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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Manuscripts Published

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002976
Title: Prevention of post-operative dental pain using pre- operative medications - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Pain is a complex experience consisting of a specific sensation and the reactions evoked by that sensation. Conventional analgesics either interrupt ascending nociceptive impulses or depress their interpretation within the depress their interpretation within the central nervous system or inhibit COX mediated prostaglandin synthesis ,one of the major culprit of pain and inflammation. Analgesic adjuncts have proven efficacy for managing chronic pain. They include various antidepressants and anticonvulsants that either enhance descending inhibitory pathways or modulate excitatory neural traffic that amplifies pain interpretation. These agents have marginal benefit in the management of acute pain. Relieving pain is a challenge in dental practice due to the fact that the effectiveness of the medication differs from patient to patient. The aim of this review is to list out different types of medication used to reduce or prevent post-operative discomfort of the patient and to give a clear view on medications commonly used in dental practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-BRPT-00003014
Title: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats‑associated protein 9: A new era in targeted molecular therapy
Category: Biotechnology & Related Pharmaceutical Technology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Biosciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore - 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India
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In molecular biology to understand the critical role/s played by certain gene products, the encoding genes are often disrupted, and the effects are further analyzed to ascertain the exact function of the gene/protein in the development of the organisms. Recently emerged gene editing technique revolutionized the field of biology to study the pathology of various diseases and in the discovery of drugs. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) attracted the attention of the World due to its impeccable potential in research and therapeutic applications. Unlike other techniques, CRISPR can deactivate a gene without interfering with intracellular mechanisms. It can be used to understand the genetic and epigenetic aspects of various diseases especially cancer. CRISPR can be used to induce specific mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cell lines to model the cancers to understand the pathology and to develop effective drugs. CRISPR-Cas9 holds the promising potential to treat genetic diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Hemophilia, β-Thalassemia, and cystic fibrosis. However, there are some challenges and concerns which needs to addressed. In this review, we discuss on the origin of CRISPR-Cas9 technology, how it works, genome/nongenome editing for targeted molecular therapy and future directions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003046
Title: Effectiveness of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation versus strengthening of lower extremity in dancers performing drop landing
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation versus strengthening of lower extremity (LE) in dancers performing drop landing. Background of the Study: Dancers performing drop landing causes fatigue and pain in LE. Fatigue presents as a potential risk factor for injury and also reduces the endurance in dancers. Activation patterns of the lower limb muscle groups have been consistently reported to alter in response to fatigue during landing tasks. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique is more effective in producing long-term flexibility overtime and endurance. Strengthening will improve the muscle endurance. The purpose of the study was to increase the endurance and performance level. Methodology: The experimental study was conducted among the modern dancers for the duration of 8 weeks. 20 subjects were randomly selected from dancers and separated into two groups equally with the age group between 16 and 21 years. The study was done in ACS Medical College. Only dancers were included with drop-landing performance. The standing stroke test was used to find the endurance level. Procedure: A total of 20 selected subjects were taken based on the standing stroke test and will be divided into two Groups A and B. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique was given to Group A and muscle strengthening was given to Group B for the duration of 8 weeks. Pre- assessment was taken at the beginning of the study and post-assessment was done at the end of 8th week. Assessment was done at every month end. Results: There was a significant difference in the pre-test and the post-test values of standing stork test (SST) between the Group A and Group B. On comparing both groups of their pre- and post-test values of SST, Group A shows higher mean value (28.3) than Group B (25.6) where P < 0.001 which is highly statistically significant. Conclusion: This study shows that the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique increases the endurance and performance in dancers performing drop landing than the strengthening of the LE.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003010
Title: Efficacy of Short Foot Exercise on Medial Compartment Osteoarthritis Knee Among Subjects With Overpronated Foot
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthopedics and Manual Therapy, Saveetha College of Physiotherapy, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Osteoarthritis knee is a common condition and is leading to long-term physical disability that affects a large proportion of the older population. Increased medial compartment loading has been observed in patients with osteoarthritis knee. The feet are important to proper biomechanics but often neglected. Simply stated a foot arch that overpronates can cause pain in the knee, hip, shins, foot, and lower back due to poor alignment of the leg. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with overpronated foot along with medial compartment osteoarthritis knee were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed procedure was explained to the patients in colloquial terms, and informed consent was given to those were interested. The selected patients were randomly assigned into two groups 20 in each group using the lottery method. The Group A patients were treated with Interferential Therapy along and isometric exercises to knee and the Group B patients were treated with Interferential Therapy and isometric exercise to knee along with short foot exercise. Results: From statistical analysis made with the quantitative data revealed that there was statistically significant difference found between the two groups (Control-Group A and Experimental-Group B) in which Group B is found to be more effective when compared with Group A. The post-test mean values of navicular drop test for Group A and Group B are 13.35 and 10.60 with a standard deviation of 1.81 and 1.43, respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that group with short foot exercise along with Interferential Therapy and isometric showed a higher level of positive outcome in terms of decreasing the pain and improving the functional activities of the lower limb.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00003005
Title: Evaluation of herbal and chemical-based mouthwash against oral pathogens
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, School of Bioscience, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
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In the present study, the efficacy of the aqueous extract Terminalia chebula compared with a chemical mouthwash chlorhexidine. Plants are major natural resources used in antimicrobial activity and used as an anticariogenic mouth rinse now a day. The objective of the study was to observe, in high caries risk individuals, the effect of gargling with the extract of T. chebula, and chlorhexidine the following were measured: Change in the pH of saliva, change in the buffering capacity of saliva, and change in the microbial count in saliva.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002993
Title: A systematic review on nickel-titanium palatal expanders: Prospectives and pitfalls
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Since nickel-titanium (NiTi) palatal expanders are routinely used in orthodontic practice, to get a more detailed insight about NiTi palatal expanders, a systematic review was planned. This review was mainly aimed to evaluate skeletal and dental changes following fixed NiTi palatal expander used in orthodontic patients with constricted maxillary arches. Materials and Methods: The studies that were included in this review are mainly clinical trials that assessed the skeletal and dental arch changes through measurements on dental casts or cephalometric radiographs. The studies that included the surgical or other simultaneous treatment interventions during the active expansion period were excluded from this review. Results: After a full search in the following electronic databases: PubMed and Google Scholar, five articles were selected based on the initial inclusion criteria. Changes in the intermolar and intercanine widths were recorded as the variables of interest. Conclusion: Since only low level of evidence was obtained, no strong conclusions on dental or skeletal changes that occurred after NiTi palatal expander treatment were made. Clinicians need to rely on their clinical experience, expert opinions, and the present evidence concerning slow maxillary expansion technique.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002975
Title: Efficiency of watermelon extract against oral microflora particularly Lactobacillus - An in vitro study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Lactobacillus is one of the bacteria responsible for the formation of dental caries and is one of the most common oral microfloras. It is acidogenic bacteria which grow only in an acidic environment and in regions where there is ready access for carbohydrates. Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment have alterations in their microflora which includes mainly the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species. The aim of this study is to find the effect of watermelon juice against oral microflora such as Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods: A known quantity of watermelon is obtained from the local market and is made into juice without adding any additives. The juice is then filtered and is centrifuged at the rate of 300 rotations per minutes for 15 min. Two test tubes with 5 ml of the clear watermelon extract are taken. To one test tube, 0.5 g of sucrose is added and mixed well. A test tube containing 5 ml of saline is taken as control group. The solutions are autoclaved, and suspension of Lactobacillus is freshly prepared and 10 µl of the same is transferred to every cuvette containing the autoclaved solution. Then after a holding period of one 24 h, 10 µl of the watermelon extract containing the bacteria is pipetted into nutrient agar culture plate and bacterial colony growth is studied after the incubation period of 24 h. Results: Results showed that there is a decrease in the bacterial colony count in the culture plate containing watermelon solution when compared with the control group containing saline. When compared with the watermelon solution containing sucrose, the colony count was high in the latter. Conclusion: Watermelon being an acidic fruit has a significant effect against acidogenic oral microflora such as Lactobacillus and can used as an additional aid for oral hygiene maintenance in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002977
Title: Evaluation of in vivo rheumatoid arthritis activity of polyherbal ethanolic extract containing formulations for selected potential Indian herbs
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disorder which involves the activation of immune system against the self-tissues. The main targets of this disease are the joints. Being systemic, the development of this disease involves different mechanisms, and thus, the exact cause of this disease remains unknown. Although different drugs have been developed, none has been found to be the cure for this disease. The present study was commenced to evaluate the in vivo antiarthritic effect of the polyherbal formulation of selected plants Polygonum glabrum, Canthium dicoccum, Ochna obtusata, and Argyreia nervosa. Materials and Methods: In vivo antiarthritic activity of the ethanolic extract of two different formulations containing the 400 mg/kg orally and 800 mg/kg body weight. Was assessed using turpentine oil and formaldehyde induced arthritis and complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis. Results: In turpentine oil, formaldehyde, and complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis models, the polyherbal extract formulations significantly (P < 0.001) reduced joint and paw swelling and markedly improved body weight, hematology profile, and parameters in complete Freund’s adjuvant model. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the ethanolic extract of two different formulations holds antiarthritic potential, supporting its traditional use in the treatment of RA.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002978
