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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002972
Title: Changes in glycoprotein components in high-fat diet- induced type 2 diabetes: Influence of cumin aldehyde
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: People, nowadays, find it too hard to practice precise food intake pattern that helps in maintaining prolonged and sustainable health conditions. Ingestion of surplus source material and inability in accessing its potential purpose is usually postulated as irregulated or inactive digestive/immune systems, respectively. Discovering bio-active metabolites that regulate and reconstruct the destruction inducing factors/agents in the biological medium could be necessary to promote life-processes. Materials and Methods: We developed type 2 diabetic mice with high-fat diet and oral administration with CA on (2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg) once a day for 35 days. Glycoprotein is estimated using UV spectroscopy methods. Results and Discussion: Hence, our study targets and investigates the input of a mono-terpenoid organic chemical “cumin aldehyde” (CA) in mammalian model-organism to examine its beneficial properties in combating diabetic dietary complications, and curtailing chronic immuno-obligatory stimulations. The test drug-component CA significantly reduced the pathogenic bio-marker contents and its levels, namely sialic acid (SA), fucose, and other hexose/hexosamine (HA) derivatives of glycoproteins in disease-onset mice tissues (kidney and liver) and plasma. This monomeric drug involved in monitoring monosaccharide composition, avoided improper energy-nutrient deposition, and aided ergo-homeostatic reposition to achieve physiological balance just as an indigenous response hormone molecule does its activity in rescue. Conclusions: Therefore, we recommend minimal intake of dietary CA in case of minimizing the distressful consequence that occurs due to persistent metabolic fluctuation and toxicological secondary metabolite infiltration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003089
Title: The quality of life of medical workers under conditions of city polyclinics
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health, JSC “Astana Medical University,” Republic of Kazakhstan, Beybitshilik, Astana
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The quality of life of health workers, the factors affecting them and the conditions in which they work have an impact on the performance of their professional duties and the provision of quality medical care. The study of medical workers of the polyclinic in Astana (using the SF-36 questionnaire) showed a low result of the quality of life of employees, and also revealed the influence of factors such as age and social status on their health (physical and psychological components).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00003020
Title: In Vitro antioxidant activity of garden Croton (Codiaeum variegatum (L.) rumph. Ex A.Juss.) and phytochemical analysis using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Akademi Farmasi Hang Tuah, Jl. Farmasi No. 1 Bendungan Hilir, Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia
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Introduction: Garden Croton (Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Rumph. ex A.Juss.) is an easily grown plant, has a various shape and colorful leaves which usually used as an ornamental plant. Objectives: The aims of the research were to determine the antioxidant activity of croton and its phytochemical content. The crude drug was extracted using 96% ethanol . Methods: Antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH free radical scavenging method and qualitative analysis was determined using GC‑MS. Results: Based on the in vitro antioxidant test using DPPH, IC50 of croton extract was 797.61 ppm while the IC50 of ascorbic acid was 8.97 ppm. Based on analysis of the chemical compound of croton using GC‑ MS, it obtained 10 compounds with percent of quality ( degree of similarity ) average > 90%. The main compounds were pentadecadien‑1‑ol 34.15% and hexadecanoic acid 21.14%. Conclusions: Croton leaves extract was categorized as low antioxidant activity and contained (6Z,9Z) pentadecadien‑1‑ol and hexadecanoic acid as the primary chemical content.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002973
Title: Acute toxicity evaluation of the ethanolic extracts of Bauhinia aculeata L. using organization for economic cooperation and development guideline’s 425
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Borneo Lestari Banjarbaru, South Borneo, Indonesia
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Background: The ethanolic extract of cawat hanoman (Bauhinia aculeata L.) stem has been reported to have aphrodisiac activity in male Wistar rats. To confirm the safety of the ethanolic extract, the acute toxicity was evaluated. Aim:The objectives of the current study were to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD50) value and to know the toxic symptoms that occur after the treatment using the ethanol extract of B. aculeata L. stem in male Wistar rats and to classify the acute toxicity of the extract. Methods: The acute toxicity evaluation was carried out using the method adopted from organization for economic cooperation and development guideline 425: Acute oral toxicity (AOT) (up and down procedure). Result: The results of the limit test showed that the LD50 value of the ethanolic extract of B. aculeata stem was >2000 mg/kg body weight (BW). There were no clinical signs of toxicity on the eye, respiration system, behavior, autonomic, and somatomotor system at a dose of 2000 mg/kg BW. In addition, at the dose of 2000 mg/kg BW did not cause death in the rat and did not cause significant weight loss. Conclusions: Based on this study, the ethanolic extract of B. aculeata stem has a low toxicity because its LD50 value was >2000mg/kg BW

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002974
Title: Development, characterization, and performance evaluation of transfersome gel of ibuprofen as a transdermal drug delivery system using nanovesicular carrier
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Program Studi Farmasi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Islam Bandung, Tamansari No. 1 Bandung, West Java, 40116, Indonesia
