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Drug Invention Today
ISSN NO: 0975-7619
Drug Invention Today (DIT) was first published in 2009 by JPR Solutions. It is a journal, which publishes reviews, research papers and short communications . From 2019  Journal will be monthly twice ( vol 11& 12 with 2 Issues per month)
• Novel Drug Delivery Systems • Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine • Biotechnology related pharmaceutical technology • Polymeric bio-conjugates • Biological macromolecules • Biomaterials • Drug Information • Drug discovery/development • Screening of drugs from natural & synthetic origins • Novel therapeutic strategies • Combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis • Clinical trials • Case Reports Pharmacology Drug InteractionDrug/Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial and antibacterial.
 Impact FactorTM ( India ) = 0.895 as on date (09.11.2018)
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Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003140
Title: Effect of premolar extractions on vertical dimension in borderline extraction case - A retrospective study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: Aim of this study is to investigate the short-term effects of systematic premolar extraction in borderline cases for extraction therapy on vertical dimension. Materials and Methods: Inclusion criteria: Overjet of 6–9 mm and crowding of >6 mm 50 had first premolars extracted, 50 were non-extraction patients. Patient selection by multivariate cluster analysis ensured homogeneity at baseline regarding dentoskeletal parameters. Parameter changes were determined with the models and compared between the extraction and non-extraction group. Results: The systematic extraction of premolars in borderline patients with a distinct sagittal overjet and crowding did not significantly influence vertical dimension. Discussion: We found that the vertical overbite increased slightly in the extraction patients while decreasing in the non-extraction patients. This group difference was also reported by Kinzinger et al. but could not be statistically validated in our study. Most studies on the contrary report a significant decrease of vertical overbite after premolar extraction. In most of these cases, however, the patients had an increased overbite at the beginning of treatment. Conclusions: The influence of premolar extractions on vertical dimension is often overestimated, since only slight changes in are to be expected. In integrated treatment planning, the extraction decision should not be primarily based on concerns about the aggravation of vertical dimension.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003149
Title: A role of statin and pharmacotherapy involved in ischemic heart diseases
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vels Institute of Science Technology and Advanced Studies, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Asian Indians are most essential in danger of ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) and diabetes mellitus. A Sensex analysis for 2030 shows the use of different advantages of the statins in treatment of IHDs. The role of statins toward myocardial dead tissue, stroke in essential counteraction is very powerful in postponing the surgery with coronary artery revascularization prophylaxis, angioplasties, and stent. Other than statin, the pharmacotherapy includes nitrates, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers. Keeping the advantages of statins over other medications as a combined drug treatment, antiplatelets are given in combination to avoid blood clots and along with it, a lipid-lowering medication offers the most effectiveness in the treatment of Asian Indians and IHDs

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003142
Title: Investigation of the effect of noise stress-induced changes in behaviour and the neuroprotective role of Nelumbo nucifera seedpod and quercetin in rat brain
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Tagore Medical College and Hospitals, (Research Scholar, PhD in Bharath University) Affiliated to TN Dr. MGR Medical University, Guindy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Stress is an unavoidable phenomenon which disturbs physiological homeostasis. Stressors can have multiple effects on individuals depending on the nature of the stressors. Noise stress is an environmental stress factor, and acute as well chronic noise stress induces oxidative stress. The brain is more vulnerable to the effects of stress, affecting cognitive functions and behavior. The ethanolic extracts of Nelumbo nucifera (NNE) seedpod and its active component Quercetin (QRCT) were investigated for its protective role in ameliorating the changes induced by noise stress exposure. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar strain albino rats, weighing between 180 and 220 g, were used and divided into 12 groups. Animals were given drugs NNE (400 mg/kg body weight [bw]) and its active principle quercetin (40 mg/kg bw) through oral administration in different concentration 10 days before noise stress exposure. Neuroprotective role of NN seedpod and quercetin on hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex was assessed by open field apparatus. Results: The stress group animal showed increased corticosterone levels, decreased movements, and increased immobilization time due to anxiety. However, the drug-treated animals had increased exploratory activity by moving freely with less immobilization. Among the drug groups, the active component quercetin group showed more effective anxiolytic activity than crude extract of seedpod. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that both the NNE and quercetin groups were effective in ameliorating the noise stress-induced changes, but the active component quercetin group had a higher protective impact on the changes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003121
Title: Oral hygiene measures among elderly people in the destitute homes in Chennai - A survey
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to survey the awareness of oral hygiene knowledge and practices among the elder people in destitute homes in Chennai. Background: Health auxiliary personnel has an important role in oral health. Oral health touches every aspect of our lives but is often taken for granted. Our mouth is a window into the health of our body. It can show signs of nutritional deficiencies or general infection. Systemic diseases, those that affect the entire body, may first become apparent due to mouth lesions or other oral problems. This is more common in older adults. Materials and Methods: This study consists of 50 people under the age group of 5th and 6th decades around the Porur region of Chennai. This is a questionnaire- based study conducted in the online forum, using SurveyPlanet app. 10 self-made questionnaires were prepared to access the knowledge, attitude, and practice of oral hygiene. The patients were explained the purpose of study and results were computerized and analyzed. Results: Nearly 54% of patients were not aware of teeth cleansing procedures in dental clinic setup. Even though 56% of patients are aware that dental hygiene is important for overall hygiene, only 50% of the patients take the effort to maintain oral hygiene and 40% of patients are not aware about oral hygiene necessity in maintaining overall hygiene. 70% of patients feel that bad breath is an indicator of poor oral hygiene and 30% of patients are not aware of it. 32% patients reported that they never visit the dentist, 22% of patients report rarely, and 14% of the patients visit in a 6-month interval. Conclusion: This survey evidently proves that elderly people maintain poor oral hygiene. The old people are not much concerned with their oral health as far as other ailments, whereas they show poor oral hygiene as bad breath. Frequent visit to a dentist is also not appreciated by the participants.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003122
Title: Osteoporosis and its dental impact
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Osteoporosis is an infection that influences fundamentally women, however, can likewise happen in men. It is described by lost bone mineral thickness (BMD) and frequently comes full circle in a crack of the hip, wrist, or potentially vertebrae. The analysis of osteoporosis is regularly made by utilizing bone thickness estimations. They are regularly communicated in relative terms (T-scores and Z-scores); the Z-score is the quantity of standard deviations from the age-coordinated normal estimation of solid ladies. A low Z-score shows that the bone thickness is lower than it ought to be for a patient’s age and sex. Osteoporosis is characterized as a BMD loss of 2.5 standard deviations or more beneath the builtup mean. Osteoporosis can be dealt with by an assortment of strategies, the most widely recognized being the utilization of estrogen, with or without progestin or progesterone. The utilization of estrogen alone is alluded to as estrogen substitution treatment and the mix hormone substitution treatment. Different medications utilized as a part of the treatment of osteoporosis are the particular selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and the bisphosphonates. SERMs seem to offer a large number of the positive advantages of estrogen with less unfriendly consequences for the bosom or uterus. As of late, a randomized, 2-fold visually impaired investigation of about 3000 ladies found no general advantage in diminishing coronary illness for those taking estrogen. Indeed, in the main year of estrogen utilize, coronary illness was higher in this gathering than in those taking fake treatment. The connection between systemic BMD and periodontal status has been explored. In a few patients, there is a connection between a diminishing of mandibular bone mass and tooth misfortune. In others, there is no such connection. Those postmenopausal ladies taking hormone substitution treatment had more prominent tooth maintenance and a decreased probability of edentulism. A current report has discovered no connection between clinical connection levels and BMD of the lumbar spine. Numerous conceivable elements add to the improvement of osteoporosis and periodontal maladies. It is hard to set up an immediate connection between tooth misfortune, bone misfortune, and loss of connection coming about due to periodontitis and diminished BMD related with osteoporosis; however, considers are progressing.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003123