Title: Nasoalveolar molding and their effects on the dentoalveolar arch: A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Craniofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Various methods of the treatment of cleft lip and palate (CLP) have developed over the years. One among them is the nasoalveolar molding (NAM). The aim of this systematic review was to review the literature on the effects of NAM on the dentoalveolar arch form in CLP patients. For this review, electronic database PUBMED was searched up to 2016 and hand search of the orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic journals also was utilized. Only those articles which met the inclusion criteria were selected. Finally, 11 articles were included for the review in the present study. Studies included were randomized controlled trials, case series, and case reports. All orthopedic appliances utilized in these studies were successful in reducing alveolar cleft distance and lip tension thereby preventing scarring and reducing the need for secondary alveolar bone grafting. The reduction in the alveolar cleft was up to 3–6 mm in all the studies. It can be concluded from this systematic review that NAM results in good alignment of the alveolar segment, shape of the alveolar arch, reduced interalveolar cleft distance, and lip tension, hence, facilitating the maxillary growth.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00002979
Title: Asteraceae: A review of hepatoprotective plant principles
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Liver disease is one of the major causes for morbidity and mortality, which affect humans of all ages from time immortal. Plants remain an important source of new drugs, new drug leads, and new chemical entities. Herbal plants such as Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Spilanthes ciliate are belonged to Asteraceae family which have been utilized as medicines for thousands of years for the treatment of various liver diseases. To perform a literature review on hepatoprotective plant, principles belong to the family of Asteraceae or Compositae. Due to their effectiveness, herbal plants have been used in the treatment of liver diseases for a long time. A number of medicinal plants belonging to the family or Asteraceae exhibit antioxidants and hepatoprotective effects and are currently available in the market for the treatment of various hepatic ailments. Undoubtedly, these plant principles have been reported to work as antioxidants, scavenging free radicals, and stabilizing properties. Hence, the present review is aimed to discuss about various anti-hepatotoxic potentials of these medicinal plants that have been tested against various experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. The aim is to perform a literature review on hepatoprotective plant principles belonging to the family of Asteraceae or Compositae.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002980
Title: Golden proportion of the mandible in different classes of skeletal malocclusions - A pilot study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background and Aim: Physical beauty of a person was said to be visually pleasing, if it follows the “golden proportion” in the human face. The mandible is considered as one of the most pleasing structures. Hence, it is thought to follow the golden proportion which is a well-proportioned and normal face. However, does this apply to skeletal malocclusions? Materials and Methods: Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of patients were evaluated, for which three groups were formed with 20 patients in each group: Group 1 - Class-I skeletal bases, Group 2 - Class-II skeletal bases, and Group 3 - Class-III skeletal bases. The cephalograms were traced on FACAD software and the ratio between condylar and corpus axis was calculated; the mean ratio obtained was compared to the golden ratio (0.6180) of the dental skeletal patterns using sample t-test. Results: Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was found only in Group 3 - skeletal Class III patients, mainly between the mean value of the ratio of condylar to corpus axis of the mandibles and the golden ratio. Conclusion: In this study, the ratio of condylar axis to corpus axis was significantly different in Class III skeletal pattern.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002981
Title: Cytotoxicity of orthodontic molar bands with silver solder joints
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of orthodontic molar bands with silver solder joints. Materials and Methods: Stainless steel metallic orthodontic bands soldered using silver solders were evaluated for cytotoxicity. The amount of solder alloy, flux used for soldering, and the polishing procedure were standardized. An in vitro cytotoxicity test using indirect contact method was performed using test sample as per ISO 10993:5. The culture medium from the l929 cell monolayer was replaced with fresh agar medium. Test sample and control in triplicates were placed on the cells. After incubation at 37 ± 1°C for 24–26 h, monolayer was examined microscopically to determine the cytotoxic effect before and after removing the test sample from the agar medium. Results: As per ISO 10993:5, the achievement of numerical grade >2 is considered as cytotoxic effect. The test sample showed no cytotoxic reactivity to l929 cells after 24 contacts. Control gave no cytotoxic reactivity as expected.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002982
Title: Survey among dentists about the use of topical anesthetics during administration of local anesthesia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, SIMATS, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The purpose of this study is (1) to determine effectiveness of various topical anesthetics being used among dentists (2) to understand the adverse reactions to topical anesthesia. Delivery of dental care has always been a challenge due to the emotional trait-dental anxiety which is often noticed. Dental anxiety is multifactorial complex phenomenon which develops due to variable factors such as personality characteristics, cognitive level, peer influence, maternal anxiety, and past negative experiences. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study, using convenience sampling method, was conducted among the students and staffs of Saveetha Dental College. The questionnaire was prepared encompassing the type, procedural use, effectiveness, and adverse reactions to various topical anesthetics. The statistical analysis of the gathered data was carried out. Results: Demographic data showed that 55% were practitioners and 45% were undergraduate students. Of those responding, 10.1% never use topical agents. The primary aim of all practitioners is to be able to provide treatment to the patient in the least painful way possible. The most common procedures for which topical anesthetics are used include pre-injection of local anesthetic and palliative treatment of soft tissues. In the present survey, few practitioners reported any major complications and reactions from the local and topical anesthetics. Conclusion: From the above study, it is seen that the majority of dentists routinely use topical anesthetics. Lignocaine spray is the most widely used topical anesthetic. Many practitioners are interested in using a more effective topical anesthetic if proven to be safe and effective.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002983
Title: Evidence-based dentistry practice among dental practitioners in Chennai, Tamil Nadu - A cross-sectional study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the evidence-based dentistry (EBD) practice among dental practitioners residing in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire among 154 dental practitioners at different academic, governmental, and private dental colleges in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The questionnaire assessed practitioner’s attitude toward evidence-based practice (EBP) in terms of application and usage, awareness and usage of bibliographic database, history of training in EBP, perception of their understanding of technical terms used in scientific research, and opinion with respect to barriers for the use EBD in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Results: Dentists had an overall favorable attitude toward EBD, with 120 (75%) welcoming the promotion of EBD. Conclusion: Shifting from a reliance on the experiential model of decision-making to an evidence-based model would benefit all health-care professions, as well as the general public. Vary of environmental, structural, and organizational issues wants radical policy shifts to facilitate practitioners’ ability to alter their clinical practice.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002985
Title: Components of removable appliance in orthodontics
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600077, Tamil Nadu,
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Aim: The aim of this article is to review the retentive components in the removable appliance. Objective: The objective of this study is to review the advantages, clinical significance of retentive components in the removable appliance. Background: Retentive components help to retain the appliance in place and resist displacement due to various factors. The effectiveness of the active components is dependent on the retention of the appliance. Good fixation will help patient compliance, anchorage, and tooth movement. Conclusion: One of the most important factors for wearing an appliance is its retention. This is fulfilled with the parts so-called clasps. Clasps should be designed in a way that functions properly and efficiently. Bulky clasps can diminish the desire of wearing the gadget by youngsters, resulting in frustration of patient and disruption of the process of treatment, as well.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002986
Title: Pineal gland - A mystic gland
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The pineal gland has been the subject of amazement and awe down the centuries. The structure and function of this enigmatic gland play an important role in day-to-day life of human beings. The pineal gland secretes an important hormone melatonin which is necessary for lightening the skin tone, and it has several other important functions in humans. The pineal gland is composed mainly of pinealocytes. The pineal gland is present in the midline of the skull and is a part of epithalamus and hypothalamus. It regulates the secretion of both. The pineal gland is activated by darkness and it is mandatory to maintain a normal circadian rhythm of sleep-wake cycle, if not humans may turn into zombies. The pineal gland is also present in animals. The secretion of this gland in higher amounts causes precocious puberty and development of primary and secondary sexual characters mainly in boys. It is also called the third eye since after eye, and it is the only gland which detects light but, on the contrary, secretes melatonin largely under darkness. This gland also affects the mood of human beings, thereby getting involved in the psychological behavior of men. It increases the immune action of human beings; thereby, it also acts as immunostimulant preventing a person from attack of antigen by producing a suitable antibody. Its presence hinders the spread of tumor and becomes malignant, and its calcification affects the memory or the memorizing capacity of the brain leading to dementia. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the pineal gland and the various functions of melatonin in humans.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002987
Title: Improvement of solubility and bioavailability of aceclofenac using cocrystallization
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Pharmacy Institute, NIET, Plot 19, KP-II Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
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Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to carry out the in vitro and in vivo studies of the cocrystals of a poorly soluble BCS Class II drug aceclofenac with two selected cocrystal formers, i.e., gallic acid and nicotinamide and hence to improve its solubility and bioavailability. Materials and Methods: The in vitro dissolution studies of the cocrystals which were formed by solvent evaporation method in the stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 after screening were carried out in pH 1.2 buffer solution using Shimadzu 1201 UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The in vivo bioavailability studies were carried out on adult male New Zealand albino rabbits following a parallel design. The blood samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The various pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, Tmax, and area under the curve for the two cocrystals were calculated. Conclusion: Both the cocrystals showed a better dissolution profile than the pure drug and the physical mixture of the pure drug and the cocrystals former in the in vitro dissolution studies. The oral bioavailability also showed a significant increase of 1.77 and 1.37 times when compared to that of pure aceclofenac (P < 0.05).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002988