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Introduction: Ibuprofen (2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionate) is a class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and is classified in Class II of Biopharmaceutic Classification System. In general, NSAIDs that are used orally cause side effects of gastric ulcers. For this reason, ibuprofen was formulated into transfersome to enhanced transdermal drug delivery using nanovesicular carrier, while avoiding oral side effects. Aim: The purpose of this study was to formulate transfersome ibuprofen in gel preparations, then compare its performance to gel containing pure ibuprofen. Method: Transferesome was formulated into four formulas with concentration ratio of Phospholipon 90G:span 80 for FI, FII, FIII, and FIV were 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, and 75:25 using direct mixing method, the in vitro skin permeation studies were determined using Franz diffusion cell to the two formulas of Viscolam gel that containing 1% of ibuprofen which are ibuprofen transfersome gel and pure ibuprofen gel. Result and Conclusion: The result showed that FIV was the best transfersome with entrapment efficiency was 92.95% and had vesicle size of 1.254 μm. Ibuprofen transfersome gel had been shown to increase in vitro skin permeation of ibuprofen, cumulative penetration was 1286.64 μg/cm, flux was 214.44 μg/cm/h, and the vesicle size was 0.986 μm, while cumulative penetration, flux, and particle size of gel containing pure ibuprofen were 620.92 μg/cm, 103.49 μg/cm/h, and 0.496 μm, respectively.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003015
Title: Fractional inhibitory concentration index value determination of combination Aquilaria microcarpa Baill. ethanolic extract with amoxicillin against urinary tract infection bacteria
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tanjungpura, Pontianak, 78124, Indonesia
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Background: Karas (Aquilaria microcarpa Baill.) is a plant that has antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis are the bacteria that cause urinary tract infections (UTIs), it could be treated by antibiotics such as amoxicillin. The combination of antibiotic and extract showed synergistic characteristics can decrease antibiotic resistance and increase antibiotic activity. Aim: The objective of this research was to determine the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) stands for value of combination of A. microcarpa Baill. ethanolic extract with amoxicillin against UTI bacteria. Methods: Method used in this research is Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Data analysis was descriptively to know combination characteristic. Results: The combinations showed synergistic for concentrations of 0.0156 mg/mL (¼ minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]) amoxicillin and 0.125 mg/mL (¼ MIC) extract against P. aeruginosa, indifferent for concentration 0.0156 mg/mL (MIC) amoxicillin and 0.5 mg/mL (MIC) extract against E. coli and antagonist for concentration 0.0156 mg/mL (4 MIC) amoxicillin and 16 mg/mL (4 MIC) extract against P. mirabilis. The result showed that the FICI value of combination of A. microcarpa Baill. ethanolic extract with amoxicillin against P. aeruginosa (FICI = 0.5), E. coli (FICI = 2), and P. mirabilis (FICI = 8). Conclusion: This shows that the combination characteristic of bacteria was varied (synergistically, indifferent, and antagonist).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003016
Title: Comparative 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 cancer cells of Abelmoschus esculentus and Abelmoschus moschatus leaf extracts
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pancasila University, Jalan Srengseng Sawah, Jagakarsa, Jakarta-12640, Indonesia
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The incidence of breast cancer is increasing in developing countries. Herbal medicine is still an interesting area to study. The leaves of Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. (A. moschatus) have been studied as anticancer for human colorectal and retinoblastoma cancer cell lines, whereas the flowers of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench. (A. esculentus) show anticancer activity against human liver HepG2 cell lines. This study aims to evaluate the potential antioxidant and anticancer activity of A. esculentus and A. moschatus leaves extract. Antioxidant activity of both extracts was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay while MTS assay was done to show an anticancer activity of both extracts in MDA-MB-231. Phytochemical screening and total flavonoid content were conducted and calculated as quercetin. This study showed that A. esculentus and A. moschatus have moderate and high DPPH scavenging activity value of IC50 114.09 µg/ml and 74.88 µg/ml, respectively (P 0.002 < 0.05). The cytotoxic assay of A. esculentus and A. moschatus in MDA-MB-231 displayed weakly and moderately effect with the IC50 value of 254.77 µg/ml and 132.98 µg/ml, respectively (P 0.113 > 0.05), and 1367.65 µg/mL and 1036.91 µg/mL toward normal BJ cell lines. The similar metabolites have been found in both extracts using phytochemical assay. Coumarin is only found in A. esculentus, and the essential oil is only found in A. moschatus. Total flavonoid content of A. esculentus (0.45 ± 0.05 %) and A. moschatus (0.38 ± 0.06 %) was not significantly different (P 0.206 > 0.05). A. esculentus and A. moschatus had a potent cytotoxic activity selective to MDA-MB 231 cancer cell line but not toxic to BJ cell lines. The cytotoxic activity might be because its antioxidants properties and its metabolites containing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00003017
Title: Dissolution enhancement of atorvastatin calcium by self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system using cremophor RH 40 and Transcutol P as surfactants
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Bandung Islamic University, Bandung, Indonesia
