Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . 
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.897 as on date (08.05.2017)
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Journal Metrics for this   Drug Invention Today (Source ID: 21100202909): 2014 (SNIP) Source Normalized Impact Per Paper : 0.402; SCImago Journal Rank (SJR):0.301; Impact Per Publication : 0.517 (Top level : Life Science)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002361
Title: In vitro antioxidant activities of bioactive flavonoid mesuaferrin-A from stem bark ethyl acetate extract of Mesua ferrea L.
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Mesuaferrin-A, bioactive flavonoid has been isolated from the bark of Mesua ferrea L. shown both in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of bioactive flavonoid mesuaferrin-A from M. ferrea bark ethyl acetate extract (MFBEE) by in vitro antioxidant assays such as 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assays. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of mesuaferrin-A, by ABTS and NBT riboflavin photoreduction (superoxide radical scavenging activity) using standard methods. Results: The results showed that the mesuaferrin-A (25, 50, and 100 μg/ml) has significant ABTS and superoxide free radical inhibiting activity (NBT) at 100 µg/ml was 68.55% and 80.45% with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values of 47.37 and 33.45, whereas the standards ascorbic acid and quercetin at 10 µg/ml, exhibited 85.19% and 72.05% with IC50 values of standards 3.33 µg/ml and 4.55 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the mesuaferrin-A exhibited significant scavenging activity on ABTS and superoxide free radical inhibiting activity (NBT), and could serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants, for the development of therapeutic antioxidant drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002319
Title: Awareness of health effects of aspartame among diabetic patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim and Background: The aim of this study was to create awareness about knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the usage of aspartame among diabetic patients. Introduction: Artificial sweeteners like aspartame are becoming popular as an alternative to sugar. Increased incidence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome coupled with heightened consumer awareness has led to a steady shift toward the use of low-calorie artificial sweeteners. There have been claims that diabetics can experience adverse health effects from consuming aspartame. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Saveetha Dental College outpatient department. It consisted of 102 diabetic subjects of ages between 22 and 50, both males and females. A questionnaire was prepared based on the following: their name, age, and for how long they were diabetic, if they use aspartame and if they do for how many times a day, if aspartame was suggested by their doctor, if they experience any of the side effects (headache, nausea, weight gain, stress, and increase in blood sugar level), and if they are aware of the side effects. The survey was then analyzed using proper statistics and results were concluded. Result: According to this study and its statistics, nearly 85% of the subjects did not experience side effects such as nausea and headaches. Only 30.1% of the subjects noticed a gain in weight after using aspartame. Even though 60.9% of the subject population were already aware of the side effects that aspartame causes, they still continued to use aspartame. More than 60.5% of the patients taken for the study were not aware of the danger in ingesting aspartame with very hot drinks. Conclusion: From our study, we conclude that the artificial sweetener aspartame has both beneficial and harmful effects on the regular lifestyle of diabetics who are dependent on it. Patients were educated to get the knowledge about the benefits and harmful side effects of aspartame through this questionnaire awareness.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002320
Title: A review of materials used in maxillofacial prosthesis - Part 1
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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The rehabilitation of patients requiring not only the replacement of missing body part but also a loss of psychological confidence is a challenging task. Since maxillofacial defects lie on the face, the materials used for fabricating the prosthesis should fulfill a variety of requirements. At present, there is no ideal material which can be universally used. This article discusses materials available for the fabrication of maxillofacial prosthesis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002321
Title: Awareness on dental caries among adolescent population
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Dental caries is the scientific term for tooth decay or cavities. It is caused by specific types of bacteria. They produce acid that destroys the tooth’s enamel and the layer under it, dental caries usually results in bad breadth and severe tooth ache. These cavities reach the pulp and nerves of the tooth causing sensation once after the enamel is formed. The cavities may infect the jaw and sometimes cause a tooth abscess. If carbohydrates remain in mouth for enough time, caries causing bacteria may form plaque on the tooth surface and attack the tooth. The aim of the study is to create an awareness among the adolescent population regarding the dental caries. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared. The survey was conducted among the students of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, and the data were collected. The survey was conducted using a link created by the survey planet, and it was circulated among the students of Saveetha Dental College. Thus, this survey was conducted among 115 students. Moreover, the result was calculated statistically. Results: Hence, it is evident from this survey that most of the participants are aware of good practices. Conclusion: Here, from this survey, we can tell that 80% of the population are aware of the dental caries by doing regular dental practices.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002322
Title: Awareness on irregular eating habits associated with osteoporosis in women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become weak and brittle. The loss of bone mass often proceeds unnoticed, it is a continuous process which may not produce any symptoms. The signs and symptoms of this condition can prolong till death, though treatment may help at times to delay the progress of osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: The survey was taken among 100 people of age groups of 18–40 and 40 above. They were questioned regarding their eating habits, water consumption, do they preference to vitamin-rich foods, and about their physical activity levels. The questionnaire was administered through online survey planet link. Results were statistically analyzed. Results: Among 100 students, 36 were men and 64 were women. It was found that 53% of the population is unaware of the cause of osteoporosis and not aware of its risk factors, respectively. Conclusion: From the statistical analysis, it is shown that 53% of the population is unaware of the cause of osteoporosis in women and the risks caused by it. The awareness level among the students was found to be less aware about the problem.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002323
Title: Evaluation of the importance of value added courses in curriculum
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to create awareness on the importance of value added courses in curriculum and to ensure the importance of these courses among the students in various fields. Introduction: Value added courses are the types of courses which help a particular individual to develop their own skills in their chosen field of the study. They are mostly independent to each type of the fields. Most of the colleges form a joint venture with various organizations so that it facilitates the students as well as the faculty to keep pace with the latest technologies pertaining to their chosen field of studies. Materials and Methods: The research is carried by administering the questionnaire to about 100 students irrespective of their field and colleges. The results are graphically analyzed and presented. Results: The awareness about value added courses among the students was found to be good, but much more awareness has to be created as the students are benefitted by these courses. Conclusion: This research was basically done to emphasize the importance of the various value added courses among the students; it is a must that the students should be made much aware of these courses because these courses help to develop their personal skills and communication skills.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002324
Title: Knowledge and awareness on precautions to be taken while handling the chemicals in the laboratory among the dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to create awareness and precautions to be taken while handling the chemicals in the laboratory among the dental students. Introduction: All the chemical products must be stored and labeled in accordance with the instructions on the safety sheet. Chemicals must not be stored together with inflammable material and gas cylinders. Based on handling the chemicals, it is advisable to read the safety data listed in it and must be familiar with the risks in handling it. Use of personal protection equipment is necessary. Immediately wash off chemical traces from the skin. There must be a safety data sheet for every chemical product that is hazardous to health or environment or is inflammable; hence, we are aware of the risks. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted by an online survey platform-survey planet. A questionnaire of 15 questions was circulated among the students using an online link regarding the laboratory safety. Conclusion: From the results, it is clear that some of the students were not aware. This survey has helped to spread awareness among the dental students about all the precautions to be followed to lead a healthy life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-CR(D)-00002325
Title: Benefits of herbal medicine in oral care
Category: Case Reports (Drugs)