Title: A survey on knowledge, awareness, and practice regarding the use of cast partial denture among the dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the use of cast partial denture among the dental practitioners. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the awareness and practice about the use of cast partial denture among the dental practitioners. Introduction: The proportion of partially dentate adults is increasing. For the rehabilitation of the partially edentulous state to replace the missing teeth, various type of prosthetic options is available. The treatment plan during prosthodontic rehabilitation should fulfill both esthetic and function. Cast partial dentures are gaining popularity due to the umpteen advantages. Materials and Methods: A closed-ended questionnaire comprising 15 questions will be given to 100 dental practitioners of various colleges, and their responses will be analyzed and tabulated. Results: Single broad palatal major connector was the preferred maxillary major connector while the labial bar was chosen as the preferred mandibular major connector. Circumferential or Akers type of clasp (62%) was the preferred direct retainer. Lattice type of denture base minor connector was the most preferred by our respondents. Auxiliary occlusal rest (42%) was chosen as the preferred indirect retainer. Nickel-chromium (63%) is the most preferred alloy. Majority of the respondents are unaware about repairing broken components of the partial denture. Conclusion: Majority of the dental practitioners used cast partial denture in their regular practice and were aware of the various components, uses, and techniques in cast partial denture.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002989
Title: Awareness of porcelain repair systems among dental practitioners
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Porcelain repair systems are a quick, painless, patient acceptable procedures without removal of restoration or fabrication of new restoration. Porcelain repair system allows practitioners to fix crowns and bridges that have defect in them. These repair systems work on composites, ceramics in addition to porcelain. Porcelain repair systems should go hand in hand with the practitioners and should include a primer, silane, and bonding component for creating durable bonding. The innate nature of these systems is that the repairing mechanism works on the principle of curing protocol. Numerous researches were undertaken for evaluating the bond strength of composite resin on the fractured surface of metal-ceramic depending on the repair systems and surface roughening methods using feldspathic porcelain and nickel–chromium base metal alloy. The fracture of veneering porcelain is mainly caused due to trauma, improper metal framework design, incompatibility between thermal expansion coefficient of the porcelain and core, inadequate tooth preparation, inadequate occlusal adjustments, and intra-ceramic defects. Porcelain failure occurs mainly in the anterior region especially in maxilla predominantly at the labial surface thereby presenting a serious aesthetic problem. However, failures also occur in the posterior region of molars. Intraoral repair using bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate composite light cured resin can be an alternative method that offers great benefits such as superior aesthetics, color stability, and ease of application. Tribochemical silica coating is a recently developed effective surface treatment used in both metal and porcelain fractures or is a combined exposure. Hydrofluoric acid etching followed by application of silane coupling agent is also a method to promote good results. This procedure is applicable after preparation of ceramic surface and is commonly used in clinics because of its simplicity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002990
Title: Effect of laser surgery in pericoronal flap excision
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy of conventional surgical knife to that of laser-assisted excision of operculum in terms of patient comfort assessment, post-operative pain, and healing. Background: Periodontal therapy and management have come a long way since their introduction into dentistry. The earlier surgeries performed were effective, and it involved removing a part of the crestal bone, as these techniques were not achieved esthetically newer techniques came into practice involving both esthetic management and removal a layer of gingival tissue overlying the affected area. In the following article, we should discuss about the newer techniques can be used one by managing with the heal off surgical knife management and other by diode laser. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. The study consisted of 30 patients with clinically diagnosed pericoronitis who required excision of the operculum. They were divided into two groups: A and B. Group A comprised cases were operculum excised with surgical knife and Group B comprised cases were operculum excised using diode laser. Clinical parameters such as patient comfort, post-operative pain, and healing were assessed and compared between two groups. Results: The results were based on patient comfort, with Group-A who underwent surgical knife for operculectomy with a value of 89.12 ± 2.64 and Group-B had operculectomy done by means of laser with a value of 93.12 ± 1.69 (P < 0.05) and patient post-operative pain, with Group-A who underwent operculectomy with a value of 13.52 ± 4.67 and those who underwent management by diode laser had a mean value of 8.42 ± 3.17 (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between both the techniques with respect to wound healing. Conclusion: The use of diode laser in excision of operculum has several advantages over surgical knife such as enhanced hemostasis, less post-operative pain, and a better post-operative healing. Therefore, lasers can be considered as a better and acceptable alternative for excision of pericoronal flaps.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002991
Title: Prevalence of maxillary midline shift in female patients reported to Saveetha Dental College
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical, Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the esthetic prevalence of upper dental midline deviation in female patients reported in our hospital. Background: Midline deviations are a common and persistent problem that all orthodontists must face. The esthetic perception of dental professionals does not always match the opinion of the patients and this different view implies that more research would help to better understand the perception and esthetic effects of certain smile characteristics. A proper understanding of the etiology and the contribution of the components in midline discrepancy is very essential in proper diagnosis and treatment planning. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 female participants who had never undergone any orthodontic treatment with the age range of 18–50 years were selected randomly and a frontal view with smiling full photographs were taken to evaluate the midline shift. The facial and maxillary midline is observed to determine whether they coincide or not up to certain millimeter. The facial midline is examined by marking the point at glabella, nasion, and pogonion. Results: The majority of the female population have the coincident facial midline and dental midline which is 69% to be exact. Therefore, the remaining 31% of the population has no coincidence with 21% dental midline shift to the right and 10% dental midline shift to the left. Conclusion: The dental midline and facial midline for the majority of the female population are coincided with each other. However, 31% of female population had no coincidence of dental midline with facial midline. This helps to outline the treatment plan and define which procedures should be performed during the final stage of orthodontic treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-D(DD)-00002992
Title: Screening, preparation, and characterization of aceclofenac cocrystals
Category: Drug (Discovery/Development)
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Pharmacy Institute, NIET, Plot 19, KP-II Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
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Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to prepare cocrystals of a poorly soluble biopharmaceutical classification system Class - II drug, aceclofenac after screening to enhance its solubility and in turn the bioavailability. Materials and Methods: The screening of the cocrystal formers was done by calculating the solubility parameters using Hoftyzer and Van Krevelen solubility parameters and slurry crystallization technique using seven cocrystal formers. Cocrystals of the drug were prepared using solvent evaporation technique using the selected cocrystal formers, that is, Gallic acid and nicotinamide in the stoichiometric ratio of 1:1. Characterization of the prepared cocrystals was done using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared studies, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopic techniques. Conclusion: All the four characterization techniques confirmed the formation of cocrystals of the drug thereby establishing cocrystallization as the method for improving the physiochemical properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002994
Title: Significance of the sella turcica as an indicator for orthodontic malocclusion
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the shape and measure the size of the sella turcica bridging in subjects with buccal canine impaction and to check whether sella may be considered as diagnostic marker for malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 subjects with buccally impacted canine and a control group of 15 subjects with a complete permanent dentition with no impacted teeth and skeletal Class 1 were included for the study. The variations in the sella turcica bridging (between the anterior and posterior clinoid processes) of the sphenoid bone were evaluated using lateral cephalograms with FACAD software. Results: The results showed that the sella turcica bridging is not evident in patients with buccally impacted canine with mean value of 8.79 and standard deviation of 1.77. Bridging of sella turcica (decrease in the distance between anterior clinoid process and posterior clinoid process) cannot be considered as a valid cephalometric interpretation to ascertain the presence of buccally erupted canine. Conclusion: Sella turcica bridging cannot be used as a valid diagnostic marker for diagnosing certain types of malocclusion.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002995
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on oral hygiene among school teachers in Karur, India
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: A healthy mouth is important for many aspects of life, including eating well, absence of dental pain, personal relationships, and feeling good about the person’s own health. Tooth brushing is the major part of maintaining oral health. Oral hygiene education is important because healthy oral habits are developed early in life. School-based dental education has been recognized internationally. In developing countries like India school teachers play a potential role in creating oral hygiene practices among children, a teacher and the parents are the persons who spend more time with children. A proper oral hygiene practice can be brought into a child’s habit in which school teachers have a potential role. This cross-sectional study aims at assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practices of school teachers on oral hygiene in Karur, India. The teachers were further addressed about the oral hygiene practices. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 teachers in Karur city were given with a self-assessed questionnaire comprising questions eliciting information about the knowledge, attitude, and practice of oral hygiene. The responses obtained from the participants were processed further and analyzed. Graphs were made and compared. Results: The teachers are not aware of the importance about oral hygiene. The knowledge and practice of oral hygiene measures are very poor. Proper education about the importance of oral health and the oral hygiene measures can improve the practice of oral hygiene and pave the way for cultivating these measures to children. Conclusion: This study concludes that the knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding oral hygiene are inadequate among school teachers. The teachers are needed to be educated and motivated to cultivate proper oral hygiene measures by initiating awareness programs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002996
Title: A review on the ethics of artificial water fluoridation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Artificial water fluoridation refers to the addition of fluoride compounds usually hexafluorosilicic acid to public drinking water supplies. It is a controversial public health intervention, the ethics of which have been debated since its inception in the 1950s. Dr. Trendley Dean, in 1931, found that there was an inverse relationship between the concentration of fluoride and the incidence of dental caries. It was concluded that a concentration of 1 parts per million (ppm) of fluoride in water offered significant protection against dental caries. On the other hand, higher concentrations than 1 ppm fluorides have adverse effect on the teeth. Dr. Frederick McKay who was the pioneer in this field, his research based in Colorado Springs, did extensive research as to the effect of fluoridated water and its role in staining and mottling of the enamel. This “Mottled enamel” is characterized by small white flecks or yellow-to-brown spots scattered over the surface of the tooth. Furthermore, fluoride at even higher concentrations leads to a number of complications including skeletal fluorosis and fluoride toxicity which can affect multiple organs. The ethical debate as to the artificial fluoridation of water still goes on. There is significant research proving its efficacy in combatting dental caries. However, the counter argument stating that in the light of the increasing evidence of harm fluoridation poses, artificial water fluoridation must be abandoned and replaced with other effective community-wide and targeted oral health intervention.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002997
Title: Osteoradionecrosis of mandible - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, PH Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.