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and practice on brushing habits among adolescents in rural areas (Kanchipuram district)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Brushing, flossing, and getting regular dental cleans/dental checkups will help you to get a great looking smile, brighter whiter looking teeth, and fresh breath. They are an important part in preventing gum disease and reducing the risk of tooth loss and dental problems. Maintaining healthy teeth in adolescent age is very important. The main purpose of oral hygiene is to prevent the buildup of plaque. There is always a false belief that the people in rural areas lack proper awareness about the oral hygiene. The findings of this study tell us about the brushing habits among adolescents in rural areas (Kanchipuram district). Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among the adolescents’ age group in the district of Kanchipuram. It was attended by nearly 50 participants. The questionnaire contained 15 questions about the frequency of brushing, importance of brushing, and cleaning aids used for brushing. Results: All the results were statistically analyzed. 52% brush their teeth only once in a day, whereas 47% brush twice a day and <0.5% of the attendants brush more than twice in a day. Almost 85% of the participants believe that the way we brush our teeth has an impact on how healthy the teeth is and 12% do not believe in this concept. Conclusion: Maintenance of oral health is markedly enabled by tooth brushing. Cumulative analysis implies a need for the initiative of awareness on oral health at grass root levels with the cooperation of parents. The study has further thrust on awareness initiatives concerning oral health concomitant with parental participation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003124
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of oral hygiene among dwarfs
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the attitude and knowledge on oral hygiene measures among dwarfs. Introduction: Dwarf is a person with abnormally small stature due to a pathological condition, especially with disproportion or deformation of features and limbs. For various reasons, the oral health-care demand from the dwarf population is low and difficult to determine, whereas their oral hygiene status would need urgent care. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 dwarfs were selected from the rehabilitation centers, theme parks, and circus areas in and around Chennai. A questionnaire- based study was conducted among 25–50 years old dwarfs during November 2017–January 2018. Results: The percentage of the dwarfs who brush only once in the morning and never use mouthwash after brushing is more (80%) than who brushes twice a day and 100% of them use toothpaste and brush and they never floss. Conclusion: The dwarfs had good knowledge on the basic oral health measures which is enough to maintain proper oral health, but their practices and attitude toward oral health were relatively poor.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003125
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on malocclusion in upper limb deformities patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Facial appearance has a long-lasting implication on any individual. Millions of individuals worldwide are suffering from orodental problems despite the fact that many of them can be prevented. Malocclusion is one such deformity. Malocclusion is not a disease, but a morphological variation which may or may not have any association, leading to pathological conditions. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a sample size (n = 62) to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of malocclusion in patients with upper limb deformity. Questions to evaluate the attitude and practice of oral hygiene were prepared and handed over to patients with upper limb deformity. The survey was conducted for the patients in the general wards and hospitals in and around Chennai to find the malocclusion status in upper limb deformity patients. The caretakers of the upper limb deformity patients were asked to fill the survey forms that were prepared and analyzed. Results: About 72.1% of the people have not visited a dentist/orthodontist for correction of malaligned teeth, while 27.9% of the people have visited. Among these, 43.5% are aware of braces used in orthodontics, where 36.5% are not aware of it. Among them about 47.7% were aware that few teeth had to be removed for aligning the irregular teeth. Nearly 32.3% are not aware. Majority of the people (52.4%) have never felt the need for wearing braces.. Among these, about 47.6% have said that they need to wear braces. About 55.6% does not know that the duration of braces treatment is longer than other dental procedures. Moreover, among these, 44.4% know that the treatment is longer than other dental procedures. Conclusion: According to this survey, people are still unaware about the malocclusion status amidst the upper limb deformity. There is a need to put in more effort so as to enhance them about such problems through the coming days.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003126
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on consumption of sweets by children <6 years in urban areas
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Human desire for sweet taste spans all ages, races, and cultures. Throughout evolution, sweetness has had a role in human nutrition, helping to orient feeding behavior toward foods providing both energy and essential nutrients. Infants and young children, in particular, base many of their food choices on familiarity and sweet taste. Materials and Methods: In this study, an online survey was conducted. For the survey to be conducted, a questionnaire which contains 20 questions including the child’s name, age, and gender was prepared. The questionnaire was put in an online survey website and was sent to the parents of children <6 years of age in urban area. Results were tabulated and analyzed. Results: About 13.3% of children consume sweets once a month and 22.9% of children consume sweets many times in a week. 18.1% of parents think sweet consumption is good for their child. 57.1% of parents think otherwise. 24.8% of parents think that sweet consumption may be good for their child. 21.9% of children have candies as their preferred sweet, 57.1% prefer chocolates, 16.2% prefer traditional sweets, and 4.8% prefer other sweets. 41.9% of children brush their teeth only once. 44.8% of children brush their teeth twice. 9.5% brush more than two times and 3.8% of children never brush. Conclusion: In this study, it was found that there was increased consumption of sweets among children. This increased consumption of sweets increases the risk of dental caries, obesity, and early onset of diabetes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003127
Title: Knowledge about post-extraction complications among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The most common dental procedure done in dental clinics is the extraction of teeth. Each dental practitioner should know the various complications that can happen during these procedures. Post‑extraction complications generally do not occur; however, there are times when the dentist is faced with post‑extraction complications. In such instances, the dentist should be aware of the treatment procedures and management of post‑extraction complication. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of dental students regarding post‑extraction complications and their management. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 150 dental students was taken. A short pretested questionnaire of 13 questions was given to them. The questionnaire was designed to assess their basic knowledge about the post‑extraction complications and its management. Data obtained were tabulated, statistically analyzed and results obtained. Results: Nearly 40% of dental students reported bleeding to be the most common post‑operative complication, followed by pain 30%, swelling 16.6%, and dry socket which is 13.3%. All 150 dental students agreed that thorough medical history can be useful for treating complications. 39% of dental students responded that localized pressure by biting on gauze arrest bleeding. Majority of students were aware that displacement of the tooth into maxillary sinus is highly seen during extraction of a maxillary 1st molar. Conclusion: This study revealed that knowledge about post‑extraction complications among most of the undergraduate dental students was adequate. Good quality of treatment can be maintained if future dentists have a good knowledge of post‑ extraction complications and the methods of preventing and managing them.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003128