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Backgrounds: Atorvastatin calcium is HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, one of the most popular medicines for treatment high cholesterol. Atorvastatin calcium is BCS class II drug that have low aqueous solubility and low bioavaibility (14%). Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) known can increase dissolution and oral bioavailability of drugs. Objective: This study aims to increase the dissolution rate of Atorvastatin calcium by formulating into SNEDDS. Materials and Methods: The optimization formula was carried out using various comparisons of oil and mixed surfactants (1:9; 1:8; 1:7) and various comparison of surfactants and cosurfactant (3:1; 2:1; 1:1). The formulated SNEDDS were evaluated for transmittance percentage, dispersibility, robustness, thermodynamic stability, droplet size, and dissolution tests. Results:The best formula of SNEDDS contain atorvastatin calcium 10 mg/mL using oleic acid as the oil phase, cremophor RH 40 as the surfactant, and transcutol as the cosurfactant, with ratio between oil with mixture of surfactants was (1: 7) and ratio between surfactant and cosurfactant (3: 1). The preparation was meet the requirements of the transmittance percentage (93.56% ± 0.115), dispersibility time (34.67 seconds ± 0.644), stable on robustness to dilution and thermodynamic stability tests and has average droplet size 87 nm. The result showed that SNEDDS of atorvastatin calcium could improve the dissolution of atorvastatin calcium compared with pure drug (94,6% of drug was dissoluted in 45 minutes). Conclusion: SNEDDS containing atorvastatin calcium was met physical and stability requirements and could enhance the dissolution rate of Atorvastatin calcium.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00003019
Title: Cost-effectiveness analysis of aripiprazole-escitalopram with aripiprazole-agomelatine as bipolar treatment in a pharmacy in Bandung, Indonesia
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Universitas Al-Ghifari, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia
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Background: According to WHO in 2016, there are 60 million people affected by bipolar, this case continues to increase, including in Indonesia. The prevalence of bipolar disorder varies between 1-4 percent in Indonesia. At a pharmacy located in the city of Bandung, where a psychiatrist practices, this case ranks first in a variety of other mental disorders, namely 34.1% (in 2016). Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze more cost-effective therapy between the combination of aripiprazole and escitalopram with aripiprazole and agomelatine in a pharmacy in Bandung, Indonesia. Method: The outcome used was (Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale/MADRS reduction) while the cost component used is direct cost. This study was conducted retrospectively in the January-December 2016 of 90 continuous phase bipolar disorder patients in a pharmacy in Bandung, using the perspective of patients and pharmacies, with direct cost components. The intention of the patient perspective means the patient cost component, and the intention of pharmacy perspective meant the pharmacy cost component. The pharmacoeconomic method was Cost Effectiveness Analysis. Data was obtained from medical records and financial division. Results: From the statistical tests performed on the outcome group, the p-value obtained was 0.293. Based on Average Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ACER), aripiprazole and escitalopram was more cost-effective than aripiprazole and agomelatine (IDR 1,057,705/MADRS score from patients perspective and IDR 842,705/MADRS scores from institutional perspective). Then Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) was IDR 470,000/MADRS score from patients perspective and IDR 265,499 from pharmacy perspective. Conclusion: It indicated that aripiprazole and agomelatine is more cost effective than of aripiprazole and escitalopram in two perspective because there was a decrease in costs/MADRS score.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003021
Title: Knowledge and Usage of Medicinal Plants by Local People in Waigeo Island, Raja Ampat, West Papua, Indonesia
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Botany Division, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Cibinong Science Center, Jl. Raya Jakarta- Bogor Km 46, Cibinong 16911, Indonesia
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Papua housed an enormous number of plant species, consisting of about 20,000–25,000 species, which occur in 13 development zones, including Raja Ampat Archipelago. Local people who live in the archipelago are called Maya and Matbat. However, the knowledge and use of local medicinal plants have not been completely explored. Therefore, the research aimed to reveal knowledge about medicinal plants used by local people in Waigeo Island. Open interview and direct observation in two villages with 20 sources had been performed. The study showed that about 46 species were reported as medicinal plants by local people. Some of the species were new addition to the book Inventaris Tanaman Obat Indonesia; other species are also used by local people in Moluccas and other areas in Papua and Papua New Guinea. Several species used by Maya people are Alstonia scholaris, Arcangelisia flava, and Cryptocarya massoy. This study also showed that the local people in Waigeo Island, Raja Ampat, and West Papua have still interacted closely with their surrounding environment. The Maya and Langanyan people have sufficient knowledge about the medicinal plant species and their uses.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003022
Title: Antioxidant activity from ethanol extract and fractions of red flame ivy (Hemigraphis colorata Hall. F.) leaf using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Al Ghifari, Jl Cisaranten Kulon 140, Bandung 40293, Indonesia
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Context: Antioxidants can prevent free radical formation. Natural antioxidants found in many plants, such as red flame ivy (Hemigraphis colorata Hall.F.) Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the antioxidant activity extract and fractions of red flame ivy (Hemigraphis colorata Hall. F.) leaf. Methods: The sample was extracted with ethanol 70% in reflux. The antioxidant activity red flame ivy was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The IC50 value was 98.52 ppm for ethyl acetate fraction, 140.41 ppm for n-hexane fraction, 218.4 ppm for water fraction, and 374.3 ppm for extract. Conclusions: Ethyl acetate fraction of H. colorata leaf is a strong category for antioxidant activity

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003023
Title: Preliminary test of utilization of Aspergillus niger in the biotransformation of geraniol and its identification
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Doctoral Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Pancasila, Jakarta, Indonesia