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Oral hygiene plays a crucial role in our day-to-day lives. Herbal medicine is used in oral care have lesser side effects when compared with the synthetic medicines. The main aim of this study is to know the benefits of herbal medicine in oral care. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared and administered to participants. Their responses were filled online with survey planet link and results were statistically analyzed. Result: The results were analyzed statistically. People were aware about the effects of herbal medicine on oral care. Moreover, nearly all of the participants would recommend herbal medicines to their family and friends. Conclusion: From this survey, we conclude that the awareness of herbal medicines among the people is more and herbal medicine is recommended to the people. This survey is conducted for the people to know the benefits of herbal medicine and its effects on oral care.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002326
Title: Plant Extracts with Activity against Oral Bacteria
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The association between oral diseases and oral microbiota is well established. The development of dental caries involves Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective, and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces, and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002327
Title: Antibacterial activity of phytochemicals against oral bacteria
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Microbial resistance to most of the antibiotics commonly used to treat oral infections has been documented. The resistance of microorganisms against the traditional antibiotics needs urgent attention for the development of the new drug molecules. It is well documented from ancient times that active principles from plant origin have been used as medicines for various diseases and microbial infections. The effect of plant extracts on bacteria has been studied by a large number of researchers in different parts of the world. The antimicrobial activity of phytochemicals against oral bacteria has been reviewed here.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002328
Title: Effect of regular exercises and health benefits among college students
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Health contributes to the general well-being and overall lifestyle. Exercise is another aspect that is important for a person’s healthy lifestyle. This survey aims at finding the effects of exercise on college students. Objective: The objective of this study is to create awareness on the effect of regular exercises and health benefits among college students. Materials and Methods: Sample size for this study was 100. The survey questionnaire was filled in survey planet, and the link was sent to 100 college students to find the effect of daily exercises among them. The result of the survey was statistically analyzed. Results: Students with healthy lifestyle patterns have the benefits of losing weight, managing stress, and improving memory, focus, and concentration. The survey results indicate that most of the college students follow unhealthy lifestyle patterns and they do not regularly exercise. Conclusion: Since most of the college students do not spend much time for exercise, the unhealthy lifestyle still persists. This study has created awareness among the college students about the benefits of daily exercises on college students.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002329
Title: Awareness of activity-based learning concepts
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Activity-based learning is a technique adopted by a teacher to emphasize his/her method of teaching through activity in which students participate rigorously and bring about efficient learning experiences. Concept mapping is graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge. The aim of the study is to analyze the importance of activity-based learning among students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire comprised of 18 questions was administered to participants through online survey planet link. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: Out of 60 participants, 35% of them said that activity-based learning classes should be taken twice a week. 36% of them said that they should be conducted thrice a week and the rest of 29% reported that it should be conducted daily. Conclusion: It is concluded that the participants show more interest in activity-based learning. Further research may be required to explore newer methods of teaching and learning.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002330
Title: Plant extracts inhibiting the adhesion of oral bacteria
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Many oral infections occur due to the ability of bacteria to adhere to the surface of teeth and mucosa and form a biofilm. The development of medicinal agents capable of inhibiting bacterial adhesion and dental plaque formation has been of great interest to dental researchers and clinical dentists. At present, a variety of compounds has been identified. This article reviews the plant extracts and phytochemicals inhibiting the adhesion of oral bacteria.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002331
Title: Hypovolemic shock - A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Shock is described traditionally as tissue hypoxia due to inadequate perfusion which is classified as hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive, and distributive. Hypovolemic shock is an important life-threatening emergency. In hypovolemic shock, there is decreased circulating blood volume due to the loss of intravascular fluid. Hemorrhagic shock is the most common form of hypovolemic shock and must be recognized early which prevent progression, morbidity, and mortality. Hence, this article will discuss about the causes, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of hypovolemic shock.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002332
Title: Analysis of thick and thin vessel pixel clustering for retinal blood vessel image segmentation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: In this work, we revealed that digital image processing is an actual topic at present and it is widely used in various fields of medicine, including diagnosis of the eye fundus. Methods: We carried out the analysis of the correlation between results of the segmentation and the selected number of classes. Results: An analysis of the dependence of the blood vessel segmentation results on the image of the eye fundus from various partitions to pixel classes corresponding to thick and thin vessels obtained by k-means clustering was made. Conclusion: Using the openly accessible database of eye fundus images DRIVE, we fulfilled the computational experiments which results demonstrated the effectiveness of the analyzed method of retinal blood vessels segmentation based on the separate thick and thin vessel pixel clusterings.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002333
Title: Prediction of ability among disabled school students: Possibilities and limitations of diagnostic tools
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The relevance of the study is conditioned by the fact that prediction is an element of leading activity and behavior. It participates in the processes of a person adaptation to changing environmental conditions. The ability to predict is seen as the resource of successful socialization that is significant for a disabled child. Methods: The analysis of the current state is provided concerning the problem of prediction and the most promising trends of its further development for disabled schoolchildren are given. The necessity of prediction psychology general subject differentiation is substantiated as an important term of its constructive study. Prediction psychology should be studied differentially, in three basic aspects, cognitive, regulative, and communicative one, in significant situations of a student’s communication (with adults, peers, parents, and family members and in virtual communication). Results: They evaluated the existing psychodiagnostic toolkit to reveal various aspects of minor schoolchildren ability to anticipate future situations, the capabilities of this toolkit for the detection of prediction deficit among schoolchildren. Conclusion: The study of the ability to anticipate future situations among primary schoolchildren is not only a research task today but also a social mission of scholars to model and predict the success of socialization processes, prevent the initial process of deviant behavior development among disabled children, and reduce the risks of destructive and deviant behavior occurrence among adolescents and young men.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002334
Title: Organizational-pedagogical conditions of effective learning in the framework of adaptive physical education of pupils with hearing impairment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This study presents the organizational and pedagogical conditions used in the adaptive physical education of pupils with hearing impairment. The aim of this study was to determine the organizational and pedagogical conditions aimed at increasing the effectiveness of the content of adaptive physical education of pupils with hearing impairment, we carried out the analysis of scientific and methodological literature on the direction of the study, which indicated the lagging indicators of the physical and mental development of pupils in this category. Methods: We applied the following research methods as follows: (1) Testing physical fitness; (2) anxiety level assessment method through questionnaires; (3) pedagogical observation; (4) pedagogical experiment; and (5) methods of mathematical-statistical result processing. Results: To determine the effectiveness of the organizational and pedagogical conditions for the qualitative functioning of the content of adaptive physical education of pupils with hearing impairment, it was required to conduct a comparative analysis of physical preparedness and anxiety level of pupils of primary school age with hearing impairment. 40 pupils of primary school age with hearing impairment from the special (correctional) residential schools of I and II kind of Kazan and Yelabuga, the Republic of Tatarstan, took part in the ascertaining experiment. The pupils of the special correction residential school of I and II kind of Elabuga were included in the experimental groups (EG) (EG 1 - girls, EG 2 - boys, n = 20). Conclusion: The peers from the special (correctional) residential school of I and II kind named after E.G. Lastochkina of Kazan, the Republic of Tatarstan, came out with the same number of control groups (CG) (CG 1, CG 2) and the number of test persons (n = 20).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002335