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Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a major complication of surgery or trauma in previously irradiated bone in the absence of tumor persistence. Radiation-induced vascular insufficiency rather than infection causes bone death. It occurs most commonly in the mandible after head and neck irradiation. Risk factors include the total radiation dose, modality of treatment, fraction size and dose rate, oral hygiene, timing of tooth extractions, as well as the continued use of tobacco and alcohol. This condition is often painful, debilitating, and may result in significant bone loss. In the past, tissue hypoxia and its consequences were accepted as the primary cause, and this led to the use of hyperbaric oxygen for both treatment and prevention of complications of the radiotherapy in the head and neck. A new theory for the pathogenesis of ORN has proposed that damage to bone is caused by radiation-induced fibrosis. Cells in bone are damaged as a result of acute inflammation, free radicals, and the chronic activation of fibroblasts by a series of growth factors. New treatments have, therefore, been devised that include pentoxifylline, a vasodilator that also inhibits fibrosis, and tocopherol (Vitamin E) to reduce damage caused by free radicals. The management of ORN can be complex and often requires a multimodality approach. Non-surgical treatments with or without adjunct measures and surgical interventions have all been employed on the basis of staging of the disease process. Despite advances in surgical reconstructive techniques, most patients will require adjuvant therapy in the form of radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy to improve locoregional control. This paper attempts to give a comprehensive review on the risk factors, etiopathogenesis, classification, clinical features, histopathologic features, and various treatment modalities.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002998
Title: Awareness about oral cancer among nurses in Saveetha Medical College - A questionnaire-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and maxillofacial surgeon Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600
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Aim: The aim of this research is to study the awareness about oral cancer among paramedical nurses in Saveetha Medical College. Objective: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the awareness about oral cancer among nurses among Saveetha Medical College. Background: The incidence of oral cancer is rising in most countries, especially in developing countries. In the general male population, oral cancer is the sixth most frequent cancer. Awareness of etiology and clinical presentation of oral cancer, early detection, and knowledge about novel trends among dentists is one of the best ways to manage and prevent oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Data were to be collected from 100 nurses in Saveetha Medical College using a structured questionnaire consisting of 10-item questionnaire. Reason: This study is attempted to evaluate the awareness on risk factors for oral cancer among nurses, its clinical signs, and could, therefore, provide a “screening” service for oral cancer.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00002999
Title: Applications of piezoelectric surgery in dentistry
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Piezosurgery is a new technique introduced by Professor Vercellotti in 1988. Piezoelectric surgery is a minimally invasive technique that reduces the risk of damage to soft tissues and important structures such as nerves, blood vessels, and the mucosa. It also lessens damage to the bone cells and permits good survival of osteocytes during harvesting of bone. Piezoelectric surgery was first used by oral and maxillofacial surgeons for osteotomies, but recently, the procedure finds its applications in other fields of medicine as well such as neurosurgery and orthopedics. In dentistry, piezoelectric surgery finds its application in the fields of implantology, periodontics and orthodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and in sinus augmentation procedures. Thus, this literature review aims at highlighting the advantages, applications, and method of using the technique efficiently.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003000
Title: Awareness of tooth mousse among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the success of caries preventive paste and its awareness among dental students. Background: It is important for dental professionals to consider the evidence for the effectiveness of the preventive strategies used to maintain good oral health and reduce the risk of caries in their patients. While many of the traditional preventive activities, including recommendation and use of fluoride products and placement of fissure sealants have a wealth of clinical evidence to support their use, some of the newer preventive agents have a more limited evidence base. To investigate the level of scientific support behind one such technology, a research was carried out to assess the awareness, knowledge of tooth mousse among dental students. Materials and Methods: A pre-tested questionnaire comprising totally nine questions was randomly distributed to a 100 dental students. The questions elicited all the relevant information on the awareness regarding tooth mousse in dentistry among the respondents. The results were obtained from the respondents and represented in the form of graphic representation. Results: The results pertaining to the awareness of tooth mousse among dental students, showed that 40% of those students who participated in the study were aware about the tooth mousse being used in dental practice, 90% of those students who participated in the study were not aware about the mechanism of action of the tooth mousse, 60% of those students who participated were aware about the constituents of tooth mousse, 60% of the students who participated were aware about the usage of tooth mousse, 50% of the students who participated in the study were aware about the harmful effects of tooth mousse, 50% of the students who participated in the study were aware about the harmful side effects it possess, 40% of the students agree to the facts that tooth mousse can be advised for children to prevent early dental caries, 60% agrees to the fact that tooth mousse does cause altered taste sensation in the oral cavity, and 40% agree to the fact that tooth mousse can be used instead of fluoride tooth pastes. Conclusion: The findings of this research suggest that there is a lack of evidence to support the use of tooth mousse over a routine preventive fluoride regimen such as pit and fissure sealants and topical fluoride gel for the prevention of early dental caries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003001
Title: Effectiveness of sugarcane in plaque control
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The control of debris and plaque is essential to maintain the health and hygiene of the oral cavity. Plaque control is of two types, namely mechanical plaque control and chemical plaque control. Aim: The aim of the study is to see Effect of sugarcane chewing on controlling plaque intraorally. Materials and Methods: The study group consists of 50 patients. Their oral health status is estimated by recording the debris and calculus index to determine the oral hygiene index score (OHI-S). The patient is then asked to chew on the sugarcane. The OHI-S is recorded again. The two results are compared. Results: Mean OHI-S before intervention was 2.480 (±0.266). OHI-S after intervention was 0.640 (±0.158). A paired t-test was done to analyze statistically significant differences at 5% significance. The t-test revealed a statistically significant reduction in the OHI following sugarcane chewing (t = 15.28, df = 9, P < 0.01). This shows that sugarcane is very effective in the reduction of plaque and debris in the oral cavity. Conclusion: Sugarcane rich in fiber acts as a natural mechanical plaque control removing the debris. The chewing of sugarcane also enables the secretion of more saliva which removes the debris and also neutralizes the acidity brought about by the bacteria present in the oral cavity. Furthermore, the alkaline nature of the sugarcane reduces the acidity of the oral cavity and reduces dental caries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003002
Title: Cytotoxicity of soldered molar bands and welded molar bands
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is known about the cytotoxic effects of soldered molar bands and welded molar bands. Materials and Methods: A molar band welded to lingual health for removable transpalatal arch and a molar band soldered to transpalatal arch and its cytotoxicity is tested by indirect method. Objective: The first objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity of welded and soldered molar bands. Results: As per ISO 10993:5, the achievement of numerical grade >2 is considered as cytotoxic effect. The test samples showed none cytotoxic reactivity to L929 cells after 24 contact. Discussion: The practitioner should pay attention to the composition and the polish of soldering silver-based alloys containing copper and zinc to limit cytotoxic ion release. The cytotoxicity of the used sample related to ion release might be related to some clinical subacute effects related with orthodontic materials; thus, a long-term release period may be suitable to evaluate in vitro the subacute clinical effects of alloys. Conclusion: Since the test samples achieved a numerical grade not >2, the samples are considered as non-cytotoxic. Control gave none cytotoxic reactivity as expected.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003003