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Background: Essential oils (EOs) have gained new interest in several aspects. As a natural product, EOs have attractive physicochemical characteristics with high added values that are environmentally friendly. EO also has diverse and relevant biological activities. A number of studies have highlighted the antimicrobial effects of EO even on multiresistant bacteria. Due to the complex chemical composition of EO, EO has a broad spectrum of biological and antimicrobial activity (antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, pest control, and insect repellent). Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle is one of the plants that contain EOs, usually known as citronella. citronella or C. nardus (L.) Rendle is one of the Cymbopogon species with quintessence oil which is widely used in the production of citronella, geraniol, citronellol, food, beverages, fragrances, soaps, body care products, and pharmaceutical products. The biotransformation study of geraniol, nerol, and citral by Aspergillus niger have been reported that the main bioconversion products obtained from geraniol and nerol by liquid culture of A. niger are linalool and α-terpineol. Aim: This study aims to utilize A. niger UICC 1012 for the biotransformation process of geraniol to obtain other compounds. Result: The results of identification with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy showed that the biotransformation product of geraniol was linalool and alpha-terpineol. The value of RT and peak areas respectively; 12.657 and 145.009.110; 16.340 and 4.567.385 (day-1); 12.820 and 409.287.950; 16.422 and 35.681.840 (day-7). Conclusion: A. niger UICC 1012 can be used for biotransformation of geraniol to obtain linalool and alpha-terpineol.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003024
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental students in performing extraction in hypertensive and diabetic patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental students toward performing extraction cases on patients with hypertension and diabetes. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, among 100 students. This study was a structured, self- administrated questionnaire. These questionnaires consist of the major aspects of knowledge about hypertension and diabetes as well as how these students will manage the patients before performing extraction procedure on them. Results: Based on the tabulated results, it is shown that the level of awareness of the students toward handling patients with hypertension and diabetes is high. 87% of the students have proper awareness and knowledge regarding the drugs prescribed to hypertensive and diabetic patient. Over 85% of the students are well of aware of the management that needs to be taken prior and after conducting treatment to immunosuppressant patients. 80% of the students have chosen to give morning appointments for patients with diabetes. Conclusion: We can conclude that the dental students have good knowledge, attitude, and practice toward performing an extraction procedure on hypertensive and diabetic patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003025
Title: Effect of mobile phone and microwave radiation on nickel release from fixed orthodontic appliances
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted on mobile phones and microwave radiation on the level of nickel in the saliva. Materials and Methods: Artificial saliva has been prepared from the laboratory and kept in three containers as 100 ml with fixed appliance for 3 days and exposed to microwave radiation and mobile phone radiation for 3 days and tested. Results: There is no significant release of nickel from the orthodontic appliances. Discussion: Microwave radiation being the second most radiation with high wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum does not have any effect in the release of nickel in the saliva and mobile radiation also does not have any effect on fixed appliances. Conclusion: The release of nickel in the saliva from fixed appliances depends on several factors other than electromagnetic radiations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003026
Title: Patient acceptability and compliance for Beggs and Essix removable retainers - A comparative study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The objective of this survey was to determine the patients’ acceptance and compliance for using Beggs and Essix retainers. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire about the opinions and attitude toward the use of two types of retainers was prepared and circulated to 20 patients. Among them, 10 patients were given Beggs retainer and the rest were given Essix retainers. Background: Sheridan introduced the Essix appliance as an esthetic, comfortable, and inexpensive modern alternative to traditional retainers. Beggs retainers, traditionally, are used for the retention of corrected malocclusion. They are also very popular form of post-treatment orthodontic retainer. Both of them are removable retainers, the presence of wire components in Beggs retainers makes them different from Essix retainers. Results and Conclusion: In the population surveyed, Essix retainers were more acceptable in terms of use, speech, soft tissue impingement, esthetic efficiency, and insertion of the retainer, whereas subjects wearing Beggs retainer considered cleaning and maintenance of retainer more easier compared to subjects using Essix retainers. In terms of stability of correction, both retainers were equal.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003027
Title: Influence of mulberry leaf extract (Morus alba L.) on diuretic activity of male white Wistar strain rat
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Al-Ghifari, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia
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Background: The mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) is a traditional medicinal plant that can be used as a diuretic. Aim: This research aimed to know the diuretic effect of mulberry leaf ethanol extract in male white Wistar strain rats using Lipschitz method and ethanol extract optimum dose of mulberry leaf as diuretic. Methods: The rats were devided into five groups; each group is consisted of 5 rats and then given treatment. The categorization of groups is as follows: Normal PGA group 2%, furosemide compound group 3.6 mg/kg body weight (BW), dose 1 group extract 140 mg/kg BW, dose 2 group extract 240 mg/kg BW, and dose 3 group extract 420 mg/kg BW. Each group is put in a metabolism cage, and its urine was collected for testing; diuretic effect was done by measuring urine volume for 6 h. Results: The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that giving mulberry leaf can produce the biggest urine volume with dose 420 m/kg BB and approach urine volume of the comparison group (furosemide). Statistically, it was different if it was compared to normal control group volume with level α = 0.01. Conclusion: Mulberry leaf extract had diuretic effect with mechanism increase extractions Na and Cl (Saluretic) effective dose this extract was 420 mg/Kg Bb.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00003028