Title: Cognitive development in children with Prader–Willi syndrome
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The article is devoted to the specificity of cognitive development in three children with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) in the period up to 6-year-old. The PWS is a rare hereditary disease caused by the absence of the father’s copy of the 15q11- 13 chromosome. Methods: Genomic imprinting is involved into the regulation of the genes in this area of chromosome 15. Diagnostic signs of this syndrome are muscular hypotension, hypogonadism, obesity, excessive adiposity, respiratory complications, mental retardation, small brushes and feet, dysplasia of the hip joints, and stigma of disembryogenesis. Currently, specific ways of treating people with this syndrome have not been developed. It is considered that children with PWS suffer from the retardation of cognitive development; however, there is a lack of scientific information about it. The study of PWS requires an interdisciplinary approach and the detailed description of cognitive development. Results: The results showed that in the period up to 6 years in three children with this rare syndrome the most obvious decline is registered predominantly in the development of impressive speech, and other functions do not suffer significantly in spite of the presence of impairments in motor development. Conclusion: The research was conducted at A. Yu. Ratner Pediatic Сlinical Hospital NO. 8 (Kazan, Russia) by the group of clinical linguists, neurologists, and speech therapists.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002336
Title: Nervous and hormonal mechanisms of regulation of local muscle activity in 7–9-year-old children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The reaction of urgent adaptation of the sympathetic-adrenal system (SAS) and the adrenal cortex (AC) to the local static load in 7–9-year-old children was studied, taking into account their gender, age, and initial vegetative tone. Methods: A shift in the excretion of catecholamines (CAs) and their precursors, metabolites of glucocorticoids and androgens, in response to the impact of a dosed load, was evaluated. It was found that the dynamics of the studied indicators in 9-year-old girls, in a state of sympathicotonia and normotonia, is multidirectional. Results: The observed decrease in excretion of CAs and dihydroxyphenylalanine or their insignificant increase is accompanied by an increase in the functional activity of AC and, to a greater extent, its androgenic function. Conclusion: All these evidenced about the features of neuroendocrine interrelations in the mechanism of adaptive reactions of 9-year-old girls, greater stability of the pituitary-adrenal system, providing metabolic processes in the growing organism. Unlike with 7-year-old boys, normotonics and vagotonics, and 8-year-old sympathotonics, whose local static load has a simultaneous decrease in the spare capacities of SAS and AC. This indicates the manifestation of fatigue and asthenization of the schoolchildren in the process of learning activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002337
Title: Participation of catecholamines and corticosteroids in regulation of the autonomic tone in children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The article presents the results of the research of sympathetic-adrenal system and adrenal cortex (AC) functions, taking into account the features of heart rate vegetative regulation. Methods: They allowed to reveal a close contingency of excretion of catecholamines (CAs), metabolites of androgens and glucocorticoids, with the initial autonomic tone of children. It has been shown that children of both genders, with a predominance of sympathetic influences on cardiac rhythm, contrary to the normo- and vagotonics, had higher levels of norepinephrine (NE) excretion, combined with the increased secretion of 17-oxycorticosteroids (OCS) and 17-ketosteroids. 8–9-year-old girls are the exceptions. Results: They have relative decrease in activity of the glucocorticoid function of the AC in the sympathicotonia state. Furthermore, the boys - vagotonics, 11–12 years old, are the exceptions. Their intensity of the NE and 17-OCS excretion practically does not differ from that in the sympathotonics group. Conclusion: Thus, functional synergism of autonomic nervous system departments, coming out in the process of maintaining the autonomic balance, is accompanied by characteristic humoral-hormonal reactions of the organism in the form of simultaneous increase in levels of CAs and corticosteroids.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002338
Title: Metabolic syndrome and lower urinary tract symptoms
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: We study the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MS) and urinary disorders. This article shows that MS is a risk factor for cardiovascular disasters, insulin resistance, and androgen deficiency in developed and developing countries. Methods: Patients with MS had statistically significantly more symptomatic on the International Prostatic Symptom Score scale and a lower quality of life index. Results: According to the uroflowmetry, the maximum flow parameters did not differ in the observation groups; however, in the main group, the mean velocity was lower with an increase in the duration of urination. Patients with the MS presented more severe complaints of pain on the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs scale compared with the control group. Conclusion: The data obtained make it possible to associate MS with the risk of the development of the syndrome of chronic pelvic pain and urgency in men.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002339
Title: Dizziness: The linguistic aspects of diagnosis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Dizziness complaints are the most frequent in patients in the primary health-care system and in the treatment of emergency conditions in the practice of neurologists and general practitioners. Methods: Difficulties in diagnosing dizziness are explained by the fact that the verbal report of a patient plays a leading role in the procedure of diagnosis. There are no instrumental diagnostic methods (except for magnetic resonance imaging with strokes and hearing auric examination for hearing impairment), which allow doctors to determine the cause of dizziness. Results: Thus, specific verbal descriptors are used to diagnose the concrete type of the disease: Vertigo (true rotational dizziness), presyncope, imbalance, vague sensations of faintness, anxiety, and depression. It should be noted that in one patient, two or more types of dizziness can occur simultaneously. Conclusion: The research was conducted at Kazan Federal University Clinic (Kazan, Russia) by the group of clinical linguists and neurologists. The experience of this joint work demonstrates the advisability of such cooperation in clinical situations when the verbal diagnostic component is the key to the assessment of neurological dysfunction.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002340
Title: In vitro antioxidant activities of isolated bioactive flavonoid apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester from ethyl acetate leaf extract of Manilkara zapota
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester is a bioactive flavonoid, has been isolated from the ethyl acetate leaf extract of Manilkara zapota, and shown both in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of bioactive flavonoid apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester from the ethyl acetate leaf extract by in vitro antioxidant assays such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) assays. Materials and Methods: The in vitro antioxidant assays such as DPPH and NO were carried out using standard methods. Results: The results showed that the apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) has significant DPPH and NO free radical inhibiting activity at 100 µg/ml was 83.26%, 86.19% with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values of 36.38 and 29.74, whereas the standards, ascorbic acid, and 3,5-di-tert- butyl-4-hydroxytoluene at 10 µg/ml, exhibited 54.21% and 56.75% with IC50 values of standards 4.49 µg/ml and 3.93 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester, exhibited significant scavenging activity on DPPH and NO free radical inhibiting activity, and could serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants, for the development of therapeutic antioxidant drugs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002341
Title: Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders among dental undergraduate students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: The aim of this study was to use a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to investigate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) among the dental students of Saveetha Dental College using a simple questionnaire. Methods: The sample consisted of 100 dental undergraduate students from Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, India. Each student was given a study questionnaire proposed by Fonseca and was briefed about the procedure of filling it. The questionnaire contained 13 questions which were related to the signs and symptoms of TMD. The subjects were informed to answer with “yes,” “no,” and “sometimes.” Scores were given, and the value was used to calculate the severity of TMD. Results: The study revealed that, of 100 students, 58 (58%) were observed free of TMD. About 42% of the population had some kind of TMD problem: 32 (32%) had mild TMD, 4 (4%) had moderate TMD, and 6 (6%) had severe TMD problems. Conclusion: A simplified questionnaire by Fonseca allows identifying a TMD patient and, simultaneously, classifies the patient according to disorder severity. From this study, a mild-to-moderate prevalence of TMD appears to be evident among the dental students of Saveetha Dental College. The present study being a cross-sectional observation should be followed by a longitudinal study in the near future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002342