Title: Snacking patterns among the adolescents
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effect of different food products on oral hygiene. Background: Different food items have different effect on the teeth and the surrounding structures. Food items can leave varying amounts of debris in the oral cavity after consumption. This debris may serve as a substrate for microorganisms which can lead to poor oral hygiene and the resulting dental problems. Materials and Methods: The study group comprises 40 patients divided into four categories with 10 patients in each. The four categories are vegetable category, junk food category, meat category, and chocolate category. The oral health information suite (OHI-S) is recorded for these individuals after which they are given the corresponding food items. The OHI-S is recorded once again. The results are compared. Results: It was determined that 10% of the sample population snacked on sweets, 30% on chocolates, 20% on pizza, 10% on soft drinks, and the remaining 10% on chips. It was also determined that 40% consumed the food items once a day while 50% consumed it twice and another 10% consumed it thrice. 10% of the population chewed for 2 min while 40% accepted that they chewed for 4 min and another 50% for more than 5 min. 90% acknowledged the ill effects of snacking on oral hygiene while another 10% stated that they were unaware. 40% claimed that they cleaned their teeth after snacking while 60% accepted that they did not do so. Conclusion: This study shows that more awareness is required to educate the adolescents on the ill effects of snacking which predispose to health hazards. Promotion of healthy eating habits and encouragement of regular postoral hygiene measures are the need of the hour.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003004
Title: Preparation of Cassia auriculata plant extracts using different solvents and its antibacterial and antifungal activity against clinical pathogens
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Vivekananda College, Tiruvedakam West, Madurai – 625 234, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: In this present investigation we have collectied and identified the Cassia auriculata leaves. Background: Plants are the very major sources in the biomedical field and used as a medicine in different forms. The Cassia auriculata is very important and most widely used phytomedicine for various biomedical applications. Materials and Methods: Extraction of C. auriculata leaves using high polar solvents such as diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts. The prepared extracts were used for the screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities against selected microbes and finally evaluation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was analysed. Results: The C. auriculata shows very good antimicrobial effects maybe used in the future antimicrobial medicine.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003006
Title: Parents’ attitude toward behavior management techniques during dental treatment
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pedodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the parental attitude toward different management techniques used while dental treatment among their children. Materials and Methods: A prepiloted questionnaire was prepared and distributed to 100 parents in an urban area of South Indian population. The questionnaire included opinions and attitude of a parent toward the use of behavior management techniques to their child during dental treatment. The participating parent was requested to complete a questionnaire that had information of the parent and the parents’ response to each of the basic military training (BMT) based on an explanation given, and pictures and videotapes segment viewed in advance for each technique before answering each question. Background: To accomplish treatment successfully, dentists use a variety of techniques to manage and modify the shape of undesirable to more appropriate behavior to achieve high-quality comprehensive care, managing uncooperative children is an important part of the pediatric dentistry, and the dentist must occasionally rely on the other BMTs as alternative adjuncts for communicative management.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003007
Title: Potential metabolic effects with use of high-fructose corn syrup in foodstuffs: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is commonly found in drinks packed food products which is commonly available in the market and also cheapest and widely used as alternative sugar instead of sucrose and glucose, due to the usage of HFCS, causes some adverse effects and harmful effects into the human body metabolism. Commonly observed problems are obesity, Type II diabetes, mental dysfunction, increased level of triglycerides low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very LDL and also increase the risk of heart disease and heart failure. Metabolism of fructose increases the level of uric acid level in the blood and also causes poor immunity by involving in various body metabolisms.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003008
Title: A mini review on the role of orthognathic surgery in orthodontics
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Orthognathic surgery is a unique endeavor in facial surgery where a patient’s appearance and occlusal function can be improved significantly, impacting the patient’s sense of self and well-being. Successful outcomes in modern orthognathic surgery rely on close collaboration between the surgeon and the orthodontist across all stages of treatment, from pre-operative planning to finalization of occlusion. The orthognathic surgical treatment for dentofacial deformity consists of standard orthognathic procedures to correct jaw deformity, and adjunctive procedures include an osseous versus alloplastic genioplasty, septorhinoplasty, and suction lipectomy of the neck. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information about orthognathic surgery in orthodontics and to understand the treatment effectiveness of orthognathic surgery in orthodontic treatment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003009
Title: Assessment of palatal depth and facial forms among adolescents in Chennai population - A prospective study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to relate the palatal height with the facial form which will act as a aid in the treatment planning and diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Pre-operative study casts and the photographs of 100 patients were taken. The measurements for facial width and height were taken for calculating facial form. The palatal height is measured from the deepest point near the molar region on the midpalatine raphe in the study casts. Results: From the clinical study, there was a strong correlation between the palatal depth and the facial form of the individuals which can be used as an indicator to detect malocclusions and photographs can be used as an alternative communication among the orthodontists regarding the treatment planning. Discussion: There is no significant correlation between the palatal depth and facial form. As the facial height increases, there is no increase in the palatal form which does not result in the narrowing of arches. Conclusion: Thus, the facial form cannot be also used as an indicator for identifying the probability of malocclusion and its related strategies with the irregularities of teeth alignment.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003011
Title: Antibacterial activity of different endodontic sealers: An in vitro evaluation
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil, Nadu, India
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Microorganisms and their products are considered to be the primary etiological agents in endodontic diseases.[1,2] Viable microorganisms remaining after root canal preparation and disinfection contribute significantly to failure in endodontic therapy. This study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two endodontic sealers zinc oxide eugenol [ZOE] sealer and AH plus on E. faecalis (standard strain) by agar well diffusion technique based on zone of inhibition. The results showed that ZOE is a better root canal sealant with higher antibacterial activity than AH plus.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003012
Title: Comparative study on the severity of periodontal destruction in chronic periodontitis patients with habits of smoking tobacco versus chewing smokeless tobacco
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease, of which chronic periodontitis is related to multiple risk factors. Tobacco usage is a known risk factor for many diseases, and more and more evidence suggests that it also adversely affects periodontal health. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to clinically evaluate and compare the severity of periodontal destruction in chronic periodontitis patients who were tobacco smokers (Group A) and tobacco chewers (Group B) in a South Indian population. A total of 30 chronic periodontitis patients, 15 of which were tobacco smokers (Group A), 15 were tobacco chewers (Group B), included in the study. Periodontal status was assess using the following clinical parameter like Plaque index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), Periodontal Probing Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL). The results showed that the severity of periodontal destruction is similar amongst tobacco smokers (Group A) users as compared to tobacco chewers (Group B).