Title: Modalities in the activation of sodium hypochlorite: A review
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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In endodontics, a complete chemo mechanical cleansing of the root canal system which is complex is required and is the key to achieve therapeutic success. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), with its antimicrobial and proteolytic characteristic, is an efficient endodontic irrigant, and it is the most commonly used irrigant. There are various methods to activate the root canal irrigant such as using large amounts of NaOCl, preheating and also using sonic and ultrasonic cases. The main goal of the root canal treatment is to completely eliminate the different components of the pulpal tissue, calcification, and bacteria, the placement of a hermetic seal to prevent infection or re-infection and to promote healing of the surrounding tissues if needed. There are many techniques available to accomplish the root canal preparation. There are also many techniques for filling the root canal system (i.e., vertical compaction of warm gutta-percha, System B, and lateral condensation). NaOCl has many desirable qualities and properties. It performs bactericidal cytotoxicity, dissolution of organic material, and minor lubrification. The aim of this survey is to systemically study the various modalities used in the activation of NaOCl.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003029
Title: Radiation-induced Risk in Pediatric Dentistry - A Review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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This study aim is to know the radiation risk in pediatric dentistry, especially using ionizing radiation in computed tomography. Imaging studies that use ionizing radiation are an essential tool for the evaluation of many disorders of childhood. Ionizing radiation is used in radiography, fluoroscopy, angiography, and computed tomography scanning. Computed tomography is of particular interest due to its relatively high radiation dose and wide use. Statements on radiation risk suggest that it is reasonable to act on the assumption that low-level radiation may have a small risk of causing cancer. The best available risk estimates suggest that pediatric computed tomography (CT) will result in significantly increased lifetime radiation risk over adult CT, both due to the increased dose per milliampere-second and the increased lifetime risk per unit dose. Lower milliampere-second settings can be used for children without significant loss of information. Although the risk-benefit balance is still strongly tilted toward benefit, because the frequency of pediatric CT examinations is rapidly increasing, estimates that quantitative lifetime radiation risks for children undergoing CT are not negligible, and may stimulate more active reduction of CT exposure settings in pediatric patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003030
Title: Evaluation of in vitro antibacterial potential of Eichhornia crassipes leaf extracts
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia
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Introduction: Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) is a aquatic plant belonging to the family Pontederiaceae, traditionally it has been used as preparation of crude medicine in Ethiopia for curing various types of infectious disease. In developing countries, emerging of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens brings the most serious public health challenge at a global scale. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the yield of crude extracts, phytochemical (secondary metabolites) screening of E. crassipes leaves using organic solvents ethanol and methanol and investigate the in vitro antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria. Materials and Methods: About 30 g of the ground leaves of E. crassipes were separately soaked in 150 ml of different solvents (ethanol and methanol) and left on a platform shaker for about 72 h and filtered using Whitman No.1 filter paper. The filtrates were then transferred into bottles, allowed for drying at room temperature for 5 days, and the antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against both Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, and Shigella boydii using the disk diffusion method and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration using broth dilution methods. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the ethanolic leaf extract of E. crassipes shown broadspectrum of antibacterial activity against tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The ethanolic leaf extract of Eichhornia had shown significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus with lowest MIC of 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml minimum bacterial concentration due to the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and steroids. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the ethanolic leaf extract of E. crassipes could be served as a potential source of natural antibacterial agents for the development of therapeutic antibiotics helpful in to treat the community and hospital-acquired infectious diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003031
Title: Antifungal activity of ginger oil against clinical isolates of Candida species
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The use of essential oils from herbs and spices is a novel antimicrobial treatment to reduce the initial microorganism loads. In herbs and spices, there are many antimicrobial compounds exhibiting a wide range of activities against bacteria, yeasts, and fungi. Essential oils from plants have been suggested as natural preservatives. Thus, the aim of the present study is to assess the antifungal activity of ginger oil against clinical isolates of Candida species. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 non-repetitive clinical isolates of Candida species were collected from different samples of immunocompromised individuals attending a medical hospital, in Chennai. They were characterized by carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation tests and confirmed. Isolates were preserved in semisolid Sabouraud chloramphenicol semisolid stock and stored at 4°C until further use. Candida species were further characterized using HiCrome candida differential agar (HiMedia, Mumbai). Results: Clinical isolates of Candida sp. were inhibited from 0.125% to 1% of ginger oil. The minimal inhibitory concentration of ginger oil was appeared to be 0.25% for Candida spp. Conclusion: The ginger oil is found to have antifungal activity against Candida spp. Since any toxic or irritant property of ginger oil has to be under consideration, ginger oil can be used as alternative and complementary agent for controlling fungal infections.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003032