Title: Meaning behind illness: Emotional healing among asthma patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: The presence of disease is often responded and interpreted subjectively. The interaction between the patients and the disease may bring the meaning of disease to the patients, which has impacted on the health status. Objective: The research was aimed to observe disease interpretation on the asthma patients during their healing process. Materials and Methods: We used the qualitative phenomenological method in this research. The data were collected by the in-depth interviews, observations, documentation, and field notes from 20 people as the subjects. Result: We obtained that each subject interpreted the disease differently. Therefore, it was classified into two of eight of interpreting the disease categories. Group I interpreted the disease positively, while Group II interpreted the disease negatively. Positive interpretation toward the disease could enhance the recovery. Meanwhile, negative interpretation toward the disease could slow down in the healing process. The condition could be seen when the subjects interpreted positively to their disease and illness. The subjects’ attitudes and behaviors either positive or negative are the manifestations of emotion. The emotion plays a role in controlling the subjects’ mindset and behavior. Apparently, the subjects enabling to regulate the positive emotion which is based on high spirituality can reduce the recurrence rate of asthma, which eventually has impacted on physical health, psychological, social, and spiritual. Conclusion: The interpretation toward the disease had a correlation to the healing process.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002343
Title: Water effect on the conformation of glycated albumin and blood viscosity in a diabetic patient
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Water can influence the conformation process of albumin and blood viscosity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water molecules on the viscosity of plasma and plasma albumin conformation in diabetic patients. Methods: This study was using in silico molecular dynamics method. Molecular dynamics simulation program for a glycated albumin was run in various glucose concentrations (5 mg/ml, 11 mg/ml, and 20 mg/ml) and performed using YASARA software. Blood viscosity was measured using design methods with post-test only. The three steps measurement was including sampling, plasma collection, and blood viscosity measurement method. This study was obtained the concentration of glucose in the glycated albumin can affect the changes of conformational albumin and secondary structure of the protein albumin. Results: The results showed a decrease of plasma viscosity (PV) after addition of water. A decrease in PV showed that the water not only as a solvent but also related to the distribution of electrons contained in the molecule. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that with the addition of water in the cell plasma may cause a decrease in viscosity. Moreover, the addition of plasma glucose concentrations can cause a conformational change in albumin.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002344
Title: The effect of bivalve Semele sp. meat consumption on estradiol level in perimenopausal women
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: This study was aimed to find out the relationship between the consumption of Semele sp. shellfish meat and estradiol level in perimenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This study was a pre-test–post-test experimental study. The treatments involved the following steps: (1) Blood collection through cubital median vein 5 ml, (2) consumption of Semele sp. shellfish meat, (3) blood collection after the consumption of Semele sp., and (4) blood collection 1 month after stopping the consumption. Protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method, carbohydrate by the Anthrone method, fat by gravimetry, mineral by AAS, estrogen by the ELISA technique, and estradiol level test by the ELISA technique. Data analysis was performed by t-test and correlation. Results: A study results indicate that (1) Semele sp. shellfish meat can increase estradiol level in perimenopausal women by its nutrient contents: Protein = 7.182%, carbohydrate = 66.887%, fats = 6.82%, cholesterol = 10 mg/dl, calcium = 263.385 ppm, cuprum 9.107 = ppm, magnesium = 28.467 ppm, and ferum = 1.859 ppm and (2) estradiol level increases significantly during the consumption of Semele sp. meat in perimenopausal women. Conclusion: The Semele sp. could have increased the estradiol level in perimenopausal women.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002345
Title: Informatization of health care on the example of the workplace of the doctor
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: According to the Program of Informatization of Health in 2014, the electronic workplace should be provided with each doctor: As in the outpatient sector and in hospitals. Methods: Using the electronic workplace of a doctor, a specialist has access to all necessary services under a single software interface. It will allow the specialist to use all informational databases, an electronic library of medicine, and the programs of the computer aid in decision-making. Conclusion: Despite the introduction of electronic delivery system in the practical activities of medical institutions allows you to increase the availability of medical care at all levels, including primary health care, the low computer literacy of physicians was the problem of improving the quality of the service provided remains unsolved.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002346
Title: Academic stress and its effect on medical students’ mental health status
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The high level of academic stress among medical students in the initial years of study negatively affects their health. This review aimed to analyze the data on features of a medical students’ mental status and its dynamics in the course of study. The analysis was applied to the scientific publications (mainly over the past 5 years) on the issue of academic stress and medical students’ mental status in different countries from computer databases: PubMed, Medical-Science, eLibrary, Web of Science, and Scopus. It is established that those entering medical schools are characterized by a high level of stress and anxiety, and in the first 3 years of study, their strengthening is observed. In addition, a high level of suicidality risk is noted: From 45% to 83% of the students had suicidal thoughts. The most significant stress situations for medical students are sessions and examinations. Due to the high study load and the need to prepare for classes for the following day, more than half of the students were sleep deprived (<6 h). To overcome stress, a significant part consumed alcohol and smoked tobacco, which is a risk factor of addiction. From there, medical and psychological aid should be available for medical students. It is necessary to train them in proper time management, methods of optimal self-study with educational materials as well as constructive ways to overcome stress, auto- and hetero-aggressive trends, effective conflict resolution, and relaxation methods which will keep students healthy mentally and prevent emotional burnout.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002347
Title: Evaluation of salivary total proteins, albumin, globulin, and A/G ratio among healthy individuals and patients with chronic periodontitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to estimate the level of salivary total proteins, albumin, globulin, and A/G ratio among healthy individuals and patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The saliva samples were collected from a total of 20 individuals where 10 samples from normal individuals as a control group and 10 samples from chronic periodontitis patients. Salivary protein estimation was done based on the biuret method. Salivary albumin was estimated using the bromocresol green method. Results: The results of our study showed higher levels of total protein, albumin, and globulin in chronic periodontitis patients as compared to healthy individuals. The increased protein levels can be due to the inflammatory process that activates the sympathetic system to enhance the synthesis and secretion of some proteins, thereby increasing the protective potential of saliva against the diseases. Conclusion: Useful diagnostic information can be obtained by determining the total proteins, albumin, globulin, and A/G ratio. Significant changes in these values can pinpoint specific changes. As saliva is one of the major constituents of the oral cavity, estimation of total salivary proteins helps in the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis, thus facilitating early prognosis and treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002348
Title: Awareness of hemostatic agents among undergraduate dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Hemostatic agents are substances that reduce bleeding or stimulate hemostasis. Hemostatic agents are used frequently in surgical procedures as induce hemostasis, thereby providing a clear working field, shorter operative time, reduced need for blood transfusions, and improved postoperative recovery time of the patient. Hemostatic agents can be divided into local and systemic. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among 100 students in Saveetha dental college who are currently doing their undergraduate dental course. A questionnaire containing 10 close-ended questions was prepared and administered. Results were statistically analyzed. Result: On analyzing the results obtained from the present study, it is clear that there is not enough awareness and knowledge regarding hemostatic agents, and further research may be initiated in this field to improve the quality of treatment provided.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002349
Title: Awareness on intake of antioxidants and its health benefits among Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Antioxidants are nature’s way of protecting the body and cells from damaging free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules that are generated by sun exposure, stress, and as part of the natural aging process. Free radicals damage cells, DNA, and collagen thereby disrupting cellular integrity. Antioxidants such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and beta-carotene scavenge the free radicals and protect cellular integrity. The aim of the study is to create awareness on intake of antioxidants and its health benefits among the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among the people of different age groups. The questionnaire was prepared with 15 questions on antioxidants, uses, and free radicals. Result: Almost 70.5% of participants were aware of antioxidants, and the remaining 29.5% were unaware of antioxidants. Nearly 66% of participants have been reported to consume fruits and vegetables daily which are rich sources of antioxidants. Conclusion: Antioxidants prevent free radical-induced tissue damage by preventing the formation of radicals. This survey may create awareness on antioxidants which can influence the quality of life.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002350