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on smoking habits among the adolescents in urban areas
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of the harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in developing countries like India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire of 13 questions was prepared online in survey planet website. 100 teenagers aging between 13 and 20 years took up the survey, of which 58 were male and 42 were female. The results were analyzed. Results: When a survey was conducted online among adolescents aging from 13 to 20 years in an urban city like Chennai, the results were found to be decent. It was found that about 72% of the people have not smoked. Conclusion: Smoking prevention programs should aim at identifying risk groups and finding measures to protect this vulnerable group of people from initiation of this practice. Adolescents should be counseled on the effects of keeping bad company and advised to choose their friends wisely.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003129
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practice on oral hygiene status among upper limb deformity patients
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim and Background: This study aims to determine the oral hygiene status among patient with upper limb deformity. Good oral hygiene is essential for the well-being of an individual. However, lack of knowledge, negative attitude, and poor oral hygiene practices may lead to poor oral hygiene and predispose oral-related diseases. However, we must see if upper limb deformity patients can take care of their teeth well. This study is sought to determine whether upper limb deformity patients can correlate with oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 upper limb deformity patients are taken into consideration for this survey. The patients were asked to fill a questionnaire consisting of 10 valid questions. The patients with upper limb deformity were found in Royapettah Government Hospital, Stanley Medical College and Hospital, and few other government hospitals in and around Chennai. Results: Majority of the patients were not aware about oral health on an average level. General health and oral practices affect the quality of life which was very important for well-being. Most of the subjects brushed once a day, with the help of the caretakers, and almost 80% of them had bad breath, which means the oral hygiene practices were not up to the mark. There was a correlation between the level of the knowledge and awareness of these patients and the oral hygiene practice and their oral status. It is important that oral hygiene practices should be carried out on a regular basis to enable prevention of dental diseases. Conclusion: The results show that though awareness regarding oral hygiene measures was adequate among patients with upper limb deformity, they had difficulty in practicing these measures due to their impaired physical condition.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003130
Title: Knowledge and awareness on malocclusion among nursing students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Nursing students constitute one of the most sufficient health-care providers to the general population. Due to the nature of work which is deemed highly stressful and strenuous, they may not have adequate knowledge regarding the oral health disorders. Malocclusion is one of the developmental abnormalities of the dentoalveolar structures which could disrupt the hormones function of the stomatognathic system. Hence, nursing students should be aware of this condition to provide adequate oral health care. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among the nursing students of Saveetha School of Nursing to assess the knowledge, attitude, and awareness. A simple random sample was drawn to reach the required sample size of 75. A questionnaire consisting of the dental knowledge, the attitude of the students toward dental health, and awareness of the students was carried out. The responses were, therefore, estimated by personally collecting the completely filled questionnaire from the 75 nursing students. Results: Of the total of 75 nursing students reached for the study, the estimated responses to the questionnaire were collected. Among the overall 75 students, only 25% were ready to undertake an orthodontic treatment in the future. The rest found the orthodontic treatment unnecessary in the field of their career and their society. Conclusion: The overall population taken for the study had moderate levels of awareness on malocclusion and willingness to undergo orthodontic treatment. The most common perception of malocclusion among them was due to inversion of the maxillary incisors, the anterior-posterior molar reaction, the occlusal traits, the open and deep bites, and the crowding and spacing. Among the overall 75 students, only 25% were ready to undertake an orthodontic treatment in the future.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003131
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and perception on smoking habits in adolescents in rural area (Thiruvallur district)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Background: Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death globally. Smoking generally has negative health effects because smoke inhalation inherently poses challenges to various physiologic processes such as respiration. Apparently smoking is the wrong choice which numerous adults get addicted to in their young age.. Hence, this survey was conducted to create awareness about the effect of smoking among adolescents. Materials and Methods: The survey was undertaken among 200 adolescent school children of around 13–19 age group of St. Claret Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Thiruninravur, and informed concerned was obtained from the participants. Of 200 students, 69 were willing to participate in the study. The survey instrument was a pre-prepared questionnaire eliciting information about the attitude and perception on smoke. The obtained responses were tabulated and analyzed. Results: From the survey, it is recorded that about 40.4% of the participants started smoking at the age of 13–15, which we call it as the initiation of the teenage. Majority of the adolescents start up with this habit due to the bad influences from their peers, family members, and also of curiosity and venturesomeness which take the individuals’ life into risk, making it difficult for them to quit smoking. Conclusion: Parental influences were a major factor leading to smoking behavior in the studied population. About 60% of the students are willing to quit the habit. Hence, deaddiction programs should be initiated among students to prevent further progression of smoking habits.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003132
Title: Knowledge, awareness, and perception on the status of malocclusion among adolescents in rural area (Thiruvallur)
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this survey is to check the knowledge and awareness on the status of malocclusion among adolescents in Thiruvallur district. Introduction: Malocclusion is defined as the deviation from normal occlusion (i.e., the relationship of the upper teeth to lower teeth where the jaws are clenched and the highest parts on the occlusal surface of the upper teeth are resting on the lowest parts on the occlusal surface of the lower teeth and vice versa). Malocclusion is one of the most common oral problems, together with dental caries, gingival disease, and fluorosis. Well-aligned teeth not only contribute to the health of the oral cavity and stomatognathic system but also influence the personality of the individual. Malocclusion compromises the health of oral tissues and also can lead to psychological and social problems. The aim of this survey is to check the knowledge and awareness on the status of malocclusion among adolescents in Thiruvallur district of Chennai in Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 people from age 12 to 18 were included in this survey. The survey was done using a website called www.surveyplanet.com. Adolescents were selected randomly in Mahalakshmi Nagar in Thiruvallur district. The link for the survey was sent on a digital platform. The survey consisted of 14 questions. The collective data were then reprieved. Results: The survey was filled by 31 males and 38 females. 29.4% were in the age group of 17, 22.1% were 13, 14.7% were 10, 13.2% were 12, 10.3% were 15, and 10.3% were 16 years old. 43.5% were satisfied with the appearance of their teeth, 52.9% were satisfied with the arrangement of their teeth, and 61.4% were confident about their smile. Only 38.6% were aware of malocclusion. 31.5% guessed the ill effect of malocclusion to be accidental biting of tongue and cheek. Only 18.9% of the people guessed the possibility of relationship of malocclusion and dental caries. 49.3% had difficulties to maintain oral hygiene due to malocclusion. Finally, 51.5% of the people wanted to get their malocclusion corrected after knowing the ill effects of it. Discussion: It appears that there is less awareness of malocclusion among adolescents in Thiruvallur district. Another thing to be noticed is that malocclusion is not taken as a serious health concern as only half the population wanted to get it treated even after knowing the ill effects of it. This can be due to poverty, low awareness about the severity of health impairment caused by malocclusion, etc. More awareness should be created of the types of occlusion and the ill effects of malocclusion if not corrected.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003133