Title: Changes in pH levels of saliva before and after taking chewable tablets
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the salivary pH before and after consumption of chewable tablets using pH paper. Materials and Methods: The salivary pH of 100 children aged 9–10 was evaluated using a pH paper before and after consuming chewable tablets. The pH was evaluated using a color scale after 30 s from dipping the pH paper in the saliva. Results: The pH levels after taking chewable tablets were acidic (pH <7) in 73% of the study population of which 8% had a pH value of 3 and the remaining 65% of the study population had a pH range of 5. Conclusion: Chewable Vitamin C tablets cause a drop in pH in ranges which can cause demineralization of the enamel. The potential tooth damage by chewable tablets should be made aware to the consumers. The physician should recommend Vitamin C in a form and dose which is considered safe for the patient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003033
Title: Photodynamic therapy in periodontitis - A short review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque biofilms. Periodontitis is a common disease that causes tooth loss, and chronic inflammation induced by bacterial infection which is the major cause of periodontium destruction. The treatment for periodontitis depends on removal of periodontopathogens and their toxic products. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a powerful laser-initiated photochemical reaction, involving the use of a photoactive dye (photosensitizer) activated by light of a specific wavelength in the presence of oxygen. PDT is based on the principle that a photoactivable substance that is a photosensitizer binds to the target cell and can be activated by light of suitable wavelength. The mechanism of PDT is based on the principle that a photoactivable material that is a photosensitizer binds to the target cell or microorganisms and can be activated by light of an appropriate wavelength. Most of the studies that are done revealed that PDT is most effective on combination with conventional scaling and root planning method. The reason for this review is to understand and provide information about PDT and extend knowledge of advanced laser therapy. The aim and objective of this review are to provide comprehensive information about PDT and its role in periodontitis

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003034
Title: Plants with analgesic property - A review article
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Analgesic is any drug that relieves pain selectively without blocking the conduction of nerve impulses, markedly altering sensory perception, or affecting consciousness. Plants are rich source of analgesics. Herbal analgesics are considered superior to pharmacological painkillers because they do not carry the same side effects. Some of the herbal analgesics are discussed here. Mentha piperita is a herbal plant which has analgesic property. In Adhatoda vasica Linn., ethanolic extract acts an analgesic. In Lotus seeds, Nelumbo nucifera, methanolic extract has the analgesic property. Aegle marmelos is a natural analgesic, where a methanolic extract of leaves (Fitoterapia) is used as analgesics. In Guiera senegalensis Gmel, the aqueous extract serves as an analgesic. The plant remedies are more safe to the patients with less side effects. Plants with analgesic property have very good therapeutic potential in various pain disorders. The plants discussed in this article are with proven in vitro and in vivo analgesic potential. As plant products have minimum side effects compared to currently used opioid and non-opioid analgesics, proper formulations prepared from this plants may be useful in the future. The aim of this article is to compile and review various studies done on plants with analgesic properties.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003035
Title: Role of interleukin 10 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in periodontal infection
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Periodontal diseases comprise a wide range of inflammatory conditions that affect the supporting structures of the teeth (the gingiva, bone, and periodontal ligament), which could lead to tooth loss and contribute to systemic inflammation. A complex network of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines acts in inflamed periodontal tissues. Among other cytokines, interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an important multifunctional cytokine. Periodontal inflammation may involve both an increase in inflammatory stimulators such as IL-1 and a decrease in inflammatory inhibitors like IL-10. IL-10 has been also regarded as an important regulator of bone homeostasis, in homeostatic, and inflammatory conditions. Hence, IL-10 given the role of IL-10 in bone remodeling, the use of IL-10 for inhibiting bone resorption and reducing inflammation may be beneficial for the treatments of periodontitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003036
Title: A review on medicinal values of ginger
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Ginger is a medicinal plant that is widely used in traditional systems of medicine. The two most active constituents of ginger- based preparations are gingerol and shogaol. It has antiemetic, antipyretic, analgesic, antiarthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has strong antioxidant effects helping in the production of free radicals. Studies have proved the antitumor and hepatoprotective effects of ginger. This review discusses the pharmacological properties and clinical uses of ginger.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003037
Title: A Review of the medicinal applications of Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew)
