. Conclusion: The study concludes that the negative association and weak correlation were found between the patients with abdominal obesity and pelvic asymmetry. Hence, this study reveals that there was a lesser influence of pelvic asymmetry with abdominal obesity among college-going students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002939
Title: Study of the anti-osteoporotic effect of certain drugs with endothelial protective activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Belgorod State University, 85, Pobedy St., Belgorod, 308015, Russia
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Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated the positive osteoprotective effects of such drugs with endotheliotropic properties such as enalapril, losartan, resveratrol, and other. Their effectiveness suggests that other endothelial protectors such as L-arginine, L-norvaline, and rosuvastatin will also be effective in osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: In an experiment on female Wistar white rats, the osteoprotective effect of L-arginine, L-norvaline, and rosuvastatin was studied on a model of experimental osteoporosis caused by bilateral ovariectomy. To confirm the development of osteoporosis and to evaluate the effectiveness of the studied drugs, a morphological study of the proximal femur metaphysics was carried out; for this purpose, glass slides with histological specimens were subjected to light microscopy. The bone microcirculation level was assessed in the cancellous bone tissue of the proximal metaphysis of the right femur. BIOPAC Systems equipment was used to obtain bone microcirculation data: Polygraph MP100-150 with laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) module LDF100C and TSD144 sensor. Results: It was found that, after ovariectomy, female rats develop endothelial dysfunction, including vessels of the microvasculature of the bone bed, leading to deterioration of the blood supply to the bone tissue and the occurrence of osteoporosis. It was found that L-arginine, L-norvaline, and rosuvastatin, possessing endothelial protective activity, prevent the deterioration of the blood supply to the bone tissue and the thinning of bone trabeculae, thus possessing anti-osteoporotic activity. Conclusion: Endothelial protectors such as arginine, norvaline, and rosuvastatin have a pronounced ability to improve the morphofunctional state of the bone tissue during experimental osteoporosis in rats.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002940
Title: Incorporation of chicken eggshell powder into biscuits
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Food Processing Technology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The present study deals with the incorporation of chicken egg shell powder in formulation of biscuits. Materials and Methods: This study relates the effects of adding 0% (control), 0.6% (treatment 1), 0.8% (treatment 2), 1.0% (treatment 3), 1.2% (treatment 4), and 1.4% (treatment 5) of chicken eggshell powder on the qualities of the biscuit and their relation to the calcium content. All the ingredients were kept constant except water and baking time which increased and decreased, respectively, with the increase in the level of chicken eggshell powder. Results: Results of the sensory (appearance, color, flavor, texture, taste, and overall acceptability) evaluation revealed that the treatment 4 has rated higher for texture, taste, and overall acceptability than the other treatment. However, the scores were in the range of acceptability and T-4 showed better acceptability among chicken eggshell powder incorporated treatments. The nutritional value of the biscuits (as determined through nutrient analysis - moisture, protein, fat, and calcium) with the highest acceptable level of eggshell powder 1.2% (treatment 4) contained 0.71% calcium content.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002941
Title: Ultrasonography - A non-invasive diagnostic modality for oral and maxillofacial diseases
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Ultrasonography (USG) is a non-invasive, inexpensive, easy to use, relatively quick imaging modality when compared with other maxillofacial imaging modalities such as computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound (ultrasound) waves to produce images of tissues. A gel known as the transducer is used to convert the electric signals to ultrasound waves, and after passing the target tissues, it is reflected back as electric signals and is being displayed in the required formats. The use of USG in maxillofacial region imaging has been explored much in recent years and found to be important in diagnosing intraosseous lesions of the jaw, solid, and cystic swellings of the head and neck region, space infections, etc. The development of high-resolution US and US elastography has stretched its uses in the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, carcinoma of the tongue, cervical lymph node metastasis, etc. Other than these, USG has also been used for guided fine-needle aspiration. It is considered very safe, even during pregnancy because it uses no X-rays. In the present scenario, even though USG is being used to diagnose multiple numbers of maxillofacial diseases, it does not have its share in maxillofacial imaging as a routine diagnostic tool. Studies show that this method is getting established in very smaller range. Hence, this review aims to emphasize the usefulness of USG in dentomaxillofacial region.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002942