Title: Comparison of Pain Perception with Conventional syringe and Insulin Syringe during Greater Palatine Nerve Block
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Local anesthesia is commonly used in dentistry for various procedures. The palatal injection of local anesthesia is considered as most painful and distressing part of the dental injections. Fear of pain associated with dental injection has been reported to be an important factor in avoiding dental treatment, thus demanding an alternative convenient and effective method of local anesthetic administration. Insulin syringes are supposed to be very comfortable for the patients, offering painless injections. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate pain associated with greater palatine nerve block with conventional syringe and insulin syringe. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 patients, two groups of 20 and 22 patients participated in this study. Group A patients received the greater palatine nerve block with a standard 2mL syringe, and the Group B patients received the block with an insulin syringe. Pain assessment was done using visual analog scale, data were analyzed using Chi-square test, and results obtained. Results: Pain associated with the injection in Group B patients (insulin syringe) was found to be significantly lower than the pain perceived by the Group A patients (conventional syringe), and the results were statistically significant. Conclusion: From this study, we conclude that the use of insulin syringe is comfortable for facilitation of near painless and controlled rate of local anesthetic administration in greater palatine nerve blocks.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002351
Title: Dental Management of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication, as well as by unique strengths and differences. People with autism may also have unusual sensory interests such as sniffing objects or staring intently at moving objects, sensory sensitivities including avoiding everyday sounds and textures, intellectual impairment, or learning difficulties. Patients who have an ASD diagnosis may, however, be at higher risk than typical patients for some dental problems such as, bruxism, nutritive chewing, tongue thrusting, self-injury, erosion, xerostomia, and hyper gag reflex. Managing of such patients in the dental office poses a great challenge for dentists. The aim of this article is to review the management of autistic children in the dental clinic.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002352
Title: Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of conventional & hydrophilic pit and fissure sealants on permanent molars - An in vitro study
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Sealants are considered to be more effective in preventing and arresting pit and fissure caries of primary and permanent molars. Laboratory in vitro tests play a key role in providing the necessary information regarding the efficacy of new products in a short period of time. Therefore, the aim of the present study to compare and evaluate the shear bond strength of conventional and hydrophilic fissure sealants applied to the enamel on the buccal surface of permanent molars. Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted third molars were included in the study. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups. Group I: Conventional sealant (Clinpro3M ESPE) and Group II: Hydrophilic sealant (Ultraseal XT Hydro). Buccal surfaces of each tooth were pretreated with the acid etchant, and respective sealants were placed perpendicular to the polished surfaces using an elastomeric mold. All the samples were embedded in resin block, and shear bond strength was evaluated using universal Instron machine. Independent t-test used to compare the difference in the mean shear bond between the groups and the level of statistical significance was set at a value of P < 0.05. Results: The mean shear bond strength of Group I sealant was found to be 13.71 ± 0.94 MPa and for Group II, it was 20.39 ± 0.98 MPa. Group II presented a significantly higher shear bond strength than that of Group II (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Ultraseal XT Hydro (Group II) had maximum shear bond strength than that of Clinpro sealant (Group I).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002353
Title: Awareness about dental hygiene among students in economically weaker society of Hosur city, Krishnagiri district
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Good dental or oral care is important to maintaining healthy teeth, gums, and tongue. Oral problems, including bad breath, dry mouth, canker or cold sores, temporomandibular disorder, tooth decay, or thrush, are all treatable with proper diagnosis and care. Bad breath, medically called halitosis, can result from poor dental health habits and may be a sign of other health problems. Materials and Methods: This study is a questionnaire-based survey. The survey questionnaire comprises questions about dental hygiene including daily brushing habits. This survey was administered to the participants through the survey planet. The result obtained were statistically analyzed. The survey was conducted among 108 students. Results: Awareness about dental hygiene among students in economically weaker society was created. Conclusion: Systematic community- oriented oral health promotion programs are needed to improve oral health in economically weaker society

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002354
Title: Effects of classroom management practices in professional education
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Classroom management is the process by which lecturers and colleges create and maintain appropriate behavior of students in classroom settings. The purpose of implementing classroom management strategies is to enhance prosocial behavior and increase student academic engagement. Effective classroom management principles work across almost all subject areas and grade levels. Nowadays, modern classroom management practices are followed like smart classes which make academics more interesting so improved results are produced. Now, the classes are not like the olden days, so the students are more attentive and active in the class. Students are given activities in the class and there is question and answer session which helps in overall development of the student. The aim of the research is to do a research on effects of classroom management practices on student academic performance in professional education. Materials and Methods: A survey of 14 questions was prepared to know the effects of classroom management practices on student academic performance in professional education. The survey was conducted among 102 students from various colleges through survey planet link. The data were collected and analyzed. Result: A total of 102 people have taken this survey. Out of which, 96.1% feel that teacher plays a major role in classroom management. 67.6% students prefer healthy environment rather than competitive environment in the class. 84.3% students prefer teacher to be friendly than being strict or polite for better classroom environment. 78.4% students who like the teacher likes the subject. 63.7 students feel that modern technology helps them understand better than conventional method. Students think that having activities in class can make the class interesting and interactive also. Conclusion: From this survey, it is evident that classroom management practices play a major role in academics. Modern technology helps in improving the classroom management practices. Students prefer activity-based learning method. Students find modern technology more helpful for them in understanding than the conventional method.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002355
Title: Epidemiology of mild traumatic brain injury in the city of Almaty, Kazakhstan
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: This article is devoted to epidemiology of mild traumatic brain injury in the city of Almaty, Kazakhstan. The aim of the research is to determine the structure and the incidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the patients at the emergency department at the direct and secondary admission at specialized hospitals in Almaty based on 4-year data. Material and Method: Retrospective analysis on data taken from two specialized hospitals in Almaty, in particular, registration and admission journals for 2012–2015 were analyzed. In total, the data on 13,953 ambulatory patients in 2012, 12,660 in 2013, 11,657 in 2014, and 11,321 in 2015, respectively, were analyzed. Taking into account that 85–90% of TBI are cushy researched the category of patients who received outpatient care in specialized clinics in Almaty. Discussion and Conclusion: This research article outlined the incidence of TBI by sex and age, its structure and transportation on Almaty, one of the largest cities of Kazakhstan. Most of the available data come from high-income countries; therefore, the main aim of our research was to obtain reliable long- term results by monitoring TBI incidence rate by studying the direct hospital admissions to the emergency department. Thus, there are certain features in the epidemiological structure of patients with isolated TBI who received outpatient care.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002356
Title: Endocrine mechanisms of adaptation of children and adolescents to educational activity
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The paper describes the results of a complex study of the functional state of the sympathetic-adrenal system and adrenal cortex of schoolchildren aged 11–15 years of both the genders in different periods of the school year, based on the daily excretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine, 17-ketosteroids, and 17-oxycorticosteroids. Results: The boys aged 14 and 15 years at the end of the school year show that there are a significant decrease in the age-related indicators of excretion of norepinephrine and metabolites of sex hormones against a background of prolonged and significant increase in glucocorticoids. In girls, the studied indicators vary within the age range, which indicates a more perfect character of adaptation reactions and high mobilization readiness of their organism. Conclusion: It is shown that, during the school year, the changes in the excretion of hormones and hormonal metabolites have a multidirectional character in the age-gender groups.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002357