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003013
Title: Association between atherosclerosis and periodontitis - A brief review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, 162, PH Road, Chennai – 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India
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Over the past two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. Thus, concern about possible links between periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) has intensified and is driving an active field of investigation into possible association and causality. The two disorders share several common risk factors, including cigarette smoking, age, and diabetes mellitus. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: Activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis. The focus of this review is to assess whether available data support an independent association between ASVD and PD and whether PD treatment might modify ASVD risks or outcomes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-PDA-00003018
Title: Effect of harvest time and food processing in vitamin C content of strawberry (Fragaria X Ananassa) fruits and its processed products
Category: Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, West Java, Indonesia
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Background: Vitamin C is the main content of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Strawberry fruits are damage easily after harvested, so it needs food processing for fruit preservation. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of differences of harvest time and food processing of strawberry fruits on Vitamin C content. Fruits are collected from Ciwidey, West Java, Indonesia, in March and May. Fruits with higher Vitamin C content were processed into sweets, jam, syrup, and dodol. Ciwidey is a strawberry producing center in West Java, Indonesia. Methods: Analysis of Vitamin C was conducted with colorimetric method using iodine for qualitative analysis and methylene blue for qualitative analysis. All samples were reduced iodine color. Results: Vitamin C content was 0.703 ± 0.005 mg/g in fruit harvested in March, 1.301 ± 0.005 mg/g in fruit harvested in May, 0.372 ± 0.004 mg/g in sweets, 0.578 ± 0.006 mg/g in jam, 0.557 ± 0.008 mg/g in syrup, and 0.021 ± 0.007 mg/g in dodol. Conclusion: Harvest time affects Vitamin C content in fruits, and food processing affects Vitamin C content in processed products.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003042
Title: Antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel (Garcinia mangostana L.) extracted using different solvents at the different times
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang, Indonesia
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Background: Extraction is conducted to extract the important compounds in mangosteen peel using solvents at the different time. Extraction time needs to be calculated so that the bioactive compound can be extracted optimally using the most efficient solvent. The extraction of mangosteen peel was conducted by soaking in solvent at particular time (1-2 days in general) without heating. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effect of different solvents and maceration time on antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract. Materials and Methods: The present research was conducted by extracting mangosteen peel using ethanol (EtOH), acetone (Ace), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MetOH), hexane (HX), acetic acid (AcetAc) and aquadest (Aqua) at 24, 36 and 48h. Antioxidant activity was examined using visible UV spectrophotometer at the particular wavelength. Result and Discussion: The result showed that the type of solvent and extraction time significantly (P<0.01) affected antioxidant activity. Acetone extract of mangosteen peel is the most optimal solvent for antioxidant activity in extraction time for 24 hours (IC50 = 9,468 + 0,324 ppm). A further test was required to obtain a better result using HPLC method. Conclusion: It was evidenced that the properties of solvents, particularly polarity index and time, significantly affected antioxidant activity.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003043
Title: Physical signs of child abuse
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Physical abuse is nonaccidental physical injury (ranging from minor bruises to severe fractures or death) as a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, shaking, throwing, stabbing, choking, hitting (with a hand, stick, strap, or other object), burning, or otherwise harming a child, which is inflicted by a parent, caregiver, or other person who has responsibility for the child. Such injury is considered abuse regardless of whether the caregiver intended to hurt the child. This article reviews the causes, physical signs and symptoms, risk factors, exams and tests, and prevention and treatment of child abuse.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003044
Title: Ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Caryota urens (Arecaceae) on streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer’s model in mice
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, C. L. Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder that gradually impairs memory and ability to learn, reasoning, judgment, communication, and daily activities. The present study is to evaluate the memory enhancement and cognitive effect of Caryota urens on Alzheimer’s induced mice using various memory retention experiments such as Y maze, Morris water maze, and Passive avoidance. In vitro evaluation of neurotransmitters was done on isolated brain tissue homogenates. AD was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin to mice. The selected dose 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of C. urens showed significant action in memory and learning processes. From the results, it can be concluded that C. urens has promising effect in memory enhancement.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003045
Title: Effect of betel nut quid chewing on cardiovascular and respiratory changes on sanitary workers of kanchipuram municipality
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Meenakshi Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Enathur, Kancheepuram, MAHER (Deemed to Be University), Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: The handling and disposal of municipal solid waste is becoming a natural and a general well-being concern. An alarming increase in the morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases is due to the exposure of the sanitary workers, to the contamination of atmospheric oxygen that is ambient and particulate. Due to their introduction to numerous hazard factors, they endure high rates of occupational medical issues. In the total populations about 10% of them having the habit of betel quid chewing. Areca nut is the seed of the palm tree Areca catechu, which is the fourth most commonly used psychoactive substance, next to caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. The recent investigations propose that the usage of betel nut remains as a major cause for the onset of such systemic diseases as metabolic and cardiorespiratory ailments. Aim: This study was aimed to understand the effects of betel chewing which, in turn, causes cardiovascular and respiratory changes on sanitary workers of Kanchipuram municipality. Materials and Methods: It is a comparative study analysis, in which nearly 100 sanitary workers actively participated and the following data were obtained based on blood pressure and pulse using sphygmomanometer. Mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure were also calculated from the anthropometry measurements measured using height and weight machine. The pulmonary function test was obtained using computerized spirometer - HELIOS 701. The sanitary workers were divided into two groups such as 50 betel chewing sanitary workers (Group 1) and 50 non-betel chewing sanitary workers (Group-2). Pulmonary test parameters such as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), FEV1 to FVC, PEFR (FEFR25-75 ), and respiratory endurances were compared with the two groups and the results were obtained. Results: On comparing the cardiovascular and respiratory parameters of the sanitary workers, the result showed many significant changes between the non-betel groups and betel chewing sanitary workers. Conclusion: The findings of our study clearly showed that both betel and non-betel chewing sanitary workers have cardiopulmonary alteration, but betel chewing sanitary workers have mild reduction with cardiopulmonary parameters than non-betel chewing sanitary workers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003047
Title: Applications of cone-beam computerized tomography in dental practice: A brief review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) was developed in the 1990s as an evolutionary process resulting from the demand for three-dimensional (3D) information obtained by conventional CT scans. CBCT was introduced to the dental field to replace the expensive and high-radiation producing medical CT scans. It is found that CBCT scans were more accurate than CT scans. CBCT has a lower dose of radiation, minimal metal artifacts, reduced costs, easier accessibility, and easier handling than multislice CT; however, the latter is still considered a better choice for the analysis of bone density using a Hounsfield unit scale. CBCT reduces the overall exposure to radiation. CBCT is a new technique for maxillofacial imaging. The examination time is shorter and the patient dose is lower than that with conventional CT.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003065
Title: Dental computed tomography, cone-beam computed tomography - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of General Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Radiographs are valuable diagnostic tools, for clinical examination in the diagnosis of dental diseases. Two-dimensional (2-D) periapical radiographs and panoramic radiographs are routinely used in dental practice. However, there are certain limitations of 2-D radiographs, which can be overcome by three-dimensional, imaging techniques such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and CT. The purpose of this article is to analyze the recent advances made in digital dental imaging (CT and CBCT). Correct use of newer radiographic techniques can help early detection and appropriate and timely treatment for various dental and oral pathologies. Recent advances in imaging technologies have revolutionized dental diagnostics and treatment planning. Correct use of appropriate imaging technology and their correct interpretation, following the as low as reasonably achievable principles and cost-effectiveness, newer radiographic techniques can help to detect pathologies in very early stages, which ultimately help to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve the quality of life of the patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003095
Title: Evaluation of pigmentation pattern in the smile zone with facial skin complexion
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Esthetic dentistry has considerably been increased in past few years, and moreover, people are often judged, and therefore judge themselves, by the smile. An attractive smile results in achieving excellent esthetics, gain of self‑esteem, and confidence and an excellent dental and mental health. There are certain important factors that predominantly affect a beautiful and a life‑like smile. They include; facial skin complexion, gingival tissue pigmentation, and tooth shade, respectively. The color of the facial skin serves as a basic guide to the gingival display and tooth shade. Restorative dental practitioners and prosthodontists have always faced the challenge of harmonizing facial skin complexion with the tooth shade when fabricating any fixed or removable restoration. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine if there is a relationship of facial skin complexion with the pigmentation of the gingiva in the smile zone. Materials and Methods: This is a cross‑sectional, analytical study conducted in Avadi, Thiruvallur, Tamil Nadu. Our Sample size consisted of 100 individuals. Participants are informed about the nature and purpose of the study. Participants belong to the age group of 15–40 years. This age group is selected because the pigmentation pattern is well observed. The participants are selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The facial skin complexion is categorized into fair and dark complexion and, respectively, grades are given. The intensity of physiological gingival tissue pigmentation is evaluated based on the color of the gingiva. Results: It is seen that gingival tissue pigmentation is more found on the attached gingiva and interdental papilla. It is least found on the marginal gingiva. It is observed that people having fair or lighter skin complexion has mild gingival pigmentation whereas people having darker skin complexion has severe gingival pigmentation. However, as such, no significant correlation is seen with respect to gender or age. Conclusion: The study reported that people having a darker skin complexion have moderate to severe gingival tissue pigmentation and people having a fair/lighter skin complexion have mild gingival tissue pigmentation. The gingival tissue pigmentation is more commonly seen on the attached gingiva and interdental papilla. This particular research study will definitely prove to be a valuable aid for the restorative dental practitioners and prosthodontists, when planning and fabricating any esthetic or functional restorations for individuals belonging to different age groups, thereby accomplishing patient’s needs and expectations and achieving excellence in esthetic and functional parameters of modern dentistry.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003096