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The purpose of this paper is to describe the medicinal plant Tanacetum parthenium popularly known as feverfew and to elucidate the medicinal uses of this plant which has wide range of uses. The most important uses include the prevention of migraine headache. It is a medicinal herb which is also sometimes grown for ornamental purposes. It is sometimes referred to as bachelor’s buttons or more commonly as feverfew.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003038
Title: The role of interleukin-1 in syndromes: Periodontal manifestation of systemic diseases
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque biofilms. Periodontitis is a common disease that causes tooth loss, and chronic inflammation induced by bacterial infection which is the major cause of periodontium destruction. The treatment for periodontitis depends on removal of periodontopathogens and their toxic products. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is the prototypic pro-inflammatory cytokine. There are two kinds of IL-1, IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, and in most research, their biological sports are indistinguishable. IL-1 affects nearly every cell type, frequently inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor. Since IL-1 can upregulate host defenses and feature as an immunoadjuvant, IL-1 is a tremendously inflammatory cytokine. The objective of this review is to understand and provide information about the role of IL-1 in syndromes periodontal manifestation of periodontal diseases and update knowledge for further advancement in future. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information about the role of IL-1 in syndromes periodontal manifestation of systemic diseases and to understand the role of IL-1 in syndromes periodontal manifestation of systemic diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003039
Title: Local anesthesia failure in endodontics
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage local anesthesia is essential for successful completion of endodontic treatment. Although pain treatment is well managed in many endodontic patients, there exists a group of patients who do not receive adequate local anesthesia in spite of proper administration of local anesthesia. This article reviews about the reasons for the failure of local anesthesia during endodontic treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003040
Title: The epidermal growth factor receptor as target for cancer therapy
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Human carcinomas express high levels of receptors in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family, it includes two important EGF receptors; they are EGF receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2. Function of these receptors is more useful for anticancer treatments. The monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) block the activation of EGFR and ErbB2. A humanized anti-ErbB2 is active and recently approved in combination with paclitaxel for the therapy of patients with metastatic ErbB2 over aggressive breast cancer, a chimeric anti-EGFR MAb is active in combination with radiation therapy and reverses resistance to chemotherapy.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003041
Title: Non-injectable local anesthesia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Technical and Medical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental practitioners depend on the evolution of their field to provide patients with the highest quality, most advanced, and comfortable dental care. Cocaine was earlier demonstrated as a topical anesthetic. The synthetic formulation of cocaine both topical and injectable became possible. Intraoral anesthesia has evolved in the area of non-injectable delivery systems instead of providing anesthesia directly into the periodontal pockets without the need for an invasive injection. The aim of this article is to review non-injectable local anesthesia (NILA) in dentistry. Extensive searching in PubMed, Scopus index, and many databases was done. This result of this review is to find the overview of NILA in dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003088
Title: Evaluation of upper airway in different malocclusions among Dravidian population - A cephalometric study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Objective: The aim and objective were to evaluate the upper airway in different malocclusions using lateral cephalograms. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of 60 (both males and females) were categorized into three classes (Classes I-III), range of 18–40 years, and no history of sleep-related disorders and obesity. The cephalometric parameters assessed included upper airway measurements and studied for different malocclusion types. Three groups were formed: Class I (20), Class II (20), and Class III (20). Results: The results concluded that there is no statistically significant difference seen in all the three classes (Classes I–III) in upper airway dimensions and did not vary significantly in all the three classes. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in upper airway in different skeletal malocclusion patterns.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003090
Title: The effect of age and social status on the quality of life of patients with pathology of the retina and optic nerve
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Care, Astana Medical University, Astana, 010000, Kazakhstan
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Aim: This study is devoted to the study of the quality of life of patients with pathologies of the optic nerve and retina. Material and methods: The study involved 77 patients from Astana city polyclinics. The age range of respondents ranged from 18 to 82 years, the average age - 50.7±18.3. The sex composition of participants was distributed with a predominance of men (51%, p=0.001).Result and discussion: The quality of life associated with vision was studied using a questionnaire of visual functions developed by scientists of the National Eye Institute - NEI VFQ-25, formed on the analysis of indicators of 12 scales.The study of the sex-age characteristics of patients was carried out in the interval groups calculated by Sturges’ formula.The study on the homogeneity of the results in age groups on the scales of the questionnaire revealed practical homogeneity in most scales, exceptions were the scales of dependence on physical assistance, role difficulties and distance activities.The effect of age on the quality of life of patients with retinal and optic nerve pathology was revealed.It was found that the respondents noted the deterioration of visual functions with increasing age: near activities (r=-0.899, p<0.025), distance activities (r=-0.78, p<0.025), color vision (r=-0.98, p<0.025), peripheral vision (r=-0.78, p<0.025). Conclusion: In the course of the study, it was found that young respondents in the interval groups 18-27, 28-37 have problems in the field of life activity associated with mental health (r=0.88, p<0.025), role difficulties (r=0.9, p<0.025) and dependence on physical assistance (r=0.93, p<0.025).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003091