Title: The possibility of silver nanoparticle use in medicine
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: Fight with infections is a major problem for world medicine, because of rising the resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to find ways to replace antibiotic therapy, with another medicines. Methods: In recent years, the use of nanosilver particles (which have an good antibacterial effect) has become more relevant, for therapeutic purposes. Conclusion: However, the experiment on Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated that antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles depends on the physical-chemical condition of the drug, that is why powder of the silver nanoparticles has bactericidal action on S. aureus, then suspension of silver nanoparticles.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002358
Title: Increased integrin and IKβ on the uterosacral ligament after childbirth
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Uterine prolapse is one manifestation of pelvic organs prolapse that characterized by the decline of the uterus from its original position as a result of the weakness of the pelvic floor buffer, especially sacrouterine and cardinal ligament. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of integrin and IKβ expression on uterosacral ligament in women after vaginal delivery. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: Biomedical Laboratory. Patients and Methods: This research was conducted by collecting samples of biopsy uterosacral ligament from primigravida who underwent cesarean section after obstructive labor at Stage 1 and Stage 2 using consecutive sampling technique. Uterosacral ligaments of primigravida a term that has not entered labor phase and underwent elective cesarean section surgery were taken as control. Examination of Integrin and IKβ expression by immunohistochemistry. Main Outcome and Measures: Level of integrin and IKβ expression. Results: There were significant differences; mean of integrin activity in pregnant women has not been in labor group (92.8 ± 2.4%) compared to women in labor (95.99 ± 3.98%). There were significant differences between means of IKβ activity in pregnant group of women who never in labor (77.55 ± 6.77%) and group of pregnant women in labor (4:12 ± 93.59%). Conclusion: There were increased levels of integrin and IKβ in the uterosacral ligament of primigravida women in labor. There are increased levels of integrin and IKβ in the uterosacral ligament of primigravida women who underwent cesarean section due to obstructive labor at Stage 1 and Stage 2. Limitation: This study was not evaluated the level of nuclear factor kappa beta.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002360
Title: Awareness on oral hygiene and prevalence of gingivitis: A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to create an awareness of oral hygiene and prevalence of gingivitis among South Indian population by means of a survey. Introduction: Oral diseases are a major public health concern owing to their higher prevalence and their effects on the individual’s quality of life. Periodontal diseases, dental caries, malocclusion, and oral cancer are the most prevalent dental diseases affecting people in the Indian community. Dental caries, with a prevalence as high as 60–80% in children, is a major public health problem in India. Gingivitis is an inflammatory process limited to the mucosal epithelial tissue surrounding the cervical portion of the teeth and the alveolar processes. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared based on awareness on oral hygiene and prevalence of gingivitis. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 individuals who visited a dental clinic. An online link was created and the questionnaire was circulated to the participants. Results: From this study, we come to know that majority of the individuals are aware of oral hygiene, and only few are unaware about oral hygiene. Conclusion: Oral hygiene is one of the most important parameters to maintain a hail and healthy life, as disease spread starts from the oral cavity. Thus, maintaining a healthy lifestyle with healthy oral hygiene habits have to be considered as an important factor by everyone.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-DA-00002362
Title: Develop and validate a novel reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of bisoprolol fumarate in bulk and tablet dosage forms
Category: Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of bisoprolol fumarate in bulk and tablet dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was carried out on prontosil, chromobond, C18 (250 × 4.6) mm, 5 µ column, and buffer (pH 5.6) and acetonitrile were mixed in the ratio of 70:30 was used as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1 ml/min with photodiode array detection at 226 nm. The retention time of bisoprolol fumarate was found to be 8.4 min. The developed HPLC method was validated by determining its sensitivity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy and precision, ruggedness, and robustness. The assay method was found to be linear from 20 to 120 µg ml. The accuracy of the method was assessed by percentage recovery studies at six different levels at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 120% of its working concentration. The percentage recovery of the drug in the developed method was found to be in the range of 99.18–99.28% that indicates the good accuracy of the method. This developed method can be used for the routine analysis for the estimation of bisoprolol fumarate in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002363
Title: The effect of loading condition on peri-implant bone stress in regular and narrow diameter implants: A three-dimensional finite element analysis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The mechanisms responsible for biomechanical implant failure are not fully understood owing to complications from many related factors. One such important factor is the implant loading condition. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of loading condition on stress distribution in the peri-implant area. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models created to replicate completely osseointegrated endosseous titanium implants were used for the purpose of stress analysis. Two study models consisting of a regular platform group and a narrow platform group were used with a standard bone density and loaded using the ANSYS workbench software to calculate the Von Mises and Principal (maximum tensile and minimum compressive) stress under vertical and oblique loading conditions. Results: The von Mises, compressive, and tensile stresses in the peri-implant bone were lower under vertical loading compared to the oblique loading condition. Conclusion: Vertical loading yielded a positive result with regard to lowering of peri-implant bone stress levels, in standard bone qualities when compared to oblique loading models.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002364
Title: Alleviation of polycystic ovarian syndrome by hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (L). Correa in letrozole-induced rat model
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objective: Hydroalcoholic extracts of Aegle marmelos (HAEAM) were investigated for their polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by an oral nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (Letrozole) in a female Wistar strain. Methods: Letrozole (1 mg/kg) was given orally to induce PCOS in female Wistar rats for 21 days. The persuading animals were treated with vehicle (normal control), metformin 100 mg/kg 15d postletrozole (standard group), and remaining groups received selected doses of A. marmelos 200, 400 mg/kg for 15 days postletrozole induction. During the studies, physical and biochemical parameters were taken into elucidation. Then, the animal was sacrificed, histopathology of the ovary was studied. Results: A. marmelos rich in scopoletin, it was analyzed by serum LH levels. The significant increase in serum LH coincidence with decrease the serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels must importantly in A. marmelos extract (400 mg/kg). When compared to control, the PCOS-induced rats showed characteristic ovary polycystic follicles, diminished granulosa layer, and increased number of atretic follicles. Conclusion: HAEAM were restored all the biochemical parameters to the normal state and also the disappearance of cyst in PCOS rats. Scopoletin ‎- C10 H8 O4 (6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin) is a coumarin compound, rich in A. marmelos which produce the active restoration of the biochemical parameter and also anti-inflammatory activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002365
Title: Awareness on production of biodiesel from household waste
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Waste frying oils transesterification was studied for the purpose of achieving the best conditions for biodiesel production. Biodiesel is proved to be the best replacement for diesel because of its unique properties such as significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, non-sulfur emissions, non-particulate matter pollutants, low toxicity, and biodegradability. Waste edible oil is an feedstock in the biodiesel production. The discussion will cover various aspects from oil composition, oil yielding, economics, cultivation materials, land availability, and also the resources availability. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire has been conducted among 100 students from Saveetha Dental College on awareness on the production of biodiesel from household waste. Results: Most of the waste accumulated in India is found to be form household wastes. 80% of the participants do not know about the zero waste system. There are 45% of the participants who are aware of glass Büchner system. In the present generation, more than 95% of the world biodiesel is produced from the edible oil which is easily available in many large-scale industries from the agriculture land. Conclusion: Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use, and the high price of petroleum products in the international market. An awareness on the production of biodiesel from household waste was created.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002366