Title: Reason for first dental visit among children - A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The chief complaints of the patients are an essential component while taking the history and treatment planning. This could be useful for several reasons, including monitoring of oral health services and measuring the effectiveness of the oral health awareness program. Recording and identification of chief complaints are also considered the cornerstone for developing a logical treatment plan.The severity of the chief complaint reflects the urgency of the patient to seek dental care. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the most common chief complaints among children at first dental visit and the average age group at which they report for in their first dental visit. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using the case records of randomly selected 100 children who reported to the postgraduate section of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. The age groups of the children were divided into three categories: 4–8 years, 9–12 years, and 13–17 years. The various chief complaints were categorized as follows: Routine visit, deposits, missing or extra tooth, pain, dental caries, malocclusion, trauma, and missing tooth. The average age group and most common complaint at the first dental visit were assessed. Results: In this retrospective study, the maximum number of children who reported for their first dental visit was between 13 and 17 years (46%). Most common chief complaint for the visit was pain (47%) and the second common complaint being malocclusion (20%). Conclusion: Children report for the first dental visit most commonly only after 13 years and for complaints such as pain and malocclusion. Orientation to prevention is not considered, and preventive dentistry is yet to reach the common population in India

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002943
Title: Stem cells and its application in medical field - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Stem cells are unique type of cells that have specialized capacity for self-renewal and potency, can give rise to one and sometimes many different cell types. They are found in almost many of the multicellular organisms and are characterized by the ability to renew through mitotic cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. With appropriate biochemical signals stem cells can be transformed into desirable cells. Self-renewal and totipotency are characteristic of stem cells. Although totipotency is shown by very early embryonic stem cells, the adult stem cells possess multipotency and differential plasticity which can be exploited for the future generation of therapeutic options. Stem cell therapy is emerging as a potentially revolutionary new way to treat disease and injury, with wide-ranging medical benefits. It aims to repair damaged and diseased body-parts with healthy new cells provided by stem cell transplants. Disease and disorders with no therapies or at best, partially effective ones, are the lure of the pursuit of stem cell research. Review on stem cells help us in gaining knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms and hence the idea behind this article is to shortly review properties, types, and advantages of stem cells.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002944
Title: Effect of herbal and fluoride toothpaste on dental caries
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The aim of this present study is to compare the effect of herbal and fluoride toothpaste on the bacteria causing dental caries. The effect of the herbal toothpaste and fluoride toothpaste is compared and hence an idea on how to prevent, control, and treat the dental caries is formulated. Lactobacillus acidophilus has been associated with the presence and progression of dental caries. Production of organic acids by Lactobacilli are considered to be important in causing decalcification of the dentinal matrix. Materials and Methods: One herbal toothpaste and fluoride-based toothpaste are used for the study. The effect of these two toothpastes on bacteria causing dental caries-like Lactobacilli will be studied by agar well diffusion technique. The findings are compared between the groups. Results: The results suggested that herbal toothpaste had maximum antimicrobial activity at all concentrations when compared to fluoride toothpaste. The higher antimicrobial activity of herbal toothpaste could be attributed to the presence of different components such as Lavang and Elaichi. Conclusion: The study showed dentifrice with a combination of herbs had better effect in inhibiting cariogenic bacteria compared to the ones with fewer herbal ingredients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002945
Title: To compare the effectiveness of chlorhexidine Extended Protection on patients with and without gingivitis - A clinical trial
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The gingiva is that portion of the oral mucous membrane which in a complete post-eruptive dentition of a healthy individual surrounds and is attached to the teeth and the alveolar processes. Gingivitis and periodontitis are the two major inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium. Dental caries, gingival disease, and periodontal disease are the most frequently occurring oral diseases in the world. The use of toothbrushing and fluoride toothpaste appeared to be almost universal. This study aims to explain the role of Chlorhexidine Extended Protection (CHX-EP) on patients with gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 samples were taken. Test group had 15 samples with individuals with gingivitis. Control group had 15 samples. Calculus index, plaque index, and gingival index were taken before the nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Mouthwash was prescribed to the patients. The indices were repeated after 15 days and 30 days and were compared. Results: The pre-operative value of calculus index was in the range of 1.16–1.83 and post-operative value in the range of 0.32–1.03, pre-operative value of plaque index was in the range of 1.0–1.5 and post-operative value in the range of 0–0.91 and pre-operative value of gingival index was in the range of 0.92–1.03 and post-operative value in the range of 0.32–0.96. Through statistical analysis, it was conferred that there was reduction in plaque index, calculus index, and gingival index. Conclusion: CHX gluconate oral rinse provides antimicrobial activity during oral rinsing. This is used along with regular tooth brushing/flossing to treat gingivitis that causes red, swollen, and easily bleeding gingiva. CHX belongs to a class of drugs known as antimicrobials. It works by decreasing the amount of bacteria in the mouth, helping to reduce swelling and redness. This study focuses on the effect of CHX-EP on patients with gingivitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002946