Title: Normal mouth opening range in adult males and females
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate the normal mouth opening in adults. Background: Mouth opening varies from individual to individual and among the different population. There are many factors such as gender, race, and age which contribute to the variation in the range in normal mouth opening. The current study is an attempt to calculate the normal mouth opening in adult Chennai population. Normal mouth opening or maximal mouth opening (MMO) can be described as the distance between the incisal edge of maxillary central incisor to the incisal edge of mandibular central incisor when the mouth is opened as wide as possible without any difficulty. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 adults, from children to older people were studied. The subjects were asked to open their mouths maximally until no further opening was possible. Then, the distance between the incisal edges from the maxillary central incisor to the mandibular central incisor was measured using a calibrated ruler. Results: The average MMO for males and females was 48.5 mm. The range was 34–69 mm. The average MMO for males was 52 mm. The range was 39–69 mm. The average MMO for females was 45 mm. The range was 34–56 mm. It was observed that females had a smaller range than males. The range also decreases with age. Conclusion: The study showed that numerous factors such as age, sex, and race were responsible in variations in MMO. The normal mouth opening was found to be lesser in females as compared to males and also decreases with age. This study is relevant for surgical procedures such as temporomandibular joint diseases, craniofacial syndromes, and maxillofacial surgery.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003097
Title: Partial edentulism status in autistic children
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Autism is a developmental disorder which causes troubles with social interaction, communication, and also behavioral problem. Autism is mainly caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Autism is mainly caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Hence, parents should be aware of this condition to provide adequate oral health status. Materials and Methods: The population of the study consists of autistic child with age group between 6 and 20 years from Tiruchirapalli district. A pilot study was performed to know the prevalence and treatment of partial edentulism in autistic child. The survey mainly focused on knowledge, awareness, and preventive measures of partial edentulism. Results: According to responses of 100 participates of autistic child caretaker, when questionnaire was distributed, the overall prevalence of partial edentulism was literally similar across the individuals. Conclusion: In the present study, we could see clearly that many of the parents are not aware of partial edentulism in autistic child. Medical disorders including gastrointestinal problems occur commonly in individuals with autistic disorder. From this study, we can recommend the caretakers to take their children to regular dental visit and to maintain the oral health.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003098
Title: Knowledge and assessment of partial edentulism among adolescent school children in rural areas
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Persons who have lost teeth (either partially or completely) are termed edentulous (edentate), whereas those who have not lost teeth can be called dentate. People living in rural areas may follow a form of health care based on ancient traditions, beliefs, and cultural habits. Edentulism affects approximately 158 million people globally as of 2010 (2.3% of the population). It is more common in women at 2.7% compared to the male rate of 1.9%. Partial edentulism is an indication of unhealthy dental practices in society and attitude toward dental and oral care. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done by conducting a survey consisting of 10 questions prepared to assess the awareness of partial edentulism and tooth replacement among adolescents. A total of 100 participants aged between 17 and 21 in rural districts of Kanchipuram (Chennai). The data were statistically analyzed. Results: It was seen that 71% of participants aware of the partial edentulism and can be treated. 61% of participants were agree to undergo prosthodontics treatment and rest of 39% were not aware of such treatment, and few of them have their some financial issue, clinical fear. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the prevalence of partial edentulism among the study population was high. They need community-based oral health programs to increase awareness and reduce the risk of tooth loss and make them aware of prosthodontics rehabilitation among the people, and people should be educated about the need for prosthodontics treatments.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003099
Title: Oral hygiene in transgender of Chennai city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to make a study on oral hygiene in transgenders of Chennai city. Background: It is well known that oral health and general health are inseparable. Hence, this study is done to make clear about the diseases and complications due of lack of oral hygiene. Human papillomavirus is an oral disease common among transgenders that may cause cancer. Lack of awareness and hygiene is the major cause for several complications in oral health. Since knowledge about the oral hygiene in transgenders is seen less; this must be made clear to prevent further complications. Materials and Methods: This study was done as a questionnaire which is answered by the transgenders of the Chennai city. 21 questions were prepared which included the daily dental practices of them such as daily brushing practice and daily intake of food type. The questionnaire was given individually to each of them to avoid discussion among them and also to avoid false results, thereby no bias is evidenced in this study. Each of them was given 1 h to complete the questionnaire. Results: Brushing teeth twice a day plays a major role in preventing dental caries. However, most of them were found to have irregular brushing habit. 87% of them suffer from dental caries, 69% suffer from bleeding gums, and 76% suffer from dryness of mouth. In fact, 69% of them have swollen gums. 63% of them are exposed to toothache very often. The survey has created awareness on the importance of regular brushing and dietary habit for good oral hygiene among transgenders. Conclusion: This study was conducted among 100 transgenders, and their daily dental practices were examined through 21 questionnaires. 87% of the subjects taken in Chennai city suffers from dental caries. This study conducted also provided many information such as improper brushing habits after each meals, susceptibility to bleeding gums, and loosening of tooth and receding tooth. This survey tried creating an awareness among the transgenders about their tooth such as brushing habits and avoidance of eating sweets and chocolates very often.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003100
Title: Practice of management strategies among dental practitioners for treating oral manifestation of measles
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Measles is a highly communicable, viral infectious disease affecting mainly children and young adults. Its symptoms include high fever, maculopapular rash, keratoconjunctivitis, and pathognomonic oral Koplik’s spots. The study aims to increase the knowledge awareness and practice regarding management strategies among dental practitioners on oral manifestations of measles. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among dental practitioners in context to the title of our study and questions were put forward with the help of an online portal and the responses recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: From the survey, 70% of the dentists have treated the patients in measles and recommending the patients to the general practitioners for the further treatments. Conclusion: Form the survey, it is concluded that most of the dentists having patients flow in measles and 70% of them having a practice on measles. Through this survey, most dentists as well as patients and common people will have awareness about measles and controlling measures will take place.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003101
Title: Practice of oral hygiene among teenagers and young adults in Chennai
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics,Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Unhygienic oral health causes many problems such as dental caries, bad breath, gingival inflammation, plaque formation, and oral cancer. People should be aware of the best oral methods and parents should have the knowledge to promote oral health techniques among their children. Tooth brushing is an important method for oral maintenance. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene in teenagers and young adults in Chennai. Materials and Methods:This is a questionnaire-based survey which was undertaken using a link SurveyPlanet. Of 100, 50 under teenagers and 50 under young adults. Since oral hygiene is significant, the comparison is necessary to analyze the status of oral health among common people. Results: From this survey, about 95.9% of the teenagers are aware of the fact that oral health is associated with general health. Good lifestyle changes and intake of nutritious food have shown an improvement in oral hygiene. The dental hygiene also depends on socioeconomic status and surrounding people. Conclusion: From the survey, it is evident that both the teenagers and young adults are aware of oral hygiene. However, seeing more accurately, young adults show more concern toward the following brushing techniques compared to teenagers. The brushing and dietary habits are the main factors for causing dental caries and oral cancer. After controlling for potential confounders such as good brushing and eatery habits, the extension of oral diseases might reduce and would not get easily affected.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003102
Title: Use of protective eyewear among dentists: A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,
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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of protective eyewear among dentists.Background: Safety is one of the most important concerns in the medical and dental fields. All health-care professionals should utilize proper personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE is not only crucial for the health-care professional but also for patients. In the dental field, PPE is designed to protect various regions of the face (e.g., eyes and mouth) from exposure to blood, saliva, and other infectious bodily fluids and materials. Eye infections are common among dentists; many are concerned, but few are using proper safety glasses. Dental professionals are often in close contact with their patients and may use a variety of sharp instruments during dental procedures. This increases the likelihood of a needlestick injury. Aside from needlestick incidents, protective eyewear is designed to prevent bodily fluids (e.g., saliva and blood) and dental materials used during procedures from entering the eyes. Materials and Methods: A set of 10 questionnaires were prepared for this study, and online survey link was created and distributed to various dental practitioners through social media. The subjects selected are 100. The data collected were compiled in Microsoft Office Excel, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: This study showed that 62% of the participants do not use protective eye tool, whereas other 38% reported that they use eyewear while doing clinical procedures. When the participants were questioned about the protection of patient eye, they reported 12% (rarely), 28% (always), 32% (never), and 48% (sometimes). The prevalence of eye injury in dental office was found as 32%. Moreover, most of the participants replied that wearing eyewear during dental procedure was not comfortable (54%) and few 35% reported that eyewear is a vision barrier to work. Most commonly eye wears were used while doing scaling (44%), prosthodontic procedures (32%), restorative and endodontic procedure (14%), and others 10%. Conclusion: From this study, we conclude that there is a need for proper protocol management for the use of protective eyewear in every dental clinic. All the dental practitioners should be educated about the injury or infection that affects the eye.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003103