Title: Zirconia as an alternative to titanium for oral implant - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Zirconia (Zi) is emerging as a promising alternative to conventional titanium (Ti)-based implant systems for oral rehabilitation with superior biological, esthetics, mechanical, and optical properties. Zi appears to have high biocompatibility, and a soft tissue response similar to Ti. The inflammatory response and bone resorption induced by ceramic particles may be less than those induced by Ti particles due to the stable nature of the zirconium oxides. Ti is not a deal in all situations due to the darker nature of the metal and a viable esthetic alternative needs to be identified.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003134
Title: Neonatal teeth and its causes - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai-77, India
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The teeth that are present in a newborn’s mouth are said to be natal teeth. Neonatal teeth are the teeth, which emerge through the gingiva during the 1st month of life. This period of time is known as a neonatal period. The incidence of neonatal teeth will be different from one study to another. Neonatal teeth, on the other hand, are teeth that come into the baby’s mouth within the first 10–30 days of life. The objective of the present study is to present a review of the literature with important aspects about the neonatal teeth and its causes.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003135
Title: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of smoking habits among transgender living in Chennai city
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices of smoking habits among transgender living in Chennai city. Background: Smoking is highly prevalent among transgender persons and contributes to health disparities. Guided by the theory of planned behavior, we identified beliefs related to attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms, as well as transgender-specific variables, to explain variance in intention to quit smoking in transgender smokers. Many studies in the past 20 years have documented that transgender individuals smoke at rates that exceed the general population; yet, there have been few reports of smoking cessation interventions targeting this population. Stress, patronage of bars and clubs, and higher instances of alcohol use among the transgender community contribute to higher smoking rates. Results: From this result, it shows that 45% were not interested to control smoking, 44% were agreed that tobacco companies were using them to use the tobacco products, 65.1% were not care about the health warnings in the cigarette packets, 71% were not visited doctors to quit smoking, and 69.4% were not aware of oral gum and bone problems due to smoking. Smoking habit among transgender is more compared to others in Chennai city. Conclusion: No transgender- specific factors emerged as significant. It is hoped that this study will stimulate the development of interventions that improve the health of a vulnerable subpopulation and reduce health disparities based on sexual orientation.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003136
Title: Bite marks - A brief review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Bite marks is usually referred to as a representative pattern left in an object or tissue by the dental structures of an animal or human. Analysis of bite mark and their characteristics plays an important role in identification in forensic cases. Analysis of bite mark is a long process and time-consuming work because each bite produces individual aspects and each bite is different from one another. The quality of certain bite mark is poor, so every single quantifiable aspect is the most important. Bite mark is observed primarily in sexual assault cases, criminal cases, homicides, and child abuse cases. This review describes the classification and characteristics in the analysis of bite mark.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003137
Title: Prevalence pattern of developmental anomalies of oral cavity in South Indian population - A hospital-based study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Chennai
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Background: The presence of developmental oral lesions is relatively common reasons that patients visit dental clinics. It is important for every dentist to have knowledge of the type and prevalence of these lesions. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence pattern of developmental anomalies of oral cavity in South Indian population. Study Design: The study was based on clinical examination and panoramic radiograph of about 14,022 patients who visited outpatient clinic at Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India, between May 2014 and July 2014. The prevalence pattern of developmental oral lesions was examined. Result: Among 14,022 subjects (8072 male and 5950 females), a total of 325 individuals had developmental anomalies. Of the total of 14,022 individuals, 278 (85%) exhibited at least one anomaly, 40 (12%) showed two anomalies, and 7 (2%) subjects displayed more than two anomalies. The developmental anomalies were found to be more in males than females in the survey.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003138
Title: Role of telomerase in germ cells and stem cells - A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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A dichotomy exists between germ and somatic cells in most organisms, such that somatic cell lineages proliferate for a single generation, whereas the germ cell lineage has the capacity to proliferate from one generation to the next. Telomerase is an enzyme complex that binds to the chromosomal ends and maintains telomeres’ length and stability. The master play of telomerase enzyme can be attributed to the inability of DNA polymerase enzyme to completely replicate the DNA strands. Hence, approximately 50 nucleotide pairs are lost during every replicative cycle. This loss contributes to the formation of chromosomes with short telomeres thereby enhancing processes such as cell death, end to end fusion, and chromosomal instability. The telomerase enzyme activity is restricted only to few cell lineages such as the germ cells, stem cells, and tumor cells. The activity of this enzyme can be detected using telomeric repeat amplification protocol assays in most of the immortal cells. Telomerase enzyme is said to allow cellular expansions on large scales apart from the usual activity of chromosomal stabilization. Stability of telomeric length patterns is observed in immortal cell types than mortal somatic cell simply due to the presence of this enzyme complex. On account of activation of telomerase homogenization of telomere in critically short telomeres, elongation of telomeric ends may be observed. Telomerase is accessible to every chromosomal end, but the susceptibility of the telomeres to the enzyme after DNA replication is found to vary. Short telomeres show increase sensitivity to the enzyme and also increase the binding capacity of the nucleotide units. Although the complete and appropriate mechanism of telomerase actions have not been completely understood this review article is aimed at compiling the data regarding the enzymatic activity of telomerase in germ cells and stem cells.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003139
Title: Model analysis: Plaster versus computer-assisted photographic model assessment - A prospective clinical study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, SIMATS, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: With the advent of digital study models, the importance of being able to evaluate space requirements becomes valuable to treatment planning and the justification for any required extraction pattern. This study is to be undertaken to compare the validity and reliability of the Pont’s analysis undertaken on plaster as compared with a photo of the model which does not require the use of a scanner. Background: Space analysis is very important part of a clinician’s assessment of the relative space requirements to address the aims and, in turn, the successful delivery of a treatment. It is very important to perform a space analysis from a medicolegal point of view, and it helps to justify any extraction/non-extraction decision within any given treatment plan. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to (1) undertake a pilot evaluation of the feasibility of space planning on the 1:1 photograph of the model. As a result, the null hypothesis to be tested was that there is no difference between the manual and computer-assisted photographic evaluation of Pont’s analysis. Materials and Methods: A pilot study (n = 30) is to be undertaken on plaster and digital models to evaluate the feasibility of digital space planning. The plaster models served as the gold standard. Statistics: Independent samples two-tailed t-tests (assuming unequal variance) are to be used to test the null hypothesis, at a significance level of 0.05. Results: The measurement error or coefficient of repeatability was comparable for plaster and ranged from 0.66 to 0.95 mm. No difference was found between the space analysis performed in either the upper or lower dental arch. Hence, the null hypothesis was accepted. Conclusions: No difference was detected in the model analysis when performed using either plaster or digital models. Thus, digital space analysis provides a valid and reproducible alternative method in the new era of digital records.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003141