Title: Alteration in the proportion of bacterial flora in the oral cavity after consuming probiotics
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Products containing probiotics had various health benefits. Conventionally, probiotics have been associated with the treatment of gastrointestinal infections and disease. Various studies suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. This study focuses on alteration in the proportion of bacterial flora in the oral cavity before and after consuming probiotics. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 19 healthy individuals within the age range of 18–48 years. The healthy volunteers were selected after the careful examination of the oral cavity for any lesion. The subjects were given Yakult, a probiotics daily product made by fermenting a mixture of skimmed milk with a special strain of the bacterium Lactobacillus casei Shirota, once daily for 7 days. Saliva samples were collected before consuming Yakult on the 1st day as baseline. Results: It is evident that the usage of probiotics showed significant reduction in the bacterial count of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis, and there is no reduction in the bacterial count of Lactobacillus after the usage of probiotics. Conclusion: Probiotics containing dairy products such as Yakult, curd, and cheese are consumed on daily basis. These products reduce the pathogenic bacteria load in the oral cavity and also known to enhance the digestive system.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002947
Title: Queen of herbs (Tulsi) - A short review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Among the various medicinal plants, tulsi has a major role and is used more commonly. Tulsi, that is, Ocimum sanctum belongs to the family Lamiaceae. Different parts of the plant have therapeutic potential and are used as antidiabetic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, antistress, and analgesic. The juice and fresh leaves of the plant are used for treating dysentery, chronic fever, hemorrhage, and dyspepsia. The Ayurvedic eye drops containing tulsi are recommended for patients having cataract, chronic conjunctivitis, and other painful eye disorders. Tulsi extracts and parts have compounds that help tulsi acting as antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancerous, antifertility, and anti-inflammatory.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002950
Title: A review on treatment and management of diabetic foot ulcer
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism. It results in too much sugar in the blood or high blood glucose. It involves problems with the hormone insulin. Normally, pancreas is the organ responsible for releasing insulin to help our body store and use the sugar and fat from the food we consume. Insulin causes cells to take in sugar to use as energy or store as fat. This causes blood sugar levels to go back down. Diabetes can occur when the pancreas produces very little or no insulin or when the body does not respond appropriately to insulin. Thus, it is important to treat diabetes on time to avoid consequences.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002957
Title: Aloe vera - A review
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aloe vera is a characteristic plant that is currently often utilized as a part in the field of cosmetology. A. vera is the most commercialized aloe species and processing of the leaf pulp has become a large worldwide industry. In the food industry, it has been used as a source of functional foods and as an ingredient in other food products, for the production of gel-containing health drinks and beverages. In the cosmetic and toiletry industry, it has been used as base material for the production of creams, lotions, soaps, shampoos, facial cleansers and other products. In spite of the fact that there are different properties for its use, controlled trials are expected to decide its genuine viability. The A. vera plant has been known and used for quite a long time for its wide properties, excellence, restorative, and healthy skin properties. Complex carbohydrates obtained from natural sources from these plants have shown diverse biological activities such as wound healing, enhancement of the reticuloendothelial system, stimulation of the immune system, treatment of tumors, and effects on the hematopoietic system. The name A. vera gets from the Arabic word “Alloeh” signifying “sparkling bitter substance,” while “vera” in Latin signifies “true” 2000 years prior, and the Greek researchers viewed A. vera as the universal panacea. The Egyptians called Aloe “the plant of immortality.” Today, the A. vera plant has been used for different purposes in dermatology. A. vera has been used for many centuries for its curative and therapeutic properties, and although over 75 active ingredients from the leaf have been identified, therapeutic effects have not been correlated well with each individual component. Many of the medicinal effects of aloe leaf extracts have been attributed to the polysaccharides found in the leaf parenchymatous tissues. In the pharmaceutical industry, it has been used for the manufacture of topical products such as ointments and gel preparations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002958