Title: Methods of recording mandibular movements - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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The aim of this article is to review the current literature on various methods of assessing mandibular movements. As mandibular movements reflect the functional morphology of temporomandibular joint (TMJ), the occlusal morphology of each tooth may be functionally related to its antagonist, to the TMJ and to the other components of the stomatognathic system in reasonably precise ways. Articulator specifications thus can be based on common recognizable elements of jaw movements involved in chewing, swallowing, speech, regardless of various occlusal schemes. This would enable the dentist to prevent or minimize periodontal and temporomandibular disease and consequent tooth loss. The movement pattern of the mandible in function has long been the subject of considerable interest both from the physiologic and the clinical aspects. Mandibular movement is defined as “any movement of the lower jaw” and is determined by the simultaneous activities of the TMJ. The analysis of mandibular movements is specifically good at providing important parameters for evaluation of the TMJ function as well as for the determination of the state of muscles involved in mastication. With a precise knowledge of these, articulator specifications may be accurately made, which enable the dentist and the laboratory technician to build and test prosthetic appliances in an actual functional relationship as it occurs in the mouth. This article attempts to recapitulate the various methods of recording mandibular movements. Hence, this topic is chosen to provide the reader with a general picture about the innumerous recent methods available to assess mandibular movements.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002367
Title: Role of microRNA’s in periodontal diseases
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Periodontal diseases affect up to 20% of the population worldwide. Periodontitis is an oral disease which is caused by bacterial pathogens, affecting the connective tissue around the teeth leading to tooth loss, and is a globally distributed highly chronic inflammatory disease in humans. The complex interactions taking place during the host response to oral bacterial infections are further complicated by the detection and the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in periodontal tissues. miRNAs are small, non-coding, single-stranded, ~22-base RNA sequences that play critical roles in post-transcriptional regulation, either by repressing translation initiation and protein synthesis or by inducing degradation of messenger RNA. The importance and role of these small molecules in the pathogenesis of periodontitis remain an interesting target of future research. Hence, in this review, a brief overview of the relationship between the miRNAs and the periodontal disease etiopathogenesis is highlighted.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-ADRS-00002368
Title: Pharmaceutical development and standardization of Eladi Gutika
Category: Ayurvedic Drugs Related Study
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: The World Health Organization and Ministry of AYUSH, India, collaboratively establishing protocols or monographs for the global acceptance of traditional medicines. Standardization confirms the identity, quality, purity, and efficacy of drugs and formulations. Therefore, continuous efforts of Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia Committee and Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicines have resulted in the publication of several monographs for the standardization of Ayurvedic drugs and formulations. However, yet standards of many Ayurvedic formulations are not available. One such formulation is Eladi gutika. It is a polyherbal formulation with a wide array of therapeutic activities including hiccup, vertigo, intoxication, fever, and rheumatism. Objective: The present study was designed to formulate Eladi gutika and standardized according to the protocol. The analysis of formulation was based on organoleptic, physiochemical, qualitative parameters, and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results and Discussion: The results revealed that the prepared formulation complying with all standards of the vati and gutika. HPTLC study has shown the presence of many phytoconstituents in the formulation. Conclusions: The standards for the prepared gutikas were established by evaluating six batches for different parameters. Results of the physicochemical parameters were 7.66 ± 0.20%, 8.18 ± 0.20%, 2.81 ± 0.23%, 0.48 ± 0.03%, 1.33 ± 0.10%, 46.98 ± 0.67%, and 50.64 ± 1.07% for pH, loss on drying, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, water-soluble extractive value, and alcohol soluble extractive value, respectively.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Other-00002369
Title: Role of cone beam computed tomography in periodontics ‑ A review
Category: Others ( DIT Related Science )
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Chronic periodontal diseases are one of the most prevalent diseases affecting the adult population. Periodontics is a branch of dentistry where diagnosis is primarily dependent on clinical signs and symptoms. Diagnosis of periodontal disease plays a pivotal role in determining the prognosis and also aids in treatment planning. Radiographs provide vital information about the amount of bone loss, continuity, and integrity of the periodontal ligament space. In general, intraoral periapical radiographs (IOPA) and orthopantomograph (OPG) are used to aid in diagnosis. Certain drawbacks of the above-mentioned imaging modalities such as super imposition of images, image distortion, presence of artifacts, and poor image quality can hamper diagnosis. Due to the limitations of two-dimensional radiographic techniques, it is not considered a reliable indicator of the amount of destruction. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), a three-dimensional imaging modality, generates a volumetric image which aids in diagnosis and assessment intrabony defects, destruction of buccal and lingual cortical plates, craters, and furcation involvement with a greater accuracy in comparison with IOPAs and OPGs. The prime motive of this review is to provide a bird’s eye view of the advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and potential risks of employment of CBCT for diagnosis in periodontics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002370
Title: Composition of subgingival microbial flora in children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Oral cavity is an abode of microorganisms which can be of commensal and pathogenic as well in behavior. Age plays an important factor influencing existence of various microfloras in the oral cavity; the aim of the study is to evaluate the bacterial species present in subgingival flora. Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque was harvested from 10 children who reported to Saveetha Dental College Hospital. The plaque samples were placed in an individual cuvette containing thioglycolate broth. The samples were then inoculated into Trypticase Soy Agar plates and incubated for 48 h. Smear was prepared from the samples and subjected to Gram’s staining. Results: The mean anaerobic total colony-forming unit (CFU) was more and almost double than that of aerobic total CFU. Lactobacilli were the most common bacteria present followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (70%) and Fusobacterium (30%) were also seen in considerable numbers. Conclusion: The increased anaerobic bacteria content seen may result in the formation of pathogenic microorganisms at later stages. Hence, the parents must perform some appropriate oral hygiene measures for their children to reduce the plaque accumulation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002371
Title: Oral health practices, status, and caries experience among the visually impaired children in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social consequences because it affects aesthetics and communication, and the quality of life is influenced by oral health status. Good oral health is important for proper mastication, digestion, appearance, speech, and health. Oral health is linked to happiness and good general health, and there is evidence that aesthetically unacceptable and functionally inadequate dentitions affect self-esteem, confidence, and socialization. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the oral health practices, status, and caries experience among the visually impaired children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in blind schools of Chennai city. A total of 143 individuals aged between 13 and 18 years were included in the study. Permissions were taken from the respective schools. Data were collected by structured interview of each individual with a questionnaire. Questionnaire related to their frequency of brushing, brushing technique, type of oral hygiene aids, and frequency of changing toothbrush, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and visit to the dentist. Clinical examination was done to record decay missing filling-tooth (DMFT) and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) indices, and the values were tabulated. Results: The oral hygiene practices vary from moderate- to-low grade. The mean DMFT and OHI-S scores were 1.58 ± 0.829 and 1.21 ± 0.773, respectively. Frequency of visiting dentist, in which 9.3% of the children visited the dentist yearly once, 30.1% visited in case of any problem, and rest 60.5% never visited a dentist. Conclusion: This study observed oral health practices are moderate in visually challenged children. Therefore, improved planning is needed and health programs should be organized to provide oral health education and services for such special group.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002372
Title: Docking study targeting 3CYY protein using Alzheimer drugs