Title: Assessing the knowledge on antibiotic prescription in dental student - amoxicillin and clindamycin
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of dental students on antibiotic prescription of amoxicillin and clindamycin. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 participants were selected from undergraduate students. The questions were designed in closed-ended questions. The survey was conducted through an online survey using Google forms. Results: As per the percentage of the questionnaire answered by the majority of the participants, more than half of the respondents prescribed amoxicillin. In terms of conditions in where antibiotic should be prescribed, all participants prescribed for dental extractions. Conclusion: Knowledge related to antibiotic prescription was low. Although the majority of participants were aware of the antibiotic resistance, indiscriminate prescription of antibiotics was found indicating a need for updating regarding appropriate antibiotic use through Continuing Dental Education programs.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003143
Title: Sesquiterpenes from Indonesian of Curcuma aeruginosa rhizome and its antibacterial activities
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Universitas Nusa Bangsa, Kampus UNB Bogor-16166 (West Java) Indonesia
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Curcuma aeruginosa, a member of the Zingiberaceae family, is an indigenous plant of Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Previous researches reported that compounds in this plant have antibacterial activities. However, a study on bioactive compounds contained in C. aeruginosa rhizomes as an antibacterial activity is still limited. Phytochemical study on C. aeruginosa rhizomes from Tropical Biopharmaca Research Centre Indonesian had yielded four sesquiterpenes, identified as curcumenol, curcumenone, and mixture of two compounds, i.e., 1(10), 4(5)-diepoxygermacrone, and isoaromadendrene epoxide. These compounds were elucidated using one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ( 1 H and 13 C) and two-dimensional - NMR spectroscopy (heteronuclear single quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) followed by mass spectrometry. Preliminary antibacterial assay of MeOH extract demonstrated moderate activity toward Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli, in contrast, it was inactive toward Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Curcumenol exhibited moderate activity on S. typhi and showed weak activity toward E. coli, in contrast, it was inactive toward both B. cereus and S. aureus. On the other hand, curcumenone and mixture of two compounds were inactive toward all bacteria. It can be suggested that curcumenol had a contribution to an antibacterial activity toward gram-negative bacteria, i.e., S. typhi and E. coli, while the others had antagonist effect of antibacterial activity compared with C. aeruginosa rhizomes extract.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003144
Title: Efficacy of aerobic exercise and relaxation training in premenstrual symptoms in collegiates
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The purpose of this study is to show the effectiveness of aerobic exercise and relaxation training in premenstrual symptoms (PMS). Background: PMS refers to physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the 1–2 weeks before women’s menstruation. It is characterized by acne, tender breasts, abdominal cramp, low back pain, calf cramps, feeling tired, mood swings, and migraine. Up to 80% of the women’s population suffer from PMS. The etiology of PMS is largely idiopathic. Methodology: This study is a comparative study with 30 subjects selected randomly between the age groups of 18–25 years in collegiates. The study will be done in ACS Medical College and Hospital for 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks using premenstrual syndrome questionnaire, and visual analog scale (VAS) was used for outcome measures. Subjects with age group between 18 and 25, college girls, subjects with PMS- premenstrual symptoms, and subjects having VAS score between 5 and 7 and PMS- premenstrual syndrome questionnaire score between 35 and 45 were included in the study, and girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome, pregnancy, and neurological disorder and married girls were excluded from the study. Procedure: The PMS occurs 1 or 2 weeks before menstruation. Thirty subjects were randomly selected and two groups were divided. Group A received aerobic exercise and Group B received relaxation training. Aerobic exercise was carried out with limb and trunk movements, and relaxation training was carried out with breathing exercise and movements of joint (tensed and relaxed-Jacobson relaxation techniques). Results: On comparing the mean values of Groups A and B on postmenstrual syndrome- premenstrual symptoms, it shows a significant decrease in the post-test mean values, but Group A (aerobic exercises) shows 23.06 which has the lower mean value and is more effective than Group B (relaxation training) (28.06) at P ≤ 0.001. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise is more effective compared to relaxation training in subjects with PMS.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003146
Title: Bone morphogenic protein - 2 (BMP-2) and Osteogenesis
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of potent, multifunctional growth factors belonging to transforming growth factor-β. BMPs can cause differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblastic lineage and promote the proliferation of osteoblasts. BMPs stimulate the target cells by specific membrane-bound receptors and signal transduced through mothers against and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. It has been demonstrated that play an important role in bone formation. This focuses on the molecular characterization of BMP-2 family and their application of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The role of BMP-2 has been studied extensively by Chandler in osteogenesis.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003147
Title: Knowledge on periotome and atraumatic extraction among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Deparment of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery,Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to understand the knowledge of dental students on periotomes in non-surgical tooth extractions. Materials and methods: An annexure a questionnaire was distributed among 200 dental students practicing in Saveetha Dental College. An annexure A questionnaire (Picture 1) was distribute among 200 dental students practicing in Saveetha dental college. The three criteria namely the familiarity of the periotome, principles of periotome and the principles of atraumatic extraction are considered based on questionnaire level. The final results are graphically analyzed. Results: This study depicts the knowledge about periotomes and its uses among the undergraduate students of Saveetha Dental College. As we already discussed, the awareness of atraumatic extractions should be made possible on a wide scale even for new practitioners onto the field. The importance of atraumatic extraction is not only reducing the post-operative pain but also aids in maintaining the gingival collar and fast healing and puts less pressure on the buccal and lingual/palatal cortices of the bone. Only 50% of the dental students have the knowledge about atraumatic extraction and the aim of any extractions, because the importance of atraumatic extractions has not been stressed enough. 51% of them know the use of a periotome and their function, and they understand that peritomes aid in reliving the periodontal ligaments by tearing them from bone socket to the tooth. Only 42% of the students know that periotome was used before immediate implant placement, and the remaining 48% thinks that the periotome is the same of an elevator and its function is elevated. Conclusion: This study clearly reveals the knowledge on atraumatic extractions, various methods of atraumatic extractions and on periotomes is less amongst the undergraduate students of Saveetha Dental College. We understand that the basic principle of any extraction is to do no harm to the healthy parts of the tooth. This can be achieved with atraumatic extractions performed using periotomes and luxators, encouraging the same during routine clinical practices Awareness on atraumatic extractions with the importance of soft tissue, gingival contour and preservation of bone volume should be emphasized to the undergraduate students and give opportunities in clinical practices to observe, study and practice along with theoretical knowledge in atraumatic extractions.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003148
Title: Relationship between temporomandibular joint problem and malocclusion - An awareness survey among dental students and dentists