Title: Relation between third molar and cervical vertebrae maturity indicator to determine the growth status in ethnic Dravidian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to assess the correlation between the third molar development stages and cervical vertebrae maturity index. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomogram (OPG) and lateral cephalograms of 25 male and 25 female patients were taken for the study. The third molar developmental stages were taken using Demirjian index and cervical vertebrae maturation indicators were assessed by the classification given by Hassel and Farman. Pearson correlation test was done to assess the correlation between the two. Results: A correlation of 0.629 in females and a correlation of 0.726 in males were found using IBM SPSS software. Conclusion: The growth status can be assessed from either the OPG or the lateral cephalogram eliminating the need for taking two X-rays.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002959
Title: Study on the prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs among acute coronary syndrome patients in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Medicine, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Hypertension or high blood pressure (BP) is a condition in which the force of the blood against the artery walls is too high. The increasing prevalence of the condition is blamed on lifestyle and dietary factors, such as physical inactivity, alcohol and tobacco use, and a diet high in sodium. Hypertension can be primary and secondary. Primary hypertension results from a complex interaction of genes and environmental factors. Secondary hypertension results from identifiable cause. Kidney disease is the most common secondary cause of hypertension. Long-term prevalence of this can lead to major risk factors. The term acute coronary syndrome (ACS) refers to any group of clinical symptoms compatible with acute myocardial ischemia and includes unstable angina (UA), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and STEMI. The present study evaluates the drug utilization pattern of antihypertensive drugs in ACS patients among South Indian population. Long-term prevalence of hypertension can lead to major risk factors, so it requires appropriate treatment for better life. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted for 1 month (December 2016) based on in- and out-patient medical records of patients admitted in Saveetha Medical College and Hospital in Chennai. Fifty patients were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: In our study, 29 patients (58%) of the 50 patients underwent monotherapy and the rest 21 patients (42%) underwent combination therapy. The progression of health state under both the therapies was good. Conclusion: Combination therapy is suggested to the patients who showed poor prognosis to monotherapy. Monotherapy was the most commonly used mode of treatment according to the current study. But it does not indicate that monotherapy is better or more efficient than the other since the treatment of choice also depends on the severity of the condition and the patient’s history. If the patient response to monotherapy is less then then combination therapy is used for better prognosis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002969
Title: Awareness and role of parents in their child’s oral health and brushing technique - A questionnaire study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Childhood dental caries is a major health concern in children that continue to negatively affect the oral health. Oral health in children plays a key role as it lays down the foundation for healthy permanent teeth. Maintenance of oral health should start before the first tooth erupts, and parents play a very important role in influencing their children’s oral health. This study was done to assess the awareness level of parents about the child’s oral health. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 150 parents with children’s reporting to private dental college. In this study, the parents of children under the age of 5–15 years were asked to fill the pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire and the data were tabulated. A total of 150 parents and children were included in the study. Results: About 34% of parents have knowledge related to brushing techniques and oral diseases. Only 36% of parents have general awareness related to child’s oral health, importance of regular dental checkup, and inspection of child’s oral cavity. This study clearly reveals that there is a lack of knowledge and awareness related to importance of child’s oral health. Conclusion: Oral well-being practices of parents have a direct effect on the oral health of their children. The role of parents is very significant, but nearly half of the parents do not guide their children for brushing and maintaining good oral hygiene. Regular dental checkups by arranging dental camps in schools and educating the children and parents about oral hygiene will improve the situation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 4 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002971
Title: Chemopreventive effect of brucine on mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Apoptosis is a major regulatory mechanism of cell proliferation. Brucine inhibits the growth of tumors may be inducing apoptotic process. The aim of the study was to investigate the intrinsic mechanism of apoptotic effect of brucine and its molecular mechanism on mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blot analysis of apoptotic markers such as cytochrome-c, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 in the mammary tumor tissues were used. Results: Administration of brucine (8 mg/kg bw) to 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene injected rats significantly upregulated the expression of cytochrome-c, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3, whereas downregulated the expression of Bcl-2 in mammary tissues. Therefore, brucine treatment to carcinogen-administered rats induces apoptosis and inhibits the development carcinogenesis. Conclusion: The mechanism of apoptosis induced by brucine may be due to the inhibition of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax. The result suggests that brucine has a proapoptotic effect to prevent the development of mammary cancer in rats.