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Mirror neurons are the type of neurons that mimic the action of bystander. They are present in the premotor and primary motor cortex, rostral division of the ventral premotor cortex. They help in understanding, speech, social cognition, etc., Alzheimer disease is a neurodegenerative disorder which leads to loss of memory in elderly adults. It is caused mainly by two types of abnormalities such as beta-amyloid plaques and tau proteins. It is hypothesized to have a link with motor function and known as cognition hypothesis. In this study, Alzheimer drugs donepezil, rivastigmine, and memantine are chosen to estimate the binding efficiency using Autodock1.5.6 software which is a suite of automated docking tools. It is designed to predict how small molecules, such a substrate or drugs bind to receptor of known three-dimensional structure. From the result obtained we have concluded that Donepezil helps to treat Alzheimer more effectively than other drugs when it is combined with 3CYY protein.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002373
Title: A review on anticancer drugs induced hepatitis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Chemotherapy is the use of natural or synthetic chemicals for the treatment/or control of cancer which may also be termed as medical oncology. Chemotherapeutic agents (cytotoxic drugs) are effective to prolong life, decreasing tumor size by preventing cell proliferation (uncontrolled cell growth) or inhibit cell division (mitosis). Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled growth of cells which may be either malignant (spread to other part of the body) or benign tumors (which do not spread to the other part of the body . [1] The main goal of chemotherapy in cancer treatment is cure, control, and palliation . [2] This article deals with anticancer drugs induced hepatitis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002374
Title: Evaluation of salivary total proteins, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio among healthy individuals and patients with oral cancer: A pilot study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Oral cancer is a type of head-and-neck cancer. It may originate in any of the tissues of the mouth and may be of varied histology types: Teratoma, adenocarcinoma derived from a major or minor salivary gland, lymphoma from tonsillar or other lymphoid tissue, or melanoma from the pigment-producing cells of the oral mucosa. Hence, estimation of the salivary proteins can help in indication of health status of the patient. Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the level of salivary total proteins (TPs), albumin (alb), globulin, and A/G ratio among healthy individuals and patients with oral cancer. Materials and Methods: This study had been carried out on patients attending the Hospital of Saveetha Dental College in Chennai city, Chennai. Patients were evaluated by full medical history to exclude any existing of systemic disease or taking any drug that may affect the parameters to be examined. Three individuals were included in the present study; they were clinically and histologically diagnosed as patients with oral epithelial tumors (benign and malignant). This was conducted as a pilot study to determine the sample size and feasibility of the research. Samples of saliva were collected from two groups of subjects as follows: Group A condition of healthy people with no smoking and alcohol habits and people who have no pre-cancerous lesions and no history of systemic diseases. Group B consists of subjects who have been diagnosed for carcinoma of buccal mucosa and currently undergoing treatment. All patients were verbally explained the nature of the study and an informed written consent was obtained before the study. The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Institution. Result: Analyses of the acquired detail were done and the mean values of the three samples from both control group [Table 1] and oral cancer patient were obtained. The mean value of albumin in oral cancer patient was found higher when compared to the concentration of albumin of the control group.The mean value of total protein in oral cancer patient was higher than the mean value of total protein among the control group. A/G ratio’s mean value was higher among oral cancer patient. The difference among the globulin levels in oral cancer patient and control group was not clearly distinguishing. Conclusion: The TP concentration and A/G ratio were found to be higher in cancer patients compared to the normal individuals.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-PS-00002375
Title: Anti-alopecia characteristic of Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr. ethanol extract and its fractions
Category: Pharmacological Screening
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Objectives: This study aims to examine the anti-alopecia characteristics of ethanol extract and fraction of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water from katuk (Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr.) leaves. Materials and Methods: The katuk leaves were collected and macerated with ethanol 70% and fractionated with ethyl acetate and hexane solvents. The extract and its fractions tested its hair growth stimulator activity based on Tanaka modification method and using minoxidil 2% as a positive control. The analysis results were evaluated statistically. Results: It was found that katuk leaf extracts had provided significant hair growth activity at concentrations of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. In testing the activity of katuk leaf fraction, water fraction showed positive hair growth activity compared to the fraction of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and positive control. Statistically, it was found that the effect of hair growth was obtained from the concentration of 10% extract and found that the activity of katuk leaf water fraction significantly showed better hair growth activity compared to n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and positive control. Conclusions: It was concluded that katuk leaf scientifically had a potential in stimulating hair growth and could be used as anti-alopecia treatment. Further experiments are needed to find the chemical compound content that is responsible for the nature of hair growth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002376
Title: A review on imaging modalities for dental implants
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Country: India
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Implants have transformed the treatment options for replacement of missing teeth. Success of the dental implants depends on meticulous treatment planning which depends on precision and accuracy of diagnostic information of the patient’s anatomy at the proposed implant site. Even though many modalities are available for the implant site imaging, the technique should be adopted according to the case and the clinician’s ability to interpret the image acquired. Diagnostic imaging is critical to pre-surgical treatment planning and the success of implants. Various imaging modalities may aid the placing of implants in an appropriate location with relative ease and also obtain a predictable outcome. Cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and more recently, and cone beam-CT are invaluable during pre-operative planning for endosseous dental implantation procedures. The present article focuses on various diagnostic imaging modalities available for implantology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00002377
Title: Biodegradable plastic production from corn starch
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Introduction: Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, banana peel, and potato starch. Synthetic plastics are non-renewable, often threaten the environment, have declining impacts on marine life and increases environmental pollution. The development of bioplastics helps to solve many of these sustainability problems, offering the potential of renewability, biodegradation, and a path away from harmful additives and moreover a healthy earth. Materials and Methods: Bioplastics are produced using the mixture of glycerol, cornstarch, vinegar, and food color. The mixture was heated to give a good yield. Results: Bioplastics or in other words green plastics are obtained in 2 days. They can be easily generated in our homes without any higher professional assistance and could be manufactured in a larger scale if the required facilities are set up. Conclusion: The need for bioplastics is now more than ever as the rate of plastic production and air pollution has increased at a rapid rate. Furthermore, plastics also cause many health risks because of its toxic nature. Therefore, bioplastics can be best suited as an alternative to improve healthy life and sustain a pollution-free planet.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 10, Issue: 7.
Article Id: JPRS-Pcol-00002378
Title: Effects of lavender aromatherapy on anxiety levels of patients undergoing mandibular third molar extraction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Country: India
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Background: Dental extractions can perpetuate severe anxiety in patients. Medical practitioners are of the opinion that aromatherapy with essential oils has both psychological and physiological health benefits to patients. Lavender is one of the most common essential oils used in aromatherapy and its effectiveness in anxiety management during dental extraction needs to be investigated in detail. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of lavender aromatherapy in patients undergoing extractions of a mandibular third molar. Methodology: This in vivo, the experimental study involved 100 patients aged between 18 and 30 years undergoing third molar extraction. Group 1 served as controlled and Group 2 served as experimental. Each of the groups comprised 50 participants. The patients in the experimental group were provided with lavender oil aroma tabs in the dental operatory before the anesthetic procedure till the extractions were complete. After completion of treatment, the participants rated their anxiety in a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 10. Both the groups received post-operative antibiotics and analgesics and were followed till adequate healing. Results: The study findings indicated a significant reduction in anxiety levels among participants in the experimental group compared to those in the control group. The mean anxiety level postoperatively was 3.81 ± 2.33 for the control group whereas in the experimental group it was 2.67 ± 1.09. A statistically significant difference in the mean anxiety scores was observed between both the groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Aromatherapy using lavender oil reduced dental anxiety among patients undergoing dental extractions. Hence, aromatherapy can be used as an adjunct treatment to control anxiety during dental procedures.