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: One of the most common causes for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) problems is malocclusion. In most cases, the underlying TMJ problems are left unnoticed when the patient comes for general checkup or any other reason. Thus, TMJ should be examined in all the cases whether the chief complaint of the patient is related to TMJ or not, to prevent any future problems of the TMJ. The main aim of this survey is to find out the awareness among the dentists and dental students regarding the relationship between the TMJ disorders (TMD) and malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey containing 14 questions was prepared which contained questions regarding the information about the subject and their knowledge about the relationship between TMD and malocclusion. The questionnaire was prepared using Google forms and was sent to 119 subjects through the mail and by sharing the link of the survey. The subjects included the dental students including the interns and postgraduates, academic staffs, and private practitioners. Results and Conclusion: Out of the 119 responses about 91.1% subjects were aware of the relationship between TMD and malocclusion, and the rest were not aware of it. Although the percentage of the subjects who were not aware of it was less, it is very essential for everyone to know the same and examine each and every patient for the presence of any TMD by examining their movements and functions and refer them to a concerned specialist if there any findings regarding the same.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003150
Title: Reliability of Ashley Howe’s analysis in South Indian population
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: The study models were the first diagnostic records used in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Many authors have introduced different analysis to assess the relationship between the teeth and respective arch dimensions. Ethnic variations in the genesis of malocclusions have been studied; hence, any index developed for a particular group of population cannot be applied as such to another group. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of Ashley Howe’s analysis on South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Diagnostics models of 30 dental students and patients with Angle’s Class 1 malocclusion with crowding or spacing <2–3 mm were used for the analysis. The impressions are made using alginate and the casts are poured using orthocal stone (type 5 gypsum). All the values required for the analysis including the premolar width (premolar diameter), premolar basal arch width (PMBAW), and the total tooth material (TTM) are measured using a QST is the Company name and it doesn’t have full form metal express digital Vernier caliper and the PMBAW percentage (PMBAW%) is calculated by the formula given in the original study by Ashley Howe. The values obtained are tabulated in Excel sheets. Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference between the values obtained from the original study of Ashley Howe and the current study in South Indian population. The mean of the TTM and the PMBAW% values obtained from the current study is significantly different from the original study. Conclusion: Ashley Howe’s analysis is not reliable in South Indian population. Ethnic variations are seen between the original study which is done on a mixed population and the current study which is done on the South Indian population.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003151
Title: Determination of the need for arch expansion in orthodontics using graph labeling
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim is to study the maxillary casts for diagnosis and treatment planning before the use of orthodontic appliance using graph labeling. Objective: To determine if Dental arch is normal or narrow, to determine if transverse expansion is needed, to determine how much expansion is possible using Graph labeling. Materials and Methods: The study involves 30 patient casts of normal occlusion, 30 casts with crowding, and 30 casts with spacing and proclination. The casts are considered to be of normal occlusion if the premolar basal arch width is between 37% and 44% according to Ashley Howe’s analysis. The distance between each vertex (tooth mesial to the first permanent molar) from a fixed point O is to be measured and labeled. Ratios between the edges to the edge joining the vertex O central groove of first permanent molar are to be analyzed and compared for crowding and spacing using graph labeling. Background: The maxillary arch is considered for the analysis. The central pit of each tooth mesial to the first permanent molar is considered as “vertices” of the graph and lines drawn from the fixed vertex O to each of these vertices are considered as the edges, and the graph thus obtained is labeled. The graph obtained from the samples are compared with the standard labeling (normal occlusion), and based on the amount of discrepancy, treatment plan is made.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003152
Title: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on management strategies among dental practitioners for treating oral manifestations of rheumatic fever
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Rheumatic fever (RF) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. RF may occur following an infection of the throat by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. If the infection is untreated, RF can occur in up to 3% of people. The underlying mechanism is believed to involve the production of antibodies against a person’s own tissues. Oral manifestation of systemic diseases occurs earlier relative to systemic manifestations. Early clinical observation of these manifestations would aid in diagnosis of the underlying systemic condition. This study aims to evaluate the awareness of dental practitioners about the oral manifestations of RF. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire of about 15 questions is prepared. A survey among 100 dental practitioners is taken. This survey is taken among the South Indian dentist population. The questions were such that they questioned the participants’ awareness level. Some of the questions also inquired regarding the doctor’s identification methods pertaining to oral manifestations. Results: About 44% of people are not aware of the oral manifestations of RF and some of the important ratios have been presented to spread awareness. According to the study, the dental practitioners are unaware about the treatment and preventive measure of RF. They also mostly do not have knowledge about management strategies. Conclusion: From the study, it is evident that the dental practitioners were unaware of the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of RF even though it was not much prevalent in India.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003153
Title: Organic stains used in histopathology - A systematic review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Hematoxylin is the most commonly used stain in histological laboratory. It is obtained from the heartwood of logwood tree, Haematoxylon campechianum. Durability, easy differentiation, and comparative permanency make it the most popular nuclear stain. However, there is apparent worldwide shortage of hematoxylin. Most commonly used counterstain with hematoxylin is eosin. Eosin is a synthetic xanthene dye. Although it is very efficient, it is hazardous to human and animal health and the environment. The worldwide shortage of hematoxylin and the hazardous effects of chemicals and synthetic dyes like eosin has led to the development of alternative organic and eco-friendly dyes from these natural sources. The use of these non-allergic, non-toxic, and biodegradable stains has become the need of the hour due to the increased environmental awareness. The aim of this study is to systematically review the use of various natural organic stains in histopathology. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive electronic and manual search of literature was done and 13 articles were included in the systematic review, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The systematic review was done and the data extracted from the studies were tabulated. Results: The results suggested that aqueous and alcoholic extracts of various parts from the plant source can be used as alternative natural dyes, replacing routinely used hematoxylin and eosin stain in histopathology. Conclusion: Dyes from naturally occurring plant sources can be used as organic stains in histopathology.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003154
Title: Synchronous and metachronous tumors of the head and neck region: A case report
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Case Studies
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Oncology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
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To report a case of synchronous cancer of the head and neck region seen in our facility and identification of high-risk factors for the development of synchronous primary in the head and neck cancers. Patients with cancers in the head and neck region are at increased risk of developing synchronous primary cancers. Synchronous cancers are defined as the occurrence of a second primary cancer within the first 6 months following the detection of the first cancer, whereas metachronous cancers appear after 6 months following identification of a primary lesion. A 55-year-old male patient reported to the Oral Cancer Institute with an ulceroproliferative lesion of the left lateral border of the tongue. Incisional biopsy performed revealed moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with advanced OSMF. The patient underwent wide local excision + MRND with radial forearm free flap under general anesthesia. Post-operative histopathology revealed clear margins and lymph nodes negative. The patient reported back to the institute after 2 months and presented with an ulceroproliferative lesion in the left maxillary alveolus. Incisional biopsy revealed the lesion as moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. This report describes our experience with a case of synchronous squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity. Synchronous and metachronous tumors are an increasingly common clinical situation. The clinician should always keep in mind the possibility of the occurrence of multiple primitive cancers. A rigorous assessment of the disease and a regular follow-up of the patient are mandatory to detect in time, a second localization.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003155