Title: Morphology of the rat’s brain in four vessels model of ischemic stroke after administration of carbamylated darbepoetin
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Human Anatomy, Department of Human Anatomy of the Medical Institute, Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education (Belgorod State National Research U
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Aim: The aim was the study of the cerebroprotective effect of carbamylated darbepoetin in a four-vessel model of rat brain ischemia-reperfusion. Materials and method: Various parts of rat brain were studied in the four-vessel ischemia-reperfusion model in the treatment with carbamylated darbepoetin. The animals were divided into four groups: Intact, pseudo-operated, with a four-vessel model of ischemia without treatment, and a triple preliminary administration of carbamylated darbepoetin. Animals in the third and fourth groups were intraperitoneally injected with carbamylated darbepoetin at a dose of 100 μg/kg at an interval of 3 days. Results: The carotid arteries were isolated, and then the electrocoagulation of the vertebral arteries at the level of the C2-C3 segments of the spinal cord, after which the common carotid arteries were bandaged. The onset of ischemia was controlled with a decrease in the amplitude on the electroencephalogram. Conclusion: The study of the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex after the experiment was performed on days 1 and 3. A massive preconditioning cerebroprotective effect of carbamylated darbepoetin in the fourth group of animals and massive ischemic changes of the hippocampal and cortical neurons in the third group were revealed. These were manifested by karyopyknosis, karyorrhexis, and violation of stratification of CA1-CA3 layers of the hippocampus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003092
Title: X-ray verification of the possibility of the mandible articular head restoration: A clinical case
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthetic Dentistry with a course of orthodontics, Smolensk State Medical University’ 214019, Smolensk, Krupskaya Street, 28 Russia
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Improvement of the methods of diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is of prime importance in increasing the efficacy of orthopedic treatment. The aim of the study was to prove the possibility of TMJ structures restoration in the normalization of the lower jaw position during orthopedic treatment. The study confirmed the need to normalize the interalveolar height, to form multiple contacts for the antagonizing lateral teeth that allow to eliminate both joint heads distal displacement and bilaminar zone compression and, consequently, to reduce degenerative changes in TMJ joints.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003093
Title: Anatomical causes of Costen’s syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Military Medical Academy Named After S.M. Kirov 194044 St. Petersburg, Academician Lebedev Street., 6, Russia
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On 108 skulls specimens with malocclusion and 30 skulls specimens with complete edentulism from the craniological collection of the Department of Normal Anatomy of the Military Medical Academy named after S.M. Kirov, a comprehensive study of the morphometric characteristics of the articular surfaces of TMD joint was carried out. The peculiarities of petrotympanic fissure topography in various forms of the brain skull were also evaluated to establish the possible anatomical causes of Costen’s syndrome. The fact of the variability of the petrotympanic fissure topography within the mandibular fossa has been established, the fissure can be located in back and mesial parts of this fossa or it takes intermediate position. The option of petrotympanic fissure topography in mesial parts of the mandibular fossa is a predisposing anatomical factor for Costen’s syndrome and can be found at different neurocranium forms but predominantly at hypsicranial. The immediate cause of the Costen’s syndrome can be occlusal-caused diseases followed by TMD joint dysfunction. In this case, the changes of articular surface of TMD joint take place, in particular, a decrease in size of the head of mandible, its pathological displace, capsule stretching, and compression of chorda tympani.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: December [ Special Issue 5 ]
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003094
Title: A survey on consequences of self-medication versus prescribed medication
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare pattern of self-medication and prescribed medication among the population in Chennai, India, and to tabulate results and thereby creating awareness on population. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 15 questions were framed based on knowledge and usage of self-administered drugs as well as prescribed drugs. They were given to 100 people aged between 20 and 50 years without any gender difference. This study has a self-developed questionnaire, related to various aspects of self-medication and prescribed medication. A pre-tested interviewed administered questionnaire, with 17 questions was distributed to participants. Results: Among 100 respondents, 72 respondents practice self-medication, while only 28 people choose prescribed the medication by a registered medical practitioner. Adverse reactions, lack of knowledge about dose, the frequency of administration, and chances of taking the wrong medicine were the major drawbacks of self-medication reported. The frequently reported illness that prompted self- medication includes headache, cough, fever, diarrhea, and acidity. Conclusion: Usage of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs was highest among common population. Time consumption for consultation, financial crisis, availability of OTC drugs, and the predictability of doctor’s general prescription were the commonly mentioned reasons for self-medication. Hence, proper education and awareness must be created to help patients decide on proper medications.