Title: Status of dental caries among nursing students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics,Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Nurses work to take care of patients. They help patients to cope up with illness and improve their health. They provide direct patient care and observe and record patient symptoms, reactions, and progress. They should be aware of the health facts and disorders including oral hygiene and oral health problems. Dental caries is considered to be the most prevalent disease among the population with a high rate of morbidity which reduces the quality of life. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among the nursing students of Saveetha College of Nursing to assess the knowledge, attitude, and awareness. A simple random sample was drawn to reach the required sample size of 100. A questionnaire consisting of the dental knowledge, the attitude of the students toward dental health, and awareness of the students was carried out. The responses were, therefore, estimated by collecting the completely filled questionnaire from the 100 nursing students. Results: Of the total 100 nursing students reached for the study, the estimated responses to the questionnaire were collected. Among the 100 students, 33% of the participants were affected by caries, whereas the rest 67% were healthy and free from caries. The participants had different views on the development of caries. The participants believed that caries developed due to the following reasons: Toothache (16.5%), sensitivity (14.4%), and brown and black spots (24%). 44.3% of participants believed that caries developed due to all the reasons mentioned above. Conclusion: From the above study, it was known that majority of the nursing students were aware of the dental caries. Measures to prevent the dental caries by the proper way of brushing and food habits have been told. The treatment recommended is scaling in severe conditions; root canal treatment was preferred.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003104
Title: Assessment of buccal vestibular depth among completely edentulous patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The buccal vestibule is the area bounded by the alveolar gingiva, buccal mucosa, buccal frenum, and hamular notch. The range of vestibular width and depth can vary considerably among different individuals. Since resorption of the posterior edentulous arch begins from the buccal side as the edentulous residual ridge continues to atrophy, the vestibule becomes wider and shallower and the elliptical curvature of the vestibular fornix becomes less acute. When fabricating a denture, the buccal flange of the denture should fit into and fill the vestibular space. Mismanagement of the vestibular space can result in a number of significant problems. The extension of vestibular depth is important in complete denture fabrication for stability and retention. This study helps in knowing the extension pattern of buccal vestibular depth in partially and completely edentulous patients which acts as an important aid for the better success of denture fabrication. The aim of this survey is to assess the buccal vestibular depth among complete edentulous patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 randomly selected subjects with complete dentures, fabricated within the past 5 months, were examined. The subjects were patients in Saveetha Dental College. The depth and width of the buccal vestibule of each subject were measured at anterior (1 mm posterior to the buccal frenum) and posterior (1 mm anterior to the hamular notch). The anterior and posterior locations were marked with a eosin pencil. The denture was then inserted, and the reference marks were transferred from the alveolar residual ridges to the denture. Next, each subject was instructed to open their mouth half way and the cheek was illuminated with a mouth mirror. The depth of the vestibule was measured from the crest of the residual alveolar ridge to the fornix of the buccal vestibule with a periodontal probe. The differences between the dimensions of the maxillary buccal vestibule and the corresponding buccal flanges were analyzed by paired t-tests. The differences between the sexes were compared by two sample t-tests. The significance level was set at P < 0.05, and the data were analyzed with the statistical program JMP 7.0 software. Results: A total of 100 subjects were included in this study. The mean depth of the buccal vestibule increased from the anterior to the posterior region of the vestibule. The statistical mean results for each corresponding anatomic and prosthetic location demonstrated significant differences in depth. The difference in the mean vestibular depths and flange length in the posterior area was nearly 10.6 mm and 7.4 mm, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: At each location, there was a statistically significant difference in the depth of the buccal vestibule when compared with the corresponding regions of the existing denture among the 100 subjects. The difference in the mean depth between the vestibules and the flanges in the posterior area was 10.6 mm and 7.4 mm, respectively (P < 0.001). The buccal vestibular flanges of the dentures were significantly inadequate in mimicking the depth dimensions of the buccal vestibule.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003105
Title: Implant considerations and surface modifications - A literature review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Dental implants represent a reliable treatment option in oral rehabilitation of partially or fully edentulous patients to secure various kinds of prostheses. Dental implants have become a standard procedure for single-tooth replacement in the esthetic zone.. The process of osseointegration was reported more than 45 years ago. However, it was not until the past decade that the focus of biomedical research shifted from implant geometry to the osteoinductive potential of implant surfaces. Surface characteristics such as topography, wettability, and coatings contribute to the biological processes during osseointegration by mediating the direct interaction to host osteoblasts in bone formation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003106
Title: Comparison of effectiveness between different cleansing agents over permanent self-cure resin
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India
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Introduction: Various treatment modalities are available for restoring the edentulous condition. In elderly patients, removable prosthesis is preferred over fixed prosthesis due to age factor and systemic conditions. Earlier self‑cure resins are least used due to its inferior properties over heat cure resin such as surface roughness, microporosities, and evaporation of monomer. Heat cure resins are technique sensitive than self‑cure resin, and the chances of distortion are more in heat cure resin. Permanent self‑cure resins are preferred for ease and in conditions where heat cure resins are not preferred. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in surface characteristics between the permanent self‑cure resin during cleansing. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, 10 square‑shaped (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) self‑cure (Ivoclar) resin acrylic plates were prepared (5 samples for each group). The specimens were kept in a flask containing physiological serum (NaCl 0.85%), sterilized in an autoclave at 121°C for 15 min, and incubated at 4°C for further adherence testing. The resin specimens were immersed in distilled water to promote the maximum water sorption and to prevent the occurrence of distortion and the release of residual monomer after polymerization. (a) Group 1 ‑ contaminated specimens, exposed to saline solution for 10 min, (b) Group 2 ‑ 2% chlorhexidine solution for 10 min, (c) Group 3 ‑ denture cleansing tablets for 10 min, (d) Group 4 ‑ 10% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, and (e) Group 5 ‑ 3% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min. The microbial colonization was observed and analyzed following the culture. Results: The number of Gram‑positive budding yeast cells was counted for a minimum of 10 microscopic fields, and the yeast cells for Group 1 were 2216.8 ± 106.6,Group 2 were 1698.4 ± 113.6, Group 3 were 859.5 ± 72.6, Group 4 were 489.7 ± 147.5, and Group 5 were 1407.6 ± 113.7, respectively. A statistically significant difference between the experimental groups was observed (P < 05). Conclusion: The study concluded that hydrogen peroxide is the most effective microbicidal cleansing agent in self‑cure resin denture bases. However, the surface changes induced by these agents need to be studied further.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003107
Title: Comparative evaluation of candidal growth in conventional heat cure and permanent self-cure resins
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India
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Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the growth of Candida albicans in permanent denture base materials such as heat cure resin and permanent self-cure resin. Introduction: Candidiasis is common in denture wearers. C. albicans is a type of yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora. Infection of denture materials with C. albicans is common and contributes to denture stomatitis. Thus, this study is being carried out to find which denture is more susceptible to candidal growth and to find a material that is better to maintain by denture wearers. Materials and Methods: Culture of C. albicans: Pure cultures of C. albicans were grown on Agar Sabouraud plates containing 500 mMol/L of sucrose at 25°C. After 24 h, the colonies were suspended in tubes containing 5 mL of brain heart infusion (BHI) broth. Next, the specimens were placed into the tubes containing BHI plus inoculum and remained for 11 h at 37°C to favor an initial colonization of the acrylic resin surfaces. Slide Count: Specimens were placed on a special slide count after adding Trypan Blue to be evaluated under a light microscope. Serial Dilution Test: Each bullet was taken and was diluted and spread on a Petri dish containing Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Results: The candidal colony growth for heat cure resins was 3014.5 ± 117 and 2018.3 ± 1.2 using slide count and serial dilution methods, respectively. The candidal colony growth for self-cure resins were 5201.6 ± 213and 4210.3 ± 204 using slide count and serial dilution methods, respectively. C. albicans growth was significantly high in permanent self-cure resins. The results obtained showed statistically significant differences between the heat cure and self-cured resins (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The growth of C. albicans was seen more in permanent self-cure resin plates than heat cure resin plates. Thus, even though permanent self-cure resin plates are easier to process, conventional heat cure resin is less susceptible to candidal growth and easier to maintain by denture wearers.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: January
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003108
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on brushing habits among transgenders residing in Chennai city: A cross-sectional questionnaire study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Velappanchavadi, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Proper home care brushing practices, regular visits to dentist, and routine dental checkups will reduce the risk of having gingival and periodontal diseases. Various studies on oral hygiene suggest that when there is a good oral health, chances of having overall body health are more. In contrary, transgenders may neglect their physical and oral health due to their lower socioeconomic status and inferior quality of life. Hence, the aim of this questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practices on brushing habits among transgenders in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a questionnaire survey (in the native languages of respective transgenders) which was answered by 96 transgenders of Chennai city. All the obtained data were entered into Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM, USA) version 20. Results: From the statistics, it can be well seen that 80% of the transgender community brush only once per day. 36.7% of them brush 2–3 min, 56.7% of them brush according to the times they have. Nearly 83.3% of them never shows regular visit to dentist and 16.7% of them at least visit dentist only when they experience oral-related problems. 53.3% of the study group never use tongue scraper. Conclusion: The awareness of transgenders toward brushing habits and care toward their oral hygiene is literally low. None of them were aware of any sorts of brushing practices such as scrub method, roll techniques, and Smith methods. Furthermore, people were not aware of electronic brushes too.