Title: Morphometric study of accessory foramen transversarium and their clinical importance
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Physiotherapy, Saveetha College of Physiotherapy, Thandalam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: To determine the presence of accessory foramen transversarium of cervical vertebrae and to investigate them according to their size, shape, location, diameter, and their changes related to the vertebral artery and their clinical significance. Material and Methods: The study was done in Saveetha Medical College, Thandalam, and 120 cervical vertebrae were procured from the Department of Anatomy to find the presence of accessory foramen transversarium and investigate them according to their morphometry based on size, shape, location, classification, and diameter. The size were measured by digital vernier caliper. Results: Out of 120 cervical vertebrae, accessory foramen transversarium is found only in 39 cervical vertebrae. Of these, 20 were complete and 19 were incomplete foramen. Based on shape, 11 round, 18 oval, and 10 irregular shapes were seen. Unilaterally 28 and bilaterally 11 accessory foramen transversarium were found. About 28 accessory foramen transversarium were seen in front and 11 were seen at the back in relation to foramen transversarium. Antero- posterior and transverse diameter of 39 accessory foramen transversarium was measured and their mean and standard deviation were calculated. Discussion: The neck is the part of long vertebral column which has cervical vertebrae. There are seven cervical vertebrae and are identified by the presence of foramen in their transverse process called foramen transversarium, the cardinal feature of cervical vertebrae. The knowledge of the dimension of both foramen transversarium and accessory foramen transversarium may contribute as additional information for the clinical during any procedure around cervical region. Conclusion: The knowledge of the presences of accessory foramen transversarium is important for radiologist and clinicians during vascular surgeries and neurosurgeries.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003156
Title: Anticancer activity of defense peptides from Galleria mellonella on cervical hela cancer cell line
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The statistical report shows that cervical cancer is the fourth most common neoplasm in women. Thus, the productions of natural drugs with good anticancer properties are highly necessitated. Several studies demonstrated the activities of Galleria mellonella in biological stream. The hemolymph peptides can exert immune properties in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: Keeping all research reports as background, we have formulated the study of hemolymph and supernatant extracts efficacy on HeLa cell line with various concentrations of 10 µg/ml, 20 µg/ml, 30 µg/ml, 40 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml, respectively. In in vivo, G. mellonella is used as model in the field of entomological life. These characteristics along with its availability as anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antileishmanial activities made the Galleria hemolymph promising seal in the research world. Results: The results revealed the effectiveness of G. mellonella hemolymph and supernatant extracts in repressing the growth of HeLa cells. Noticeable inhibition was recorded in all concentrations of hemolymph and supernatant extracts. The HeLa cell line treated with supernatant of G. mellonella concentrations of 10 µg/ml, 20 µg/ml, 30 µg/ml, 40 µg/ ml, and 50 µg/ml showed percentage inhibition apoptosis of 47.37 ± 1.92%, 49.7 ± 1.3%, 56.00 ±3.28%, 71.40 ± 3.9%, and 74.8 ± 2.6%, respectively. Moreover, the samples treated with hemolymph extracts concentrations of 10 µg/ml, 20 µg/ ml, 30 µg/ml, 40 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml recorded highest percentage of the inhibition of 63.68 ± 2.3%, 76.20 ± 2.9%, 84.73 ± 3.5%, 97.09 ± 0.12%, and 97.30 ± 0.04%, respectively. The IC50 value of the Galleria hemolymph was found 2.3 µg/ ml and for Galleria supernatant 3.34 µg/ml, respectively. The molecular weight of the proteins present in hemolymph and the supernatant ranged between 28 KDa and 30 KDa compound and peak value of 5.282 was observed in hemolymph extracts in high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report communicating investigation on maximum inhibition rate in HeLa cell line using the Galleria hemolymph extracts.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-DFP-00003157
Title: Echinacea purpurea - A potent medicinal herb
Category: Drugs from Plants
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Public Health Dentistry, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Echinacea purpurea, a plant used by native Americans to treat respiratory infections, was evaluated for its ability to stimulate the production of cytokines by normal human peripheral blood macrophages in vitro. The high levels of IL-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-10 induced by very low levels of Echinacea are consistent with an immune-activated group of herbaceous flowering plants in the daisy family, Asteraceae. The nine species it contains are commonly called coneflowers. Echinacea is a potent immune booster. E. purpurea is one of the most well-known medicinal plants in the world, belonging to the Asteraceae (composite) family. The plant is widely cultivated for its medicinal purposes in this species, which has been mainly used in chemopreventive and chemotherapy for infectious diseases in both upper and lower respiratory systems. This species has been used for the treatment of toothache, bowel pain, snake bite, skin disorders, seizure, chronic arthritis, and cancer. Alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, and polysaccharides (PS) have been important constituents of the plant. Several studies revealed that alkamides are involved in the immunomodulatory properties of Echinacea extracts in vitro and in vivo. The PS play an important role in the anti-inflammatory effect. Taxonomic, chemical, pharmacological, and clinical characteristics of some species of the Echinacea genus include Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and E. purpurea are reviewed in previous papers. This paper is a review about E. purpurea, its phytochemical contents, and pharmacological and biological activities, along with the common methods of plant extract analysis which is reviewed in this review. In addition, the psychoactive and mosquitocidal effects of purpurea are mentioned in this paper.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003158
Title: Awareness of factors affecting endodontic treatment failures among dental students
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Introduction: Success of endodontic treatment depends on different factors, and the probability of failures varies significantly in different cases. Although some of the problems which occur during or after endodontic treatment are not predict, some are due to the dentist’s failures in attending to details. Materials and Method: Questionnaires were given to the students during their class hours and then collected within 15 min. The questionnaire was a closed-ended type consisting of 15 questions, of which 6 were knowledge- based, 5 were attitude-based, and 5 were practice-based questions. The questionnaire contained multiple responses. The answers to each question were numerically coded, and the data were entered in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software 14.0 version (Chicago, SPSS Inc.). The results were analysed by descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages. Results: According to the findings of the present study, students had a higher level of knowledge about treatment and prognosis of procedural accidents than about the causes and prevention. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, students had a higher level of knowledge about treatment and prognosis of procedural accidents than about the causes and prevention. This can be acquired due to clinical experience. The present study, considering the level of knowledge of dental students of Saveetha Dental College, can serve as a preliminary stage for future studies focusing on students’ performance. The research findings proved that dental students of Saveetha Dental College had a mediocre knowledge about procedural accidents of endodontics.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003159
Title: Role of growth factors in wound healing
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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The wound healing process involves a series of cellular and biochemical events that ultimately lead to tissue repair and regeneration. These events include hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, epithelialization, maturation, and remodeling of the scar tissue. Wound healing is an evolutionarily conserved, complex, multicellular process that, in skin, aims at barrier restoration. This process involves the coordinated efforts of several cell types including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, immune cells, macrophages, and platelets. The migration, infiltration, proliferation, and differentiation of these cells will culminate in an inflammatory response, the formation of new tissue and ultimately wound closure. This complex process is executed and regulated by an equally complex signaling network involving numerous growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. These include epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin-like growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor (TGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor. TGF-β, IL-1, and TGF-α. This review will focus on the specific roles of these growth factors and cytokines during the wound healing process.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003160
Title: A clinical comparative study of tuberculin syringes with conventional syringes in the administration of local anesthetic for infiltration for therapeutic extraction
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study is to determine whether the use of tuberculin syringes would decrease the pain at the site of injection and also the discomfort of the injection. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients who required bilateral therapeutic extraction of upper and lower premolars were selected for the study. The study involved 40 patients of both the genders between the age group of 12 and 26 years of age who reported to the oral surgery outpatient department in October 2017–January 2018. They were divided into two groups of 20 each. Group A: Local anesthesia (LA) administration using a conventional syringe and Group B: LA administration using tuberculin syringes. Pain assessment was done using the visual analog scale, and the results were analyzed using a Chi-square test. Results: A total of 40 patients were studied. Pain associated with the injection in Group B patients (tuberculin syringe) was found to be significantly low, and the results are statistically significant. This study shows that the tuberculin syringes can be used for local infiltration anesthesia administration as they are effective and convenient and do not cause pain during injection. Conclusion: This study concluded that the use of tuberculin syringes shows a significant reduction in the pain during the time of local anesthetic administration.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003161
Title: Therapeutic potential of dietary flavonoids against viral-borne infections: A review
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Review Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
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The flavonoid, a natural product and a group of low molecular weight phenyl benzopyrenes, constitutes a significant part of our daily diet. They are rich in fruits, vegetables, flowers, tea, and wine and are known for its health benefits attributing to antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiallergic, and antiviral properties. Flavonoids are inevitable in various medicinal, nutraceutical, and cosmetic applications. Currently, researches are focusing on isolating and identifying several flavonoids from different natural sources and evaluating its numerous biological effects. The present review attempts to discuss the antiviral activity of various flavonoids. A few life-threatening and endemic viral diseases were considered in this review with the mechanism of action of flavonoid which is helpful in the development of potential therapeutics in preventing these deadly diseases.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-PC-00003162
Title: Profens: A comparative molecular docking study into cyclooxygenase-1/2
Category: Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514, Egypt.
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Up to date, non-selective cyclooxygenases (COXs) inhibitors are among the most widely used analgesic anti-inflammatory agents. Profens are one of the commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which attracted the attention of many researchers all over the world. Recently, a large number of studies has focused on the modification of the chemical structure of different NSAIDs to optimize their selectivity to COX-1/2 enzyme. This optimization cannot be achieved without an understanding the binding modes of NSAIDs into the active sites of COXs. In this study, a comparative docking study was performed between the S-enantiomers of eight profen derivatives into the active sites of COX-1/2 enzymes using AutoDock4.2. Different types of binding interactions including hydrogen bonds, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions were identified. Moreover, binding affinities, inhibition constants, and ligand efficiency of the eight profens were evaluated. Although they did not show the highest number of hydrogen bonds, tiaprofenic acid and ketoprofen displayed the highest binding affinity for COX-1 (∆Gb = 0.06919 kcal/ mol) and COX-2 (∆Gb = 0.6293 kcal/mol), respectively. Accordingly, no direct relationship between a number of hydrogen bonds and the binding affinity of the tested profens was observed. On the other hand, a variable number of hydrophobic interactions was observed between different profens and COXs. These results suggested that the hydrophobic interactions could compensate for the fewer number of hydrogen bonds and can be used to improve binding affinity to COX-1 or COX-2.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003163
Title: Prevalence of oral cancer among patients using different forms of tobacco - A retrospective study
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral cancer among patients who used different forms of tobacco. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study of oral cancer patients who reported during January 2016–October 2018 to private institution. In the department of oral medicine and radiology, trained dental surgeons collect the data using a combination of clinical oral examination and standardized questionnaire. Information on habits and other characteristics of the study participants were acquired using the standardized, interviewer-based questionnaire. Results: This study found that 419 patients have oral lesions and oral cancer. Potentially malignant disorders were found in 3.7% and oral cancer to be 2.1% of the study subjects. In this study, oral submucous fibrosis was found to be most common soft tissue lesion with the prevalence being 0.41%. Stomatitis palatine (0.34%) and leukoplakia (0.30%) were the second and third most common lesions. Majority of the oral cancer was found among people aged from 31 to 60 years. Conclusion: The prevalence of oral cancer was higher among elderly males predominantly with risk habits of betel quid/tobacco chewing and smoking.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-P col-00003164
Title: Comparison of freeze-dried snakehead fish albumin extract and intravenous albumin in treating patients with hypoalbuminemia
Category: Pharmacology
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy Sebelas Maret University / Dr Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 Indonesia
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Objective: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of snakehead fish freeze-dried albumin extract (VipAlbumin® Plus) in increasing the albumin level of hypoalbuminemia patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 58 patients were divided into four groups, K1 (were given intravenous albumin 20 gram/vial daily for 3 days) K2, K3, and K4 (were given different doses of VipAlbumin® Plus orally, 20, 30, or 40 g for 3 days). Two to four doses of VipAlbumin® Plus were administered per day as needed in each group. The albumin level was measured a day before and during the albumin treatments. The data were analyzed statistically. Results: The results showed that the albumin levels increased after the 1st , 2nd , and 3rd days of treatment in all treatments. Conclusion: There were no significant differences between VipAlbumin® Plus at each tested dose and human albumin 20% in terms of their ability to increase the albumin level of hypoalbuminemia patients.

Journal: Drug Invention Today , Volume: 11, Issue: February
Article Id: JPRS-BSN-00003165
Title: Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (gingerol, shogaol, and zingerone) from callus of three ginger varieties
Category: Biomaterials ( Synthetic and Natural )
Section: Research Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Agrotechnology, Wijaya Kusuma University of Surabaya, Dukuh Kupang, Dukuh Pakis, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia
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Objective: The purposes of this research are as follows: to investigate the quantity of callus of three varieties of ginger; to investigate the quality of callus of the three varieties of ginger; and to evaluate the ginger oil derived from callus of the three varieties of ginger. Methods: The research used a complete randomized design on three varieties of ginger (Gajah, Emprit, and Merah) with 10 repetitions and four test samples. If analysis of variance revealed significant differences, analysis continued by least significant difference at 5%. This research used MS (Murashige Skoog) medium. After 3 months of incubation, analysis of the contents of gingerol, shogaol, and zingerone in the ginger callus was carried out. Results: The greatest quantity of callus was produced by Gajah ginger. Emprit and Merah gingers tend to have a compact callus, and Gajah ginger callus tends to be friable. Conclusion: The best composition of secondary metabolites was found in Emprit ginger which contained 1.181% gingerol, 0.118% shogaol, and 0.098% zingerone.